TIGER

Journal Articles: 346 results
J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1578–1583  John Andraos
Corrections to the article A Streamlined Approach to Solving Simple and Complex Kinetic Systems Analytically.
Andraos, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1624.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Theoretical Chemistry
Helping Students Make Sense of Logarithms and Logarithmic Relationships  Ed DePierro, Fred Garafalo, and Rick Toomey
This paper summarizes difficulties that chemistry students at all levels exhibit when translating, manipulating, and interpreting mathematical expressions containing logarithms, and offers approaches useful in helping students to overcome those difficulties.
DePierro, Ed; Garafalo, Fred; Toomey, Rick T. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1226.
Kinetics |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Constructivism
An Updated Equilibrium Machine  Emeric Schultz
Describes a device that can demonstrate equilibrium and the Le Châtelier principle, as well as kinetic and thermodynamic concepts. The device consists of a leaf blower attached to a plastic container divided into two chambers by a barrier of variable size and form. Styrofoam balls can be exchanged across the barrier when various air pressures are applied by the blower.
Schultz, Emeric. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1131.
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics
Data Pooling in a Chemical Kinetics Experiment: The Aquation of a Series of Cobalt(III) Complexes  Richard S. Herrick, Kenneth V. Mills, and Lisa P. Nestor
Describes an experiment that introduces students to integrated rate laws, the search for a mechanism that is consistent with chemical and kinetic data, and the concept of activation barriers and their measurement in a curriculum whose pedagogical philosophy makes the laboratory the center of learning for undergraduates in their first two years of instruction.
Herrick, Richard S.; Mills, Kenneth V.; Nestor, Lisa P. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1120.
Coordination Compounds |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Rate Law |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Disorder and Chaos: Developing and Teaching an Interdisciplinary Course on Chemical Dynamics  Steven G. Desjardins
Describes an interdisciplinary course for nonscience majors that introduces ideas about mathematical modeling using examples based on pendulums, chemical kinetics, and population dynamics. Students learn about the nature of measurement and prediction through the use of spreadsheet software for the solution of equations and experimental data collection.
Desjardins, Steven G. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1078.
Kinetics |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Nonmajor Courses
A Simple Laboratory Experiment To Determine the Kinetics of Mutarotation of D-Glucose Using a Blood Glucose Meter  Carlos E. Perles and Pedro L. O. Volpe
A simple commercial blood glucose meter is used to follow the kinetics of mutarotation of D-glucose in aqueous solution. The results may be compared with those obtained using an automatic polarimeter.
Perles, Carlos E.; Volpe, Pedro L. O. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 686.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Bioanalytical Chemistry |
Carbohydrates |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Solutions / Solvents |
Stereochemistry
Phenolphthalein—Pink Tornado Demonstration  Bruce R. Prall
This demonstration uses the vortex generated by a spinning magnetic stir bar to demonstrate Le Châtelier's principle as it applies to the phenolphthalein equilibrium in water and provides an excellent opportunity to discuss limiting and excess reagents.
Prall, Bruce R. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 527.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
pH
Dynamic Reaction Figures: An Integrative Vehicle for Understanding Chemical Reactions  Emeric Schultz
Describes the dynamic reaction figure, a flexible learning tool that can be used to balance chemical equations, predict the results of potential reactions, present the underlying mechanism of reactions, and solve quantitative problems in a number of areas.
Schultz, Emeric. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 386.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Nonmajor Courses
Physical Chemistry: Thermodynamics (Horia Metiu)
Taylor & Francis, New York, London, 2006. 694 pp. ISBN: 978-0815340911 (paper). $49.95

Physical Chemistry: Statistical Mechanics (Horia Metiu)
Taylor & Francis, New York, London, 2006. 292 pp. ISBN: 978-0815340850 (paper). $44.95

Physical Chemistry: Kinetics (Horia Metiu)
Taylor & Francis, New York, London, 2006. 169 pp. ISBN: 978-0815340898 (paper). $44.95

Physical Chemistry: Quantum Mechanics (Horia Metiu)
Taylor & Francis, New York, London, 2006. 481 pp. ISBN: 978-0815340874 (paper). $44.95

  John Krenos
Metiu has created a significant set of volumes on undergraduate physical chemistry. The integration of Mathematica and Mathcad workbooks into the four texts provides instructors with an attractive new option in teaching.
Krenos, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 206.
Quantum Chemistry |
Statistical Mechanics |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics
Reaction Order Ambiguity in Integrated Rate Plots  Joe Lee
This article provides a theoretical and statistical justification for the necessity of monitoring a reaction to a substantial fraction of completion if integrated rate plots plots are to yield unambiguous orders.
Lee, Joe. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 141.
Chemometrics |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
An Experimental Approach to Teaching and Learning Elementary Statistical Mechanics  Frank B. Ellis and David C. Ellis
This article details demonstrations that show how equilibrium changes with temperature, energy, and entropy and involve exothermic and endothermic reactions, the dynamic nature of equilibrium, and Le Châtelier's principle.
Ellis, Frank B.; Ellis, David C. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 78.
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Statistical Mechanics |
Thermodynamics
Similarity and Difference in the Behavior of Gases: An Interactive Demonstration  Guy Ashkenazi
A demonstration that concurrently exposes differences and similarities in the behavior of two different gases has been designed to bridge the gap between students' understanding at the algorithmicmacroscopic and conceptualmicroscopic levels.
Ashkenazi, Guy. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 72.
Gases |
Kinetics |
Learning Theories
The Glyoxal Clock Reaction  Julie B. Ealy, Alexandra Rodriguez Negron, Jessica Stephens, Rebecca Stauffer, and Stanley D. Furrow
The glyoxal clock reaction has been adapted to a general chemistry kinetics lab to determine the order of the reacting species using a Calculator Based Laboratory or LabPro equipment.
Ealy, Julie B.; Negron, Alexandra Rodriguez; Stephens, Jessica; Stauffer, Rebecca; Furrow, Stanley D. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1965.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Dyes / Pigments |
Kinetics |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Rate Law |
Reactions
The Chemistry of Paper Preservation  Henry A. Carter
This article examines the applications of chemistry to paper preservation. The acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose accounts for the deterioration of paper in library books and other written records. To combat this threat to our written heritage, new permanent papers have been developed that are relatively chemically stable and undergo a very slow rate of deterioration.
Carter, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1937.
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Free Radicals |
Gas Chromatography |
HPLC |
pH |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
How Many Atomic Layers of Zinc Are in a Galvanized Iron Coating?   Shui-Ping Yang
This article describes a guided inquiry and problem solving experiment in which students use a novel gasometric assembly to determine the thickness and number of atomic layers of zinc coating on galvanized iron wires and nails.
Yang, Shui-Ping. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1792.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis |
Rate Law
Visualizing the Transition State: A Hands-on Approach to the Arrhenius Equation  Thomas S. Kuntzleman, Matthew S. Swanson, and Deborah K. Sayers
Pennies and dice are used to simulate the kinetics of two irreversible "reactions" with a hands-on, Monte Carlo approach. Arrhenius plots of the data generated yield activation energies comparable to assigned values and pre-exponential factors close to what would be expected based on the probability of a "reactant" achieving the correct orientation for conversion into "product". A comparison of the values obtained for the pre-exponential factors for the different simulations allows students to semi-quantitatively discuss the orientational requirement that is contained within this factor.
Kuntzleman, Thomas S.; Swanson, Matthew S.; Sayers, Deborah K. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1776.
Kinetics |
Rate Law
The A1c Blood Test: An Illustration of Principles from General and Organic Chemistry  Robert C. Kerber
The glycated hemoglobin blood test is a key measure of the effectiveness of glucose control in diabetics. The chemistry of glucose in the bloodstream, which underlies the test and its impact, provides an illustration of the importance of chemical equilibrium and kinetics to a major health problem.
Kerber, Robert C. . J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1541.
Applications of Chemistry |
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Carbohydrates |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Proteins / Peptides |
Bioorganic Chemistry
The Aromaticity of Pericyclic Reaction Transition States  Henry S. Rzepa
Presents an approach that combines two fundamental concepts in organic chemistry, chirality and aromaticity, into a simple rule for stating selection rules for pericyclic reactions in terms of achiral Hckel-aromatic and chiral Mbius-aromatic transition states.
Rzepa, Henry S. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1535.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stereochemistry
A Student Laboratory Experiment Based on the Vitamin C Clock Reaction  Ed Vitz
Describes an adaptation of the vitamin C clock reaction to a student laboratory experiment in which the orders with respect to peroxide and iodide, the rate constant, and the activation energy are determined by the method of initial rates.
Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1156.
Consumer Chemistry |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Rate Law
Peer-Developed and Peer-Led Labs in General Chemistry  Lorena Tribe and Kim Kostka
Describes a student-developed and led laboratory curriculum as a model for producing a more student-centered and rich laboratory experience in general chemistry laboratories.
Tribe, Lorena; Kostka, Kim. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1031.
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Laboratory Management |
Thermodynamics |
Student-Centered Learning
An Inexpensive Kinetic Study: The Reaction of FD&C Red #3 (Erythrosin B) with Hypochlorite  Maher M. Henary and Arlene A. Russell
Students use a desktop visible spectrophotometer to quantitatively follow the rate of disappearance of FD&C Red #3 with hypochlorite. The first-order reaction in both dye and bleach yields simple data that students can easily process and graph using spreadsheet software to obtain the rate constant and the rate law.
Henary, Maher M.; Russell, Arlene A. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 480.
Dyes / Pigments |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Applications of Reaction Rate  Kevin Cunningham
This article presents an assignment in which students are to research and report on a chemical reaction whose increased or decreased rate is of practical importance. The assignment is designed to develop and assess a number of valuable skills and understandings, including the ability to write effectively.
Cunningham, Kevin. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 430.
Catalysis |
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Reactions |
Applications of Chemistry
A Method of Visual Interactive Regression  Michelle S. Kim, Maureen Burkart, and Myung-Hoon Kim
The process behind the least-squares method, minimizing the sum of the deviations squared, is made visible, interactive, and dynamic by allowing the user to adjust heights in a bar graph.
Kim, Michelle S.; Burkart, Maureen; Kim, Myung-Hoon. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1884.
Kinetics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Quantitative Analysis |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Student-Centered Learning
A Kinetics Demonstration Involving a Green–Red–Green Color Change Resulting from a Large-Amplitude pH Oscillation  Brian W. Pfennig and Richard T. Roberts
Describes an oxidationreduction, clock reaction involving iodate, sulfite, and thiosulfate that produces large swings in pH, causing a combination of acidbase indicators to effect greenredgreen color changes.
Pfennig, Brian W.; Roberts, Richard T. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1804.
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction
Let Us Give Lewis Acid–Base Theory the Priority It Deserves  Alan A. Shaffer
The Lewis concept is simple yet powerful in its scope, and can be used to help beginning students understand reaction mechanisms more fully. However, traditional approaches to acid-base reactions at the introductory level ignores Lewis acid-base theory completely, focusing instead on proton transfer described by the Br?nsted-Lowry concept.
Shaffer, Alan A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1746.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Lewis Structures |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory |
Covalent Bonding |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Classroom Scale Demonstrations Using Flash Ignition of Carbon Nanotubes  Dean J. Campbell, Kylee E. Korte, Jesse T. McCann, and Younan Xia
Flash-initiated combustion of carbon nanotubes can be demonstrated in a large setting using a variety of demonstrations. These demonstrations can also be used to illustrate the importance of surface area in chemical reactions.
Campbell, Dean J.; Korte, Kylee E.; McCann, Jesse T.; Xia, Younan. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1511.
Kinetics |
Nanotechnology |
Surface Science
Chemistry Comes Alive!, Volume 8. Abstract of Special Issue 34  Rachel Bain, Jerrold J. Jacobsen, James H. Maynard, John W. Moore, and C. Jonathan Mitschele
Chemistry Comes Alive! Volume 8 can help move students understanding of waves from mechanical models to the chemical phenomena those models explain.
Bain, Rachel; Jacobsen, Jerrold J.; Maynard, James H.; Moore, John W.; Mitschele, C. Jonathan. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1406.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions
Was Markovnikov's Rule an Inspired Guess?  Peter Hughes
A study of 19th century literature shows that neither Markovnikov nor any of his contemporaries carried out the reactions often attributed to himthe addition of hydrogen bromide or hydrogen chloride to propene. Since there is little evidence for Markovnikov's rule in his 1870 article, it is likely that it was more of an inspired guess than a rational conclusion.
Hughes, Peter. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1152.
Addition Reactions |
Alkenes |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Taming the Barking Dog  Ché Royce Seabourne, George Maxwell, and James Wallace
This demonstration brings Liebig's famous 19th-century demonstration headlong into the 21st century, using digital video footage and other novel media.
Seabourne, Ché Royce; Maxwell, George; Wallace, James. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 751.
Gases |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions
New Highlights on Analyzing First-Order Kinetic Data of the Peroxodisulfate–Iodide System at Different Temperatures  J. Yperman and W. J. Guedens
A pseudo-first order kinetic experiment examining the peroxodisulfateiodide system is executed at different temperatures, making it possible to calculate the activation energy of this reaction.
Yperman, J.; Guedens, W. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 641.
Kinetics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Rate Law |
Thermodynamics
An Enzyme Kinetics Experiment Using Laccase for General Chemistry   Yaqi Lin and Patrick M. Lloyd
This article describes the use of laccase, an oxidoreductase enzyme, to study the effects of enzyme catalysts on reaction rates.
Lin, Yaqi; Lloyd, Patrick M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 638.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Bioanalytical Chemistry |
Catalysis |
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
The Ultrasonic Soda Fountain: A Dramatic Demonstration of Gas Solubility in Aqueous Solutions  John E. Baur and Melinda B. Baur
An ultrasonic bath is used to accelerate the rate at which carbonated beverages equilibrate with the atmosphere. The resulting fountain, which can reach heights in excess of 3 meters, is a dramatic demonstration of the solubility of gases in liquids.
Baur, John E.; Baur, Melinda B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 577.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Kinetics |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
Textbook Deficiencies: Ambiguities in Chemical Kinetics Rates and Rate Constants  Keith T. Quisenberry and Joel Tellinghuisen
Recommends that textbook authors make it clear that (i) the reaction rate and rate constant cannot be defined unambiguously without explicitly stating the reaction for which they apply and therefore (ii) the relation between the half-life, which is a physical property of the reaction system, and the rate constant depends upon how the reaction is written.
Quisenberry, Keith T.; Tellinghuisen, Joel. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 510.
