Phase Change of Bromine from Liquid to Gas to Solid
Bromine liquid is vaporized and then condensed as a solid onto a cold test tube. The 11 thumbnail images summarize the content of the video. Click an image to see the image gallery.
Liquid bromine is added to a flask and partially evaporates to form bromine gas. A test tube is lowered into the flask and is filled with isopropyl alcohol and dry ice coolant at -70 degrees Celsius. Bromine gas slowly condenses to bromine solid on the cold surface of the test tube. Bromine liquid continues to evaporate to bromine gas while the condensation to solid occurs.
Bromine exists as a readily-volatilized liquid at room temperature. By using a coolant at a temperature below the freezing point of bromine (m.p. = -7.2 degrees Celsius) it is possible to obtain solid bromine crystals on the surface of the cold test tube.
Embedding Video in Learning Materials
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