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The attractive forces that cause secondary structures are primarily caused by hydrophobicity and hydrogen bonding. To be hydrophobic means to have a fear of water. Some nonpolar portions of a protein align together to be on the inside of the molecule so they don't have to interact with water.

Hydrogen bonding is the attractive force between a hydrogen attached to an oxygen, nitrogen, or fluorine atom to another oxygen, nitrogen or fluorine atom. Water has very strong hydrogen bonding capabilities. Below is a chemical representation of hydrogen bonding in water. The dashed lines represent the hydrogen bonds.

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