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Modeling Dynamic Equilibrium with Coins  Martin Bartholow
Students explore the concept of equilibrium by moving small objects between two piles.
Bartholow, Martin. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 48A.
Computational Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Rate Law
Mechanisms That Interchange Axial and Equatorial Atoms in Fluxional Processes: Illustration of the Berry Pseudorotation, the Turnstile, and the Lever Mechanisms via Animation of Transition State Normal Vibrational Modes  Marion E. Cass, King Kuok Hii, and Henry S. Rzepa
Teaching the Berry pseudorotation mechanism presents particular pedagogic problems due to both its dynamic and three dimensional character. The approach described here illustrates these processes using interactive animations embedded in a Web page.
Cass, Marion E.; Hii, King Kuok; Rzepa, Henry S. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 336.
Computational Chemistry |
Enantiomers |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Nonmetals
Using Jmol To Help Students Better Understand Fluxional Processes   William F. Coleman and Edward W. Fedosky
This new WebWare neatly combines instructional text and Jmol interactive, animated illustrations to teach mechanisms that need to be clearly visualized in order to be well understood.
Coleman, William F.; Fedosky, Edward W. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 336.
Computational Chemistry |
Enantiomers |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Nonmetals
4-Dimethylaminopyridine or Acid-Catalyzed Syntheses of Esters: A Comparison  Annemieke W. C. van den Berg and Ulf Hanefeld
Students compare acid-catalyzed ester synthesis and the 4-dimethylaminopyridine-catalyzed reaction. Based on the outcome of the experiments, students discuss the different reaction mechanisms and reason why different products are formed.
van den Berg, Annemieke W. C.; Hanefeld, Ulf. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 292.
Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Chromatography |
Esters |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
An Environmentally Focused General Chemistry Laboratory  Morgan Mihok, Joseph T. Keiser, Jacqueline M. Bortiatynski, and Thomas E. Mallouk
A one-semester laboratory has been developed in which principles of general chemistry (aqueous acidbase equilibria, kinetics, thermodynamics, chromatographic separations, spectroscopy) are presented in the context of environmental aquatic chemistry.
Mihok, Morgan; Keiser, Joseph T.; Bortiatynski, Jacqueline M.; Mallouk, Thomas E. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 250.
Acids / Bases |
Chromatography |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Ion Exchange |
Kinetics |
Nonmajor Courses |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Steel Wool and Oxygen: How Constant Should a Rate Constant Be?  Michiel Vogelezang
In the article Steel Wool and Oxygen: A Look at Kinetics, James Gordon and Katherine Chancey describe an experiment about the kinetics between iron and oxygen. Like all good experiments this one is easy to carry out and produces good results. However, the experiment can even have a greater impact with only a small addition.
Vogelezang, Michiel. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 214.
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction
Simple and Inexpensive Computer Interface to a Durrum Stopped-Flow Apparatus Tested Using the Iron(III)–Thiocyanate Reaction  Craig M. Hoag
Describes a computer interface between a Durrum model 110 stopped-flow apparatus and a LabPro voltage probe using LoggerPro software from Vernier. This probe and software can be used to measure and record data from most instruments normally connected to an oscilloscope or chart recorder.
Hoag, Craig M. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1823.
Instrumental Methods |
Kinetics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Coordination Compounds |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Robust Linear Regression Using Theil's Method  P. Glaister
The method of least squares is not resistant to the undue influence outliers can have on the estimate of slope and intercept. An alternative approach is to use a method that is specifically designed to reduce the effect that outliers can have on slope and intercept estimates.
Glaister, P. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1472.
Calibration |
Rate Law |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
Rotational Mobility in a Crystal Studied by Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy. An Experiment for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory  Madalena S. C. Dionísio, Hermínio P. Diogo, J. P. S. Farinha, and Joaquim J. Moura-Ramos
In this article we present a laboratory experiment for an undergraduate physical chemistry course. The purpose of this experiment is the study of molecular mobility in a crystal using the technique of dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. The experiment illustrates important physical chemistry concepts. The background of the experimental technique deals with the concepts of orientational and induced polarization and frequency-dependent relative permittivity (or dielectric constant). The kinetic concepts of temperature-dependent relaxation time, activation energy, and activation entropy are involved in the concept of molecular mobility.
Dionísio, Madalena S. C.; Diogo, Hermínio P.; Farinha, J. P. S.; Moura-Ramos, Joaquim J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1355.
Kinetics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Crystals / Crystallography
Chemistry Comes Alive!, Volume 7 Abstract of Special Issue 32, a CD-ROM of Flames and Explosions   Rachel Bain, Jerrold J. Jacobsen, James H. Maynard, and John W. Moore
A visual library containing more than 230 QuickTime movies and more than 6700 still images, Chemistry Comes Alive! Volume 7: Flames and Explosions features the kind of chemistry that is sure to spark an interest. Organized using both the periodic table and type of reaction, CCA! 7 makes it easy for you to find the movie or image you seek to add that spark of interest to your presentation. CCA! 7 covers a broad range of spectacular chemical reactions while also offering a depth of coverage that encourages discussions that compare and contrast particular reactions.
Bain, Rachel; Jacobsen, Jerrold J.; Maynard, James H.; Moore, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1102.
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Kinetics of Alcohol Dehydrogenase-Catalyzed Oxidation of Ethanol Followed by Visible Spectroscopy  Kestutis Bendinskas, Christopher DiJiacomo, Allison Krill, and Ed Vitz
A two-week biochemistry experiment was introduced in the second-semester general chemistry laboratory to study the oxidation of ethanol in vitro in the presence of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). This reaction should pique student interest because the same reaction also occurs in human bodies when alcoholic drinks are consumed. Procedures were developed to follow the biochemical reaction by visible spectroscopy and to avoid specialized equipment. The effect of substrate concentration on the rate of this enzymatic reaction was investigated during the first week. The effects of temperature, pH, the specificity of the enzyme to several substrates, and the enzyme's inhibition by heavy metals were explored during the second week.
Bendinskas, Kestutis; DiJiacomo, Christopher; Krill, Allison; Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1068.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Biophysical Chemistry |
Food Science
Steel Wool and Oxygen: A Look at Kinetics  James Gordon and Katherine Chancey
An experimental method is described to study the kinetics of the reaction of the iron in steel wool with molecular oxygen. A calculator-based data collection system is used with an oxygen gas sensor to determine the order of the reaction with respect to oxygen. Using the graphical method, students determine that the reaction follows first-order kinetics with respect to oxygen.
Gordon, James; Chancey, Katherine. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1065.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction
The Addition of Bromine to 1,2-Diphenylethene   Judith C. Amburgey-Peters and LeRoy W. Haynes
We investigated the reaction of (Z)-1,2-diphenylethene (cis-stilbene) with various brominating reagents and solvents following directions in standard organic chemistry manuals. We were particularly interested in learning which combination of brominating reagent and solvent gave the best yield of (d,l)-1,2-dibromo-1,2-diphenylethane without the formation of significant amounts of meso-1,2-dibromo-1,2-diphenylethane, which is essentially the sole product from the reaction of bromine with (E)-1,2-diphenylethene (trans-stilbene). Based on the results from the standard preparatory methods, some permutations of solvent and brominating reagent were tried.
Amburgey-Peters, Judith C.; Haynes, LeRoy W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1051.
Addition Reactions |
Alkenes |
Carbocations |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stereochemistry
A Modified Demonstration of the Catalytic Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide  Carlos Alexander Trujillo
A safer and cheaper version of the popular catalyzed decomposition of hydrogen peroxide demonstration commonly called the Elephants Toothpaste is presented. Hydrogen peroxide is decomposed in the presence of a surfactant by the enzyme catalase producing foam. Catalase has a higher activity compared with the traditional iodide and permits the use of diluted hydrogen peroxide solutions. The demonstration can be made with household products with similar amazing effects.
Trujillo, Carlos Alexander. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 855.
Catalysis |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction
An Interactive Classroom Activity Demonstrating Reaction Mechanisms and Rate-Determining Steps  Laura D. Jennings and Steven W. Keller
An interactive classroom activity is described that allows visualization of microscopic reaction mechanisms via the macroscopic process of unwrapping and eating chocolate candies.
Jennings, Laura D.; Keller, Steven W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 549.
Reactions |
Rate Law |
Kinetics
Old Nassau Demonstration with Wilkinson Modification  Lawrence E. Wilkinson
A modification of the Old Nassau Reaction demonstration is presented, wherein a 0.025 M silver nitrate solution is used in place of the mercury(II) chloride solution employed in the original demonstration.
Wilkinson, Lawrence E. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1474.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Using Clinical Cases To Teach General Chemistry  Brahmadeo Dewprashad, Charles Kosky, Geraldine S. Vaz, and Charlotte L. Martin
This article describes how a fact-based clinical case was effectively used to motivate and enrich the classroom experience and review many of the concepts covered in general chemistry. The case involves an elderly patient who was brought to the emergency room. The results of his physical examination and laboratory analysis of his blood are presented. The students, in peer-led groups, work through the chemical principles involved in the doctor's diagnosis and treatment options for the patient. The article describes the case study, instructors' observations, and students' perception of the activity.
Dewprashad, Brahmadeo; Kosky, Charles; Vaz, Geraldine S.; Martin, Charlotte L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1471.
Acids / Bases |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Medicinal Chemistry
A Simple, Inexpensive Water-Jacketed Cuvette for the Spectronic 20  Jonathan E. Thompson and Jason Ting
A simple, inexpensive, water-jacketed cuvette for the Spectronic 20 is described. The cuvette and associated flow system can easily be constructed from materials commonly found in an undergraduate chemistry laboratory. As a demonstration of the cuvette's utility, we used the cuvette for the determination of the activation energy for the reaction between crystal violet and hydroxide ion. However, the cuvette may prove useful in a variety of applications in which a sample must be thermostated within a spectrophotometer.
Thompson, Jonathan E.; Ting, Jason. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1341.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Kinetics |
Spectroscopy
Using a Datalogger To Determine First-Order Kinetics and Calcium Carbonate in Eggshells  Martin M. F. Choi and Pui Shan Wong
The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the use of a datalogger in conjunction with a pressure sensor to monitor the generation of carbon dioxide when calcium carbonate is in contact with hydrochloric acid.
Choi, Martin M. F.; Wong, Pui Shan. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 859.
Kinetics |
Food Science |
Microscale Lab |
Quantitative Analysis |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Kinetics of the Osmotic Hydration of Chickpeas  Gabriel Pinto and Ali Esin
An experiment examining the swelling of chickpeas as they are soaked in water is presented to introduce students to topics such as osmotic flow, mass transfer, diffusion, kinetics of hydration, modeling, and estimation of activation energy.
Pinto, Gabriel; Esin, Ali. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 532.
Kinetics |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Food Science |
Transport Properties
Using a Graphing Calculator To Determine a First-Order Rate Constant: Author Reply  José E. Cortés-Figueroa
When technology is used to help with mathematical calculations, the emphasis must be on the concepts being learned rather than simply the procedures. In our approach we are attempting to help students learn more about the concept and also to attain data analysis skills they will need in the future.
Cortés-Figueroa, José E. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 485.
Kinetics |
Chemometrics
Using a Graphing Calculator To Determine a First-Order Rate Constant  Todd P. Silverstein
The authors use the graphing calculator to estimate the infinity reading from linearized kinetics data, and then they use linearized semi-log data to determine the first-order rate constant.
Silverstein, Todd P. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 485.
Kinetics |
Chemometrics
A Modular Laser Apparatus for Polarimetry, Nephelometry, and Fluorimetry in General Chemistry  Scott A. Darveau, Jessica Mueller, April Vaverka, Cheri Barta, Anthony Fitch, Jessica Jurzenski, and Yvonne Gindt
We present an apparatus suitable for multiple uses in the general chemistry laboratory including polarimetry, fluorescence, and nephelometry. The open design of the instrument also decreases the chance that students will contract the "black-box syndrome" that seems to develop when using instruments that only provide the final data in an experiment without showing how the measurements are obtained.
Darveau, Scott A.; Mueller, Jessica; Vaverka, April; Barta, Cheri; Fitch, Anthony; Jurzenski, Jessica; Gindt, Yvonne. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 401.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Kinetics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Proteins / Peptides |
Water / Water Chemistry
Why Chemical Reactions Happen (James Keeler and Peter Wothers)  John Krenos
By concentrating on a limited number of model reactions, this book presents chemistry as a cohesive whole by tying together the fundamentals of thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, and quantum chemistry, mainly through the use of molecular orbital interpretations.
Krenos, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 201.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Quantum Chemistry |
MO Theory
Promoting Graphical Thinking: Using Temperature and a Graphing Calculator To Teach Kinetics Concepts  José E. Cortés-Figueroa and Deborah A. Moore-Russo
A Calculator-Based Laboratory (CBL) System, a graphing calculator, and a cooling piece of metal are used in a classroom demonstration to teach key concepts of a first-order chemical reaction. This activity promotes graphical thinking and permits student-centered instruction where the students explore concepts and discover how simple mathematical equations model observable facts (data).
Cortés-Figueroa, José E.; Moore-Russo, Deborah A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 69.
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Don't Be Tricked by Your Integrated Rate Plot  Edward Urbansky
Reply to comments on original article.
Urbansky, Edward. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 32.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Chemometrics
Don't Be Tricked by Your Integrated Rate Plot: Reaction order Ambiguity  Sue Le Vent
Integrated rate equations (for constant reaction volume) may be given in terms of relative reactant concentration, C (= concentration/initial concentration) and relative time, T (= time/half-life); in these forms, the equations are independent of rate constants and initial concentrations.
Le Vent, Sue. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 32.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Chemometrics
Don't Be Tricked by Your Integrated Rate Plot: Pitfalls of Using Integrated Rate Plots  Gabor Lente
Problems with linearizing the integrated rate law.
Lente, Gabor. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 32.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Chemometrics
Don't Be Tricked by Your Integrated Rate Plot: Pitfalls of Using Integrated Rate Plots  Gabor Lente
Problems with linearizing the integrated rate law.
Lente, Gabor. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 32.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Chemometrics
Flipping Pennies and Burning Candles: Adventures in Kinetics  Michael J. Sanger
Activity in which students collect data to determine whether two processes, flipping pennies and burning candles, follow zeroth- or first-order rate laws.
Sanger, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 304A.
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Reactions (→) vs Equations (=)  S. R. Logan
A recent chemical kinetics text uses an equals sign for an overall reaction, whereas an arrow is used in each of the reaction steps that are proposed to constitute the mechanism, and for any elementary process.
