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Three-Dimensional Representations

Assigning Priorities

Determining Stereochemical Relationships

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Three-Dimensional Representations: Haworth Projections

Haworth Projections are commonly used for cyclic sugars. Haworth Projections are useful for being able to clearly determine whether groups are above or below the ring. Haworth Projections are similar to the cyclic Wedge-Dash notation, in that the ring itself is drawn as planar. The groups on a Haworth Projection are simply oriented perpendicular to the plane of the ring, either up or down. It is important to note that two groups that are both oriented up or both oriented down are cis to one another. Two groups that are oriented one up and one down are trans to one another.

In the structure above, the alcohols on the right "end" carbon is oriented up, above the plane of the ring. The remaining three alcohols are oriented down, below the plane of the ring.

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