Logan, S. R. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1258.
Kinetics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Dynamic Visualization in Chemistry Abstract of Special Issue 31, a CD-ROM for Mac OS and Windows  James P. Birk, Debra E. Leedy, Rachel A. Morgan, Mark Drake, Fiona Lihs, Eleisha J. Nickoles, and Michael J. McKelvy
Each presentation is designed to help chemistry students acquire a dynamic, three-dimensional, atomic-level visualization of matter and to use this view to explain and ultimately predict the behavior of materials. It integrates video of experiments and animations of theoretical models. Students zoom in on physical and chemical processes at resolutions as high as the atomic level.
Birk, James P.; Leedy, Debra E.; Morgan, Rachel A.; Drake, Mark; Lihs, Fiona; Nickoles, Eleisha J.; McKelvy, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1095.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Solid State Chemistry
Diffusion of Water through a Differentially Permeable Membrane  Maria Guadalupe Bertoluzzo, Fabio E. Quattrin, Stella Maris Bertoluzzo, and Ruben Rigatuso
Students investigate the process of osmosis through the differentially-permeable membrane formed by copper(II) hexacyanoferrate(II), a colloidal precipitate.
Bertoluzzo, Maria Guadalupe; Quattrin, Fabio E.; Bertoluzzo, Stella Maris; Rigatuso, Ruben. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1032A.
Transport Properties |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Decomposition Kinetics of Hydrogen Peroxide: Novel Lab Experiments Employing Computer Technology  Dorota A. Abramovitch, Latrice K. Cunningham, and Mitchell R. Litwer
Using a sensor to measure changes in the pressure of oxygen produced by the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide as a means of analyzing this reaction and factors that affect its rate.
Abramovitch, Dorota A.; Cunningham, Latrice K.; Litwer, Mitchell R. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 790.
Gases |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Kinetics
Kinetics of Platinum-Catalyzed Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide  Tiffany A. Vetter and D. Philip Colombo Jr.
Determining the order and rate constant of the catalyzed decomposition of hydrogen peroxide using AOSEPT contact lens cleaning and a platinum-coated AOSEPT disc.
Vetter, Tiffany A.; Colombo, D. Philip, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 788.
Catalysis |
Consumer Chemistry |
Kinetics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Rate Law
Applying the Reaction Table Method for Chemical Reaction Problems (Stoichiometry and Equilibrium)  Steven F. Watkins
A systematic approach to chemical reaction calculations (stoichiometry calculations) - the "Reaction Table Method" (similar to the equilibrium table method).
Watkins, Steven F. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 658.
Equilibrium |
Stoichiometry |
Reactions |
Kinetics
Organic Functional Group Playing Card Deck  Michael J. Welsh
Organic functional group playing card deck used for review of the name and structure of organic functional groups that can be used to play any game that a normal deck of cards is used for.
Welsh, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 426.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmajor Courses |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Amides |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters |
Ethers |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis
Incomplete Combustion with Candle Flames: A Guided-Inquiry Experiment in the First-Year Chemistry Lab  Joseph MacNeil and Lisa Volaric
Investigating a burning candle as an introduction to incomplete combustion, thermodynamics, kinetics, and gas chromatography.
MacNeil, Joseph; Volaric, Lisa. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 302.
Chromatography |
Gases |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Gas Chromatography
Teaching Chemistry Using From the Earth to the Moon  James G. Goll and Stacie L. Mundinger
Teaching chemistry using From the Earth to the Moon (an HBO original movie series).
Goll, James G.; Mundinger, Stacie L. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 292.
Electrochemistry |
Chemometrics |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Applications of Chemistry
A Photolithography Laboratory Experiment for General Chemistry Students   Adora M. Christenson, Gregory W. Corder, Thomas C. DeVore, and Brian H. Augustine
A photolithography laboratory experiment for general chemistry that introduces materials science and the production of microfabricated devices.
Christenson, Adora M.; Corder, Gregory W.; DeVore, Thomas C.; Augustine, Brian H. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 183.
Kinetics |
Materials Science |
Photochemistry |
Spectroscopy
Depletion: A Game with Natural Rules for Teaching Reaction Rate Theory  Donald J. Olbris and Judith Herzfeld
Game that reinforces central concepts of rate theory through simulation.
Olbris, Donald J.; Herzfeld, Judith. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1232.
Kinetics |
Nonmajor Courses |
Rate Law |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Catalysis
Rate Law Determination of Everyday Processes  Michael J. Sanger, Russell A. Wiley Jr., Erwin W. Richter, and Amy J. Phelps
Laboratory to determine whether burning a candle and flipping pennies follow zero-, first-, or second-order rate laws.
Sanger, Michael J.; Wiley, Russell A., Jr.; Richter, Erwin W.; Phelps, Amy J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 989.
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Tick Tock, a Vitamin C Clock  Stephen W. Wright
Uses supermarket chemicals to perform a clock reaction; students vary the concentration of reactants and observe the effect on the time required for the reaction to reach its endpoint.
Wright, Stephen W. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 40A.
Consumer Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Vitamins |
Equilibrium |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Redox Redux: Recommendations for Improving Textbook and IUPAC Definitions  Ed Vitz
Defining oxidation / reduction reactions as those in which oxidation states of the reactant(s) change.
Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 397.
Electrochemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Factors Affecting Reaction Kinetics of Glucose Oxidase  Kristin A. Johnson
Demonstration based on a biochemical kinetics experiment in which the rate of reaction varies with the enzyme concentration, substrate concentration, substrate used in the reaction, and temperature.
Johnson, Kristin A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 74.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Proteins / Peptides |
Carbohydrates |
Catalysis |
Rate Law
Putting UV-Sensitive Beads to the Test  Terre Trupp
Explores the temperature behavior of UV-sensitive beads and investigates the effectiveness of sunscreens.
Trupp, Terre. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 648A.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Kinetics |
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Photochemistry
A Discovery-Based Experiment Illustrating How Iron Metal Is Used to Remediate Contaminated Groundwater  Barbara A. Balko and Paul G. Tratnyek
Procedure in which students investigate the chemistry of iron-permeable reactive barriers and their application to the remediation of contaminated groundwater.
Balko, Barbara A.; Tratnyek, Paul G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1661.
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Metals |
Applications of Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Demonstrations with Nitrocellulose: Possible Further Pedagogic Value (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1449)  Edward G. Senkbeil
Characteristic of explosives to have fuel and oxidizer in the same structure.
Senkbeil, Edward G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1596.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Rate Law
Demonstrations with Nitrocellulose: Possible Further Pedagogic Value (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1449)  J. C. Jones
Characteristic of explosives to have fuel and oxidizer in the same structure.
Jones, J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1596.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Rate Law
Visualizing the Photochemical Steady State with UV-Sensitive Beads (re J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 77, 648A-648B)  Jerry A. Bell
Analysis of the temperature dependence of the color intensity of UV-sensitive beads.
Bell, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1594.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Kinetics |
Photochemistry |
Chemometrics
Don't Be Tricked by Your Integrated Rate Plot!  Edward T. Urbansky
Using integrated rate plots to determine reaction order.
Urbansky, Edward T. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 921.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Learning Theories |
Chemometrics |
Rate Law
The State of Division of Solids and Chemical Equilibria  João C. M. Paiva and Victor M. S. Gil
An experiment and a computer simulation are presented to address a counterintuitive situation often encountered when teaching chemical equilibria. This is prompted by the question "How can the subdivision of a solid reactant affect the reaction rate and not the composition of the equilibrium state?"
Paiva, João C. M.; Gil, Victor M. S. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 222.
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
A Simple Method for Demonstrating Enzyme Kinetics Using Catalase from Beef Liver Extract  Kristin A. Johnson
A simple visual method of demonstrating enzyme kinetics using beef liver catalase. Filter paper is saturated with beef liver extract and placed into a solution of hydrogen peroxide. The catalase in the extract decomposes the hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen. Oxygen forms on the filter paper, and the filter paper rises to the top of the beaker. Catalase activity is measured by timing the rise of the enzyme-soaked filter paper to the top of beakers containing different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide.
Johnson, A. Kristin. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1451.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Proteins / Peptides |
Reactions
Combustion Demonstration Using Updated Flame Tornado  Edward G. Senkbeil
This demonstration uses the combustion of different forms of cellulose and an updated version of the "flame tornado" as an ignition source to illustrate the factors affecting the combustion process. The objectives of the experiment are to illustrate the factors affecting the rate of a combustion reaction and to demonstrate the factors affecting the production of a flame by using the flame tornado.
Senkbeil, Edward G. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1449.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Rate Law
Epoxy Polymerization  Fred Schubert and Tom LoBuglio
Identifying the gel point of a polymer using a multimeter.
Schubert, Fred; LoBuglio, Tom. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1409.
Kinetics |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy
Interpretation of Second Virial Coefficient  Vivek Utgikar
Identifying the gel point of a polymer using a multimeter.
Utgikar, Vivek. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1409.
Kinetics |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Gases |
Thermodynamics
Comparisons and Demonstrations of Scientific Calculators  Myung-Hoon Kim, Suw-Young Ly, and Tae-Kee Hong
Scientific calculators are compared in terms of their capacities, featuring many advantages of the graphic calculator over simple nongraphic calculators. Applications in this paper include a simulation of acid-base titration curves, and graphic display of a time course of concentrations of reactants and products for a chemical reaction with first-order kinetics.
Kim, Myung-Hoon; Ly, Suw-Young; Hong, Tae-Kee. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1367.
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Ernest Rutherford, Avogadro's Number, and Chemical Kinetics Revisited (about J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 998-1003)  James E. Sturm
Estimation of temperatures in heaven and hell based on biblical information.
Sturm, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1278.
Nonmajor Courses |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Kinetics |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
Every Year Begins a Millennium  Jerry A. Bell
This article outlines a series of demonstrations and their contexts, leading to recommendations about what we teach and how we teach.
Bell, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1098.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Learning Theories
Simulating Dynamic Equilibria: A Class Experiment  John A. Harrison and Paul D. Buckley
A first-order reversible reaction is simulated on an overhead projector using small coins or discs. Results illustrate how dynamic equilibria are established and allow the introduction of the concept of an equilibrium constant. Le Chtelier's principle is illustrated by further simulations.
Harrison, John A.; Buckley, Paul D. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1013.
Equilibrium |
Rate Law |
Reactions
Paradoxes, Puzzles, and Pitfalls of Incomplete Combustion Demonstrations  Ed Vitz
Paper is burned in a closed container containing sufficient oxygen to consume all the paper. Paradoxically, the flame expires while half of the paper remains. This demonstrates that thermodynamics or stoichiometry is insufficient to explain everyday chemical processes, and that kinetics is often necessary. The gases in the container are analyzed by GC before and after combustion, and the results are examined in detail.
Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1011.
Gases |
Kinetics |
Stoichiometry
Chemistry and Flatulence: An Introductory Enzyme Experiment  John R. Hardee, Tina M. Montgomery, and Wray H. Jones
An enzyme experiment using raffinose family sugars extracted from green split peas as a substrate and the enzymes alpha-galactosidase and sucrase found in Beano. The reaction studied was the hydrolysis of raffinose family sugars to galactose, glucose, and fructose, and the reaction rate was determined using a retail glucometer to measure the concentration of glucose.
Hardee, John R.; Montgomery, Tina M.; Jones, Wray H. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 498.
Nonmajor Courses |
Enzymes |
Food Science |
Rate Law |
Catalysis |
Applications of Chemistry
Modeling Chemical Processes in Seawater Aquaria to Illustrate Concepts in Undergraduate Chemistry  Gordan Grguric
This paper describes three exercises which can be used in a variety of undergraduate chemistry curricula: (i) determining the salts and their amounts needed to prepare a given volume of artificial seawater, (ii) modeling aqueous carbonate equilibria, to calculate pH and alkalinity shifts through additions of chemicals, and (iii) modeling chemical kinetics involved in aqueous ozone-bromine reactions, to predict the type and extent of disinfection by-products.
Grguric, Gordan. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 495.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Applications of Chemistry
Experiments with Aspirin  Londa L. Borer and Edward Barry
Experiments include (i) synthesis, purification, and characterization of aspirin by mp and TLC, (ii) percentage composition of a commercial aspirin tablet by titration, (iii) kinetics of the hydrolysis of aspirin to salicylic acid under various conditions, (iv) synthesis and characterization of copper(II) aspirinate and copper(II) salicylate, and (v) reaction of copper(II) aspirinate in aqueous solution.
Borer, Londa L.; Barry, Edward. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 354.
Synthesis |
Kinetics |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Aromatic Compounds
An Experiment to Demonstrate How a Catalyst Affects the Rate of a Reaction  Christine L. Copper and Edward Koubek
This experiment, which is a modified version of the traditional iodine clock reaction, allows students to calculate rates of reaction, orders of reactants, and activation energies. It also lets students discover that to increase a reaction's rate, a catalyst need only provide any additional pathway for the reaction, not necessarily a pathway having a lower activation energy.
Copper, Christine L.; Koubek, Edward. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1714.
Catalysis |
Physical Properties |
Rate Law
The Blue Bottle Reaction as a General Chemistry Experiment on Reaction Mechanisms  Steven C. Engerer and A. Gilbert Cook
Using the scientific method (observe, question, hypothesize, experiment, repeat) students propose and test possible reaction mechanisms for the methylene blue-catalyzed oxidation of dextrose with its dramatic color change. Students are led to discover the three-step mechanism through a series of questions.
Engerer, Steven C.; Cook, A. Gilbert. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1519.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Lightstick Kinetics  Charles E. Roser and Catherine L. McCluskey
This experiment determines the energy of activation of the luminescent reaction in a lightstick by measuring the light intensity relative to temperature using Vernier light and temperature sensors, a Texas Instruments CBL interface, and a TI-82/83 graphing calculator.
Roser, Charles E.; McCluskey, Catherine L. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1514.
Kinetics |
Photochemistry
Old Rule of Thumb and the Arrhenius Equation  I. A. Leenson
The empirical rule (doubling of the reaction rate upon every 10 increase in temperature) is discussed on the basis of the Arrhenius equation and experimental data. A graph is plotted that shows the applicability limits of the empirical rule in terms of activation energies and temperatures.
Leenson, Ilya A. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1459.
Kinetics
Equilibrium: A Teaching/Learning Activity (author's reply)  Wilson, Audrey
Thanks for clarification and suggestions.
Wilson, Audrey J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 900.
Equilibrium |
Rate Law
Equilibrium: A Teaching/Learning Activity  Sadavoy, Lyle; Paiva, Joao C. M.; Gil, Victor M. S.
Clarification and suggestions for improvement.
Sadavoy, Lyle; Paiva, Joao C. M.; Gil, Victor M. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 900.
Equilibrium |
Rate Law
The Arrhenius Equation Revisited (author's reply)  Carroll, Harvey F.
Misleading remarks regarding the Arrhenius equation in some general chemistry texts.
Carroll, Harvey F. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 899.
Equilibrium |
Rate Law
The Arrhenius Equation Revisited  Logan, S. R.
Addition citation on the implications of the Arrhenius equation.
Logan, S. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 899.
Equilibrium |
Rate Law
The o-Phenylenediamine-Horseradish Peroxidase System: Enzyme Kinetics in the General Chemistry Laboratory  T. M. Hamilton, A. A. Dobie-Galuska, and S. M. Wietstock
The purpose of the experiment is to measure the kinetic parameters in the oxidative coupling reaction of o-phenylenediamine (OPD) to 2,3-diaminophenazine (DAP), a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP).
Hamilton, Todd M.; Dobie-Galuska, A. A.; Wietstock, S. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 642.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Using CBL Technology and a Graphing Calculator To Teach the Kinetics of Consecutive First-Order Reactions  José E. Cortés-Figueroa and Deborah A. Moore
This work proposes a demonstration to introduce first-order reactions using the CBL system. It then presents the analysis of two consecutive first-order reactions. The values of the rate constants that govern each reaction's rate are determined using the graphing and statistical capabilities of a TI-83 calculator.
Cortés-Figueroa, José E.; Moore, Deborah A. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 635.
Kinetics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Rate Law
A New Twist on the Iodine Clock Reaction: Determining the Order of a Reaction  Xavier Creary and Karen M. Morris
The iodine clock reaction can be used to illustrate the kinetic order of a reaction, and an overhead projector demonstration was developed three years ago for general chemistry classes at the University of Notre Dame showing this concept.
Creary, Xavier; Morris, Karen M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 530.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Kinetics
Equilibrium Principles: A Game for Students  Lionel J. Edmonson Jr. and Don L. Lewis
The laboratory exercise is a game using marked sugar cubes as dice. The game emphasizes the dynamic character of equilibrium. Forward and reverse rate-constant values are used to calculate an equilibrium constant and to predict equilibrium populations. Predicted equilibrium populations are compared with experimental results.
Edmonson, Lionel J., Jr.; Lewis, Don L. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 502.
Equilibrium |
Kinetics
Photon-Initiated Hydrogen-Chlorine Reaction  Schwenz, Richard; Geiger, Lynn
Incorrect termination step for the H2 + Cl2 reaction mechanism.
Schwenz, Richard; Geiger, Lynn J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 470.
Mechanisms of Reactions
Alka Seltzer Poppers: An Interactive Exploration  A. M. Sarquis and L. M. Woodward
This experiment illustrates concepts concerning the pressure-volume relationship of gases, solubility relationships of both gases and solids in liquids relative to temperature, the kinetics of the reaction of Alka Seltzer in water, and acid-base chemistry.
Sarquis, Arlyne M.; Woodward, L. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 385.
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Kinetics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The Fizz Keeper, a Case Study in Chemical Education, Equilibrium, and Kinetics  Reed Howald
The chemistry of the loss of carbonation from carbonated beverages on storage is considered. Increasing the pressure of CO2(g) will restore carbonation, but an increase in pressure adding air should not affect the equilibria. It can and does, however, affect the kinetics-the rate at which a new equilibrium is established. Thus the Fizz Keeper is effective for storage of resealed pop containers for hours, but not for periods of weeks or months.
Howald, Reed. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 208.
Transport Properties |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Kinetics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
The Design and Synthesis of a Large Interactive Classroom  Laurel L. Clouston and Mark H. Kleinman
The use of group learning techniques in large classes has been used to effectively convey the central concepts of SN1 and SN2 reactions in an introductory organic chemistry class. The activities described are best used as an introduction to these mechanisms.
Clouston, Laurel L.; Kleinman, Mark H. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 60.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Learning Theories
On the Surface: Mini-Activities Exploring Surface Phenomena  
Activities listed can be used to introduce surface tension and surface area when discussing liquids and gases.
J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 176A.
Surface Science |
Liquids |
Gases |
Kinetics
The Blue Bottle Experiment-Simple Demonstration of Self-Organization  L'ubica Adamcíková and Peter Sevcík
This article describes a pattern that is formed in the blue bottle experiment.
Adamcíková, L'ubica; Sevcík, Peter. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1580.
Catalysis |
Dyes / Pigments |
Kinetics
A Simple Method To Demonstrate the Enzymatic Production of Hydrogen from Sugar  Natalie Hershlag, Ian Hurley, and Jonathan Woodward
In the experimental protocol described here, it has been demonstrated that the common sugar glucose can be used to produce hydrogen using two enzymes, glucose dehydrogenase and hydrogenase. No sophisticated or expensive hydrogen detection equipment is required-only a redox dye, benzyl viologen, which turns purple when it is reduced. The color can be detected by a simple colorimeter.
Hershlag, Natalie; Hurley, Ian; Woodward, Jonathan. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1270.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Carbohydrates |
Applications of Chemistry
Synthesis of Aspirin: A General Chemistry Experiment  John A. Olmsted III
An experiment is described that is suitable for the early portion of the laboratory in a general chemistry course and integrates organic examples. It is the two-step synthesis of aspirin starting from oil of wintergreen. The mechanism for this synthesis provides examples of three major classes of chemical reactions: hydrolysis, condensation, and proton transfer.
Olmsted, John A., III. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1261.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Why the Arrhenius Equation Is Always in the "Exponentially Increasing" Region in Chemical Kinetic Studies  Harvey F. Carroll
The Arrhenius equation in chemical kinetics, k = Ae-Ea/RT, has, as T gets larger, an inflection point where it changes from an "exponentially increasing" curve to one approaching an asymptote of A. The inflection point occurs at T = Ea/2R. For any activation energy, the inflection point occurs at such a high temperature that chemical kinetic studies would not be possible. Thus, the Arrhenius equation always appears to be exponentially increasing in any chemical kinetic studies of interest.
Carroll, Harvey F. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1186.
Kinetics
The Reaction of a Food Colorant with Sodium Hypochlorite: A Student-Designed Kinetics Experiment  Josefina Arce, Rosa Betancourt, Yamil Rivera, and Joan Pijem
The kinetics of the reaction of the food colorant FD&C Blue #1 with sodium hypochlorite (Clorox) is described in a student-designed experimental format. In this format, students are guided- by means of questions- to make decisions regarding concentration of reagents, choice of equipment, and actual laboratory procedures to be followed.
Arce, Josefina; Betancourt-Perez, Rosa; Rivera, Yamil; Pijem, Joan. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1142.
Kinetics |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Dyes / Pigments
Chemistry Time: Factors Affecting the Rate of a Chemical Reaction  
This activity can be used to introduce a unit on chemical kinetics, but it is simple enough to be used in a discussion of chemical reactions or experimental methods/procedures during the first weeks of the semester. The activity involves reacting bicarbonate with acid, a reaction with practical applications in everyday life.
J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1120A.
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Limiting Reagent and Kinetics: Social Implications and Malthus' Prediction  L. H. Holmes Jr.
Robert Malthus predicted in the early 1800s that man would outstrip his food supply. The amount of carbon on earth is the ultimate limiting reagent for the number of people the earth can have and in the sense that carbon is our "food", Malthus was right. However, the land area of the earth is a "limiting reagent" that will limit our population before carbon does. These concepts are discussed in the context of limiting reagents and chemical kinetics to show that if the rate of increase of population remains at what it is now, we have less than a thousand years to "solve" the problem.
Holmes, L. H., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1004.
Kinetics
Ernest Rutherford, Avogadro's Number, and Chemical Kinetics  I. A. Leenson
The paper presents a way for students to use data from Rutherford's works (1908 - 1911) in order to determine one of the most precise values of Avogadro Constant available at the beginning of the century.
Leenson, I. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 998.
Learning Theories |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Kinetics
Audience-Appropriate Analogies: Collision Theory  Kent W. Piepgrass
This article presents two new analogies for collision theory based on arcade games and on the interactions between salesclerks and customers in a store. The uses, limitations, and possible extensions of the analogies are discussed.
Piepgrass, Kent W. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 724.
Learning Theories |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics
An Analogy to Help Students Understand Reaction Orders  Charles J. Marzzacco
This article describes a simple analogy to help students understand the concept of the rate law for a chemical reaction. The analogy involves the mathematical relationships between various characteristics of a cube and the length of its edge.
Charles J. Marzzacco. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 482.
Learning Theories |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Mechanism Templates: Lecture Aids for Effective Presentation of Mechanism in Introductory Organic Chemistry  Brian J. McNelis
To promote active student learning of mechanism in introductory organic chemistry, hand-outs have been developed with incomplete structures for reaction processes depicted, which are called mechanism templates. The key to these lecture aids is to provide only enough detail in the diagram to facilitate notetaking, ensuring that these templates are dynamic learning tools that must be utilized by an engaged and alert student.
Brian J. McNelis. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 479.
Learning Theories |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions |
Addition Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Nucleophilic Substitution
A Closer Look at the Addition of Equations and Reactions  Damon Diemente
Chemists occasionally find it convenient or even necessary to express an overall reaction as the sum of two or more component reactions. A close examination, however, reveals that the resemblance between chemical algebraic equations is entirely superficial, and that the real meaning of addition in chemical equations is subtle and varies from case to case. In high-school courses, students are likely to encounter the addition of equations in thermochemistry, in electrochemistry, and in kinetics.
Diemente, Damon. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 319.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Reactions
Small-Scale Kinetic Study of the Catalyzed Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide  Ronald O. Ragsdale, Jan C. Vanderhooft , and Arden P. Zipp
The decomposition of hydrogen peroxide can be studied directly and quickly by determining the rate of formation of oxygen bubbles produced. This experiment, like the iodine clock reaction, provides quantitative measurements for a general chemistry course.
Ragsdale, Ronald O.; Vanderhooft , Jan C.; Zipp, Arden P. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 215.
Catalysis |
Kinetics |
Microscale Lab
A Kinetics Experiment To Demonstrate the Role of a Catalyst in a Chemical Reaction: A Versatile Exercise for General or Physical Chemistry Students  Christine L. Copper and Edward Koubek
By modifying the iodine clock reaction, students can use the initial rate method to observe the role of a catalyst in a chemical reaction via activation energy calculations and evaluate a proposed mechanism. They can also determine the order with respect to each reactant and the rate constants of the noncatalyzed and catalyzed reactions.
Copper, Christine L.; Koubek, Edward. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 87.
Catalysis |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Why Don't Things Go Wrong More Often? Activation Energies: Maxwell's Angels, Obstacles to Murphy's Law  Frank L. Lambert
The micro-complexity of fracturing utilitarian or beautiful objects prevents assigning a characteristic activation energy even to chemically identical artifacts. Nevertheless, a qualitative EACT SOLID can be developed. Its surmounting is correlated with the radical drop in human valuation of an object when it is broken.
Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 947.
Kinetics |
Nonmajor Courses |
Thermodynamics
Kinetics Studies in a Washing Bottle  John Teggins and Chris Mahaffy
The kinetics of the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide using iodide ion in aqueous solution is studied in sealed completely-filled washing bottles.
Teggins, John; Mahaffy, Chris. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 566.
Kinetics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Gases
The Coupling of Related Demonstrations to Illustrate Principles in Chemical Kinetics and Equilibrium  Richard A. Pacer
Two very simple lecture demonstrations, both involving the reaction of magnesium with one or more dilute acids, are linked together to illustrate principles in chemical kinetics and equilibrium.
Pacer, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 543.
Learning Theories |
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Reactions
Dice Shaking as an Analogy for Radioactive Decay and First Order Kinetics  Emeric Schultz
An experiment involving the shaking of sets of different sided dice is described. Dice of 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 20 sides are readily available. This experiment serves as an easily understood analogy for radioactive decay and for the more general case of first order kinetics.
Schultz, Emeric. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 505.
Kinetics |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
A Laboratory Experiment Investigating Different Aspects of Catalase Activity in an Inquiry - Based Approach  Doris R. Kimbrough, Mary Ann Magoun, Meg Langfur
The action of the enzyme catalase on aqueous hydrogen peroxide to generate oxygen gas is a well-established demonstration. Catalase is typically obtained by aqueous extraction of a potato, and the potato extract is mixed together with 3% hydrogen peroxide. The oxygen that is produced can be collected over water. Variations on the procedure can demonstrate the dependence of catalytic activity on temperature or the presence of inhibitors.
Kimbrough, Doris R.; Magoun, Mary Ann; Langfur, Meg . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 210.
Catalysis |
Rate Law
Inflation Rates, Car Devaluation, and Chemical Kinetics  Lionello Pogliani, Màrio N. Berberan-Santos
The inflation rate problem of a modern economy shows quite interesting similarities with chemical kinetics and especially with first-order chemical reactions.
Pogliani, Lionello; Berberan-Santos, Màrio N. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 950.
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Symmetry Elements and Operations  Albert W.M. Lee, K.M. Leung, W.J Daniel, C.L. Chan
Symmetry Elements and Operations is a multimedia presentation that illustrates the basics of symmetry with three dimensional molecular models and simple text explanations.
Lee, Albert W.M.; Leung, K.M.; Kwong, Daniel W.J.; Chan, C.L. . J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 924.
Molecular Modeling |
Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Quantum Chemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Iodine Clock Reaction  Richard S. Mitchell
The study of kinetics using the iodine clock reaction has provided an interesting experience for students for many years.
Mitchell, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 783.
Kinetics |
Laboratory Management
Interactive Computer Visualization in the Introductory Chemistry Curriculum  Victoria M. Bragin
This project explores the use of technological innovations to facilitate learning in introductory chemistry courses by those with a poor academic background, while also challenging those prepared to master the curriculum.
Bragin, Victoria M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 747.
Gases |
Rate Law |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Electrochemistry
The Iodide-Catalyzed Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide: A Simple Computer-Interfaced Kinetics Experiment for General Chemistry  John C. Hansen
188. The reaction studied is the iodide-catalyzed decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. The rate of oxygen production is measured as a function of time using a computer-interfaced pressure transducer.
Hansen, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 728.
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
SIRS: Simulations and Interactive Resources, III  Martin, John S.
Simulations and Interactive Resources (SIRs) are designed to support interactive lectures in introductory chemistry. This third issue of SIRs includes five new SIRs as well as updated and final versions of all previously published SIRs.
Martin, John S. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 722.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Reactions |
Electrochemistry |
Kinetics
Relative rates of effusion through punctured balloons  Deese, William C.; Washburn, Anna Marie
A simple method of demonstrating relative rates of gaseous effusion which requires no corrosive chemicals or glassware is reported here.
Deese, William C.; Washburn, Anna Marie J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 540.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases |
Rate Law
Reduction of Viologen Bisphosphonate Dihalide with Aluminum Foil  Peter Abeta Iyere
An elegant undergraduate experiment similar to the popular "Iodine Clock Reaction" employs the reduction of methyl viologen by hydroxide ion. This demonstration can be used as prelaboratory discussion for an undergraduate kinetic experiment based on the same phenomenon.
Iyere, Peter Abeta. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 455.
Kinetics |
Equilibrium
Lightstick Magic: Determination of the Activation Energy with PSL  Thomas H. Bindel
The energy of activation of the light-producing reaction in a lightstick is determined in two different ways. Each depends upon a computer-assisted collection of data from both a light probe and temperature probe. One of them is novel in that data is collected under nonisothermal conditions.
Bindel, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 356.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Kinetics
Colorful Kinetics  Gabriela C. Weaver and Doris R. Kimbrough
We present the details of an overhead projector demonstration to show the concentration dependence of reaction rates.
Weaver, Gabriela C.; Kimbrough, Doris R. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 256.
Rate Law |
Kinetics
Curve Fitting: An Alternative Approach to Analyzing Kinetic Data in Introductory Chemistry  Coleman, William F.
183. The availability of high quality software for performing nonlinear curve fitting on microcomputers allows students to take an alternative approach to data analysis, one that concentrates on functional forms that may be more natural than some of the algebraic machinations necessary to render relationships into linear forms. An example of the application of such an approach to the analysis of kinetic data is presented in this paper.
Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 243.
Chemometrics |
Kinetics
Strategic Consequences from Errors in Raoult's Law Paper  Stephen J. Hawkes
This article is an apology addressing errors in a previously published paper, "Raoult's Law is a Deception" and the new line of thinking that developed as a result of finding the errors.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 41.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Rate Law
Small-Scale Experiments Involving Gas Evolution  Brouwer, H.
Apparatus for measuring very small volume changes of gases and several experimental procedures involving the evolution of gases.
Brouwer, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A100.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Stoichiometry |
Acids / Bases |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab
Resistance Measurement as a Tool for Corrosion Studies  Singh, N. P.; Gupta, S. C.; Sood, B. R.
Procedure for determining the rate of corrosion by measuring changes in the resistance of a thin wire or strip of metal; sample data and analysis included.
Singh, N. P.; Gupta, S. C.; Sood, B. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 465.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Rate Law |
Reactions |
Electrochemistry
Kinetics in Thermodynamic Clothing: Fun with Cooling Curves: A First-Year Undergraduate Chemistry Experiment  Casadonte, Dominick J., Jr.
A series of experiments examining the phenomenon of cooling by producing part of the cooling curve for water at different initial temperatures, focussing on the fact that the curve is nonlinear (unlike the information presented in many texts).
Casadonte, Dominick J., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 346.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Kinetics
A Simple Demonstration of the Effect of Impurities on Melting Point  Hardinger, Steven A.
Demonstration of melting point depression of a substance because of the presence of impurities.
Hardinger, Steven A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 250.
Rate Law |
Physical Properties
Raoult's Law Is a Deception  Hawkes, Stephen J.
Argument that Raoult's law should be omitted from introductory chemistry courses because of limited applicability and usefulness at that level of study.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 204.
Rate Law |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Chart for Deciding Mechanism for Reaction of Alkyl Halide with Nucleophile/Base  McClelland, Bruce W.
The decision chart offered here is based upon the well-known and accepted characteristics of the reaction system mechanisms described in typical introductory organic chemistry textbooks.
McClelland, Bruce W. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1047.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Nucleophilic Substitution
Pictorial Analogies XIII: Kinetics and Mechanism  Fortman, John J.
Pictorial analogies for first order kinetics, the effect of concentration and temperature on reaction rate, and the requirement for proper molecular orientation for reaction.
Fortman, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 848.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Rate Law |
Reactions
Chemical Equilibrium in the General Chemistry Course  Fainzilberg, Vladimir E.; Karp, Stewart
The first chapters on chemical equilibrium in first-year college chemistry texts make an "error" in the solution of certain types of equilibria problems.
Fainzilberg, Vladimir E.; Karp, Stewart J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 769.
Equilibrium |
Kinetics
Simulations and Interactive Resources  Martin, John S.
12 Simulations and Interactive Resources (SIRs) including Periodic Table Displays, Electron Orbits and Orbitals, Electron Configurations, Barometers and Manometers, Vapor Pressure, Ideal Gas Behavior, Heat Capacity and Heat of Reaction, Approach to Equilibrium, The Law of Chemical Equilibrium, Titration Curves, Electrochemical Cells, and Rate of Reaction.
Martin, John S. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 667.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Gases |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Rate Law
Kinetics of Chemical Reactions: A Low-Cost and Simple Appartus  Papageorgiou, G.; Ouzounis, K.; Xenos, J.
Description, applications, and experiments for a simple and inexpensive apparatus to help students understand kinetics.
Papageorgiou, G.; Ouzounis, K.; Xenos, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 647.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Reactions |
Kinetics
The Sol-Gel Preparation of Silica Gels  Buckley, A. M.; Greenblatt, M.
Background and procedure for the sol-gel preparation of silica from molecular precursors.
Buckley, A. M.; Greenblatt, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 599.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Colloids
An Oscillating Reaction as a Demonstration of Principles Applied in Chemistry and Chemical Engineering  Weimer, Jeffrey J.
Platinum catalyzed decomposition of methanol.
Weimer, Jeffrey J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 325.
Thermodynamics |
Catalysis |
Transport Properties |
Kinetics |
Reactions
KineticsLab: The Crystal Violet/Sodium Hydroxide Reaction  Cannon, John F.; Gammon, Steven D.; Hunsberger, Lynn R.
A computer-assisted experiment to collect and analyze data for a kinetic study of the decolorization of crystal violet in basic solution.
Cannon, John F.; Gammon, Steven D.; Hunsberger, Lynn R. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 238.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Reactions
Photon-initiated hydrogen-chlorine reaction: A student experiment at the microscale level   Egolf, Leanne M.; Keiser, Joseph T.
This lab offers a way to integrate the principles of thermodynamics and kinetics as well as other valuable instrumental methods.
Egolf, Leanne M.; Keiser, Joseph T. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A208.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Electrochemistry |
Free Radicals |
Microscale Lab |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics
Bean counter's caution   Schwartz, Leslie J.
The article "The "Bean Lab' is useful only for elementary mechanisms.
Schwartz, Leslie J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 1042.
Equilibrium |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The activation energy of a slap bracelet   Kramer, F. Axtell.
This accessory/toy can be used to help students understand activation energy.
Kramer, F. Axtell. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 1002.
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Photodegradation of methylene blue: Using solar light and semiconductor (TiO2)  Nogueira, Raquel F. P.; Jardim, Wilson F.
An experiment that can be used to introduce or explore concepts such as photochemistry, semiconductors, and kinetics.
Nogueira, Raquel F. P.; Jardim, Wilson F. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 861.
Semiconductors |
Photochemistry |
Kinetics |
Catalysis |
MO Theory
Using the electrician's multimeter in the chemistry teaching laboratory: Part 1. Colorimetry and thermometry experiments  Andres, Roberto T.; Sevilla, Fortunato, III
The multimeter could be a very useful instrument for the chemistry laboratory bench. In this paper, the versatility of the multimeter in the chemistry teaching laboratory is demonstrated.
Andres, Roberto T.; Sevilla, Fortunato, III J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 514.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Equilibrium |
Stoichiometry |
Kinetics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Monitoring self-association of a hydrophobic peptide with high performance liquid chromatography: An undergraduate kinetic experiment using the antibiotic gramicidin A  Braco, Lorenzo; Ba, M. Carmen; Abad, Concepcin
The authors propose a kinetic experiment that uses high performance liquid chromatography to determine the rate and equilibrium constants in a very simple manner, and separate the molecular species under study.
Braco, Lorenzo; Ba, M. Carmen; Abad, Concepcin J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A113.
HPLC |
Kinetics |
Proteins / Peptides |
Rate Law |
Equilibrium
Reaction dynamics  Lacks, Daniel
Software that simulates collisions of an atom with a diatomic molecule, allowing students to set the initial conditions and the type of atom or molecule involved.
Lacks, Daniel J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1010.
Reactions |
Rate Law
Simple and inexpensive kinetics: A student laboratory experiment and demonstration   Erwin, David K.
Laboratory experimentation, as well as in-class demonstration, involving the study of chemical kinetics can be performed using this safe, simple, and inexpensive apparatus. This apparatus requires only that systems to be studied must produce a gaseous product that can displace water.
Erwin, David K. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 926.
Kinetics |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Rate Law |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Three methods for studying the kinetics of the halogenation of acetone.  Birk, James P.; Walters, David L.
Three methods for carrying out a kinetic study of the reaction between propanone and elemental iodine.
Birk, James P.; Walters, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 585.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Kinetics |
Spectroscopy |
Rate Law
Applications of Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution diagrams.  Peckham, Gavin D.; McNaught, Ian J.
Although Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution diagrams are intuitively appealing, care must be taken to avoid several common errors and misconceptions.
Peckham, Gavin D.; McNaught, Ian J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 554.
Thermodynamics |
Rate Law |
Catalysis
The old Nassau demonstration: Educational and entertaining variations  Fortman, John J.
The Old Nassau reaction can be used to illustrate the effects of concentration and temperature on rates in a fun way.
Fortman, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 236.
Kinetics |
Stoichiometry |
Rate Law
Some provocative opinions on the terminology of chemical kinetics  Reeve, John C.
Textbooks perpetuate a misunderstanding to students that reaction rates are inherent to the reaction, rather than being the product of experiments.
Reeve, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 728.
Kinetics |
Rate Law
A study of some 2-chloro-2-methylpropane kinetics using a computer interface  Allen, Anthony; Haughey, Adam J.; Hernandez, Yolanda; Ireton, Scot
Examining the effects of a few variables on the rate of a chemical reaction using specialized software.
Allen, Anthony; Haughey, Adam J.; Hernandez, Yolanda; Ireton, Scot J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 609.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
A demonstration illustrating the factors determining rates of chemical reactions   Holmes, L. H., Jr.
This demonstration qualitatively illustrates factors determining reaction rates for first-year chemistry students.
Holmes, L. H., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 501.
Rate Law |
Kinetics
Thermodynamic irreversibility  Hollinger, Henry B.; Zenzen, Michael J.
Concepts of "reversible" and "irreversible" start out seeming simple enough, but students often become confused. This article tackles areas of confusion in hopes of providing clarity.
Hollinger, Henry B.; Zenzen, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 31.
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics
Ants and chemical kinetics  Myers, R. Thomas
Data regarding the speed of ants at various temperatures are amenable to standards treatment on chemical kinetics.
Myers, R. Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 761.
Kinetics |
Rate Law
A simple second-order kinetics experiment  Weiss, Hilton M.; Touchette, Kim
The reaction studied in this experiment is the (reversible) dimerization of 2,5-dimethyl-3,4-diphenylcyclopentadienone; the monomer is colored while the dimer is not, so monitoring the reaction with a simple spectrophotometer provides the concentration of the monomer and therefore the rate of its disappearance.
Weiss, Hilton M.; Touchette, Kim J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 707.
Kinetics |
Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds
A bromate clock reaction: The formation of purple tris(diphosphato)manganate(III)  Rich, Ronald L.; Noyes, Richard M.
Bromate is used to oxidize nearly colorless Mn(II) to a deep purple complex of Mn(III).
Rich, Ronald L.; Noyes, Richard M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 606.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Kinetics
A kinetic experiment for determination of traces of Cu2+  Lampard, M.
Adaptation of a spot technique used to identify trace amounts of cupric ion by its catalytic effect of the ferric ion / thiosulfate reaction.
Lampard, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 601.
Qualitative Analysis |
Catalysis |
Kinetics
Reduction of permanganate: A kinetics demonstration for general chemistry  Steffel, Margaret J.
Using the reduction of MnO4- to Mn2+ in aqueous solution to demonstrate the four factors that control reaction rates in solution: the natures of the reactants, concentrations of the reactants, temperature, and the presence of a catalyst.
Steffel, Margaret J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 598.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Wet labs, computers, and spreadsheets  Durham, Bill
The following is a description of some commonly encountered experiments that have been modified for computerized data acquisition.
Durham, Bill J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 416.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Kinetics |
Electrochemistry
An effective approach to teaching electrochemistry  Birss, Viola I.; Truax, D. Rodney
By interweaving concepts from thermodynamics and chemical kinetics with those of electrochemical measurement, the authors provide students with an enriched appreciation of the utility of ideas from kinetics and thermodynamics.
Birss, Viola I.; Truax, D. Rodney J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 403.
Electrochemistry |
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics
Two easy chemical rate experiments   Garver, Emerson E.
One can use the spectrophotometer to investigate the rates of colored chemical reactions in solution.
Garver, Emerson E. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 183.
Rate Law |
Spectroscopy
Polarized light and rates of chemical reactions  Weir, John J.
This experiment provides the opportunity to introduce the principles of reaction kinetics, polarized light, and the chemistry of optically active compounds; the rate of the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of sucrose to glucose and fructose is determined.
Weir, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1035.
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Carboxylic Acids
Computer simulation of chemical equilibrium  Cullen, John F., Jr.
108. The "Great Chemical Bead Game" requires no instruments and presents the concepts of equilibrium and kinetics more clearly than an experiment. [October and November Computer Series both inadvertently called number 107. Numbering restored by skipping 109 and calling January 1990 number 110.]
Cullen, John F., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1023.
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Catalysis: New reaction pathways not just a lowering of the activation energy  Haim, Albert
The explanation that the increased rate associated with a catalyzed reaction is the result of a lowering of the activation energy cannot always be correct.
Haim, Albert J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 935.
Catalysis |
Rate Law
The iodine clock reaction: A surprising variant  Autuori, Marcos Alberto; Brolo, Alexandre Guimaraes; Mateus, Alfredo Luis M. L.
Substituting malonic acid for sulfuric acid.
Autuori, Marcos Alberto; Brolo, Alexandre Guimaraes; Mateus, Alfredo Luis M. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 852.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Kinetics of the fading of phenolphthalein in alkaline solution  Nicholson, Lois
The fading of phenolphthalein in alkaline solution can serve as the basis for an experiment illustrating first-order kinetics.
Nicholson, Lois J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 725.
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics
The formaldehyde-sulfite clock reaction revisited  Warneck, Peter
The purpose of this present note is to discuss the mechanism and the change of pH during the reaction.
Warneck, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 334.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
pH |
Rate Law
Analysis of kinetic data with a spreadsheet program  Henderson, John
An article about spreadsheet templates that accept concentration versus time data for several runs of an experiment, determination of least-squares lines through data points for each run, and will allow the user to exclude points from the least-squares calculation.
Henderson, John J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A150.
Chemometrics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Enzymes
Chemical principles for the introductory laboratory, CHM 384 (Johnson, James F.)  Wegner, Carol
A comprehensive review of the title program which overviews basic techniques and concepts presented in introductory laboratory courses. Topics include: titration, equilibrium, Ksp, solubility, Beer's law, coordination complexes and first-order rates of reaction.
Wegner, Carol J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A47.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Coordination Compounds |
Kinetics
Oscillating reactions   Kolb, Doris.
A demonstration done on the overhead that oscillates.
Kolb, Doris. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1004.
Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics
The study of a simple redox reaction as an experimental approach to chemical kinetics  Elias, Horst; Zipp, Arden P.
The authors present a kinetics experiment based on the oxidation of iodide ions that, like the iodine clock, is quick and easy to perform but has the advantage of being followed directly rather than indirectly.
Elias, Horst; Zipp, Arden P. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 737.
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Rate Law
Some analogies for teaching rates/equilibrium   Olney, David J.
This article presents several analogies for teaching rates and equilibrium developed by the author over his many years in the chemistry classroom that seem to be effective.
Olney, David J. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 696.
Kinetics |
Equilibrium
Interactive program system for integration of reaction rate equations  Chesick, Jobn P.
93. The authors describe here a Pascal-language kinetics rate law integration package for the desktop microcomputer.
Chesick, Jobn P. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 599.
Rate Law |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
A "stationery" kinetics experiment   Hall, L.; Goherdhansingh, A.
The simple redox reaction that occurs between potassium permanganate and oxalic acid can be used to prepare an interesting disappearing ink that is the basis for a kinetics experiment for an introductory chemistry class.
Hall, L.; Goherdhansingh, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 142.
Kinetics
Computer-Assisted Blackboard (Soltzberg, L. J.)  Kruger, J. D.
8-disk set of programs (Apple II) designed to help a lecturer illustrate gas laws, the Rutherford atomic model, quantization in a Bohr atom, wave-functions and orbitals, heat and changes in state, kinetics and simple reaction mechanisms, equilibrium, acid-base reactions, and titrations.
Kruger, J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A135.
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
The collision theory and an American tradition  Krug, Lee A.
Comparing baseball to the three requirements of the collision theory of molecules.
Krug, Lee A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1000.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Kinetics
An example of a constant rate reaction  Tawarab, Khalid M.
A simple experiment whose rate of reaction (a burning candle) proceeds at constant conditions.
Tawarab, Khalid M. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 534.
Rate Law |
Kinetics
Another auto analogy: Rate-determining steps  Ball, David W.
An analogy to describe the physical meaning of a rate-determining step.
Ball, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 486.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Enthalpy and Hot Wheels: An analogy  Bonneau, Marcia C.
Demonstrating the relationship between activation energy and the heat of a reaction using a "Hot Wheels" track and car to simulate a potential energy diagram.
Bonneau, Marcia C. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 486.
Kinetics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
The cola clock: A new flavor to an old classic  Russell, Richard A.; Switzer, Robert W.
The classic iodine clock reaction with Vitex replacing starch as the indicator.
Russell, Richard A.; Switzer, Robert W. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 445.
Kinetics |
Reactions
Coupled oscillations  Onwood, D. P.
Demonstrating coupled oscillations using pendulums.
Onwood, D. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 351.
Kinetics
Introduction to overhead projector demonstrations  Kolb, Doris
General suggestions for using the overhead projector and 21 demonstrations. [Debut]
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 348.
Rate Law |
Reactions |
Catalysis |
Equilibrium |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases
Kinetics and mechanism of the iodine azide reaction: A videotaped experiment  Haight, Gilbert P.; Jones, Loretta L.
A clock reaction suitable for videotaping and presenting to a large lecture class of general chemistry for analysis.
Haight, Gilbert P.; Jones, Loretta L. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 271.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Rate Law
Doing the dishes: An analogy for use in teaching reaction kinetics  Last, Arthur M.
An analogy between doing dishes and a two-step reaction.
Last, Arthur M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1015.
Kinetics |
Reactions
The catalytic function of enzymes  Splittgerber, Allan G.
Review of the structure, function, and factors that influence the action of enzymes.
Splittgerber, Allan G. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1008.
Catalysis |
Enzymes |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Interstellar chemistry  Carbo, R.; Ginebreda, A.
Surveys some of the features that characterize interstellar chemistry, particularly the composition of the interstellar medium and the nature of the changes that occur there.
Carbo, R.; Ginebreda, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 832.
Astrochemistry |
Gases |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Windowsill kinetics: A spectrophotometric study of the photochromism of mercury dithizonate  Petersen, Richard L.; Harris, Gaylon L.
Mercury dithizonate undergoes a color change from orange to an intense royal blue upon irradiation with visible light.
Petersen, Richard L.; Harris, Gaylon L. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 802.
Photochemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Kinetics |
Coordination Compounds |
Raman Spectroscopy
Chain reaction wheel: An approach to free radical reactions  Monroe, Manus; Abrams, Karl
Using a "chain reaction wheel" to help students understand the mechanism of free radical reactions.
Monroe, Manus; Abrams, Karl J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 467.
Free Radicals |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
A comment on "The order of CH3CHO decomposition"  Liu, Michael T. H.
The order of the decomposition of acetaldehyde is 3/2 or 1.5.
Liu, Michael T. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 399.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Rate Law |
Kinetics
Organic chemistry for health-science students   Schumm, Margot K.
It is important to teach health-science students reaction mechanisms when teaching them organic and biochemistry.
Schumm, Margot K. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 272.
Medicinal Chemistry |
Nonmajor Courses |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Change in concentration with time  Umland, Jean B.
Shows how the rate of a reaction is fast at first and then gradually decreases to zero when one reactant has been used up.
Umland, Jean B. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 153.
Solutions / Solvents |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Kinetics and mechanism-a games approach  Harsch, Gunther
Using statistical games to simulate and illustrate a variety of chemical kinetics.
Harsch, Gunther J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1039.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Catalysis |
Rate Law
Iodine clock reaction mechanisms  Lambert, Jack L.; Fina, Gary T.
Outlines the mechanism for the simple iodine clock reaction and the "Old Nassau" modification.
Lambert, Jack L.; Fina, Gary T. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1037.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction
The emergence of stochastic theories: What are they and why are they special?  Freeman, Gordon R.
Examines the word stochastic and its opposite, deterministic, and points out why stochastic models are receiving new emphasis of late.
Freeman, Gordon R. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 944.
Kinetics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A small electronic device for studying chemical kinetics  Prez-Rodriguez, A. L.; Calvo-Aguilar, J. L.
Studying rates of reactions with a small electronic device and an oscilloscope overcomes the difficulty students encounter in solving the differential equations describing chemical equilibrium.
Prez-Rodriguez, A. L.; Calvo-Aguilar, J. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 808.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Thermodynamic changes, kinetics, equilibrium, and LeChatelier's principle  Hansen, Robert C.
A series of demonstrations in which water in beakers and the flow of water between beakers is used to represent the components of an exothermic chemical reaction and the flow and quantity of thermal energy involved in chemical changes.
Hansen, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 804.
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics
A demonstration of the effect of temperature on reaction rate (the authors reply)  Boring, Wayne C.; McMillan, Ernest
Addresses problems identified with their demonstration / experiment.
Boring, Wayne C.; McMillan, Ernest J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 744.
Kinetics |
Rate Law
A demonstration of the effect of temperature on reaction rate  Gupta, Y. K.; Mishra, S. K.
Problems with the experiment cited.
Gupta, Y. K.; Mishra, S. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 744.
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Cooking with chemistry  Grosser, Arthur E.
Two demonstrations involving cooking eggs and suggestions for many more examples of cooking that illustrate important principles of chemistry. From the "State-of-the-Art Symposium for Chemical Educators: Chemistry of the Food Cycle".
Grosser, Arthur E. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 362.
Food Science |
Gases |
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics
A bloody nose, the hairdresser's salon, flies in an elevator, and dancing couples: The use of analogies in teaching introductory chemistry  Last, Arthur M.
The use of analogies can play an important role in assisting students in understanding some of the more difficult and/or abstract concepts in introductory chemistry. In addition, analogies can provide an amusing interlude during a lecture and can sometimes help a lecturer to interact with his students. The four analogies presented in this article represent some of the analogies students have found helpful and amusing in recent years.
Last, Arthur M. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 748.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Kinetics |
Stoichiometry |
Thermodynamics
Computer simulation of elementary chemical kinetics   Nase, Martha L.; Seidman, Kurt
44. Bits and pieces, 16. The authors have developed several computer programs that simulate chemical kinetics for elementary first and second order processes. These programs can be used to generate kinetic data that can then be analyzed by the student in a variety of ways.
Nase, Martha L.; Seidman, Kurt J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 734.
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Influence of temperature and catalyst on the decomposition of potassium chlorate in a simple DTA apparatus  Wiederholt, Erwin
The authors describe the use of a simple DTA-apparatus in demonstrating the catalytic effects of MnO2 and Al2O3 on the decomposition temperature of KClO3.
Wiederholt, Erwin J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 431.
Kinetics |
Instrumental Methods |
Catalysis |
Reactions |
Rate Law
A safe and simple demonstration of the effect of temperature on reaction rate  Boring, Wayne C.; McMillan, Ernest T.
The demonstration described here utilizes a safe and familiar reaction to illustrate the concept of reaction rate to students.
Boring, Wayne C.; McMillan, Ernest T. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 414.
Kinetics |
Reactions
Getting a "bang" out of chemical kinetics  Hague, George R., Jr.
The kinetics demonstration described in this note has attracted as many as 15,000people to come and watch.
Hague, George R., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 355.
Kinetics
Treat 'em to Tchaikovsky  Whitman, Mark
The author shares a demonstration that attracts great student attention. Students are highly successful when answering questions about the phenomenon in this demonstration on ensuing exams.
Whitman, Mark J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 229.
Reactions |
Rate Law
The kinetics of photographic development: A general chemistry experiment  Byrd, J. E.; Perona, M. J.
An experiment that uses black and white photographic equipment to illustrate the determination of reaction rate, kinetic order of reactant, and activation energy.
Byrd, J. E.; Perona, M. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 335.
Kinetics |
Applications of Chemistry |
Photochemistry |
Rate Law
Let's get the heck out of here!  White, Alvan D.
A football stadium is used to explain rate-determining steps.
White, Alvan D. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 645.
Rate Law |
Kinetics
A statistical note on the time lag method for second-order kinetic rate constants  Schwartz, Lowell M.
A clever method for finding second-order kinetic rate constants by using a time lag method that avoids direct measurement of the end point reading P(infinity) can easily be programmed.
Schwartz, Lowell M. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 588.
Chemometrics |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
"Scientific method" through laboratory experience  Hanson, Allen L.
The laboratory presented here will give the students some practice in scientific laboratory habits and general scientific habits of mind.
Hanson, Allen L. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 434.
Kinetics
Some kinetic aspects relevant to contemporary analytical chemistry  Mottola, Horacio A.
Fundamental concepts of kinetics tend to get diluted or ignored in contemporary treatments of the subject.
Mottola, Horacio A. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 399.
Kinetics
Temperature effect on reaction rates   Eliason, Robert; McMahon, Terence
A demonstration has been developed which nicely illustrates the temperature effect on reaction rates and the general rule relating temperature increases with rate increases.
Eliason, Robert; McMahon, Terence J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 354.
Kinetics |
Reactions
Maxwell's demon  Schmuckler, Joseph S.

Schmuckler, Joseph S. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 183.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Maxwell's demon  Schmuckler, Joseph S.

Schmuckler, Joseph S. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 183.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
What is the rate-limiting step of a multistep reaction?  Murdoch, Joseph R.
The purpose of this paper is to point out the circumstances where analogies can be used successfully and to develop a generalization which can be used for all reactions, including those with polymolecular steps.
Murdoch, Joseph R. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 32.
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Rate Law
Chemical Kinetics: Reaction Rates  Mickey, Charles D.
Reviews the chemistry behind factors that influence the rates of chemical reactions.
Mickey, Charles D. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 659.
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Catalysis
Safety in oxygen atmospheres  Knight, Homer T.; Isenberg, Norbert
A practical way to illustrate the influence of concentration on the rate of a chemical reaction is to show a simulated oxygen tent.
Knight, Homer T.; Isenberg, Norbert J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 453.
Rate Law
Photochemical reactions of tris(oxalato)iron (III): A first year chemistry experiment  Baker, A. D.; Casadevell, A.; Gafney, H. D.; Gellender, M.
An experiment based on the photoreduction of potassium ferrioxalate.
Baker, A. D.; Casadevell, A.; Gafney, H. D.; Gellender, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 314.
Photochemistry |
Kinetics |
Reactions
An introductory level kinetics investigation  McGarvey, J. E. B.; Knipe, A. C.
A kinetic study of the hydrolysis of 3-bromo-3-phenylpropanoic acid.
McGarvey, J. E. B.; Knipe, A. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 155.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Rossini, William Tell and the iodine clock reaction: A lecture demonstration  Brice, L. K.
The iodine clock reaction is timed to coincide with three portions of the William Tell Overture.
Brice, L. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 152.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Catalysis  Kolb, Doris
Definitions for and history of catalysts, speeding up chemical reactions, enzymes, and industrial catalysis.
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 743.
Catalysis |
Rate Law |
Enzymes |
Industrial Chemistry
The kinetics of running  Larsen, Russell D.
The consideration of running as a rate process has several advantages for a student studying chemical kinetics for the first time.
Larsen, Russell D. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 651.
Kinetics |
Rate Law
The temperature dependence of the equilibrium constant  Burness, James H.
This exam question tests a student's ability to derive the temperature dependence of an equilibrium constant not by qualitatively applying Le Chatelier's principle, but by understanding the relationship between the kinetics of the equation and the value of Keq.
Burness, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 395.
Equilibrium |
Kinetics
The hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl beta-gIucoside: An undergraduate experiment on the effect of temperature on reaction rate  Schram, Alfred. C.
The intensely colored p-nitrophenolate ion formed during basic hydrolysis allows a quick and convenient determination of the amount of product formed.
Schram, Alfred. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 351.
Kinetics |
Rate Law
A few chemical magic tricks based on the clock reaction  Shigematsu, Euchi
Three tricks based on the clock reaction involving KIO3 and NaHSO3.
Shigematsu, Euchi J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 184.
Reactions |
Kinetics
Rates of reaction - Analogies  Smith, Douglas D.
Demonstrations of / analogies for zero- and first-order reactions.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 47.
Rate Law |
Kinetics
Participatory lecture demonstrations  Battino, Rubin
Examples of participatory lecture demonstrations in chromatography, chemical kinetics, balancing equations, the gas laws, the kinetic-molecular theory, Henry's law, electronic energy levels in atoms, translational, vibrational, and rotational energies of molecules, and organic chemistry.
Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 39.
Chromatography |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Kinetics |
Stoichiometry |
Gases |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A demonstration of the relationship between rate constants and equilibrium constants   Smoot, Felicia; Ragan, Shirley; Burkett, Alan R.
This demonstration is designed to point out the relationships and distinctions between rate constants, rate expressions, and equilibrium constants.
Smoot, Felicia; Ragan, Shirley; Burkett, Alan R. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 790.
Equilibrium |
Rate Law
The Color blind traffic light  Boulanger, Mathilda M.
A fascinating oscillating reaction.
Boulanger, Mathilda M. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 584.
Kinetics
A Demonstration of burning magnesium and dry ice  Driscoll, Jerry A.
This demonstration is a new, exciting approach to an older demonstration.
Driscoll, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 450.
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Reactions
Dissolving iron nails: A kinetics experiment  Monaghan, Charles P.; Fanning, James C.
These authors share a kinetics experiment that appeals to students due to its familiarity.
Monaghan, Charles P.; Fanning, James C. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 400.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Kinetics
The Landolt, "Old Nassau", and variant reactions   Moss, Arthur
Instructions for a modification to the classic "iodine clock" reaction.
Moss, Arthur J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 244.
Kinetics |
Reactions
Collision theory  Myers, Richard S.
The question presented here can be employed in general or physical chemistry courses.
Myers, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 243.
Chemometrics |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics
Reaction rates for a homogeneously catalyzed reaction  Nechamkin, Howard; Keller, Elhannan; Goodkin, Jerome
The reaction of KMnO4 with hydrogen in an acidic medium is an example of a homogeneously catalyzed reaction that can be performed by college freshmen.
Nechamkin, Howard; Keller, Elhannan; Goodkin, Jerome J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 775.
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Catalysis
Pharmacological projects/case studies for teaching molecular structure and reactivity  Webb, John; Rasmussen, Malcolm
Using pharmacological agents to provide projects that develop and illustrate concepts of molecular stereochemistry, functional groups, and types of reactions and reactivity.
Webb, John; Rasmussen, Malcolm J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 677.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Stereochemistry |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Water dipping kinetics. A physical analog for chemical kinetics  Birk, James P.; Gunter, S. Kay
Physical analogs of zero-, first, and second-order kinetics using the volume of water transferred by a dipper oriented in different directions with respect to a basin of water.
Birk, James P.; Gunter, S. Kay J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 557.
Kinetics |
Equilibrium |
Rate Law
Spot plate chemistry. General chemistry experiments in a depression  Birk, James P.; Ronan, Thomas H.
Examples of spot plate chemistry involving the chemical composition of insoluble salts, colorimetric analysis, and kinetics.
Birk, James P.; Ronan, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 328.
Kinetics
Chemical oscillations as an undergraduate experiment  Deb, B. M.
Hitherto unreported observations regarding the Briggs-Rauscher oscillating system.
Deb, B. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 236.
Reactions |
Kinetics
The Old Nassau reaction  Alyea, Hubert N.
A description of the chemistry and history of the Old Nassau reactions.
Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 167.
Kinetics |
Reactions
Lap-dissolve slides. Multiple-use formats for pre-laboratory instruction  Fine, Leonard W.; Harpp, David N.; Krakower, Earl; Snyder, James P.
Describes and provides examples of the lap-dissolve effect, a technique that uses two 35mm slide projectors to convey changing images in a large lecture setting.
Fine, Leonard W.; Harpp, David N.; Krakower, Earl; Snyder, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 72.
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Vitalizing the lecture. Lap-dissolve projection  Harpp, David N.; Snyder, James P.
Describes and provides examples of the lap-dissolve effect, a technique that uses two 35mm slide projectors to convey changing images in a large lecture setting.
Harpp, David N.; Snyder, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 68.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Faster than a speeding bullet. A freshman kinetics experiment  Cassen, T.
A description of a "clock" experiment that is useful for a freshman level experiment dealing with kinetics.
Cassen, T. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 197.
Kinetics
Coffee cup kinetics. A general chemistry experiment  Birk, James P.
This laboratory activity attempts to fill the void of a lack of kinetics experiments in general chemistry.
Birk, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 195.
Kinetics
A simple general chemistry kinetics experiment  Gellender, Martin
The oxidation of iodide ion by persulfate provides a gradual and clearly distinguishable appearance of color as the reaction proceeds.
Gellender, Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 806.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
212-215. Four questions requiring applications of chemistry and their solutions.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 727.
Rate Law |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
The reactions of ferroin complexes. A color-to-colorless freshman kinetic experiment  Edwards, John O.; Edwards, Kathleen; Palma, Jorge
A group of related reactions that can be easily followed with a colorimeter which show that the mechanism by which a reaction takes place may not be at all obvious from the stoichiometry.
Edwards, John O.; Edwards, Kathleen; Palma, Jorge J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 408.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Coordination Compounds |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Stoichiometry |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Capillary flow. A versatile analog for chemical kinetics  Davenport, Derek A.
A number of novel ways in which capillary flow can be used as a mechanical analog for chemical kinetics.
Davenport, Derek A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 379.
Kinetics
Kinetics simulation program  Breneman, G. L.
A Basic program that simulates the spectrophotometric study of a reaction and allows the determination of rate law values from absorbance data.
Breneman, G. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 106.
Kinetics |
Rate Law
A stabilized linear direct reading conductance apparatus. The solvolysis of t-butyl chloride  Cyr, T.; Prudhomme, J.; Zador, M.
A simple ac conductivity apparatus for experiments in chemical kinetics is described; the instrument is sufficiently reliable that it can be used by first year students and assembled in a few hours.
Cyr, T.; Prudhomme, J.; Zador, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 572.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Kinetics
A mini-computer generated freshman kinetics experiment  Cummins, Jack D.; Wartell, M. A.
The intent of this exercise is to teach simple solution kinetics and expose students to the basics of computer programming.
Cummins, Jack D.; Wartell, M. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 544.
Kinetics
Kinetics program for iron(III) catalyzed decomposition of hydrogen peroxide  Merrer, Robert J.
A computer program for use in general chemistry has been written in Basic that calculates rate constants and activation energy for the iron(III) catalyzed decomposition of hydrogen peroxide.
Merrer, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 514.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Catalysis
An oscillating iodine clock  Briggs, Thomas S.; Rauscher, Warren C.
An oscillating iodine clock reaction that gives striking cyclic changes from colorless to gold to blue using simple reagents.
Briggs, Thomas S.; Rauscher, Warren C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 496.
Reactions |
Kinetics
Cooking Succulent Roasts  Plumb, Robert C.; Davis, Adelle
Allowing a roast to gradually warm to the desired internal temperature produces superior results.
Plumb, Robert C.; Davis, Adelle J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 425.
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
Kinetics |
Equilibrium |
Rate Law |
Applications of Chemistry
Cooking Succulent Roasts  Plumb, Robert C.; Davis, Adelle
Allowing a roast to gradually warm to the desired internal temperature produces superior results.
Plumb, Robert C.; Davis, Adelle J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 425.
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
Kinetics |
Equilibrium |
Rate Law |
Applications of Chemistry
The definition of the rate of a chemical reaction  Canagaratna, S. G.
Most texts take it as obvious that the rate of a reaction may be defined in terms of changes in concentration; this definition is valid only if the reaction takes place without change of volume.
Canagaratna, S. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 200.
Rate Law |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
Effect of temperature on reaction rate  Simon, J.
The reaction of aluminum in HCl.
Simon, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A85.
Rate Law |
Reactions
The bombardier beetle  Plumb, Robert C.; Erickson, Karen L.
The chemistry behind the bombardier beetle's chemical defenses illustrates the principles of reaction rates, catalysis, and laboratory safety.
Plumb, Robert C.; Erickson, Karen L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 705.
Applications of Chemistry |
Natural Products |
Rate Law |
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aromatic Compounds
Pseudo first-order kinetics  Corbett, John F.
A kinetic study of second-order reactions under first-order conditions can yield accurate second-order rate constants provided an empirical allowance is made for the depletion of the reactant in excess.
Corbett, John F. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 663.
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Rate Law
Durable chrome plating  Plumb, Robert C.; Saur, Roger L.
How chrome plating works to protect bumpers from corrosion.
Plumb, Robert C.; Saur, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 626.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry |
Kinetics
Durable chrome plating  Plumb, Robert C.; Saur, Roger L.
How chrome plating works to protect bumpers from corrosion.
Plumb, Robert C.; Saur, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 626.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry |
Kinetics
The hydroxylaminolysis of penicillin G. A kinetic experiment  Stuckwisch, C. G.
Penicillin reacts with hydroxylamine to yield a hydroxamic acid, which gives a colored complex with iron (III).
Stuckwisch, C. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 539.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Passage of fruit flies through a hole. A model for a reversible chemical reaction  Runquist, Elizabeth A.; Runquist, Olaf
The passage of fruit flies through a single orifice provides an excellent model for illustrating the principles of equilibrium and chemical dynamics; the results are found to be temperature dependent and reproducible.
Runquist, Elizabeth A.; Runquist, Olaf J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 534.
Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Aquation of tris-(1,10-phenanthroline) iron(II) in acid solution. A kinetics experiment  Twigg, Martyn V.
The aquation of tris-(1,10-phenanthroline) iron(II) in acid solution is a reaction for which reliable kinetic data are available and it has an easily measured rate at accessible temperatures.
Twigg, Martyn V. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 371.
Kinetics |
Rate Law
The color blind traffic light. An undergraduate kinetics experiment using an oscillating reaction  Lefelhocz, John F.
This kinetics experiment involves the student with a qualitative study of the influence of chemical and physical variables on the rate of a specific reaction.
Lefelhocz, John F. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 312.
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Rate Law
Programmable calculators. Simulated experiments  Runquist, O.; Olsen, Rodney; Snadden, Bruce
Describes how titration and reaction rate experiments can be simulated on a programmable calculator.
Runquist, O.; Olsen, Rodney; Snadden, Bruce J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 265.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
pH
Computer program for the treatment of data for a kinetic study of the persulfate-iodide clock reaction  Lyndrup, Mark L.
Notes the availability of a BASIC program designed to aid students in the treatment of data collected for a kinetic study of the clock reaction between the persulfate and iodide ions.
Lyndrup, Mark L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 30.
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Rate Law
A demonstration of enzyme activity for the "Sceptical Chymist"  Fried, Rainer; Howse, Margaret
A simple laboratory or demonstration that illustrates the nature and fundamental properties of enzymes through a color change.
Fried, Rainer; Howse, Margaret J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 847.
Enzymes |
Rate Law
Oxidation of ethanol by chromium(VI). A kinetics experiment for freshmen  Finlayson, Muriel E.; Lee, Donald G.
The experiment presented here generates a good deal of interest and gives clear cut results without the necessity of using elaborate equipment.
Finlayson, Muriel E.; Lee, Donald G. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 473.
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alcohols
A study of the physical and chemical rates of CaCO3 dissolution in HCl  Bassow, Herbert; Hamilton, Doug; Schneeberg, Ben; Stad, Ben
The authors describe the experimental procedure and a discussion of results for a study of the physical and chemical rates of CaCO3 dissolution in HCl.
Bassow, Herbert; Hamilton, Doug; Schneeberg, Ben; Stad, Ben J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 327.
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Rate Law
Miscellaneous  Alyea, Hubert N.
These twelve overhead projection demonstrations include rates of reactions, clock reactions, the effect of temperature and the presence of a catalyst on the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, the relationship between viscosity and temperature, equilibria, solubility product, and the common ion effect.
Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A437.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility
Miscellaneous  Alyea, Hubert N.
13 demonstrations, including electrophoresis, electrolysis, corrosion inhibition, endothermic and exothermic reactions, crystals and crystallization, reactions with sodium, and the kinetics of H2O2 decomposition.
Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A387.
Electrophoresis |
Dyes / Pigments |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Reactions |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Kinetics
Hydrolysis of benzenediazonium ion  Sheats, John E.; Harbison, Kenneth G.
Presents a more convenient approach to studying the kinetics of the hydrolysis of benzenediazonium ion.
Sheats, John E.; Harbison, Kenneth G. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 779.
Aromatic Compounds |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Kinetics
Demonstrating the relation between rate constants and the equilibrium constant  Meyer, Edwin F.; Glass, Edward
Presents an approach used with an apparatus to demonstrate quantitatively the relationship between rate constants and the equilibrium constant for simple reversible reactions.
Meyer, Edwin F.; Glass, Edward J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 646.
Rate Law |
Equilibrium |
Reactions
Prolonging death (in apples)  Plumb, Robert C.
Using controlled atmosphere storage to prolong the freshness of vegetables and fruits after they have been harvested.
Plumb, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 518.
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Agricultural Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Gases
Understanding a culprit before eliminating it. An application of Lewis acid-base principles to atmospheric SO2 as a pollutant  Brasted, Robert C.
The SO2 molecule offers ample opportunities for teaching practical chemistry. [Debut of first run. This feature reappeared in 1986.]
Brasted, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 447.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions |
Applications of Chemistry |
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Sealed tube experiments  Campbell, J. A.
Lists and briefly describes a large set of "sealed tube experiments," each of which requires less than five minutes to set-up and clean-up, requires less than five minutes to run, provides dramatic results observable by a large class, and illustrates important chemical concepts.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 273.
Thermodynamics |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Liquids |
Gases |
Rate Law |
Equilibrium
The Methanol Lighter  Bailar, John C., Jr.
The methanol lighter illustrates the roles that thermodynamics, kinetics, and catalysis play in determining if a reaction will take place.
Bailar, John C., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 272.
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Catalysis |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Definition of reaction rate and the steady state assumption  Rasiel, Yecheskel; Freeman, Wade A.
Clarifies the definition of reaction rate and the steady state assumption.
Rasiel, Yecheskel; Freeman, Wade A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 159.
Rate Law |
Reactions
Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; House, J. E., Jr.; Campbell, J. A.
(1) When is the rule valid that the rate of reaction approximately doubles with a ten-degree temperature rise? - answer by House. (2) On the colors of transition metal complexes. (3) On an electrolysis experiment in which an acid solution is used to minimize the hydrolysis of Cu 2+. - answer by Campbell.
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; House, J. E., Jr.; Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 674.
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Transition Elements |
Coordination Compounds |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Acids / Bases
The law of mass action  Berline, Steven; Bricker, Clark
It is the purpose of this paper to present a derivation of the Law of Mass Action that should have meaning and could be used at an elementary level.
Berline, Steven; Bricker, Clark J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 499.
Equilibrium |
Rate Law |
Kinetics
The principle of exponential change: Applications in chemistry, biochemistry, and radioactivity  Green, Frank O.
Examines the nature of exponential change and its applications to chemistry, biochemistry, and radioactivity, including radioactive decay, enzyme kinetics, colorimetry, spectrophotometry, and first order reaction kinetics.
Green, Frank O. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 451.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Kinetics |
Enzymes |
Spectroscopy
Thermochemistry of hypochlorite oxidations  Bigelow, M. Jerome
Students mix various proportions of aqueous sodium hypochlorite and sodium sulfite and plot the change in temperature to determine the stoichiometry of the reaction.
Bigelow, M. Jerome J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 378.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Thermodynamics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The thermal decomposition of 2,5-dihydrofuran vapor: An experiment in gas kinetics  Rubin, Jay A.; Filseth, Stephen V.
Describes an experiment designed to illustrate manipulations with a vacuum system and the conduct of kinetic measurements.
Rubin, Jay A.; Filseth, Stephen V. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 57.
Kinetics |
Gases
Probabilistic derivation of the kinetic rate equations  Lee, Tieh-Sheng; Kuffner, Roy J.
The use of the probabilistic approach is readily applicable to reaction kinetics if one considers the probability of the survival of the reactant molecule instead of the survival of a radioactive nucleus.
Lee, Tieh-Sheng; Kuffner, Roy J. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 430.
Kinetics
Bimolecular nucleophilic displacement reactions  Edwards, John O.
The bimolecular nucleophilic displacement reaction is important and should be included in any detailed discussion of kinetics and mechanism at an early undergraduate level.
Edwards, John O. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 386.
Reactions |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
From stoichiometry and rate law to mechanism  Edwards, John O.; Greene, Edward F.; Ross, John
Examines the rules used by chemists as guidelines in developing mechanisms from stoichiometric and rate law observations.
Edwards, John O.; Greene, Edward F.; Ross, John J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 381.
Stoichiometry |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Reactive Intermediates
The revolution in elementary kinetics and freshman chemistry  Wolfgang, Richard
New developments in kinetics so fundamentally affect our most elementary conception of chemical change that they must inevitably be reflected in beginning courses in chemistry; includes an outline for freshmen on elementary chemical dynamics.
Wolfgang, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 359.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Chemical dynamics for college freshmen  Hammond, George S.; Gray, Harry B.
Suggestions for topics regarding chemical dynamics to be considered in freshman chemistry.
Hammond, George S.; Gray, Harry B. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 354.
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Rate Law
Instantaneous precipitation from homogeneous solution  Hiskey, C. F.; Cantwell, F. F.
Procedure for the iodine clock reaction.
Hiskey, C. F.; Cantwell, F. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A727.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Kinetics
Reaction Rates and Equilibria A. Rate of Reaction 1. Effect of concentration  Cooper, Edwin H., Alyea, Hubert N.
Demonstrations of the effect of concentration on the rate of a reaction include H2O2+Cu(NH3)4++, Zn+acid, and the "long delay" iodine clock reaction.
Cooper, Edwin H., Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A274.
Reactions |
Rate Law |
Kinetics
Alcohols to alkyl halides: A kinetics experiment for elementary chemistry courses  Cooley, J. H.; McCown, J. D.; Shill, R. M.
The rate measurement in this procedure is accomplished by direct observation of the change in length or volume of the insoluble layer of an alkyl bromide that is formed from a mixture of alcohol, hydrobromic acid, and sulfuric acid.
Cooley, J. H.; McCown, J. D.; Shill, R. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 280.
Alcohols |
Synthesis |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Ionization, electricity. A. Proof that ions exist   Alyea, Hubert N.; Johnson, William.; Cocoran, Paul; Barnard, Robert; Rolf, Fred; Klug, Evangeline
Demonstrations include conductivity using a meter, conductivity of HCl in water versus in toluene, conductivity of HCl in water versus in benzene, acids plus zinc, indicators with acids and bases (H3O+ and OH-), rate of reaction and acid strengths, colors of ions, and color of cobalt ion and a cobalt complex.
Alyea, Hubert N.; Johnson, William.; Cocoran, Paul; Barnard, Robert; Rolf, Fred; Klug, Evangeline J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A539.
Acids / Bases |
Conductivity |
Dyes / Pigments |
Rate Law
The dissolution of tin in solutions of iodine  Davies, J. F.; Trotman-Dickenson, A. F.
The progress of this reaction can be followed by the loss of weight of a tin disc.
Davies, J. F.; Trotman-Dickenson, A. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 483.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Kinetics |
Gravimetric Analysis
Acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of sucrose: A student study of a reaction mechanism  Dawber, J. G.; Brown, D. R.; Reed, R. A.
By extending the experimental work in a kinetic study of the hydrolysis of sucrose, the beginning student in chemistry can gather some insight into the mechanism of the reaction.
Dawber, J. G.; Brown, D. R.; Reed, R. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 34.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions |
Carbohydrates
The tin(II)-methyl orange reaction: A kinetics experiment for introductory chemistry  Haight, G. P., Jr.
The tin(II)-methyl orange reaction is followed with a Spec 20 to determine the order with respect to tin and methyl orange.
Haight, G. P., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 478.
Kinetics |
Dyes / Pigments
A simple model for the SN2 mechanism.  Nyquist, H. LeRoy
Presents a simple, physical model for the SN2 mechanism.
Nyquist, H. LeRoy J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 103.
Molecular Modeling |
Reactions |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The effect of structure on chemical and physical properties of polymers  Price, Charles C.
Suggests using polymers to teach the effect of changes in structure on chemical reactivity, the effect of structure on physical properties, the role of catalysts, and the basic principles of a chain reaction mechanism.
Price, Charles C. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 13.
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Polymerization |
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Catalysis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
A new clock reaction preparation of dicinnamalacetone  King, L. Carroll; Ostrum, G. Kenneth
Presents a new clock reaction preparation of dicinnamalacetone.
King, L. Carroll; Ostrum, G. Kenneth J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A139.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Infrared spectrometry to study second order reaction kinetics  Gastambide, B.; Blanc, J.; Allamagny, Y.
The change studied is a synthesis reaction between menthol and phenyl isocyanate.
Gastambide, B.; Blanc, J.; Allamagny, Y. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 613.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Synthesis
The hydration of carbon dioxide: A double clock experiment  Jones, P.; Haggett, Max L.; Longridge, Jethro L.
This extension of the "Soda Water Clock" experiment provides a quantitative kinetics investigation.
Jones, P.; Haggett, Max L.; Longridge, Jethro L. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 610.
Reactions |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Demonstration of a parent-daughter radioactive equilibrium using 137Cs-137mBa  Choppin, Gregory R.; Nealy, Carson L.
Demonstrates the relationship between radioactive half life and both the rate of decay and growth of a radioactive daughter.
Choppin, Gregory R.; Nealy, Carson L. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 598.
Isotopes |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Rate Law
A kinetics experiment for first year chemistry  Shaefer, William P.
The exchange of iodine atoms between organic and inorganic iodides serves as a kinetics experiment for first year chemistry.
Shaefer, William P. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 558.
Kinetics |
Isotopes |
Rate Law
The oxidation of iodide ion by persulfate ion  Moews, P. C., Jr.; Petrucci, R. H.
Presents the oxidation of iodide ion by persulfate ion as an ideal reaction to study as part of an experiment on kinetics.
Moews, P. C., Jr.; Petrucci, R. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 549.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
A second order kinetics experiment  Teerlink, Wilford J.; Asay, Jeanette; Sugihara, James M.
Investigates the nucleophilic displacement reaction of ethyl p-toluenesulfonate by iodide in acetone.
Teerlink, Wilford J.; Asay, Jeanette; Sugihara, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 161.
Kinetics |
Nucleophilic Substitution
Colorimetric chemical kinetics experiment  Corsaro, Gerald
This article describes an experiment in which a photocolorimetric technique is employed to follow a bimolecular reaction rate; the reactants are crystal violet and the hydroxide ion.
Corsaro, Gerald J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 48.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Reactions
Principles of chemical reaction  Sanderson, R. T.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature of chemical change in the hope of recognizing and setting forth the basic principles that help us to understand why they occur.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 13.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics |
Synthesis |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
An amperometric-kinetic experiment emphasizing the importance of error treatment  Young, J. A.
Provides suggestions for student research based on an earlier article published in the Journal.
Young, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A139.
Undergraduate Research |
Kinetics |
Chemometrics
Kinetics for the undergraduate: Introduction  King, Edward L.
Introduces the ACS symposium entitled "Kinetics in the Undergraduate Curriculum."
King, Edward L. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 573.
Kinetics
KineticsEarly and often  Campbell, J. A.
Describes an approach to investigating kinetics and its application to the "blue bottle" experiment.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 578.
Kinetics |
Equilibrium |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Heterogeneous equilibria in general chemistry  Grotz, Leonard C.
Presents suggestions for approaching the subject of heterogeneous equilibria in general chemistry.
Grotz, Leonard C. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 479.
Equilibrium |
Kinetics
A simple kinetics experiment for general chemistry laboratory  Cone, W. H.; Hermens, R. A.
This simple kinetics experiment examines the oxidation of benzoic acid by potassium peroxodisulfate in the presence of catalytic amounts of silver ion.
Cone, W. H.; Hermens, R. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 421.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Catalysis
Method for determining order of a reaction  Zimmerman, Howard K.
The method presented here is a substitution process that expresses various rate laws in terms of one initial concentration only.
Zimmerman, Howard K. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 356.
Kinetics
Some aspects of chemical kinetics for elementary chemistry  Benson, Sidney W.
The author suggests greater efforts to address the issue of kinetics and reaction mechanisms in introductory chemistry.
Benson, Sidney W. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 321.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Descriptive Chemistry
Oxidation-reduction mechanisms  Duke, F. R.
Summarizes various types of oxidation-reduction mechanisms.
Duke, F. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 161.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mechanisms of Reactions
A constant temperature reaction vessel for the thermal decomposition of solids  Prout, E. G.; Herley, P. J.
Describes an apparatus suitable for studying the thermal decomposition of potassium permanganate in high vacuum.
Prout, E. G.; Herley, P. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 643.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solids |
Rate Law |
Kinetics
Determination of reaction rates with an A.C. conductivity bridge: A student experiment  Chesick, J. P.; Patterson, A., Jr.
Describes a quantitative experiment in chemical kinetics suitable for advanced freshmen or physical chemistry; it involves a study of the solvolysis of tertiary butyl chloride by means of conductance measurements.
Chesick, J. P.; Patterson, A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 242.
Conductivity |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Use of radioisotopes in the college chemistry laboratory  Phillips, David; Maybury, Robert H.
Provides experiments and experiences working with constructed Geiger counters and radioisotopes.
Phillips, David; Maybury, Robert H. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 133.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Isotopes |
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis |
Kinetics
The stability of solutions for the iodine clock reaction  Kauffman, George B.; Hall, Charles R.
The results of attempts to stabilize solutions needed for the iodine clock reaction to allow long-term storage.
Kauffman, George B.; Hall, Charles R. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 577.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Chemistry in the manufacture of modern gasoline  Kimberlin, C. N., Jr.
This paper presents a brief review of the chemistry involved in the manufacture of gasoline, particularly catalytic cracking reactions.
Kimberlin, C. N., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 569.
Industrial Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Catalysis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
On the second order rate equation  Said, Abdel S.
Presents a derivation of the rate equation of a second order reaction.
Said, Abdel S. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 251.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Chemometrics
Model of a potential energy surface  Dye, J. L.
Describes a physical, three-dimensional model of the potential energy surface for HBr.
Dye, J. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 215.
Kinetics |
Reactive Intermediates |
Reactions
A graphical method for determining the order of homogeneous reactions  Wright, J. H.; Black, J. H.; Coull, James
Provides a review of classical kinetics, derivation of the reaction order equation, and the determination of reaction order using a graph provided.
Wright, J. H.; Black, J. H.; Coull, James J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 542.
Kinetics |
Chemometrics
Textbook errors: VII. The laws of reaction rates and of equilibrium  Mysels, Karol J.
Examines the frequently misplaced emphasis on the rate law of mass action, its fallacious use to prove the existence and form of equilibrium constants, and the occasional confusion of the two concepts.
Mysels, Karol J. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 178.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Equilibrium
The formaldehyde clock reaction  Barrett, Richard L.
The formaldehyde clock reaction has some advantages over the familiar iodine clock and deserves to be better known.
Barrett, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 78.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Aldehydes / Ketones
A kinetic analogy  Lemlich, Robert
This analogy, which clearly demonstrates the principles involved in a first-order reaction, is based on Poiseuille's law for the viscous flow of fluids.
Lemlich, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 431.
Kinetics
A new experiment on reaction rates in general chemistry  Evans, Gordon G.
The author identifies the reaction between persulfate ion and iodide ion as well suited for investigating reaction rates in general chemistry.
Evans, Gordon G. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 139.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A clock reaction  Suryaraman, M. G.; Viswanathan, Arcot
Ferrous ions in an alkaline solution of a tartrate form of a soluble chelate complex that reacts sluggishly with iodine.
Suryaraman, M. G.; Viswanathan, Arcot J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 386.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry