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Journal Articles: 845 results
A Dramatic Classroom Demonstration of Limiting Reagent Using the Vinegar and Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate Reaction  Romklao Artdej and Tienthong Thongpanchang
This demonstration, appropriate for high school chemistry level and recommended for a large classroom presentation, is designed to illustrate the concept of limiting reagent via a series of experiments in which increasing amounts of sodium bicarbonate are added to a fixed amount of vinegar is fixed until the volume of carbon dioxide generated remains constant.
Artdej, Romklao; Thongpanchang, Tienthong. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1382.
Acids / Bases |
Food Science |
Gases |
Stoichiometry
Teaching Avogadro's Hypothesis and Helping Students to See the World Differently  Brett Criswell
This article uses a model from educational psychologyChi's theory of ontological misclassificationto explain the source of students' difficulties in understanding Avogadro's hypothesis and provide a method to successfully teach this fundamental concept.
Criswell, Brett. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1372.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Gases
Manual Data Processing in Analytical Chemistry: Linear Calibration  Dora Melucci
Most science students are familiar with Excel spreadsheets, but determining which of Excels statistical functions perform a calculation equivalent to a classical equation and calculating errors with Excel are not trivial exercises.
Melucci, Dora. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1346.
Calibration |
Chemometrics |
Quantitative Analysis
Helping Students Assess the Relative Importance of Different Intermolecular Interactions  Paul G. Jasien
A semi-quantitative model has been developed to estimate the relative effects of dispersion, dipoledipole interactions, and H-bonding on the normal boiling points for a series of simple, straight-chain organic compounds. Application of this model may be useful in addressing student misconceptions related to the additivity of intermolecular interactions.
Jasien, Paul G. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1222.
Chemometrics |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Physical Properties
Does the Addition of Inert Gases at Constant Volume and Temperature Affect Chemical Equilibrium?  João C. M. Paiva, Jorge Gonçalves, and Susana Fonseca
This article examines three approaches, leading to different conclusions, for answering the question "Does the addition of inert gases at constant volume and temperature modify the state of equilibrium?"
Paiva, João C. M.; Gonçalves, Jorge; Fonseca, Susana. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1133.
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Thermodynamics
A Hand-Held Ammonia Fountain  Nicholas C. Thomas and Stephen Faulk
A plastic juice bottle, filled with ammonia gas generated by combining aqueous ammonia and sodium hydroxide, provides a convenient demonstration of the ammonia fountain and gas solubility.
Thomas, Nicholas C.; Faulk, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1063.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents
A Simple Penny Analysis  Nicholas C. Thomas and Stephen Faulk
Describes a simple procedure for determining the zinc composition of U.S. pennies in which the penny zinc core is dissolved in acid and the evolved hydrogen gas is collected by water displacement.
Thomas, Nicholas C.; Faulk, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 817.
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Metals |
Stoichiometry
Using Pooled Data and Data Visualization To Introduce Statistical Concepts in the General Chemistry Laboratory   Robert J. Olsen
This article describes how data pooling and visualization can be employed in the first-semester general chemistry laboratory to introduce core statistical concepts such as central tendency and dispersion of a data set.
Olsen, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 544.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
Flames Tests with Flair  Nicholas C. Thomas
When conducted in a suitable fume hood, spraying hydrogen-filled balloons with aqueous solutions of metal salts provides a simple and safe method for demonstrating flame tests.
Thomas, Nicholas C. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 521.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Gases |
Metals
Using Hydrogen Balloons To Display Metal Ion Spectra  James H. Maynard
Describes a procedure for igniting hydrogen-filled balloons containing metal salts to obtain the brightest possible flash while minimizing the quantity of airborne combustion products.
Maynard, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 519.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Gases |
Metals |
Solutions / Solvents
Scientific–Chemical Viewpoints Regarding Smoking: A Science Laboratory for All  Ron Blonder
This article describes a lab that examines the acidity of cigarette smoke as well as solid particles and vapor phase substances found therein, and simulates the effects of smoking on the lungs. The aim of this activity is to expose adolescents to the scientific aspects of smoking and the relevance of chemistry in everyday life.
Blonder, Ron. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 248.
Acids / Bases |
Consumer Chemistry |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
pH |
Applications of Chemistry |
Student-Centered Learning
A Simplified Model To Predict the Effect of Increasing Atmospheric CO2 on Carbonate Chemistry in the Ocean  Brian J. Bozlee, Maria Janebo, and Ginger Jahn
The chemistry of dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater is reviewed and used to predict the potential effect of rising levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. It is found that calcium carbonate may become unsaturated in cold surface seawater by the year 2100, resulting in the destruction of calcifying organisms such as coral.
Bozlee, Brian J.; Janebo, Maria; Jahn, Ginger. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 213.
Applications of Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Green Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry
Reaction Order Ambiguity in Integrated Rate Plots  Joe Lee
This article provides a theoretical and statistical justification for the necessity of monitoring a reaction to a substantial fraction of completion if integrated rate plots plots are to yield unambiguous orders.
Lee, Joe. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 141.
Chemometrics |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Similarity and Difference in the Behavior of Gases: An Interactive Demonstration  Guy Ashkenazi
A demonstration that concurrently exposes differences and similarities in the behavior of two different gases has been designed to bridge the gap between students' understanding at the algorithmicmacroscopic and conceptualmicroscopic levels.
Ashkenazi, Guy. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 72.
Gases |
Kinetics |
Learning Theories
Experimental Determination of Ultraviolet Radiation Protection of Common Materials  Susana C. A. Tavares, Joaquim C. G. Esteves de Silva, and João Paiva
The oxidation of iodide is used as an indicator for the degree of exposure to UV radiation and to investigate the protection given by a simulation of ozone using plexiglass plates, sunscreen lotions, cotton cloth with different colors, and aqueous solutions with different concentrations of natural organic matter.
Tavares, Susana C. A.; Esteves de Silva, Joaquim C. G.; Paiva, João. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1963.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Effects of a Cooperative Learning Strategy on Teaching and Learning Phases of Matter and One-Component Phase Diagrams  Kemal Doymus
Describes a study whose objective was to determine the effects of cooperative learning (using the jigsaw method) on students' achievement in a general chemistry course.
Doymus, Kemal. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1857.
Gases |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids
How Many Atomic Layers of Zinc Are in a Galvanized Iron Coating?   Shui-Ping Yang
This article describes a guided inquiry and problem solving experiment in which students use a novel gasometric assembly to determine the thickness and number of atomic layers of zinc coating on galvanized iron wires and nails.
Yang, Shui-Ping. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1792.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis |
Rate Law
Gas Clathrate Hydrates Experiment for High School Projects and Undergraduate Laboratories  Melissa P. Prado, Annie Pham, Robert E. Ferazzi, Kimberly Edwards, and Kenneth C. Janda
Presents a procedure for preparing and studying propane clathrate hydrate. This experiment introduces students to this unusual solid while stimulating a discussion of the interplay of intermolecular forces, thermodynamics, and solid structure.
Prado, Melissa P.; Pham, Annie; Ferazzi, Robert E.; Edwards, Kimberly; Janda, Kenneth C. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1790.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Applications of Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Hydrogen Bonding
Concept Maps for General Chemistry   Boyd L. Earl
Two concept maps have been developed to represent the organization of the material in a first-semester general chemistry course. By providing these maps to students and referring to them in class, it is hoped that the instructor can assist students in maintaining a grasp of the "big picture" during the progress of the course.
Earl, Boyd L. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1788.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Gases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stoichiometry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
"Holes" in Student Understanding: Addressing Prevalent Misconceptions Regarding Atmospheric Environmental Chemistry  Sara C. Kerr and Kenneth A. Walz
This study evaluated the misconception that global warming is caused by holes in the ozone layer, other ideas surrounding atmospheric chemistry that are responsible for the entanglement of the greenhouse effect and ozone depletion in students' conceptual frameworks, and the effectiveness of computer-based online data-analysis exercises to address these shortcomings.
Kerr, Sara C.; Walz, Kenneth A. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1693.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Student-Centered Learning
Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Mapping of Environmental Samples across College Campuses  Kathleen L. Purvis-Roberts, Harriet P. Moeur, and Andrew Zanella
In this laboratory experiment, students take environmental samples (concentrations of nitrogen dioxide) and geospatial coordinates with a global position systems unit at various locations around campus, map their data on a geo-referenced map with geographical information systems software, and compare their results to those observed by governmental agencies.
Purvis-Roberts, Kathleen L.; Moeur, Harriet P.; Zanella, Andrew. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1691.
Applications of Chemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
A Simple Calorimetric Experiment That Highlights Aspects of Global Heat Retention and Global Warming  Joel D. Burley and Harold S. Johnston
In this laboratory experiment, general chemistry students verify that heat is consumed in the melting of ice, with no increase in temperature until all the ice has melted. The fundamental calorimetric principles demonstrated by the lab results are then developed to help students better assess and understand the experimental evidence associated with global warming.
Burley, Joel D.; Johnston, Harold S. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1686.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Carbon Dioxide Fountain  Seong-Joo Kang and Eun-Hee Ryu
This article presents the development of a carbon dioxide fountain that, unlike the traditional ammonia fountain, is odorless and uses consumer chemicals. This experiment also allows students to see evidence of a gaseous reagent being consumed when a pressure sensor is available.
Kang, Seong-Joo; Ryu, Eun-Hee. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1671.
Acids / Bases |
Consumer Chemistry |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Reactions
Incomplete Combustion of Hydrogen: Trapping a Reaction Intermediate  Bruce Mattson and Trisha Hoette
In this demonstration, a hydrogen flame is played across the face of an ice cube and the combustion is quenched in an incomplete state. The resulting solution contains a stable side-product, hydrogen peroxide, whose presence can be verified with two simple chemical tests.
Mattson, Bruce; Hoette, Trisha. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1668.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Free Radicals |
Gases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Reactions |
Reactive Intermediates
A Fast Coulometric Estimation of Avogadro's Number  Nicholas C. Thomas
Using simple materials found in any high school or college laboratory, an electrochemical method of determining Avogadro's number is presented.
Thomas, Nicholas C. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1667.
Electrochemistry |
Gases
The Use of Limits in an Advanced Placement Chemistry Course  Paul S. Matsumoto, Jonathan Ring, and Jia Li (Lily) Zhu
This article describes the use of limits in topics usually covered in advanced placement or first-year college chemistry. This approach supplements the interpretation of the graph of an equation since it is usually easier to evaluate the limit of a function than to generate its graph.
Matsumoto, Paul S.; Ring, Jonathan; Zhu, Jia Li (Lily). J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1655.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Thermodynamics
The Penny Experiment Revisited: An Illustration of Significant Figures, Accuracy, Precision, and Data Analysis  Joseph Bularzik
In this general chemistry laboratory the densities of pennies are measured by weighing them and using two different methods to measure their volumes. The average and standard deviation calculated for the resulting densities demonstrate that one measurement method is more accurate while the other is more precise.
Bularzik, Joseph. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1456.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmajor Courses |
Physical Properties
Exception to the Le Châtelier Principle  Thomas R. Herrinton
Disagreement regarding an apparent exception to the Le Chtelier principle involving the effects of nonideality on the direction in which the ammonia synthesis reaction shifts upon addition of infinitesimal and finite quantities of nitrogen at constant pressure and temperature.
Herrinton, Thomas R. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1427.
Equilibrium |
Gases
Exception to the Le Châtelier Principle  Thomas R. Herrinton
Disagreement regarding an apparent exception to the Le Chatelier principle involving the effects of nonideality on the direction in which the ammonia synthesis reaction shifts upon addition of infinitesimal and finite quantities of nitrogen at constant pressure and temperature.
Herrinton, Thomas R. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1427.
Equilibrium |
Gases
Lewis Structure Representation of Free Radicals Similar to ClO  Warren Hirsch and Mark Kobrak
An unconventional Lewis structure is proposed to explain the properties of the free radical ClO and a series of its isoelectronic analogues, particularly trends in the spin density of these species.
Hirsch, Warren; Kobrak, Mark. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1360.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Computational Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Free Radicals |
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Modeling |
MO Theory |
Valence Bond Theory
Microscale Demonstration of the Paramagnetism of Liquid Oxygen with a Neodymium Magnet  Bruce Mattson
When a neodymium magnet is brought near a suspended glass tube containing a small amount of liquid oxygen, the tube is attracted to the magnet, demonstrating oxygen's paramagnetism. In larger quantities the blue color of liquid oxygen is readily observable.
Mattson, Bruce. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1296.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Gases |
Magnetic Properties |
MO Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Guitar Strings as Standing Waves: A Demonstration  Michael Davis
This demonstration uses an acoustic guitar to produce three unique harmonic vibrations, each of which is representative of a standing wave and illustrates the concept of quantization.
Davis, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1287.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Mentos and the Scientific Method: A Sweet Combination  Jack F. Eichler, Heather Patrick, Brenda Harmon, and Janet Coonce
Describes an inquiry-driven, collaborative exercise to investigate the cause of the fountain effect observed when Mentos candies are added to Diet Coke.
Eichler, Jack F.; Patrick, Heather; Harmon, Brenda; Coonce, Janet. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1120.
Gases |
Nonmajor Courses |
Physical Properties |
Student-Centered Learning
Determining the Pressure inside an Unopened Carbonated Beverage  Hans de Grys
Determining the pressure of carbon dioxide inside a sealed soft drink can represents a challenging student exercise. Several methods are discussed for solving the problem, including applying the ideal gas law, gas collection via water displacement, and Henry's law.
de Grys, Hans. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1117.
Applications of Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Student-Centered Learning
Teaching Mathematics to Chemistry Students with Symbolic Computation  J. F. Ogilvie and M. B. Monagan
The authors explain how the use of mathematical software improves the teaching and understanding of mathematics to and by chemistry students while greatly expanding their abilities to solve realistic chemical problems.
Ogilvie, J. F.; Monagan, M. B. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 889.
Chemometrics |
Computational Chemistry |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
"Concept Learning versus Problem Solving": Does Particle Motion Have an Effect?  Michael J. Sanger, Eddie Campbell, Jeremy Felker, and Charles Spencer
210 students were asked to answer a static, particulate-level, multiple-choice question concerning gas properties. Then they viewed an animated version of the question and answered the multiple-choice question again. The distribution of responses changed significantly after students viewed the animation.
Sanger, Michael J.; Campbell, Eddie; Felker, Jeremy; Spencer, Charles. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 875.
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
What Are Students Thinking When They Pick Their Answer?  Michael J. Sanger and Amy J. Phelps
330 students were asked to answer a multiple-choice question concerning gas properties at the microscopic level and explain their reasoning. Of those who selected the correct answer, 80% provided explanations consistent with the scientifically accepted answer, while 90% of the students who picked an incorrect choice provided explanations with at least one misconception.
Sanger, Michael J.; Phelps, Amy J. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 870.
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Qualitative Analysis
Enthalpy of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures: An Inexpensive Apparatus  Rubin Battino, David A. Dolson, Michael R. Hall, and Trevor M. Letcher
Describes an inexpensive apparatus for the determination of the vapor pressure of a liquid as a function of temperature for the purpose of calculating enthalpy changes of vaporization. Also described are a simple air thermostat and an inexpensive temperature controller based on an integrated temperature sensor.
Battino, Rubin; Dolson, David A.; Hall, Michael R.; Letcher, Trevor M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 822.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Lipids |
Phenols |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
The Physical Meaning of the Mathematical Formalism Present in Limiting Chemical Equations; Or, How Dilute Is Dilute?  C. Contreras-Ortega, N. Bustamante, J. L. Guevara, C. Portillo, and V. Kesternich
Proposes general mathematical formulations to offer students a better understanding of the real scope of scientific expressions dealing with limiting physical conditions, such as those concerning dilute and concentrated solutions and low and high temperatures and pressures.
Contreras-Ortega, C.; Bustamante, N.; Guevara, J. L.; Portillo, C.; Kesternich, V. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 788.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents
Puzzling through General Chemistry: A Light-Hearted Approach to Engaging Students with Chemistry Content  Susan L. Boyd
Presents ten puzzles to make chemistry more interesting while reinforcing important concepts.
Boyd, Susan L. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 619.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Gases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Stoichiometry |
VSEPR Theory |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Using Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures To Determine the Vapor Pressure of a Volatile Liquid  Fred R. Hilgeman, Gary Bertrand, and Brent Wilson
This experiment, designed for a general chemistry laboratory, illustrates the use of Dalton's law of partial pressures to determine the vapor pressure of a volatile liquid.
Hilgeman, Fred R.; Bertrand, Gary; Wilson, Brent. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 469.
Gases |
Liquids |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
An Inquiry-Based Chemistry Laboratory Promoting Student Discovery of Gas Laws  A. M. R. P. Bopegedera
This article describes a laboratory in which students discover the gas laws using Vernier sensors and Microsoft Excel.
Bopegedera, A. M. R. P. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 465.
Gases |
Instrumental Methods |
Physical Properties
Cp/Cv Ratios Measured by the Sound Velocity Method Using Calculator-Based Laboratory Technology  Mario Branca and Isabella Soletta
The values ? = Cp /Cv (heat capacity at a constant pressure / heat capacity at constant volume) for air, oxygen, nitrogen, argon, and carbon dioxide were determined by measuring the velocity of sound through these gases at room temperature using Calculator-Based Laboratory Technology.
Branca, Mario; Soletta, Isabella. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 462.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Physical Properties
Where Did the Water Go? Boyle's Law and Pressurized Diaphragm Water Tanks  James Brimhall and Sundar Naga
Boyles law (PV is constant) provides mathematical insight into the workings of pressurized diaphragm tanks for storage of water pumped from underground wells, including predictions of the quantities of available water resulting from different initial conditions of water tank systems.
Brimhall, James; Naga, Sundar. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 425.
Applications of Chemistry |
Gases
Characterization of High Explosives and Other Energetic Compounds by Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling  John A. Bumpus, Anne Lewis, Corey Stotts, and Christopher J. Cramer
Four experiments suitable for use in the undergraduate instructional laboratory demonstrate the use of computational chemistry and molecular-modeling procedures to calculate selected physical and chemical properties of several high explosives and other energetic compounds.
Bumpus, John A.; Lewis, Anne; Stotts, Corey; Cramer, Christopher J. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 329.
Computational Chemistry |
Gases |
Physical Properties |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A Novel W-Tube for Microscale Experiments in Chemistry  H. O. Gupta
A simple W-tube is described to test for the presence or absence of a certain gas quickly and economically at the microscale level.
Gupta, H. O. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 321.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Qualitative Analysis |
Gases
Response to "Keeping Our Cool"  Roy W. Clark
General chemistry teachers should teach general chemistry. They should teach neither the appreciation of the wonders of modern science, nor should they teach the evil consequences of modern science.
Clark, Roy W. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 232.
Atmospheric Chemistry
Understanding Isotopic Distributions in Mass Spectrometry  Juris Meija
Offers a simple graphical tool for obtaining complex isotopic distributions.
Meija, Juris. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1761.
Mass Spectrometry |
Isotopes |
Chemometrics
The Importance and Efficacy of Using Statistics in the High School Chemistry Laboratory  Paul S. Matsumoto
This paper describes some statistical concepts and their application to various experiments used in high school chemistry.
Matsumoto, Paul S. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1649.
Chemometrics |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
Job's Analysis of the Range of the "Dalton Syringe Rocket"  Natalie Barto, Brandon Henrie, and Ed Vitz
An apparatus for safely igniting fuel gas/oxygen mixtures in a syringe and measuring the distance that the syringe is propelled is presented. The distance (range) is analyzed by the method of continuous variation (Job's Method) to determine the stoichiometry of the reaction.
Barto, Natalie; Henrie, Brandon; Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1505.
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics |
Stoichiometry
Teaching Physical Chemistry Experiments with a Computer Simulation by LabVIEW  A. Belletti, R. Borromei, and G. Ingletto
This article reports on a computer simulation developed with the software LabVIEW of the physical chemistry experiment regarding the vapor pressure measurements of a pure liquid as a function of temperature, as well as a system of data collecting that emphasizes the similarities between the virtual and real experiment.
Belletti, A.; Borromei, R.; Ingletto, G. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1353.
Equilibrium |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Liquids |
Thermodynamics |
Gases |
Student-Centered Learning
Two "Gas-in-a-Bag" Reactions To Show the Predictive Power of the Relative AcidBase Strength Chart  Brett Criswell
Describes a demonstration in which two different pairs of solid chemicals mixed in two different Ziploc bags in the presence of a small quantities of water react to produce gases. Students are informed that the reactions are BrnstedLowry acidbase type reactions and must determine which member in each pair will act as the acid and which as the base.
Criswell, Brett. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1167.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Gases |
Reactions |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Achieving Chemical Equilibrium: The Role of Imposed Conditions in the Ammonia Formation Reaction  Joel Tellinghuisen
The conditions under which chemical reactions occur determine which thermodynamic functions are minimized or maximized. This point is illustrated for the formation of ammonia in the ideal gas approximation using a numerical exercise.
Tellinghuisen, Joel. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1090.
Gases |
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
Complexometric Titration of Aluminum and Magnesium Ions in Commercial Antacids. An Experiment for General and Analytical Chemistry Laboratories  Shui-Ping Yang and Ruei-Ying Tsai
A novel experiment for determining the total and individual aluminum and magnesium ion content in commercial antacids is described. This experiment is developed with three independent protocols based on complexometric direct and back titrations containing the concepts and usages of blocking, masking, buffer controls and metallic indicators.
Yang, Shui-Ping; Tsai, Ruei-Ying. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 906.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Chemometrics |
Consumer Chemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Chemistry of Electronic Gases  James R. Clark
The chemistry of electronic gases can be used in the classroom to provide many interesting examples of molecular structures, chemical reactions, periodic trends, and environmental chemistry.
Clark, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 857.
Applications of Chemistry |
Gases |
Industrial Chemistry |
Semiconductors |
Solid State Chemistry
What Is Your Mental Picture of Ordinary Air?  Richard W. Ramette and Dale K. Haworth
Students differ widely in their conceptions about the nature of air.
Ramette, Richard W.; Haworth, Dale K. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 834.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases
Taming the Barking Dog  Ché Royce Seabourne, George Maxwell, and James Wallace
This demonstration brings Liebig's famous 19th-century demonstration headlong into the 21st century, using digital video footage and other novel media.
Seabourne, Ché Royce; Maxwell, George; Wallace, James. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 751.
Gases |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions
General Education and General Chemistry—Redux  Leslie S. Forster
This paper discusses the desirability of including non-technical general education topics in chemistry courses intended for science and engineering students.
Forster, Leslie S. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 614.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Gases |
Learning Theories
Theoretical Insights for Practical Handling of Pressurized Fluids  Alfonso Aranda and María del Prado Rodríguez
Introduces the basic considerations for managing pressurized fluids, mainly liquefied and compressed gases.
Aranda, Alfonso; Rodríguez, María del Prado. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 93.
Applications of Chemistry |
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
Moving Chemistry Education into 3D: A Tetrahedral Metaphor for Understanding Chemistry. Union Carbide Award for Chemical Education  Peter Mahaffy
Proposes a new conceptual metaphor to enrich our description of chemistry education and support the many existing efforts to help students make connections with the chemistry found in textbooks.
Mahaffy, Peter. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 49.
Applications of Chemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Learning Theories |
Nonmajor Courses |
Student-Centered Learning
Further Analysis of Boiling Points of Small Molecules, CHwFxClyBrz  Guy Beauchamp
Multiple linear regression analysis has proven useful in selecting predictor variables that could significantly clarify the boiling point variation of the CHwFxClyBrz molecules.
Beauchamp, Guy. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1842.
Chemometrics |
Physical Properties |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Gas Permeability of Polymers  Jee-Yon Lee
Undergraduate students can learn what causes the helium-inflated balloon to fall in a few days through the proposed experiment.
Lee, Jee-Yon. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1472.
Gases |
Transport Properties
Gas Permeability of Polymers  Bruno Lunelli
The recent article, Applying Chemical Potential and Partial Pressure Concepts To Understand the Spontaneous Mixing of Helium and Air in a Helium-Inflated Balloon, proposes a model of permeation untenable and in contradiction with correct statements present in the same text and consequently does not consider the material of which the investigated balloons are made.
Lunelli, Bruno. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1471.
Gases |
Transport Properties
Gas Permeability of Polymers  Bruno Lunelli
By studying a number of soft drinks with color but with or without phosphoric acid, the authors have determined that the required 20-fold dilution required in the Determination of Phosphorus in Cola Drinks is not to dilute the color but merely to place the sample within the calibration range of the analysis.
Lunelli, Bruno. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1471.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Gases |
Transport Properties
The Fizz-Keeper: A Useful Science Tool  John P. Williams, Sandy Van Natta, and Rebecca Knipp
The Fizz-Keeper is well suited for a great variety of pressure-based activities.
Williams, John P.; Van Natta, Sandy; Knipp, Rebecca. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1454.
Applications of Chemistry |
Colloids |
Gases
Balloon—Toy of Many Colors  Kathryn R. Williams
Balloon-related articles previously published in JCE describe gas law experiments and demonstrations, large-scale molecular models, demonstrations of reaction rates and stoichiometry, hydrogen-filled balloon explosions, and miscellaneous laboratory uses.
Williams, Kathryn R. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1448.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
VSEPR Theory
A Passive Sampler for Determination of Nitrogen Dioxide in Ambient Air  Dan Xiao, Lianzhi Lin, Hongyan Yuan, Martin M. F. Choi, and Winghong Chan
This article describes the use of a passive sampler for detecting and collecting nitrogen dioxide, NO2, in ambient air. This device is based on microporous PTFE membranes that allow air samples to diffuse through and subsequently react with an absorbing reagent solution. The absorbance value of this reagent is proportional to the NO2 concentration in ambient air. It has been successfully applied to determine the NO2 concentrations in various sampling sites.
Xiao, Dan; Lin, Lianzhi; Yuan, Hongyan; Choi, Martin M. F.; Chan, Winghong. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1231.
Calibration |
Membranes |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Coordination Compounds |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Nonmajor Courses |
Quantitative Analysis
A Note on Dalton's Law: Myths, Facts, and Implementation  Ronald W. Missen and William R. Smith
The treatment of Dalton's law for gas mixtures commonly includes the improper designation "Dalton's law of partial pressures", rather than the correct "Dalton's law of additivity of (pure component) pressures". It also identifies the pure component pressure as the partial pressure, although these are only numerically equal for a mixture of ideal gases. The situation is clarified by examination of an appropriate statement of the law and definitions, eventually in operational form with reference to mixtures of nonideal gases.
Missen, Ronald Wi.; Smith, William R. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1197.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
Some Insights Regarding a Popular Introductory Gas Law Experiment  Ed DePierro and Fred Garafalo
This paper alerts readers to a potential source of error in one approach to the Dumas method as it is often practiced in introductory chemistry laboratories. The room-temperature vapor pressures of volatile compounds that might be considered as unknowns for the experiment lead to determined molar masses that are too low. The greater the vapor pressure of the compound, the lower the determined molar mass will be, when compared to the accepted value.
DePierro, Ed; Garafalo, Fred. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1194.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
Cross-Proportions: A Conceptual Method for Developing Quantitative Problem-Solving Skills  Elzbieta Cook and Robert L. Cook
This paper focuses attention on the cross-proportion (C-P) method of mathematical problem solving, which was once widely used in chemical calculations. We propose that this method regain currency as an alternative to the dimensional analysis (DA) method, particularly in lower-level chemistry courses. In recent years, the DA method has emerged as the only problem solving mechanism offered to high-school and general chemistry students in contemporary textbooks, replacing more conceptual methods, C-P included.
Cook, Elzbieta; Cook, Robert L. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1187.
Learning Theories |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics |
Student-Centered Learning
Steel Wool and Oxygen: A Look at Kinetics  James Gordon and Katherine Chancey
An experimental method is described to study the kinetics of the reaction of the iron in steel wool with molecular oxygen. A calculator-based data collection system is used with an oxygen gas sensor to determine the order of the reaction with respect to oxygen. Using the graphical method, students determine that the reaction follows first-order kinetics with respect to oxygen.
Gordon, James; Chancey, Katherine. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1065.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction
Greenhouse Gases and Non-gray Behavior  J. C. Jones
Greenhouse gases feature in many courses in applied chemistry as well as in courses on environmental science, atmospheric chemistry, and so on. We hear a great deal about such matters from the media. A more classical topic which first-year chemistry students will learn about in the physical chemistry component of their program is the black body concept and the StefanBoltzmann law. Recently in teaching about greenhouse gases to MSc students I have thought of a link between the topical and classical matters that is pedagogically interesting and might be of value to others teaching in this subject area.
Jones, J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 837.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases
The Reaction Quotient Is Unnecessary To Solve Equilibrium Problems  Paul S. Matsumoto
The traditional method to determine the equilibrium concentration of chemicals in a reaction, given the equilibrium constant and the initial concentration of chemicals in the reaction, involves the determination of the reaction quotient. This article will demonstrate that this step may be eliminated; thereby simplifying the algorithm to solve such problems. Such a reduction in the complexity of the algorithm may result in more students successfully being able to solve such problems.
Matsumoto, Paul S. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 406.
Equilibrium |
Learning Theories |
Chemometrics
Applying Chemical Potential and Partial Pressure Concepts To Understand the Spontaneous Mixing of Helium and Air in a Helium-Inflated Balloon  Jee-Yon Lee, Hee-Soo Yoo, Jong Sook Park, Kwang-Jin Hwang, and Jin Seog Kim
In developing this laboratory, our initial motivation for the analysis of gases in a balloon was to answer simple and basic questions, such as, Why does a helium-charged balloon left in the air always drop in a few days? Is leakage of helium the only cause of the drop? What is the composition of the gas in the balloon when it falls after deflation? Students were intrigued by these questions, too, as they analyzed the variation over time in the composition in a balloon inflated with helium. Using the concepts of partial pressure and chemical potential, the laboratory experiment described effectively investigates the diffusion process and the behavior of gas molecules for teaching these concepts in general and physical chemistry.
Lee, Jee-Yon; Yoo, Hee-Soo; Park, Jong Sook; Hwang, Kwang-Jin; Kim, Jin Seog. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 288.
Transport Properties |
Gases |
Mass Spectrometry |
Quantitative Analysis
The Determination of the Percent of Oxygen in Air Using a Gas Pressure Sensor  James Gordon and Katherine Chancey
A new detection method is applied to a classic experiment in which gaseous atmospheric oxygen in a test tube is reacted with the iron in steel wool to produce rust. A gas pressure sensor interfaced to a calculator-based data collection system was used to measure the percent of oxygen in the air as the reaction proceeded. The results from the calculator-based experiment were compared to the results from a more traditional water-measurement experiment. The average percent of oxygen obtained using the calculator system was 19.4  0.4%.
Gordon, James; Chancey, Katherine. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 286.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Fractional Distillation of Air and Other Demonstrations with Condensed Gases  Maria Oliver-Hoyo and William L. Switzer, III
This demonstration builds upon the commonly performed liquefaction of air not only to show the presence of nitrogen and oxygen, but also the presence of two other components, carbon dioxide and water. Several extensions are suggested: one to show boiling point elevation in solution and another to show the elevation of both boiling point and sublimation point with pressure. No special apparatus is required permitting presentations to audiences in a variety of settings. These demonstrations give the opportunity to discuss properties of gases, solution chemistry, and phase equilibria.
Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Switzer, William L., III. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 251.
Gases |
Qualitative Analysis |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
A Methane Balloon Inflation Chamber  Curtis J. Czerwinski and Tanya J. Cordes
While several lecture demonstrations are possible using methane-filled balloons, it is often inconvenient to prepare these balloons since the pressure from standard laboratory and lecture hall gas nozzles is too low. As a solution to this problem, a methane balloon inflation chamber, prepared from a translucent 3.5-gallon pail and an aspirator or house-vacuum, provides an inexpensive and convenient method for inflating balloons in laboratories or lecture halls. Prepared in this way, methane-filled balloons can be used to demonstrate the effects of vacuum, the lifting power of low-density gases, and the explosive combustion of methane.
Czerwinski, Curtis J.; Cordes, Tanya J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 248.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
On the Buoyancy of a Helium-Filled Balloon  John E. Harriman
It is shown by expansion of the exponential in the barometric formula that the forces due to pressure acting on a balloon are of the form (PV/RT)Mg and that results agree with those suggested by Archimedes principle. Einstein's equivalence principal provides an answer to what balloons will do in an accelerated car.
Harriman, John E. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 246.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Physical Properties
Capillary Electrophoresis Analysis of Cations in Water Samples. An Experiment for the Introductory Laboratory  Christopher J. Pursell, Bert Chandler, and Michelle M. Bushey
This experiment can be done in a lab, as a "dry-lab", or as an in-class exercise. Students explore a number of basic separation topics and work with figures of merit for real and meaningful samples. We have adopted a strategy where students encounter various instruments and methods of analyses multiple times throughout the curriculum. The level of sophistication in the exposures increases with the experience level of the students. Through this repeated exposure students will gain a better and fuller understanding of these methods than they would with a single exposure to the technique in the analytical or instrumental laboratory.
Pursell, Christopher J.; Chandler, Bert; Bushey, Michelle M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1783.
Electrophoresis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Chemometrics |
Water / Water Chemistry
Statistical Comparison of Data in the Analytical Laboratory  Michael J. Samide
In this article, an experiment designed to provide students with an experience involving statistical treatment of data is described. This experiment allows students to compare 11 different techniques for measuring specific volumes of water. Replicate measurements are taken for each technique and comparisons are made both within a data set and between different data sets. Through calculation of t-values, students are able to draw conclusions about the precision and accuracy of these various techniques.
Samide, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1641.
Chemometrics
Campbell's Rule for Estimating Entropy Changes  Norman C. Craig
I am pleased that Campbells rule for estimating entropy changes in gas-consuming and gas-producing chemical reactions has attracted immediate interest.
Craig, Norman C. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1571.
Gases |
Thermodynamics
Campbell's Rule for Estimating Entropy Changes  William B. Jensen
In a recent article Norman Craig has proposed the rule-of-thumb that the approximate value of the entropy of reaction is related to the net moles of gas consumed or generated in the reaction .
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1570.
Gases |
Thermodynamics
Unified Approximations: A New Approach for Monoprotic Weak Acid–Base Equilibria  Harry L. Pardue, Ihab N. Odeh, and Teweldemedhin M. Tesfai
This article describes a new approach to approximate calculations for monoprotic acidbase equilibria in otherwise pure water. The new approach, identified herein as unified approximations, uses a simple decision criterion to select between situations that should be treated as deprotonation and protonation reactions. The remaining treatment takes account of changes in concentrations of conjugate acidbase pairs for all situations and ignores autoprotolysis only for situations for which the analytical concentration of either the conjugate acid or conjugate base will always be larger than zero.
Pardue, Harry L.; Odeh, Ihab N.; Tesfai, Teweldemedhin M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1367.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Construction of a Small-Scale and Low-Cost Gas Apparatus  Lise Kvittingen and Richard Verley
This article describes how to construct an apparatus for gas production from disposable polyethene pipets and polypropene microcentrifuge tubes. Heat is used to form the plastics into appropriate shapes. A stand from floral wire is also presented. The assembly has an open interface and is possible to modify. This construction suits various grades and curricula and can easily be integrated into different topics.
Kvittingen, Lise; Verley, Richard. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1339.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Gases
Reaction to Why Do We Teach Equilibrium Calculations?  Stephen J. Hawkes
"Rigor" in introductory chemistry is often equated with quantitation. Consequently the understanding of chemical reactions and properties is obscured. This was illustrated by Stumpo who asked students to calculate ?E of a reaction, and then on another question on the same test asked a question aimed at its meaning. 77% of the students calculated correctly, but only 24% showed understanding of its meaning. The ability to calculate a number does not measure understanding of the number.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1265.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Reaction to Why Do We Teach Equilibrium Calculations?   Don L. Lewis
A recently published correspondence by Stephen J. Hawkes on teaching equilibrium calculations troubles me. Hawkes dismisses equilibrium calculations as mere algorithms, best deferred until the student can use computer programs. I find it difficult to believe that a computer program enhances understanding. From a chemists point of view, the equilibrium condition is a limit, a limit that (because of stochastic considerations) does not exist. It might be better to make the reaction quotient statement using < or > but the use of those relations is delayed until quantum mechanics.
Lewis, Don L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1265.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Water in the Atmosphere  Joel M. Kauffman
None of eight college-level general chemistry texts gave a mean value for water in the atmosphere, despite its being the third most prevalent constituent at about 1.5% by mass as vapor and about 2% if clouds and ice crystals are included. The importance of water as a greenhouse gas was omitted or marginalized by five of the eight texts. An infrared spectrum of humid air was determined to demonstrate that water vapor, because of its higher concentration, was more absorptive than carbon dioxide. The cooling effect of clouds, or other influences on the Earth's albedo, were not mentioned in most of the texts. These pervasive errors should be corrected in new or future editions of textbooks.
Kauffman, Joel M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1229.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases |
Green Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy
Mass Spectrometry for the Masses  Jared D. Persinger, Geoffrey C. Hoops, and Michael J. Samide
In this article, we describe an experiment for an introductory chemistry course that incorporates the use of mass spectrometry for sample analysis. Several different air samples are collected that represent various chemical processes, and the composition of the air sample is predicted on the basis of known chemical principles. A gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer is used to analyze these samples, and the relative quantities of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water, and argon are calculated. On the basis of the data, the hypothesized sample composition is validated.
Persinger, Jared D.; Hoops, Geoffrey C.; Samide, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1169.
Mass Spectrometry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Green Chemistry |
Nonmajor Courses |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Photosynthesis |
Gases
Chemistry and Song: A Novel Way To Educate and Entertain  Cory C. Pye
In this article, a novel way of teaching chemistry is presented that uses contemporary music and chemical lyrics to educate.
Pye, Cory C. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 507.
Gases
Bringing History to the Classroom: Spoofs about Problems in Obtaining Research Grants  Sidney Toby
This article is a spoof on the History of Science and consists of four skits depicting the difficulties famous men and women in science might have had in fictional interviews while seeking funding for their research.
Toby, Sidney. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 503.
Gases |
Physical Properties |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Women in Chemistry |
Administrative Issues
Using a Graphing Calculator To Determine a First-Order Rate Constant: Author Reply  José E. Cortés-Figueroa
When technology is used to help with mathematical calculations, the emphasis must be on the concepts being learned rather than simply the procedures. In our approach we are attempting to help students learn more about the concept and also to attain data analysis skills they will need in the future.
Cortés-Figueroa, José E. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 485.
Kinetics |
Chemometrics
Using a Graphing Calculator To Determine a First-Order Rate Constant  Todd P. Silverstein
The authors use the graphing calculator to estimate the infinity reading from linearized kinetics data, and then they use linearized semi-log data to determine the first-order rate constant.
Silverstein, Todd P. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 485.
Kinetics |
Chemometrics
Effects of an Active Learning Environment: Teaching Innovations at a Research I Institution  Maria T. Oliver-Hoyo, DeeDee Allen, William F. Hunt, Joy Hutson, and Angela Pitts
This paper describes a new approach for teaching general chemistry that combines lecture and laboratory into one seamless session and incorporates instructional methods supported by research-based findings. The results of a study that compared two instructional formats, conventional passive lecture and the student-centered, highly collaborative format known as cAcL2 (concept Advancement through chemistry LabLecture), are also presented.
Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.; Allen, DeeDee; Hunt, William F.; Hutson, Joy; Pitts, Angela. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 441.
Chemometrics |
Student-Centered Learning
The Decomposition of Zinc Carbonate: Using Stoichiometry To Choose between Chemical Formulas  Stephen DeMeo
To determine which formula corresponds to a bottle labeled "zinc carbonate", students perform qualitative tests on three of zinc carbonate's decomposition products: zinc oxide, carbon dioxide, and water. Next students make quantitative measurements to find molar ratios and compare them with the coefficients of the balanced chemical equations. This allows the correct formula of zinc carbonate to be deduced.
DeMeo, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 119.
Gases |
Stoichiometry |
Quantitative Analysis
Don't Be Tricked by Your Integrated Rate Plot  Edward Urbansky
Reply to comments on original article.
Urbansky, Edward. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 32.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Chemometrics
Don't Be Tricked by Your Integrated Rate Plot: Reaction order Ambiguity  Sue Le Vent
Integrated rate equations (for constant reaction volume) may be given in terms of relative reactant concentration, C (= concentration/initial concentration) and relative time, T (= time/half-life); in these forms, the equations are independent of rate constants and initial concentrations.
Le Vent, Sue. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 32.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Chemometrics
Don't Be Tricked by Your Integrated Rate Plot: Pitfalls of Using Integrated Rate Plots  Gabor Lente
Problems with linearizing the integrated rate law.
Lente, Gabor. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 32.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Chemometrics
Don't Be Tricked by Your Integrated Rate Plot: Pitfalls of Using Integrated Rate Plots  Gabor Lente
Problems with linearizing the integrated rate law.
Lente, Gabor. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 32.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Chemometrics
Another Variation on the "Whoosh Bottle" Theme  Dean J. Campbell
Additional safety considerations and a CO2 rocket car.
Campbell, Dean J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 31.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
Another Variation on the "Whoosh Bottle" Theme  Edward G. Senkbeil
Description of a similar demonstration and additional safety considerations.
Senkbeil, Edward G. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 31.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
Another Variation on the "Whoosh Bottle" Theme  Edward G. Senkbeil
Description of a similar demonstration and additional safety considerations.
Senkbeil, Edward G. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 31.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
Carbon Dioxide Flooding: A Classroom Case Study Derived from Surgical Practice  Robert C. Kerber
The surgical opening in open-heart surgery is often flooded with carbon dioxide gas to avoid air embolisms when the heart is closed and restarted. This practice can be used in chemistry courses to illustrate concepts of gas density, solubility, and acidbase equilibria, including buffering.
Kerber, Robert C. . J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1437.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Gases |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Nonmajor Courses |
Applications of Chemistry
Why Does a Helium-Filled Balloon "Rise"?  Richard W. Ramette
The article is a lighthearted, conversational exploration of the microscopic basis for Archimedes principle. The principle is discussed in terms of molecular collisions and density gradients in a gravitational field.
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1149.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Physical Properties
National Chemistry Week 2003: Earth's Atmosphere and Beyond. JCE Resources for Chemistry and the Atmosphere  Erica K. Jacobsen
This annotated bibliography collects the best that past issues of the Journal of Chemical Education have to offer for use with this year's National Chemistry Week theme: Earth's Atmosphere and Beyond. Each article has been characterized as a demonstration, experiment, activity, informational, or software/video item.
Jacobsen, Erica K. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1106.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
SpecScan: A Utility Program for Generating Numerical Data from Printed Forms of Spectra or Other Signals  Constantinos E. Efstathiou
SpecSpan is a utility program for Microsoft Windows that generates numerical data from printed spectra or other plots found as figures in text, chart recordings, or freehand drawings. SpecScan can process bitmap (.BMP) images of such figures and drawings. After a brief interaction with the user, it generates and exports numerical data as Excel (.XLS) or text (.TXT) files.
Efstathiou, Constantinos E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1093.
Chemometrics |
Spectroscopy
From Our Peer-Reviewed Collection  William F. Coleman and Edward W. Fedosky
The JCE WebWare collection continues to evolve and grow. This month we add another program, SpecScan: A Utility Program for Generating Numerical Data from Printed Forms of Spectra or Other Signals, to our collection of peer-reviewed WebWare.
Coleman, William F.; Fedosky, Edward W. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1093.
Chemometrics |
Spectroscopy
SpecScan: A Utility Program for Generating Numerical Data from Printed Forms of Spectra or Other Signals  Constantinos E. Efstathiou
The JCE WebWare collection continues to evolve and grow. This month we add another program, SpecScan: A Utility Program for Generating Numerical Data from Printed Forms of Spectra or Other Signals, to our collection of peer-reviewed WebWare.
Efstathiou, Constantinos E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1093.
Chemometrics |
Spectroscopy
Two Linear Correlation Coefficients  Robert de Levie
In fitting data to a straight line, many calculators and computer programs display a linear correlation coefficient. Two types of linear correlation coefficients are discussed, one often useful in chemical calculations, the other usually not.
de Levie, Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1030.
Chemometrics
Decomposition Kinetics of Hydrogen Peroxide: Novel Lab Experiments Employing Computer Technology  Dorota A. Abramovitch, Latrice K. Cunningham, and Mitchell R. Litwer
Using a sensor to measure changes in the pressure of oxygen produced by the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide as a means of analyzing this reaction and factors that affect its rate.
Abramovitch, Dorota A.; Cunningham, Latrice K.; Litwer, Mitchell R. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 790.
Gases |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Kinetics
The Universal Gas Constant R  William B. Jensen
Answers the question "Why is the universal gas constant represented by the letter R?" [Debut]
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 731.
Gases |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Classification of Vegetable Oils by Principal Component Analysis of FTIR Spectra  David A. Rusak, Leah M. Brown, and Scott D. Martin
Comparing unknown samples of vegetable oils to known samples using FTIR and principal component analysis (PCA) and nearest means classification (NMC).
Rusak, David A.; Brown, Leah M.; Martin, Scott D. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 541.
IR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Food Science |
Lipids |
Chemometrics |
Qualitative Analysis |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Bubble Stripping To Determine Hydrogen Concentrations in Ground Water: A Practical Application of Henry's Law  Daniel M. McInnes and Don Kampbell
Applying Henry's law to determine the concentration of hydrogen in ground water as a means of identifying possible contamination by chlorinated organic compounds.
McInnes, Daniel M.; Kampbell, Don. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 516.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Gases |
Quantitative Analysis |
Applications of Chemistry
Analysis of Carbon Monoxide in Blood  Benjamin P. Huddle and Joseph C. Stephens
Qualitative and quantitative analysis of carbon monoxide in blood using the Conway diffusion method.
Huddle, Benjamin P.; Stephens, Joseph C. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 441.
Gases |
Toxicology |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Applications of Chemistry |
Forensic Chemistry
Stoichiometry of the Reaction of Magnesium with Hydrochloric Acid  Venkat Chebolu and Barbara C. Storandt
Using a pressure sensor to measure the production of hydrogen by a reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid.
Chebolu, Venkat; Storandt, Barbara C. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 305.
Stoichiometry |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Reactions
Incomplete Combustion with Candle Flames: A Guided-Inquiry Experiment in the First-Year Chemistry Lab  Joseph MacNeil and Lisa Volaric
Investigating a burning candle as an introduction to incomplete combustion, thermodynamics, kinetics, and gas chromatography.
MacNeil, Joseph; Volaric, Lisa. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 302.
Chromatography |
Gases |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Gas Chromatography
Teaching Chemistry Using From the Earth to the Moon  James G. Goll and Stacie L. Mundinger
Teaching chemistry using From the Earth to the Moon (an HBO original movie series).
Goll, James G.; Mundinger, Stacie L. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 292.
Electrochemistry |
Chemometrics |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Applications of Chemistry
A Novel Microscale Gas Generator  Jinhua Wang, Zaisheng Lu, and Changcun Zhao
Design of a microscale gas generator.
Wang, Jinhua; Lu, Zaisheng; Zhao, Changcun. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 181.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab
A Demonstration of Acid Rain and Lake Acidification: Wet Deposition of Sulfur Dioxide  Lisa M. Goss
Demonstration of the wet deposition of sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere.
Goss, Lisa M. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 39.
Acids / Bases |
Atmospheric Chemistry
Entropy Is Simple, Qualitatively  Frank L. Lambert
Explanation of entropy in terms of energy dispersal; includes considerations of fusion and vaporization, expanding gasses and mixing fluids, colligative properties, and the Gibbs function.
Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1241.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases
An Interactive Graphical Approach to Temperature Conversions  Jonathan Mitschele
Activity to demonstrate the relationship between the Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature scales by graphing measurements of English- and metric-unit thermometers.
Mitschele, Jonathan. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1235.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
LIMSport: Optimizing a Windows-Based Computer Data Acquisition and Reduction System for the General Chemistry Laboratory  Ed Vitz and Brenda P. Egolf
Project to develop a Windows/Excel data acquisition system for LIMSport (a mechanism for automatically acquiring data from a variety of sensors into a spreadsheet so that teachers and students only need spreadsheet skills to acquire and analyze data) and evaluate its effectiveness in promoting student learning.
Vitz, Ed; Egolf, Brenda P. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1060.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Learning Theories |
Chemometrics
Precision in Microscale Titration  Mono M. Singh, Cynthia B. McGowan, and Zvi Szafran
Comparing the precision of a 2-mL graduated pipet and 50-mL graduated buret in performing a microscale titration.
Singh, Mono M.; McGowan, Cynthia B.; Szafran, Zvi. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 941.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chemometrics |
Microscale Lab |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Precision in Microscale Titration  Julian L. Roberts Jr.
Comparing the precision of a 2-mL graduated pipet and 50-mL graduated buret in performing a microscale titration.
Roberts, Julian L., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 941.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chemometrics |
Microscale Lab |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Precision in Microscale Titration  Julian L. Roberts Jr.
Comparing the precision of a 2-mL graduated pipet and 50-mL graduated buret in performing a microscale titration.
Roberts, Julian L., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 941.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chemometrics |
Microscale Lab |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Experimental Design and Multiplexed Modeling Using Titrimetry and Spreadsheets  Peter de B. Harrington, Erin Kolbrich, and Jennifer Cline
Determining the acidity of three vinegar samples using multiplexed titrations and an MS Excel spreadsheet.
Harrington, Peter de B.; Kolbrich, Erin; Cline, Jennifer. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 863.
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Unknown Gases: Student-Designed Experiments in the Introductory Laboratory  John Hanson and Tim Hoyt
Investigation in which students must determine the identity of three unknown gases by developing their own tests.
Hanson, John; Hoyt, Tim. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 845.
Gases |
Qualitative Analysis |
Physical Properties
A Simple Experiment for the Determination of Molecular Weights of Gases Lighter Than Air  Van T. Lieu and Gene E. Kalbus
A simple method for the determination of molecular weights of gases lighter than air.
Lieu, Van T.; Kalbus, Gene E. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 473.
Gases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
Effects of Changing Climate on Weather and Human Activities (by Kevin E. Trenberth, Kathleen Miller, Linda Mearns, and Steven Rhodes)  Evan T. Williams
A short supplement focussed on the effects of changing climate on weather and human activities.
Williams, Evan T. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 433.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Nonmajor Courses |
Applications of Chemistry
Stratospheric Ozone Depletion (by Ann M. Middlebrook and Margaret A. Tolbert)  Evan T. Williams
A short supplement focussed on stratospheric ozone depletion.
Williams, Evan T. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 433.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Nonmajor Courses |
Applications of Chemistry
Nonlinear Fits of Standard Curves: A Simple Route to Uncertainties in Unknowns   Carl Salter and Robert de Levie
The problem of covariance in using calibration curves and a nonlinear least-squares procedure that permits a direct estimation of uncertainty without the need for covariance.
Salter, Carl; de Levie, Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 268.
Chemometrics
Some Unusual Applications of the "Error-Bar" Feature in Excel Spreadsheets  Kieran F. Lim
Paper demonstrating how the "error-bar" feature in Excel can be sued to produce high-quality graphs for university teaching, learning, and research.
Lim, Kieran F. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 135.
Chemometrics
Naturally Dangerous: Surprising Facts about Food, Health, and the Environment (by James P. Collman)   Harold H. Harris
Chemist's perspective on the topics of food, vitamins and minerals, herbal remedies, cancer and the environment, global warming, acid rain, ozone, and radiation.
Harris, Harold H. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 35.
Nonmajor Courses |
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Vitamins |
Applications of Chemistry
Just Breathe: The Oxygen Content of Air   JCE Editorial Staff
Students estimate the percent oxygen (volume) in air using steel wool in a test tube that is inverted in a beaker of water. Oxygen in the trapped air reacts with iron to form rust, and the water level rises inside the test tube; within 30-45 minutes, the majority of oxygen is consumed.
JCE Editorial Staff. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 512A.
Electrochemistry |
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction
Sink or Swim: The Cartesian Diver  K. David Pinkerton
Cartesian divers are a quick and simple way to illustrate relationships among pressure, volume, temperature, and buoyancy. The Activity could be used in connection with the concepts of gases and liquids and discussions of Boyle's, Charles's, and the ideal gas laws.
Pinkerton, K. David. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 200A.
Gases |
Physical Properties
Identifying Deficiencies in the Environmental Chemistry Educational Literature  Thi Hoa Tran, Stephen W. Bigger, Tony Kruger, John D. Orbell, Saman Buddhadasa, and Sebastian Barone
Study of chemistry textbooks and literature for materials relating to environmental chemistry, including water, air , and soil; and degree of integration of four traditional areas of chemistry (analytical, physical, inorganic, and organic) into environmental chemistry laboratory experiments.
Tran, Thi Hoa; Bigger, Stephen W.; Kruger, Tony; Orbell, John D.; Buddhadasa, Saman; Barone, Sebastian. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1693.
Agricultural Chemistry |
Learning Theories |
Atmospheric Chemistry
Cigarette Smoke Analysis Using an Inexpensive Gas-Phase IR Cell  N. Garizi, A. Macias, T. Furch, R. Fan, P. Wagenknecht, and K. A. Singmaster
A PVC gas cell used to collect and analyze cigarette smoke and car exhaust through IR spectroscopy.
Garizi, N.; Macias, A.; Furch, T.; Fan, R.; Wagenknecht, P.; Singmaster, K. A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1665.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Qualitative Analysis
Visualizing the Photochemical Steady State with UV-Sensitive Beads (re J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 77, 648A-648B)  Jerry A. Bell
Analysis of the temperature dependence of the color intensity of UV-sensitive beads.
Bell, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1594.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Kinetics |
Photochemistry |
Chemometrics
On Concepts of Partial Volume and Law of Partial Volume (re J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 238-240)  Myung-Hoon Kim
Supplementing the law of partial pressures with a law of partial volumes.
Kim, Myung-Hoon. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1594.
Gases |
Chemometrics |
Physical Properties
On Concepts of Partial Volume and Law of Partial Volume (re J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 238-240)  David W. Miller
Supplementing the law of partial pressures with a law of partial volumes.
Miller, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1594.
Gases |
Chemometrics |
Physical Properties
On the Importance of Ideality  Rubin Battino, Scott E. Wood, and Arthur G. Williamson
Analysis of the utility of ideality in gaseous phenomena, solutions, and the thermodynamic concept of reversibility.
Battino, Rubin; Wood, Scott E.; Williamson, Arthur G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1364.
Thermodynamics |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents
Experiencing and Visualizing the First Law of Thermodynamics: An In-Class Workshop  Pamela Mills, William V. Sweeney, and Waldemar Cieniewicz
A handheld device that illustrates the concepts of heat, work, energy transfer, and thermodynamic path.
Mills, Pamela; Sweeney, William V.; Cieniewicz, Waldemar. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1360.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Determination of the Universal Gas Constant, R. A Discovery Laboratory  David B. Moss and Kathleen Cornely
Discovery laboratory in which groups of students collect oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen gas over water and determine the value of the universal gas constant, R, using the ideal gas law.
Moss, David B.; Cornely, Kathleen. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1260.
Gases
Analysis of Success in General Chemistry Based on Diagnostic Testing Using Logistic Regression  Margaret J. Legg, Jason C. Legg, and Thomas J. Greenbowe
Estimating the probability of succeeding in general chemistry based on diagnostic or placement exam scores.
Legg, Margaret J.; Legg, Jason C.; Greenbowe, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1117.
Chemometrics |
Learning Theories |
Student / Career Counseling
Don't Be Tricked by Your Integrated Rate Plot!  Edward T. Urbansky
Using integrated rate plots to determine reaction order.
Urbansky, Edward T. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 921.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Learning Theories |
Chemometrics |
Rate Law
"Experiment with a Candle" without a Candle  Dusan Krnel and Sasa A. Glazar
Drawing water up into an inverted container without using the candle to demonstrate that the popular explanation for this phenomenon is flawed.
Krnel, Dusan; Glazar, Sasa A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 914.
Gases
An Alcohol Rocket Car--A Variation on the "Whoosh Bottle" Theme  Dean J. Campbell
Burning methanol in a wheeled milk jug.
Campbell, Dean J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 910.
Gases |
Thermodynamics
Laboratory Experiments on Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 5: Indirect H2S Remediation  J. G. Ibanez
Experiment to introduce students in general chemistry, environmental chemistry, or electrochemistry to the concept of indirect electrolysis, its application in environmental remediation schemes, the role of a mediator, and the application of redox chemistry concepts.
Ibanez, J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 778.
Electrochemistry |
Gases |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry
A Simple Method for Illustrating Uncertainty Analysis  Paul C. Yates
A fast and simple method for generating data for uncertainty analysis; includes statistical analysis and calculation of maximum probable error for a sample set of data.
Yates, Paul C. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 770.
Chemometrics |
Quantitative Analysis
Chemistry Report. MAA-CUPM Curriculum Foundations Workshop in Biology and Chemistry, Macalester College, November 2-5, 2000  Norman C. Craig
Chemists list specific knowledge and skills in mathematics needed by chemistry students and indicate whether mathematicians or chemists should deliver the instruction; the course level of the instruction and the use of technological aids are also designated.
Craig, Norman C. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 582.
Chemometrics |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Learning Theories
What's Been Happening to Undergraduate Mathematics  David M. Bressoud
An overview of some of the changes that have been occurring in undergraduate mathematics education; based on a workshop held by the Mathematical Association of America to determine what chemists expect their students to learn from undergraduate mathematics courses in terms of understanding, content, and use of technology.
Bressoud, David M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 578.
Learning Theories |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Chemometrics
Are Fizzing Drinks Boiling? A Chemical Insight from Chemical Education Research  Alan Goodwin
The suggestion that fizzing drinks are examples of liquids boiling at room temperature has proved to be controversial among both chemists and chemical educators. This paper presents a case for believing this everyday system to be a good example of a boiling solution and the consequent separation of carbon dioxide from the solution to exemplify fractional distillation.
Goodwin, Alan. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 385.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Understanding Solubility through Excel Spreadsheets  Pamela Brown
This article describes assignments related to the solubility of inorganic salts that can be given in an introductory general chemistry course. These assignments address the need for math, graphing, and computer skills in the chemical technology program by developing skill in the use of Microsoft Excel to prepare spreadsheets and graphs and to perform linear and nonlinear curve-fitting.
Brown, Pamela. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 268.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Chemometrics |
Precipitation / Solubility
A Simple Laboratory Experiment for the Determination of Absolute Zero  Myung-Hoon Kim, Michelle Song Kim, and Suw-Young Ly
A novel method that employs a remarkably simple and inexpensive apparatus and is based on the extrapolation of the volume of a given amount of dry air to zero volume after a volume of air trapped inside a 10-mL graduated cylinder is measured at various temperatures.
Kim, Myung-Hoon; Kim, Michelle Song; Ly, Suw-Young. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 238.
Gases |
Physical Properties |
Chemometrics
Disappearing-Reappearing Rabbit Trick: A New Twist to an Old Liquid Nitrogen Demonstration  Elaine K. Haub
A magic hat with a suitable container inserted holds the liquid nitrogen. Instead of a regular balloon, I use a balloon animal in the shape of a rabbit. The rabbit "disappears" as it is lowered into the hat and "reappears" when it is removed from the hat.
Haub, Elaine K. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 46.
Gases
JCE Classroom Activity: Out of "Thin Air": Exploring Phase Changes  John J. Vollmer
This Activity illustrates sublimation/deposition with para-dichlorobenzene (mothballs) and evaporation/condensation with water.
Vollmer, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 488A.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Physical Properties |
Solids |
Gases
Using a Computer Animation to Improve Students' Conceptual Understanding of a Can-Crushing Demonstration   Michael J. Sanger, Amy J. Phelps, and Jason Fienhold
This paper reports some of the misconceptions that were identified from these students' explanations. As a result of these misconceptions, a computer animation depicting the chemical processes occurring in the can-crushing demonstration was created.
Sanger, Michael J.; Phelps, Amy J.; Fienhold, Jason. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1517.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases
A Novel Experiment for Fast and Simple Determination of the Oxygen Content in the Air  Metodija Najdoski and Vladimir M. Petrusevski
The reaction between nitric oxide (NO) and oxygen is used for determination of the oxygen content in the air. The nitrogen dioxide thus produced is dissolved in water. The volume decrease of the gas enables quick and accurate enough determination of the O2 content. The results of 20 measurements give %O2 = 21.04  0.63.
Najdoski, Metodija; Petrusevski, Vladimir M. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1447.
Gases |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Atmospheric Chemistry
How Can an Instructor Best Introduce the Topic of Significant Figures to Students Unfamiliar with the Concept?  Richard A. Pacer
The focus of this paper is how best to introduce the concept of significant figures so that students find it meaningful before a stage is reached at which they become turned off. The approach described begins with measurements students are already familiar with from their life experiences and involves the students as active learners.
Pacer, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1435.
Learning Theories |
Nonmajor Courses |
Chemometrics
Determination of the Oxygen Content of Air  Per Christian Braathen
Determining the oxygen content of air using vinegar and steel wool.
Braathen, Per Christian. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1410.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases |
Quantitative Analysis
Interpretation of Second Virial Coefficient  Vivek Utgikar
Identifying the gel point of a polymer using a multimeter.
Utgikar, Vivek. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1409.
Kinetics |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Gases |
Thermodynamics
Pixel Conversion: A Simple Way to Extract Coordinates of Points from a Printed Graph  Christian Aymard and Randall B. Shirts
A very simple method is described for extracting the coordinates of points from printed graphs, student reports, or publications. One only needs a flatbed scanner and a desktop computer. This is a convenient and inexpensive alternative to the tedious traditional method using a ruler or to the more costly programs available commercially. A Windows program has been made available to perform the required operations.
Aymard, Christian; Shirts, Randall B. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1230.
Chemometrics
Potentiometric Determination of CO2 Concentration in the Gaseous Phase: Applications in Different Laboratory Activities  Eduardo Cortón, Santiago Kocmur, Liliana Haim, and Lydia Galagovsky
The first lab comprises the calibration of a CO2 potentiometric detector with gas mixtures. The CO2 and CO2-free air required for the gaseous samples are produced in the lab by an inexpensive and simple apparatus. In the second lab, the CO2 potentiometric device is used to measure CO2 uptake and release during different metabolic processes.
Cortón, Eduardo; Kocmur, Santiago; Haim, Liliana; Galagovsky, Lydia. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1188.
Electrochemistry |
Gases |
Quantitative Analysis |
Metabolism
Encouraging Meaningful Quantitative Problem Solving  Jeff Cohen, Meghan Kennedy-Justice, Sunny Pai, Carmen Torres, Rick Toomey, Ed DePierro, and Fred Garafalo
This paper describes the efforts of a group of teachers to help college freshman chemistry students and high school science students to improve their problem-solving skills. The presentation includes several sets of questions intended to elucidate ideas and to involve the reader in the process of reflecting upon his or her own problem-solving strategies.
Cohen, Jeff; Kennedy-Justice, Meghan; Pai, Sunny; Torres, Carmen; Toomey, Rick; DePierro, Ed; Garafalo, Fred. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1166.
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Chemometrics
A New Approach to Teaching Introductory Science: The Gas Module  Pamela Mills, William V. Sweeney, Robert Marino, and Sandra Clarkson
A lecture/laboratory module about the behavior of gases that is designed to expose students to the process of scientific discovery, not to teach the gas laws per se. The topic of gases is only the medium used to illustrate other important aspects of physical science: how to process experimental data and reduce it to symbolic mathematical relationships, how to evaluate the reliability of experimental data, and how to view the relationship between experimental data and scientific models.
Mills, Pamela A.; Sweeney, William V.; Marino, Robert; Clarkson, Sandra. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1161.
Gases
A Classroom Exercise in Sampling Technique  Michael R. Ross
A classroom hands-on demonstration has been developed that looks at the two important sampling considerations, sample size and non-homogeneous sample materials. This classroom activity makes use of readily available M&M candies for the sample size and NERDS for the non-homogeneous sample exercises.
Ross, Michael R. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1015.
Quantitative Analysis |
Chemometrics
Paradoxes, Puzzles, and Pitfalls of Incomplete Combustion Demonstrations  Ed Vitz
Paper is burned in a closed container containing sufficient oxygen to consume all the paper. Paradoxically, the flame expires while half of the paper remains. This demonstrates that thermodynamics or stoichiometry is insufficient to explain everyday chemical processes, and that kinetics is often necessary. The gases in the container are analyzed by GC before and after combustion, and the results are examined in detail.
Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1011.
Gases |
Kinetics |
Stoichiometry
Letters  
Points out that solid NaHSO3 does not exist.
Tudela, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 830.
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Carbohydrates
Illustrating Thermodynamic Concepts Using a Hero's Engine  Pedro L. Muiño and James R. Hodgson
A modified Hero's engine is used to illustrate concepts of thermodynamics and engineering design suitable for introductory chemistry courses and more advanced physical chemistry courses. This demonstration is suitable to illustrate concepts like gas expansion, gas cooling through expansion, conversion of heat to work, interconversion between kinetic energy and potential energy, and feedback mechanisms.
Muio, Pedro L.; Hodgson, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 615.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Spreadsheet Calculation of the Propagation of Experimental Imprecision  Robert de Levie
A spreadsheet is used to compute the propagation of imprecision, and a macro is described that will do this automatically.
de Levie, Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 534.
Chemometrics |
Quantitative Analysis |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
News from Online: The Power of the Voice  Carolyn Sweeney Judd
Useful online chemistry resources.
Judd, Carolyn Sweeney. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 299.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Gases
Gas Me Up, or, A Baking Powder Diver  Henry R. Derr, Tricia Lewis, and Bretton J. Derr
In this procedure, a pipet that repeatedly submerges and rises to the surface in a tub of water is produced from a beral pipet and baking powder. The procedure works well in outreach activities with children aged 4 to 40 and beyond.
Derr, Henry R.; Lewis, Tricia; Derr, Bretton J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 171.
Acids / Bases |
Gases
Determination of the Fundamental Electronic Charge via the Electrolysis of Water  Brittany Hoffman, Elizabeth Mitchell, Petra Roulhac, Marc Thomes, and Vincent M. Stumpo
In an illuminating experiment suitable for secondary school students, a Hoffman electrolysis apparatus is employed to determine the fundamental electronic charge. The volume and pressure of hydrogen gas produced via the electrolysis of water during a given time interval are measured.
Hoffman, Brittany; Mitchell, Elizabeth; Roulhac, Petra; Thomes, Marc; Stumpo, Vincent M. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 95.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Electrochemistry |
Gases |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Henry's Law and Noisy Knuckles  Doris R. Kimbrough
Presented here is the application of Henry's law to the noise associated with "cracking" knuckles. Gases dissolved in the synovial fluid in joints rapidly come out of solution as the joint is stretched and pressure is decreased. This "cavitation" produces a characteristic noise.
Kimbrough, Doris R. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1509.
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Applications of Chemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry
An Inexpensive Microscale Method for Measuring Vapor Pressure, Associated Thermodynamic Variables, and Molecular Weight  Jason C. DeMuro, Hovanes Margarian, Artavan Mkhikian, Kwang Hi No, and Andrew R. Peterson
Existing methods for measuring vapor pressure are too expensive or not quantitative enough for chemistry classes in secondary schools. Our method measures the vapor pressure inside a bubble trapped in a graduated microtube made from a disposable 1-mL glass pipet.
DeMuro, Jason C.; Margarian, Hovanes; Mkhikian, Artavan; No, Kwang Hi; Peterson, Andrew R. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1113.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Gases |
Microscale Lab |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Variations on the "Whoosh" Bottle Alcohol Explosion Demonstration Including Safety Notes  John J. Fortman, Andrea C. Rush, and Jennifer E. Stamper
The explosion or burning of methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, and isopropanol in large small-necked bottles when ignited with a match has been studied with respect to the nature of the alcohol, temperature, concentration dilutions with water, oxygen concentration, plastic versus glass bottles, and salts added for color.
Fortman, John J.; Rush, Andrea C.; Stamper, Jennifer E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1092.
Gases |
Alcohols
Relative Humidity  R. Bruce Martin
Daily we hear reports of relative humidity, yet most students remain unfamiliar with its import. This short article defines and describes the concept at several levels. A new, general interest, isobaric plot directly indicates the dependence of relative humidity on temperature.
Martin, R. Bruce. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1081.
Consumer Chemistry |
Gases |
Nonmajor Courses |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry
Predicting Acid-Base Titration Curves without Calculations  Dennis W. Barnum
In this paper a qualitative and systematic method for sketching titration curves is presented. Even the more complex cases such as salts or polyprotic acids and bases are treated just as easily as simple monoprotic acids. Having students predict the shape of titration curves from known equilibrium constants helps to focus attention on the general principles without distraction by the mathematics.
Barnum, Dennis W. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 938.
Acids / Bases |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Learning Theories |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics
Do pH in Your Head  Addison Ault
Every aqueous solution has a pH. Two factors determine this pH: the acidic or basic strength of the solute, and its concentration. When you use pKa values to express acidic and basic strength you can easily estimate the approximate pH of many aqueous solutions of acids, bases, and their salts and their buffers.
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 936.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Learning Theories |
Chemometrics |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
A More Dramatic Container to Crush by Atmospheric Pressure  Robert D. Meyers and Gordon T. Yee
The familiar demonstration of collapsing a can by filling it with water vapor and then sealing it and allowing it to cool is improved by performing it with a 20-L steel solvent drum instead.
Meyers, Robert D.; Yee, Gordon T. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 933.
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Ammonia Can Crush  Ed Vitz
When a 12-oz aluminum soft drink can filled with ammonia or hydrogen chloride gas is inverted and dipped into water, the rapidly dissolving gas evacuates the can and the can is crushed before water can be drawn into it. This demonstrates, among other things, the remarkable strength of hydrogen bonds.
Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 932.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Hydrogen Bonding
The Persistence of the Candle-and-Cylinder Misconception  James P. Birk and Anton E. Lawson
There is a persistent misconception that when a lighted candle is supported in a container of water and a closed cylinder is lowered over the candle, the candle is extinguished after a time by complete consumption of the oxygen in the cylinder, with a volume change corresponding to the amount of oxygen in the air. This misconception has appeared in the literature periodically for many years. Here, we present a number of experiments that refute this misconception.
Birk, James P.; Lawson, Anton E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 914.
Gases |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Reactions
Determination of Percent Oxygen in Air (author's reply)  Fang, Chin-Hsiang
Claim that a simple combustion reaction can be used to show the % oxygen in air.
Fang, Chin-Hsiang J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 898.
Atmospheric Chemistry
Determination of Percent Oxygen in Air  Parsons, Leonard
Claim that a simple combustion reaction cannot be used to show the % oxygen in air.
Parsons, Leonard J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 898.
Atmospheric Chemistry
The Methane Balloon  Walter H. Corkern and Elvin Hughes Jr.
The objectives are (i) to describe a novel method of inflating a balloon with methane, (ii) to show that methane is lighter than air, and (iii) to demonstrate the flammability of methane.
Corkern, Walter H.; Hughes, Elvin, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 794.
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Both Nylon and PET Fibers Burn Continuously under Atmospheric Conditions  Shouei Fujishige, Nagako Maebashi, and Mizue Miyauchi
In contrast to the descriptions in many textbooks, it was confirmed by taking two series of photographs that both nylon and PET fibers burn continuously even after the ignition flame has been removed. The photographs also show that a small spherical fire ball forms and occasionally leaves from the flame.
Fujishige, Shouei; Maebashi, Nagako; Miyauchi, Mizue. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 793.
Consumer Chemistry |
Materials Science |
Gases |
Laboratory Management
Correction to The Bobbing Bird: Correction to J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 355  H. D. Gesser
Difficulties in improving safety of original demonstration.
Gesser, Hyman D. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 757.
Atmospheric Chemistry
Advertising in this Issue  
Caution when burning hydrogen / oxygen mixtures.
J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 757.
Atmospheric Chemistry
Pressure and Stoichiometry  Charles E. Roser and Catherine L. McCluskey
This experiment determines the stoichiometry of the reaction of a carbonate or hydrogen carbonate and HCl by measuring the pressure of the CO2 produced using a Vernier pressure sensor, TI CBL interface, and a TI-82/83 graphing calculator. Various amounts of the carbonate are reacted with a constant amount of HCl.
Roser, Charles E.; McCluskey, Catherine L. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 638.
Stoichiometry |
Gases |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
A Demonstration of Ideal Gas Principles Using a Football  William D. Bare and Lester Andrews
A class demonstration and cooperative learning activity in which the ideal gas law is applied to determine the volume of a football is described. The mass of an air-filled football is recorded at two or more pressures, and students are asked to use these data to solve problems involving the volume, pressure, and mass of the football and the molecular weight of the gas in the ball.
Bare, William D.; Andrews, Lester. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 622.
Gases |
Applications of Chemistry
Precision and Accuracy in Measurements (the author replies)  Treptow, Richard S.
Relation between instrument resolution and skill.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 471.
Chemometrics |
Instrumental Methods
Precision and Accuracy in Measurements  Thomsen, Volker
The difference between instrument resolution and precision.
Thomsen, Volker J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 471.
Chemometrics |
Instrumental Methods
Alka Seltzer Poppers: An Interactive Exploration  A. M. Sarquis and L. M. Woodward
This experiment illustrates concepts concerning the pressure-volume relationship of gases, solubility relationships of both gases and solids in liquids relative to temperature, the kinetics of the reaction of Alka Seltzer in water, and acid-base chemistry.
Sarquis, Arlyne M.; Woodward, L. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 385.
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Kinetics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
An Easy and Effective Classroom Demonstration of Population Distributions  Marjorie A. Jones
Using a simple experimental design and easily obtained materials, a classroom experiment was conducted to demonstrate normal-distribution behavior for a population. We used popcorn and a hot-air popper. Popped kernels were collected with time and data were plotted as popped kernels per time interval versus time. The data clearly showed a normal (Gaussian) distribution.
Jones, Marjorie A. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 384.
Chemometrics
The Ammonia Smoke Fountain: An Interesting Thermodynamic Adventure  M. Dale Alexander
The ammonia smoke fountain demonstration utilizes a modification of the apparatus used in the standard ammonia fountain. The modification allows for the introduction of hydrogen chloride gas into a flask of ammonia rather than water. The flow rate of hydrogen chloride gas into the flask in the smoke fountain is not constant, but periodic; that is, the smoke puffs from the end of the tube. This unexpected behavior elicits an interesting thermodynamic explanation.
Alexander, M. Dale. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 210.
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Precipitation / Solubility
The Fizz Keeper, a Case Study in Chemical Education, Equilibrium, and Kinetics  Reed Howald
The chemistry of the loss of carbonation from carbonated beverages on storage is considered. Increasing the pressure of CO2(g) will restore carbonation, but an increase in pressure adding air should not affect the equilibria. It can and does, however, affect the kinetics-the rate at which a new equilibrium is established. Thus the Fizz Keeper is effective for storage of resealed pop containers for hours, but not for periods of weeks or months.
Howald, Reed. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 208.
Transport Properties |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Kinetics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Effect of Sample Size on Sampling Error: An Experiment for Introductory Analytical Chemistry  Joseph E. Vitt and Royce C. Engstrom
Students acquire samples of various size from a binary population, calculate the relative standard deviations for each sample size, and compare these results with those predicted by the binomial distribution. This experiment gives excellent agreement for the pooled student data, and the results show the expected decrease in sampling error as the sample size increases.
Vitt, Joseph E.; Engstrom, Royce C. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 99.
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Chemometrics
CHEMiCALC (4000161) and CHEMiCALC Personal Tutor (4001108), Version 4.0 (by O. Bertrand Ramsay)  Scott White and George Bodner
CHEMiCALC is a thoughtfully designed software package developed for use by high school and general chemistry students, who will benefit from the personal tutor mode that helps to guide them through unit conversion, empirical formula, molecular weight, reaction stoichiometry, and solution stoichiometry calculations.
White, Scott; Bodner, George M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 34.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
On the Surface: Mini-Activities Exploring Surface Phenomena  
Activities listed can be used to introduce surface tension and surface area when discussing liquids and gases.
J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 176A.
Surface Science |
Liquids |
Gases |
Kinetics
Temperature Scale Conversion as a Linear Equation: True Unit Conversion vs Zero-Offset Correction  Reuben Rudman
The equation used for the interconversion between the Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature scales is in reality the general case of the straight-line equation (y = ax + b). This equation is the paradigm for many of the calculations taught in introductory chemistry.
Rudman, Reuben. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1646.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
A Precise Method for Determining the CO2 Content of Carbonate Materials  Donald L. Pile, Alana S. Benjamin, Klaus S. Lackner, Christopher H. Wendt, and Darryl P. Butt
The design and use of a buret apparatus for CO2 gas capture and mass determination are described. The derivation of a comprehensive equation to determine the CO2 mass and percent carbonation of the material is outlined. Experimental factors such as temperature and pressure, including elevation effects, and apparatus parameters are discussed and incorporated into one general equation.
Pile, Donald L.; Benjamin, Alana S.; Lackner, Klaus S.; Wendt, Christopher H.; Butt, Darryl P. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1610.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Quantitative Analysis
Generating Water-Soluble Noxious Gases: An Overhead Projector Demonstration  Sally Solomon, Maria Oliver-Hoyo, and Chinhyu Hur
A simple, inexpensive apparatus to generate and collect water-soluble noxious gases as an overhead projector demonstration can be made from two small beakers and a Petri dish. The detection and generation of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide are described.
Solomon, Sally; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Hur, Chinhyu. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1581.
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Carbohydrates |
Toxicology
Modeling Nuclear Decay: A Point of Integration between Chemistry and Mathematics  Kent J. Crippen and Robert D. Curtright
A four-part activity utilizing a graphing calculator to investigate nuclear stability is described. Knowledge acquired through the activity provides background for answering the societal question of using nuclear materials for energy production.
Crippen, Kent J.; Curtright, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1434.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Chemometrics
Gas Experiments with Plastic Soda Bottles  Patrick Kavanah and Arden P. Zipp
The construction and use of a new device to study gases is described. The device, which is made from a plastic soda bottle and an automobile tire valve, can be used to demonstrate that air has mass, find the mass of the "evacuated" device, determine the molar mass of air and other gases, investigate the pressure-volume relationship, and build a cloud chamber.
Kavanah, Patrick; Zipp, Arden P. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1405.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The Best of Chem 13 News  Kathy Thorsen
A variety of suggestions for instructional activities in introductory chemistry from Chem 13 News.
Thorsen, Kathy. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1368.
Microscale Lab |
Gases |
Stoichiometry
A Simple, Transparent Fume Hood  John Fredericks
An inexpensive transparent fume hood can be constructed from a clear-plastic two-liter soft drink bottle that is cut just above the base. A length of vacuum tubing is secured to the opening of the bottle using black electrical tape. The tubing is then connected to a water aspirator.
Fredericks, John. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1299.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Laboratory Management
Chemistry in the Public Domain (the author replies)  Toby, Sidney
Mixtures of ammonia-air can be explosive.
Toby, Sidney J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1087.
Gases
Chemistry in the Public Domain  Odom, John L.
Mixtures of ammonia-air and methylene chloride-air can be explosive.
Odom, John L. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1087.
Gases
Experimentally Determining the Molar Mass of Carbon Dioxide Using a Mylar Balloon  Barbara Albers Jackson and David J. Crouse
The molar mass of carbon dioxide was experimentally determined using a Mylar balloon. Mylar balloons are lightweight, have a fixed definite volume, and require minimal additional pressure for inflation. Using the Ideal Gas Equation, the number of moles of air in the balloon was calculated.
Jackson, Barbara Albers; Crouse, David J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 997.
Gases |
Physical Properties
There Seems To Be Uncertainty about the Use of Significant Figures in Reporting Uncertainties of Results  Julio F. Caballero and Delphia F. Harris
A cursory review of two journals indicates that uncertainties in experimental results are not consistently reported in the literature with the correct number of significant figures. The problem seems more frequent in computer generated results in both chemical education and research articles. Examples of published values with uncertainty inappropriately reported are included along with the appropriate rounding.
Caballero, Julio F.; Harris, Delphia F. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 996.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Learning Theories |
Chemometrics
Precision and Accuracy in Measurements: A Tale of Four Graduated Cylinders  Richard S. Treptow
The concepts of precision and accuracy help students understand that uncertainty accompanies even our best scientific measurements. A model experiment can be used to distinguish the two terms. The experiment uses four graduated cylinders which give measurements of different accuracy and precision. Such terms as mean, range, standard deviation, error, and true value are defined through an illustration.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 992.
Quantitative Analysis |
Chemometrics
Precision and Accuracy (the authors reply, 2)  Midden, W. Robert
Rounding-off rules and significant figures.
Midden, W. Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 971.
Chemometrics
Precision and Accuracy (the authors reply, 1)  Guare, Charles J.
Rounding-off rules and significant figures.
Guare, Charles J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 971.
Chemometrics
Precision and Accuracy (3)  Rustad, Douglas
Rounding-off rules and significant figures.
Rustad, Douglas J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 970.
Chemometrics
Precision and Accuracy (1)  Sykes, Robert M.
Standard procedures for determining and maintaining significant figures in calculations.
Sykes, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 970.
Chemometrics
Percent Composition and Empirical Formula - A New View  George L. Gilbert
A new method of obtaining the empirical formula for a compound from its percent composition is proposed. The method involves the determination of a minimum molar mass for the compound based on the percentage of each element, obtaining the lowest common molar mass and using this data to calculate the integer values used in writing the empirical formula.
Gilbert, George L. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 851.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Thermal Physics (and Some Chemistry) of the Atmosphere  Stephen K. Lower
An exploration of how the temperature of the atmosphere varies with altitude can serve as a useful means of illustrating some important principles relating to the behavior of gases and to the absorption and transformation of radiant energy.
Lower, Stephen K. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 837.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases
Vapor Pressure Lowering by Nonvolatile Solutes  Gavin D. Peckham
This short article highlights a fundamental error that is entrenched in introductory chemistry textbooks. It is true that the addition of a nonvolatile solute causes a lowering in the vapor pressure of a solution. The error lies in attributing this vapor pressure lowering to the "blocking" of surface sites by nonvolatile particles. This is a totally fallacious argument for a number of reasons and the true explanation is to be found in the entropy changes that occur as a nonvolatile solute is added to a solution.
Peckham, Gavin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 787.
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics
Saving Your Students' Skin. Undergraduate Experiments that Probe UV Protection by Sunscreens and Sunglasses  James R. Abney and Bethe A. Scalettar
This article describes absorption spectroscopy experiments that illustrate the mechanism of action of sunscreens and sunglasses and that highlight the differences between different products. The experiments are well suited to incorporation into an undergraduate science laboratory and will expose students to absorption phenomena in a familiar context with substantial environmental and medical relevance.
Abney, James R.; Scalettar, Bethe A. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 757.
Photochemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Spectroscopy
Photocatalytic Degradation of a Gaseous Organic Pollutant  Jimmy C. Yu and Linda Y. L. Chan
A simple and effective method to demonstrate the phenomenon of photocatalytic degradation of a gaseous organic pollutant was developed. Titanium dioxide (anatase) was used as the photocatalyst, and sunlight was found to be an effective light source for the activation of TiO2. The organic pollutant degrade in this demonstration was a common indoor air pollutant, dichloromethane.
Yu, Jimmy C.; Chan, Linda Y. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 750.
Catalysis |
Photochemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Why Does Helium Have 92% of the Lifting Power of Hydrogen if It Has Twice the Density?  David W. Ball
The answer to the question "Why Does Helium Have 92% of the Lifting Power of Hydrogen if It Has Twice the Density?" is discussed.
Ball, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 726.
Gases |
Physical Properties
Production of Numerical Chemical Problems Using a Spreadsheet  Peter G. Hall
The use of spreadsheets for "personalized" assignments. These assignments take the form of printed chemical problems such that every student has different numerical data. The problem sets make a challenging student introduction to word processing and spreadsheet use.
Hall, Peter G. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 243.
Chemometrics
A Simplified Determination of Percent Oxygen in Air  Chin-Hsiang Fang
A simple, safe, and rapid experiment for determining the percent of oxygen in air is given.
Fang, Chin-Hsiang. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 58.
Gases |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
A Modified Hydrogen/Oxygen Balloon Demonstration  Ian J. McNaught
Using a ratio of 1:2 volumes of hydrogen and oxygen for balloons as instead of a 2:1 ratio for safety.
McNaught, Ian J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 52.
Gases |
Reactions
The Chemistry Maths Book (by Erich Steiner)   C. Michael McCallum
The Chemistry Maths Book contains all the mathematical methods that 99% of chemists would need. Designed as a text for an actual Maths for Chemists course, it is laid out in a logical progression from simple (decimals, algebra, and functions) to the more complicated but no less important (matrix algebra, differential equations, and matrix eigenvalue problems). It seems well suited both for its stated purpose and as a "brush-up" book for undergraduates, graduate students, and others.
McCallum, C. Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1400.
Chemometrics |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
On Laboratory Work  Dave Olney
Suggestions for maximizing learning in the laboratory.
Olney, Dave. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1343.
Gases |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Microscale Lab
Formation and Dimerization of NO2 A General Chemistry Experiment  April D. Hennis, C. Scott Highberger, and Serge Schreiner*
A general chemistry experiment which illustrates Gay-Lussac's law of combining volumes. Students are able to determine the partial pressures and equilibrium constant for the formation and dimerization of NO2. The experiment readily provides students with data that can be manipulated with a common spreadsheet.
Hennis, April D.; Highberger, C. Scott; Schreiner, Serge. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1340.
Gases |
Equilibrium |
Quantitative Analysis |
Stoichiometry
A Note on Covariance in Propagation of Uncertainty  Edwin F. Meyer
It is pointed out that whenever both the slope and the intercept are used in calculating a physical quantity from a linear regression, propagation of error must include the covariance as well as the variances. The point is illustrated with a calculation of the boiling point of water from the parameters of the lnP vs 1/T fit. If the covariance is omitted from the propagation of error, the estimate of uncertainty is unreasonably large.
Meyer, Edwin F. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1339.
Chemometrics
Spreadsheet Applications in Chemistry Using Microsoft Excel by Dermot Diamond and Venita C. A. Hanratty  Jeffery A. Greathouse
Provides chemistry instructors with an introduction to Excel and its applications in chemistry.
Greathouse, Jeffery A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1279.
Chemometrics
MathBrowser: Web-Enabled Mathematical Software with Application to the Chemistry Curriculum, v 1.0  Jack G. Goldsmith
MathBrowser, a freeware web-enabled derivative of the MathCad mathematical software (MathSoft Inc., Cambridge, MA), is designed to reconcile the problem of how to distribute mathematically rich information over the WWW and to maintain interactivity for the end user.
Goldsmith, Jack G. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1164.
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Chemometrics
Graham's Law and Perpetuation of Error  Stephen J. Hawkes
Grahams Laws of effusion and diffusion are used in recent articles for traditional experiments to which they do not in fact apply and for which they give the wrong answer.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1069.
Gases |
Chemometrics |
Transport Properties
Chemical Behavior  Paul G. Jasien
In order to increase student understanding of the seemingly confusing behavior of chemical substances involved in environmental chemistry, an analogy between chemical and human behavior is presented. The analogy focuses on how the same individual can behave differently due to his/her social surroundings.
Jasien, Paul G. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 943.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nonmajor Courses |
Consumer Chemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry
Kinetics Studies in a Washing Bottle  John Teggins and Chris Mahaffy
The kinetics of the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide using iodide ion in aqueous solution is studied in sealed completely-filled washing bottles.
Teggins, John; Mahaffy, Chris. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 566.
Kinetics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Gases
A U-Tube Experiment To Discover the Curve in Boyle's Law  Thomas G. Richmond and Amy Parr
A discovery-style experiment is described to enable introductory chemistry students to determine the pressure versus volume behavior of a gas over a wide pressure range to "discover" Boyle's Law.
Richmond, Thomas G.; Parr, Amy. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 414.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Rounding Numbers: Why the "New System" Doesn't Work  W. Robert Midden
This paper explains a correction to the rounding rule previously published in this Journal. The earlier article reported that the best way to round numbers is to always round up when the first digit dropped is 5. However, this will lead to accumulation of error when errors are averaged.
Midden, W. Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 405.
Chemometrics
Sensitivity to Experimental Parameters via Spreadsheets  B. R. Sundheim
In spreadsheet computations wherever the functional dependence of calculated results on experimental quantities is obscure, sensitivities may be obtained by testing the effects of variations in relevant inputs. An example is given where Hess' law is explored calorimetrically.
Sundhein, B. R. . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 328.
Chemometrics
A Simple Boyle's Law Experiment  Don L. Lewis
Student-conducted experiments over a range of pressures from about 14 psi to about 120 psi can safely and accurately be made utilizing a 60 ml syringe and an ordinary bathroom scale. No pressure gauge is required and no value for initial pressure in the syringe (near atmospheric pressure) need be assumed.
Lewis, Don L. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 209.
Gases
Egg in the Bottle (2)  Moran, Michael
The cause of the pressure drop in the bottle is due to the cooling of high-temperature gases.
Moran, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A189.
Gases
Egg in the Bottle (1)  DeLorenzo, Ronald
The cooling of gas and the condensation of water vapor must be considered in addition to the loss of oxygen in reducing the pressure inside the glass bottle.
DeLorenzo, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A188.
Gases
The Use of PTFE Membranes for the Construction of Semimicroscale Gas Reactors  Schallies, Michale; Schnelle, Hans-Otto; Kunze, Klaus
The membranes are employed to separate reaction compartments, where gas-evolving reactions take place, from solutions of reagents needed for qualitative or quantitative determinations of the gases. The PTFE membranes allow free flow of gases while they prevent the passage of water.
Schallies, Michale; Schnelle, Hans-Otto; Kunze, Klaus J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A128.
Gases |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab
Four Programs for Windows: Abstract of Volume 4D, Number 2: Alkanes in Motion  Jae Hyun Kim
Alkanes in Motion depicts the molecular motion of hydrocarbons in the gas phase. Four animations from the collection are presented here. These four animations consist of two animations each of hexane and octadecane, one animation calculated to show translational motion and one to show vibrational motion.
Kim, Jae Hyun. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1079.
Molecular Modeling |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Gases
Notes on Vapor Pressure Equilibria Measurements  Albert G. Krieger, John W. Henderson
Freshman students at our institution use manometers and 24/40 ground-glass distillation apparatus (abandoned by our organic chemistry classes) to measure boiling points at reduced pressures. We have found that the availability of state-of-the-art equipment need not limit the ability to teach and demonstrate fundamental principles
Krieger, Albert G.; Henderson, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1039.
Gases |
Physical Properties
Oxygen from Hydrogen Peroxide: An Experimental Modification  James H. Burness
This paper describes a simple modification to the generation of oxygen gas experiment which eliminates the need for a pencil coated with petroleum jelly and dry yeast. This elimination not only prevents falling pieces of yeast from prematurely starting the reaction, but at the same time makes the reaction faster and simplifies cleanup.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 851.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Microscale Lab
A Simple and Low-Cost Air Sampler  Sashi Saxena Ratna and Pramrod Upadhyay
In this article, an air sampler kit is presented that can be assembled from locally available household materials. The reliability of the sampler kit is also established.
Ratna, Shashi Saxena; Upadhyay, Pramod. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 787.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis
Interactive Computer Visualization in the Introductory Chemistry Curriculum  Victoria M. Bragin
This project explores the use of technological innovations to facilitate learning in introductory chemistry courses by those with a poor academic background, while also challenging those prepared to master the curriculum.
Bragin, Victoria M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 747.
Gases |
Rate Law |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Electrochemistry
SIRS: Simulations and Interactive Resources, III  Martin, John S.
Simulations and Interactive Resources (SIRs) are designed to support interactive lectures in introductory chemistry. This third issue of SIRs includes five new SIRs as well as updated and final versions of all previously published SIRs.
Martin, John S. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 722.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Reactions |
Electrochemistry |
Kinetics
Relative rates of effusion through punctured balloons  Deese, William C.; Washburn, Anna Marie
A simple method of demonstrating relative rates of gaseous effusion which requires no corrosive chemicals or glassware is reported here.
Deese, William C.; Washburn, Anna Marie J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 540.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases |
Rate Law
A Novel Approach to Teaching Electrochemical Principles  Paul Krause and Jerry Manion
To demonstrate that work may be done by a chemical reaction, a reaction producing a gas is carried out in a large, closed syringe. As the gas is generated, the syringe plunger is forced out.
Krause, Paul; Manion, Jerry. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 354.
Reactions |
Gases |
Thermodynamics
The Chemistry behind the Air Bag: High Tech in First-Year Chemistry  Andreas Madlung
The chemical process of air bag deployment provides practical applications of gas laws and stoichiometric equations appropriate for use in first-year chemistry.
Madlung, Andreas. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 347.
Applications of Chemistry |
Gases |
Stoichiometry
Curve Fitting: An Alternative Approach to Analyzing Kinetic Data in Introductory Chemistry  Coleman, William F.
183. The availability of high quality software for performing nonlinear curve fitting on microcomputers allows students to take an alternative approach to data analysis, one that concentrates on functional forms that may be more natural than some of the algebraic machinations necessary to render relationships into linear forms. An example of the application of such an approach to the analysis of kinetic data is presented in this paper.
Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 243.
Chemometrics |
Kinetics
Significant Figures in Graph Interpretation  Donald M. Graham
A means is derived for calculating the number of significant figures in the slope and intercept of an experimental linear graph. The method is based on the actual scatter in the points rather than on the nominal precision in the original data, and it can be used even by students who are mathematically fairly unsophisticated.
Graham, Donald M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 211.
Chemometrics
The Solubility of Gases in Liquids  L. H. Holmes, Jr.
This short article addresses the solubility of gases in liquids. It describes the confusion that appears in some general chemistry textbooks concerning the qualitative dependence of solubility on temperature for gases and offers an opinion on the subject.
Holmes, L. H., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 143.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Gases |
Liquids
Management of First-Year Chemistry Laboratories Using Spreadsheets  Collins, Frank E.; Williams, Charles W.
Use of spreadsheets to record, analyze, and assess experimental data.
Collins, Frank E.; Williams, Charles W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A182.
Chemometrics
Small-Scale Experiments Involving Gas Evolution  Brouwer, H.
Apparatus for measuring very small volume changes of gases and several experimental procedures involving the evolution of gases.
Brouwer, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A100.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Stoichiometry |
Acids / Bases |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab
A Simple and Convenient Microscale Procedure for Investigation of Charles' Law  Snyder, Donald M.
Experimental procedure for establishing temperature/volume relationship for a gas and determining the value of absolute zero using very simple equipment; includes sample data and analysis.
Snyder, Donald M. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A98.
Gases |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Microscale Lab
Experimental Methods: An Introduction to the Analysis of Data (Kirkup, Les)  
Title of interest.
J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A72.
Chemometrics
Dynamite Demo?  Dale D. Clyde
Caution for boiling-water-with-ice demonstration.
Clyde, Dale D. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1130.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Liquids |
Gases
Entertaining Chemistry  John F. Elsworth
"A Volcanic Serpent" (ammonium dichromate), "A Homemade Hydrogen Rocket", and "Johnny's Saga in Chemistry" (sulfuric acid + calcium carbonate) demonstrations.
Elsworth, John F. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1128.
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Gases
Dimensional Analysis: An Analogy to Help Students Relate the Concept to Problem Solving  James R. McClure
Using dominoes to help students understand the conversion factor method of dimensional analysis.
McClure, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1093.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Celsius to Fahrenheit--Quick and Dirty  Colin Hester
Simple algorithm for converting Celsius temperature to Fahrenheit temperature.
Hester, Colin. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1026.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
The Environmental Chemistry of Trace Atmospheric Gases  William C. Trogler
Information regarding the composition of trace gases in the Earth's atmosphere, changes in these amounts, their sources, and potential future impact on the environment.
Trogler, William C. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 973.
Gases |
Atmospheric Chemistry
A Systematic Experimental Test of the Ideal Gas Equation for the General Chemistry Laboratory  Luis H. Blanco and Carmen M. Romero
A series of experiments that study all the gas laws in an integrated fashion.
Blanco, Luis H.; Romero, Carmen M. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 933.
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
Ammonia Fountain and Density Gradient Column   Miroslav Proksa
Demonstration combining the ammonia fountain with an acid-base indicator density column.
Proksa, Miroslav. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 931.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Physical Properties |
Gases |
Acids / Bases
Those Baffling Subscripts  Arthur W. Friedel and David P. Maloney
Study of the difficulties students have in interpreting subscripts correctly and distinguishing atoms from molecules when answering questions and solving problems.
Friedel, Arthur W.; Maloney, David P. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 899.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
How to Determine the Best Straight Line  S. R. Logan
Consideration of situations in which the use of a least-squares regression is inappropriate.
Logan, S. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 896.
Chemometrics
The Relationship between the Number of Elements and the Number of Independent Equations of Elemental Balance in Inorganic Chemical Equations  R. Subramanian, N.K. Goh, and L. S. Chia
The criterion for determining whether a chemical equation can be balanced fully by the algebraic technique and its application.
Subramaniam, R.; Goh, N. K.; Chia, L. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 894.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Multiple Burning Heaps of Color-- An Elegant Variation of a Flame Test  Eugene T. Smith
Making the ammonia fountain demonstration faster and more reliable using a common syringe.
Smith, Eugene T. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 828.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
From Titration Data to Buffer Capacities: A Computer Experiment for the Chemistry Lab or Lecture  Roy W. Clark, Gary D. White, Judith M. Bonicamp, and Exum D. Watts
Provides titration curve data that students can plot and analyze using spreadsheets to develop student understanding of pH, derivatives, buffer capacity, and the behavior of dilute buffers; includes sample graphs and analysis.
Clark, Roy W.; White, Gary D.; Bonicamp, Judith M.; Watts, Exum D. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 746.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics
More Chemistry in a Soda Bottle: A Conservation of Mass Activity  Daniel Q. Duffy, Stephanie A. Shaw, William O. Bare, and Kenneth A. Goldsby
Conservation of mass activity using vinegar and baking soda in a 2-L soda bottle.
Duffy, Daniel Q.; Shaw, Stephanie A.; Bare, William D.; Goldsby, Kenneth A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 734.
Reactions |
Gases |
Acids / Bases
Kinetic Theory of Gases   Kathleen Cornely-Moss
Sample questions to test student understanding of the kinetic theory of gases.
Cornely-Moss, Kathleen. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 715.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases
Statistical Analysis Experiment for the Freshman Chemistry Lab   John C. Salzsieder
Procedure that provides sufficient data for statistical analysis by a freshman chemistry class.
Salzsieder, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 623.
Chemometrics
The Tube-in-Tube Solution for Gas Generation  Arnaiz, Francisco J.
Simple apparatus using a magnetic stir bar for adding a liquid reactant to a solid when the volume of the gas produced by the reaction must be determined.
Arnaiz, Francisco J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 572.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Buoyancy Programs; Viscosity of Polymer Solutions; Precision of Calculated Values  Bertrand, Gary L.
Software to simulate the determination of the density of solids; the preparation of polymer solutions and their time to flow through a viscometer; and a program to calculate the uncertainties of results given the input values.
Bertrand, Gary L. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 492.
Physical Properties |
Chemometrics
Rapid Calculation for Preparing Solutions  Calero, Diego Lozano
Streamlined method for dilution calculations.
Calero, Diego Lozano J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 424.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics
The MATCH Program: A Combined Mathematics and Chemistry Curriculum  Wink, Donald J.
A curriculum that integrates introductory chemistry with intermediate algebra.
Wink, Donald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 411.
Chemometrics
Spreadsheet-Controlled Potentiometric Analyses  Mullin, Jerome; Marquardt, Michael
173. Bits and pieces, 53. Discussion of collecting experimental data on spreadsheets directly from laboratory instruments.
Mullin, Jerome; Marquardt, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 400.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Chemometrics |
Potentiometry
A Transferable Gas Container (TGC): Improving the Balloon Inert Atmosphere Technique  Bohac, Andrej
Apparatus for transferring inert gases using toy balloon and rubber tubing.
Bohac, Andrej J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 263.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases
Experiments for Modern Introductory Chemistry: The Temperature Dependence of Vapor Pressure  Kildahl, Nicholas; Berka, Ladislav H.
Gas chromatography experiment that allows the discovery of the temperature dependence of the vapor pressure of a pure liquid; includes sample data and analysis.
Kildahl, Nicholas; Berka, Ladislav H. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 258.
Gases |
Liquids |
Gas Chromatography
Charles' Law of Gases: A Simple Experimental Demonstration  Petty, John T.
Experimental procedure for demonstrating Charles' law.
Petty, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 257.
Gases
A liquid-phase diffusion experiment  Nemetz, Thomas M.; Ball, David W.
Substituting liquid-phase diffusion of various aqueous ions for classic gas-phase diffusion of HCL and NH4Cl to illustrate Graham's Law of Diffusion; sample data and analysis included.
Nemetz, Thomas M.; Ball, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 244.
Transport Properties |
Gases
REACT: Exploring Practical Thermodynamic and Equilibrium Calculations  Ramette, Richard W.
Description of REACT software to balance complicated equations; determine thermodynamic data for all reactants and products; calculate changes in free energy, enthalpy, and entropy for a reaction; and find equilibrium conditions for the a reaction.
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 240.
Stoichiometry |
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics |
Chemometrics
A Charles' Law Experiment for Beginning Students  Rockley, Mark G.; Rockley, Natalie L.
Experimental procedure and simple apparatus for illustrating Charles' Law and determining absolute zero; sample data and analysis are included.
Rockley, Mark G.; Rockley, Natalie L. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 179.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Introducing Atmospheric Reactions: A Systematic Approach for Students  Baird, N. Colin
Outline of the dominant reactions that occur in air, particularly with regard to atmospheric pollutants.
Baird, N. Colin J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 153.
Photochemistry |
Free Radicals |
Atmospheric Chemistry
Measuring with a Purpose: Involving Students in the Learning Process  Metz, Patricia A.; Pribyl, Jeffrey R.
Constructivist learning activities for helping students to understand measurement, significant figures, uncertainty, scientific notation, and unit conversions.
Metz, Patricia A.; Pribyl, Jeffrey R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 130.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics |
Constructivism
Introducing Spreadsheet Data Analysis in the First-Semester Laboratory  Bushey, Michelle M.
Massing a collection of pennies in order to introduce statistical concepts about small and large data sets as well as introduce students to the use of spreadsheets.
Bushey, Michelle M. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A90.
Chemometrics
Spreadsheet Statistics  Simpson, John M.
Using computer spreadsheets to do statistical analysis on data.
Simpson, John M. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A88.
Chemometrics
Journey around a Phase Diagram  Kildahl, Nicholas K.
This paper deals in depth with questions that arise from phase diagrams in an introductory level chemistry course.
Kildahl, Nicholas K. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1052.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases |
Liquids
Soda Water, Supercooling or Freezing Point Depression?  Brooker, Murray H.
Composition, preparation, properties, and behavior of soda water.
Brooker, Murray H. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 903.
Gases |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Consumer Chemistry
A New Quantitative Pressure-Volume Experiment Based on the "Cartesian Diver"  Thompson, Judith U. S.; Goldsby, Kenneth A.
Modified Cartesian Diver to illustrate qualitatively and quantitatively the inverse, nonlinear relationship between gas pressure and volume.
Thompson, Judith U. S.; Goldsby, Kenneth A. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 801.
Gases
Dynamic Computer Simulation of the Motion of Gas Molecules  Turner, Dean E.
165. Bits and pieces, 52. A program that simulates the motion of gas particles and illustrates the effects of temperature, mass, and volume.
Turner, Dean E. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 784.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases
Simulations and Interactive Resources  Martin, John S.
12 Simulations and Interactive Resources (SIRs) including Periodic Table Displays, Electron Orbits and Orbitals, Electron Configurations, Barometers and Manometers, Vapor Pressure, Ideal Gas Behavior, Heat Capacity and Heat of Reaction, Approach to Equilibrium, The Law of Chemical Equilibrium, Titration Curves, Electrochemical Cells, and Rate of Reaction.
Martin, John S. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 667.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Gases |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Rate Law
Experiments for Modern Introductory Chemistry: Intermolecular Forces and Raoult's Law  Berka, Ladislav H.; Kildahl, Nicholas
Procedure that illustrates the liquid-vapor phase equilibrium of ideal and nonideal solutions.
Berka, Ladislav H.; Kildahl, Nicholas J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 613.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Gas Chromatography |
Gases |
Liquids |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents
Symbolic Algebra and Stoichiometry  DeToma, Robert P.
Applying symbolic algebra (instead of the factor-label method) to stoichiometry calculations.
DeToma, Robert P. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 568.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Demonstrating Simultaneous Boiling and Freezing (2)  Ellison, Mike
Simple method of demonstrating simultaneous boiling and freezing of water using reduced pressure.
Ellison, Mike J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 536.
Gases |
Physical Properties
Demonstrating Simultaneous Boiling and Freezing (1)  Hiza, Mark R.
Simple method of demonstrating simultaneous boiling and freezing of water using reduced pressure.
Hiza, Mark R. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 536.
Gases |
Physical Properties
Solubility of CO2: A Variation of the Experiment Measuring Standard Molar Volume of a Gas  Koster, David F.; Trimble, Russell F.
Carbon dioxide is formed in a molar volume experiment and the difference between the expected and actual volume of the gas is used to determine its solubility.
Koster, David F.; Trimble, Russell F. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 528.
Gases |
Precipitation / Solubility
A Simple Laboratory Experiment Using Popcorn To Illustrate Measurement Errors  Kimbrough, Doris R.; Meglen, Robert R.
This experiment focuses on the difference between accuracy and precision and demonstrates the necessity for multiple measurements of an experimental variable.
Kimbrough, Doris R.; Meglen, Robert R. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 519.
Chemometrics
Collapsing Containers  Brown, Justina L.; Battino, Rubin
Using plastic containers instead of metal containers in air pressure demonstrations.
Brown, Justina L.; Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 514.
Gases |
Physical Properties
Equilibrium Vapor Pressures: Comparing Pressures Obtained Using a Classical Method with Those from a Laboratory-Computer Interface  Berka, L. H.; Kildahl, N. K.; Bergin, S. J.; Burns, D. S.
Comparing vapor pressures of nitrogen using a glass syringe with those from a Chempac laboratory / computer interfacing system.
Berka, L. H.; Kildahl, N. K.; Bergin, S. J.; Burns, D. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 441.
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
A Simple Demonstration of Charles's Law  Szczepanski, Nadine
Heating an Erlenmeyer flask with a balloon stretched over its mouth.
Szczepanski, Nadine J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 433.
Gases
Inventory Control: Sampling and Analyzing Air Pollution: An Apparatus Suitable for Use in Schools  Rockwell, Dean M.; Hansen, Tony
Two variations of an air sampler and analyzer that are inexpensive, easy to construct, and highly accurate.
Rockwell, Dean M.; Hansen, Tony J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 318.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis
A Joke Based on Significant Figures  Ruekberg, Ben
Joke to introduce significant figures.
Ruekberg, Ben J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 306.
Chemometrics
Computer-interfaced apparatus to study osmosis and diffusion   Fox, John N.; Hershman, Kenneth; Peard, Terry
Two experiments that lend themselves particularly well to computer interfacing dealing with osmosis and gas diffusion.
Fox, John N.; Hershman, Kenneth; Peard, Terry J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A258.
Gases |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Solving equilibria problems with a graphing calculator: A robust method, free of algebra and calculus   Ruch, David K.; Chasteen, T. G.
The method of successive approximations is frequently introduced in freshman chemistry as a means for solving equilibrium equations. However, this often requires an understanding of calculus that is problematic for introductory chemistry students. An alternative method to solving such equations is to use graphic calculators to solve problems graphically.
Ruch, David K.; Chasteen, T. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A184.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Shell thickness of the copper-clad cent   Vanselow, Clarence H.; Forrester, Sherri R.
An exercise in determining the thickness of the copper layer of modern pennies presents the opportunities to combine good chemistry, instrumentation, simple curve fitting, and geometry to solve a simply stated problem.
Vanselow, Clarence H.; Forrester, Sherri R. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 1023.
Metals |
Quantitative Analysis |
Chemometrics
A new use for the candle and tumbler myth  Peckham, Gavin D.
In the time it takes to complete the popular but lengthy steel-wool experiment, this author proposes an activity that can be done to add an extra dimension to analyzing oxygen content. This combination of "good" and "bad" experiments proves to be a powerful pedagogical tool.
Peckham, Gavin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 1008.
Quantitative Analysis |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Pictorial analogies IX: Liquids and their properties   Fortman, John J.
Liquids on the molecular level, surface tension, and vapor pressure are explained through visual analogies of a class reunion and movie patrons.
Fortman, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 881.
Liquids |
Gases |
Surface Science
How thick/thin is your mirror?  McCullough, Thomas; Bell, Lisa
When a student reported that his/her water film was 6 cm thick, these authors felt a review of significant figures and dimensional analysis may be in order.
McCullough, Thomas; Bell, Lisa J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 851.
Chemometrics
A simple demonstration of the law of combining volumes   DuPre, Donald B.
This demonstration is based on the reaction of two volumes of nitric oxide reacting with one volume of molecular oxygen to produce two volumes of nitrogen dioxide.
DuPre, Donald B. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 849.
Gases
Measurement scales: Changing Celsius to Kelvin is not just a unit conversion   Nordstrom, Brian H.
The key to understanding the difference between Celsius and Kelvin lies in the different types of measurement scales. Students may have an easier time manipulating equations (such as gas laws) if they knew the difference between these scales.
Nordstrom, Brian H. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 827.
Chemometrics |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases
Statistical analysis of errors: A practical approach for an undergraduate chemistry lab: Part 1. The concepts  Guedens, W. J.; Yperman, J.; Mullens, J.; Van Poucke, L. C.; Pauwels, E. J.
A concise and practice-oriented introduction to the analysis and interpretation of measurement and errors.
Guedens, W. J.; Yperman, J.; Mullens, J.; Van Poucke, L. C.; Pauwels, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 776.
Chemometrics
Introducing probabilistic concepts in chemistry: The preparation of 10-24 M solution as a limiting case  de Vicente, M. Sastre
A straightforward dilution experiment that can be used as the starting point for establishing a link between chemistry and concepts of probability theory.
de Vicente, M. Sastre J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 674.
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics
Proper glove box etiquette   Roper, Gerald C.
Author defends his activity to a critique raised in an earlier letter in this Journal.
Roper, Gerald C. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 520.
Gases |
Atmospheric Chemistry
Proper glove box etiquette   Senn, Peter.
Additional considerations for an activity that appeared in this Journal in June, 1991 page 508.
Senn, Peter. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 519.
Gases
To bubble or not to bubble: Demonstrating Boyle's law   Hughes, Elvin, Jr.; Holmes, L. H., Jr.
A simple demonstration to introduce pressure.
Hughes, Elvin, Jr.; Holmes, L. H., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 492.
Gases
AnswerSheets  Cornelius, Richard
Review of a spreadsheet-based program that has modules on significant figures, VSEPR structures, stoichiometry, and unit conversions.
Cornelius, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 460.
VSEPR Theory |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
A mole of M&M's   Merlo, Carmela; Turner, Kathleen E.
Engaging students by asking the question: How thick would the layer of M&M candies be if we covered the continental United States with a mole of these candies? Compare this to a mole of water.
Merlo, Carmela; Turner, Kathleen E. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 453.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
An efficient and inexpensive device for measurement of gas volume  Lieu, Van T.
Diagram and description of a device for measuring gas volume that yields good results.
Lieu, Van T. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 420.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
AnswerSheets  Cornelius, Richard
Review of a spreadsheet-like program that includes modules on significant figures, conversions, stoichiometry, and VSEPR structures.
Cornelius, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 387.
VSEPR Theory |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
How vacuum cleaners pick up paper: Demonstrating the relationship between air pressure and vacuums   Neils, Thomas L.
A demonstration to introduce the study of air pressure in general chemistry.
Neils, Thomas L. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 327.
Gases
Revealing the secret of the Arctic bomb   Pearson, Earl F.
Arctic bombs and hurricanes can appear to be contradictory to gas law concepts commonly taught to chemistry students. While these phenomena can be explained as applications of simple gas laws, the explanations can be more effective if an apparent contradiction is drawn between students' understanding and the observed pressure-temperature relationship in these two examples.
Pearson, Earl F. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 315.
Gases |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Empirical formulas from atom ratios: A simple method to obtain the integer factors of a rational number  Weltin, E.
Most textbooks advise students to use a method tantamount to trial and error when they encounter a ratio in empirical formula calculations where it is not immediately apparent what the coefficients should be. The author describes a simple procedure that is an effective way to find the integer factors.
Weltin, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 280.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Measuring Avogadro's number on the overhead projector   Solomon, Sally; Hur, Chinhyu
A Petri dish filled with water and stearic acid dissolved in petroleum ether upon an overhead projector can be used to introduce the topic of Avogadro's number.
Solomon, Sally; Hur, Chinhyu J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 252.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
Using monetary analogies to teach average atomic mass   Last, Arthur M.; Webb, Michael J.
Some strategies to overcome the frequent problem novice students have with calculating average atomic mass.
Last, Arthur M.; Webb, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 234.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
Relative atomic mass and the mole: A concrete analogy to help students understand these abstract concepts   de Sanabia, Josefina Arce
Suggestions on how to improve student understandings of the mathematical idea of "ratio" to enhance conceptual understanding of this fundamental chemistry concept.
de Sanabia, Josefina Arce J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 233.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
Concept learning versus problem solving: There is a difference   Nakhleh, Mary B.; Mitchell, Richard C.
Previous studies indicate that there is little connection between algorithmic problem solving skills and conceptual understanding. The authors provide some ways to evaluate students along a continuum of low-high algorithmic and conceptual problem solving skills. The study shows that current lecture method teaches students to solve algorithms rather than teaching chemistry concepts.
Nakhleh, Mary B.; Mitchell, Richard C. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 190.
Chemometrics |
Learning Theories |
Student-Centered Learning
An Investigative Density Experiment   Samsa, Richard A.
A laboratory exercise about density that is engaging and allows students to use higher-level thinking skills and develop a plan to solve a problem.
Samsa, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 149.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Chemometrics |
Physical Properties
More on the Question of Significant Figures  Clase, Howard J.
Because so many students have a hard time understanding what significant figures are all about, this author developed a method using "?" to substitute for insignificant zeros. This helps many students finally grasp this convention.
Clase, Howard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 133.
Chemometrics
Equilibrium Calculator  Allendoerfer, Robert
The equilibrium calculator can calculate the equilibrium concentrations of all reagents in an arbitrary chemical reaction with as many as five reactants and products.
Allendoerfer, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 126.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Sulfur Hexafluoride: Classroom Uses for an Unusual Compound  Sullivan, Dan M.
A profile of one of the heaviest known gases and its possible safe uses in the classroom.
Sullivan, Dan M. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 100.
Gases |
Enrichment / Review Materials
LIMSport (II): Use of the Interfaced Balance for Pressure Measurements, Streamlined Syntheses, and Titrations  Vitz, Ed
145. LIMSport facilitates direct acquisition of data from a variety of sensors into a spreadsheet.. This article explores the use of LIMSport in understanding gas laws.
Vitz, Ed J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 63.
Gases |
Instrumental Methods
Ideas of Equality and Ratio: Mathematical Basics for Chemistry and the Fallacy of Unitary Conversion   Ochiai, El-Ichiro.
The author argues against dimensional analysis (referred to as the "unitary conversion method" in this article) and champions the more elegant "ratio" or "equality" paradigms as a way to help students make sense of chemical equations and "de-algorithmize" chemical calculations at the introductory level.
Ochiai, El-Ichiro. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 44.
Chemometrics
Is Dimensional Analysis the Best We Have to Offer?  Canagaratna, Sebastian G.
Dimensional analysis is a unit based approach while the alternative, "method of equations" is a relations-based approach to solving mathematical problems. The author argues that quantitative chemistry involves relationships between quantities and not units, making the later method more pedagogically sound.
Canagaratna, Sebastian G. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 40.
Chemometrics
Atmospheric smog analysis in a balloon using FTIR spectroscopy: A novel experiment for the introductory laboratory   Amey, Ralph L.
The author has developed a simple experiment that examines and identifies some of the components of Los Angeles air by FTIR spectroscopy using an inexpensive toy balloon as a sample gas cell.
Amey, Ralph L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A148.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
IR Spectroscopy |
Gases
Applying a simple linear least-squares algorithm to data with uncertainties in both variables  Ogren, Paul J.; Norton, J. Russell
There are cases in which it is desirable to find an optimum linear least-squares fit to data with significant uncertainties in both the x and y variables.
Ogren, Paul J.; Norton, J. Russell J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A130.
Chemometrics
Gas reactions in plastic bags: Relating laboratory observations to the atomic-molecular model  Robinson, Maurice; Barrow, Gordon M.
Carrying out chemical reactions in Ziplock bags to investigate a variety of chemical concepts.
Robinson, Maurice; Barrow, Gordon M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1026.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Photochemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Physical Properties
Determining the thermal expansion coefficient of gases  Lehmann, Jochen K.
The authors improved the design of the apparatus and extended the experimental task on a recently published experiment for determining the zero point of the absolute temperature scale.
Lehmann, Jochen K. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 943.
Thermodynamics |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An hydrogen sulfide free analytical technique for cation analysis: The statistical approach  Gaggero, Fernando Labandera; Luaces, Victor Martinez
In this analysis the study of each cation was carried out independently without taking into account the other cations present in the solutions.
Gaggero, Fernando Labandera; Luaces, Victor Martinez J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 934.
Chemometrics |
Qualitative Analysis |
Precipitation / Solubility
Demonstrating the conservation of matter: A trilogy of experiments   Martin, David; Russell, Randy D.; Thomas, Nicholas C.
Three related demonstrations involving calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid explore the conservation of matter.
Martin, David; Russell, Randy D.; Thomas, Nicholas C. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 925.
Physical Properties |
Acids / Bases |
Stoichiometry |
Gases
Classroom experience: Using estimated answers in solving chemistry problems  Green, Michael E.; Garland, Denise A.
A textbook is described in which students solve all problems by estimation.
Green, Michael E.; Garland, Denise A. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 898.
Chemometrics |
Learning Theories
On the chemically impossible "other" roots in equilibrium calculations, II  Ludwig, Oliver G.
In a previous paper the author described, using mathematics accessible to students, how an equilibrium calculation leading to a quadratic equation may be shown to have but one "chemical" root. The present work extends this demonstration to some reactions leading to cubic equations.
Ludwig, Oliver G. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 884.
Chemometrics |
Equilibrium
The metric system  Mason, Lynn M.
Metric conversions commonly encountered in chemistry and biology, with tests over each lesson.
Mason, Lynn M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 818.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Chemometrics
Equipment for gas law experiments  Hennings, David G.
Using the plastic bottles sold with popcorn as leveling bulbs.
Hennings, David G. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 773.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A demonstration of the molar volume of nitrogen gas  Hughes, Elvin, Jr.
A graphic illustration and a calculation of the approximate molar volume of nitrogen gas.
Hughes, Elvin, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 763.
Gases |
Chemometrics
Hot and cold running methane  Stamm, Daniel M.
A series of interesting demonstrations involving liquid nitrogen.
Stamm, Daniel M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 762.
Gases
Storing solar energy in calcium chloride  Wilkins, Curtis C.; Hunter, Norman W.; Pearson, Earl F.
Using common chemistry concepts to determine the feasibility of storing solar energy in calcium chloride hexahydrate.
Wilkins, Curtis C.; Hunter, Norman W.; Pearson, Earl F. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 753.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
A graphing activity to freshen up the laboratory  Pribyl, Jeffrey R.
A laboratory activity designed to address students' difficulties in interpreting data from graphs and tables.
Pribyl, Jeffrey R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 752.
Chemometrics
A modern vapor pressure apparatus based on the isoteniscope.  Van Hecke, Gerald R.
Equipment used for vapor pressure measurements that eliminates use of a mercury manometer.
Van Hecke, Gerald R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 681.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Liquids
Like dissolves like: Dry gas  Greenberg, Fred H.
A demonstration of solubility by comparing gasoline additives containing methanol and isopropyl alcohol.
Greenberg, Fred H. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 654.
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents
First-year chemistry laboratory calculations on a spreadsheet  Edwards, Paul A.; McKay, J. Brian; Sink, Charles W.
140. A laboratory exercise to introduce students to the use of computers and spreadsheets.
Edwards, Paul A.; McKay, J. Brian; Sink, Charles W. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 648.
Chemometrics
Fast molecular motion  Knox, Kerro
A demonstration that shows that molecules do indeed move very fast and over long distances in a short time when nothing is in the way.
Knox, Kerro J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 574.
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
Simple soda bottle solubility and equilibria  Snyder, Cheryl A.; Snyder, Dudley C.
Using a bottle of selzter water and bromocresol green to demonstrate gas-liquid solubility (carbon dioxide in water).
Snyder, Cheryl A.; Snyder, Dudley C. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 573.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Liquids |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry
The kinetic molecular theory and the weighing of gas samples  Brenner, Henry C.
How is it possible to weigh gas samples since the molecules are constantly moving around and not always in contact with the floor of the container?
Brenner, Henry C. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 558.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases |
Physical Properties
Simple analogies in general chemistry.  McCullough, Thomas.
Great Plains Indians and Dalton's Law; bullets, BB's, and the photoelectric effect; and high velocity bullets and high frequency light.
McCullough, Thomas. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 543.
Gases |
Photochemistry
Pressure determinations using open-end manometers.  Desmarais, George.
Method to increase students' understanding of and ability to quantify the level changes in a mercury manometer.
Desmarais, George. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 498.
Gases
A mole of salt crystals-Or how big is the Avogadro number?  Hoyt, William.
Calculations designed to help students put the size of Avogadro's number into perspective.
Hoyt, William. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 496.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
A simple generator for common gases at atmospheric pressure  Elsworth, John F.
The current high cost of either a Kipps generator for producing hydrogen sulfide in the undergraduate laboratory, or of the bottled gas, led the writer to construct a simple, economical and efficient generator for use in a laboratory fitted with an efficient fume hood.
Elsworth, John F. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 419.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Gas chamber stoichiometry   Hunter, Norman W.; Wilkins, Curtis C.; Pearson, Earl F.
Most students know that HCN is used in gas chambers, they may not know however that HCN is produced in the burning of carpets, draperies, clothing and other textiles made of polyacrylonitrile.
Hunter, Norman W.; Wilkins, Curtis C.; Pearson, Earl F. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 389.
Stoichiometry |
Gases |
Applications of Chemistry
Accumulation of methane from a landfill in Georgia homes: Extrapolation to Bunsen burner safety  Mauldin, Robert F.
This environmental example serves well to demonstrate the potential danger inherent in the buildup of natural gas vapors that can occur in the laboratory when Bunsen burners are not respected.
Mauldin, Robert F. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 350.
Gases
Vapor pressure demonstrations using a butane lighter  Delumyea, R. Del
The concept of the change of state of matter and particularly the volatitlity of liquids is an important concept taught in introductory chemistry courses.
Delumyea, R. Del J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 321.
Gases |
Physical Properties |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A simple but effective demonstration for illustrating significant figure rules when making measurements and doing calculations  Zipp, Arden P.
Students can be surprised and confused when different arithmetical operations are performed on experimental data, because the rules change when changing from addition to subtraction to multiplication or division. The following is a simple way to illustrate several aspects of these rules.
Zipp, Arden P. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 291.
Chemometrics
An "egg-splosive" demonstration.  Becker, Robert.
The following demonstration uses an egg to demonstrate the explosive power of a combustible gaseous mixture.
Becker, Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 229.
Gases
Demonstrations with red cabbage indicator   Fortman, John J.; Stubbs, Katherine M.
This paper extends the use of the red cabbage extract into demonstrations that illustrate the acidic or basic nature of solutions of gases and gives suggestions for modifications to project the beautiful range of colors and shades for better viewing in large lecture halls.
Fortman, John J.; Stubbs, Katherine M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 66.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Gases
Syringe gas generators   Alyea, Hubert N.
Poisonous gases can be generated safely in a plastic syringe without their escaping into the classroom.
Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 65.
Gases
Spreadsheet titration of diprotic acids and bases  Breneman, G. L.; Parker, O. J.
133. Bits and pieces, 47. A spreadsheet and chart, set up using Excel, for showing titration curves of any diprotic acid or base is described.
Breneman, G. L.; Parker, O. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 46.
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Does a one-molecule gas obey Boyle's law?  Rhodes, Gail
Because the kinetic molecular theory provides a plausible explanation for the lawful behavior of gases, it should be treated in enough depth to show students that the theory accounts for all of the important aspects of ideal gas behavior.
Rhodes, Gail J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 16.
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
Sunto di un curso di filosofia chimica (Cannizzaro, Stanislao)  Kauffman, George B.
A review of a book that includes original correspondence regarding Avogadro's hypothesis.
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A266.
Gases
Having fun with the metric system  Campbell, Mark L.
A puzzle adds some fun to the mundane treatment of the metric system.
Campbell, Mark L. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1043.
Chemometrics
A bulletin board demonstration on humidity   Smith, Kurt; Solomon, Sally
A demonstration of the color changes of cobalt chloride with relative humidity is described in this note.
Smith, Kurt; Solomon, Sally J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1039.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Equilibrium
Use of liquid oxygen to support combustion   Sullivan, Dan M.
Production, procedure, and safety of demonstrations involving liquid nitrogen in order to demonstrate: Charles' Law, production and properties of liquid oxygen, effects of concentration on reactions and reaction rates, liquefaction and boiling of oxygen kindling temperature, reactions between substances in two different states of matter, and comparison of partial and complete combustion.
Sullivan, Dan M. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1036.
Physical Properties |
Gases |
Reactions |
Equilibrium
Some conundrums of chemical nomenclature  Quigley, Michael N.
When talking about chemistry, we use some awfully confusing terms that warrant scrutiny.
Quigley, Michael N. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1009.
Chemometrics
The development of statistical concepts in a design-oriented laboratory course in scientific measuring  Goedhart, Martin J.; Verdonk, Adri H.
This article offers a contribution to the development of curriculum that includes design and evaluation of measurements.
Goedhart, Martin J.; Verdonk, Adri H. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1005.
Chemometrics
Chemical equations are actually matrix equations  Alberty, Robert A.
Chemists tend to think that chemical equations are unique to chemistry and they are not used to thinking of chemical equations as the mathematical equations they in fact are. The objective of this paper is to illustrate the mathematical significance of chemical equations.
Alberty, Robert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 984.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
KC? Discoverer: Exploring the properties of the chemical elements  Liebel, Michael
This software program allows users to explore a large number of properties of the elements. The program can find all elements associated with a certain property, graph numeric properties against other numeric properties, list elements, sort elements, and use the periodic table to select elements.
Liebel, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 956.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Physical Properties |
Chemometrics |
Descriptive Chemistry
A carbonate project introducing students to the chemistry lab  Dudek, Emily
A description of a first semester general chemistry laboratory that helps acquaint students with a large variety of chemistry laboratory procedures.
Dudek, Emily J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 948.
Chemometrics |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Separation Science
The use of "marathon" problems as effective vehicles for the presentation of general chemistry lectures  Burness, James H.
A marathon problem is a long, comprehensive, and difficult problem that ties together many of the topics in a chapter and that is solved together by the instructor and students. Sample problems are included and advantages and disadvantages of this approach are discussed.
Burness, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 919.
Chemometrics
An SI mnemonic  Quigley, M. N.
A mnemonic to help remember the physical quantities associated with the nine base SI units.
Quigley, M. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 815.
Chemometrics
Advice from Allied Health faculty to chemistry faculty  Dever, David F.
Finding out what the different health professions would like to see from undergraduate chemistry programs.
Dever, David F. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 763.
Medicinal Chemistry |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Nutrition |
Vitamins |
Gases
Developmental instruction: Part II. Application of the Perry model to general chemistry  Finster, David C.
The Perry scheme offers a framework in which teachers can understand how students make meaning of their world, and specific examples on how instructors need to teach these students so that the students can advance as learners.
Finster, David C. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 752.
Learning Theories |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Chemometrics |
Descriptive Chemistry
Inexpensive gas law apparatus  Garrett, D. D.; Banta, M. C.; Arney, B. E.
The apparatus described in this paper avoids the problems associated with mercury as well as eliminating the friction problems usually encountered with the disposable syringes having rubber plunger tips.
Garrett, D. D.; Banta, M. C.; Arney, B. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 667.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Soap bubble respirometry  Cummins, Ken
Using the soap bubble respirometer to measure the vapor pressure of hexane over a temperature range.
Cummins, Ken J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 617.
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
Grafit  Lisensky, George C.
A data manipulation tool and plotting program useful at all levels of chemistry.
Lisensky, George C. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 587.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Chemometrics
Space-filling P-V-T models  Hilton, Don B.
Space-filling models help beginning students visualize the numerical aspects of the empirical gas laws.
Hilton, Don B. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 496.
Gases |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Chemometrics
When figures signify nothing  Ahmad, Jamil
Significant figures in the "real world" set poor standards and confusing examples for chemistry students.
Ahmad, Jamil J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 469.
Chemometrics
Solving quadratic equations to the correct number of significant figures  Thomas, Rudolf
Presenting an application of the successive approximations method for solving quadratic or higher order expressions.
Thomas, Rudolf J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 409.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Is 8C equal to 50F?  Thompson, H. Bradford
A play, commentary, modest proposal, and a "less modest" proposal regarding calculations and significant figures.
Thompson, H. Bradford J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 400.
Chemometrics
The effect of context on the translation of sentences into algebraic equations  Niaz, Mansoor; Herron, J. Dudley; Phelps, Amy J.
Assessing students in a one-semester preparatory chemistry course to see how well students understand proportional relationships.
Niaz, Mansoor; Herron, J. Dudley; Phelps, Amy J. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 306.
Chemometrics
Chemical equilibrium: III. A few math tricks   Gordus, Adon A.
The third article in a series on chemical equilibrium that considers a few math "tricks" useful in equilibrium calculations and approximations.
Gordus, Adon A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 291.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Acid rain experiment and construction of a simple turbidity meter  Betterton, Eric A.
Construction of a simple turbidity meter in order to furnish more atmospheric chemistry experiments in the freshman and sophomore level chemistry lab.
Betterton, Eric A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 254.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Green Chemistry
Chemical equilibrium: II. Deriving an exact equilibrium equation   Gordus, Adon A.
In this article appearing in a series on chemical equilibrium, authors consider how to derive a completely general equation for any chemical mixture.
Gordus, Adon A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 215.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
A simple first-order consecutive rate reaction: A different method for its solution   Hughes, Elvin, Jr.
Power series methods should be used whenever possible in chemistry courses.
Hughes, Elvin, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 180.
Chemometrics |
Equilibrium
A simple first-order consecutive rate reaction: A different method for its solution   Castillo S., Carlos; Micolta S., Germania
A different way to present an equilibrium equation that appeared previously in this Journal.
Castillo S., Carlos; Micolta S., Germania J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 179.
Chemometrics |
Equilibrium
Finding largest common factors and simplest integer ratios   Macomber, Roger S.
General chemistry students can ease some of their math-phobia with an exam question that deals with a familiar topic prior to putting these same mathematical principles into the context of chemistry.
Macomber, Roger S. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 42.
Chemometrics
SEQS 3.0 Student Version Simultaneous Equation Solver (Tucker, Edwin E.)  Dierenfeldt, K.E.
SEQS 3.0 is a program of considerable versatility for solving sets of nonlinear simultaneous equations.
Dierenfeldt, K.E. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A149.
Chemometrics
Overhead projection of Graham's law of gaseous diffusion  Epp, Dianne N.
Demonstration of gaseous diffusion through the combination of NH3 and HCl to produce NH4Cl.
Epp, Dianne N. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1061.
Gases |
Transport Properties
A classroom experiment using the Pythagorean theorem in a discussion of the scientific method  Sauls, Frederic, C.
Experiment to verify the Pythagorean theorem as a means of introducing the importance of accurate measurements, accuracy and error.
Sauls, Frederic, C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 958.
Nonmajor Courses |
Chemometrics
Accuracy of measurements and the U.S. Census  Gorin, George
Some aspects of taking the Census can help students to understand the problem of measurement error and the use of significant figures.
Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 936.
Chemometrics
Lessons learned from Lord Rayleigh on the importance of data analysis  Larsen, Russell D.
Analysis of the data collected by Lord Rayleigh in association with his discovery of argon presented as a model for scientific inquiry.
Larsen, Russell D. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 925.
Chemometrics |
Atmospheric Chemistry
Graham's law: Defining gas velocities  Kenney, Tom
Three alternatives for defining gas velocities.
Kenney, Tom J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 871.
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
ChemCalc: A scientific calculator  Allendoerfer, Robert D.
A scientific calculator program that can be used as a stand-alone or incorporated into other software written in BASIC.
Allendoerfer, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 770.
Chemometrics
A straightforward derivation of stoichiometric mass relationships  Gorin, George
An alternative to the factor label method for solving stoichiometric mass relationship problems.
Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 762.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
A miniature hot air balloon and Charles's law  Deese, William C.
Heating the air in a tissue paper balloon using a Merker burner and flying it up and down a guided wire in the classroom.
Deese, William C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 672.
Gases
A visual demonstration of Raoult's law  Wilson, Archie S.
Reducing the vapor pressure of bromine by adding chloroform.
Wilson, Archie S. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 598.
Gases |
Equilibrium
A significant example: How many days in a century?  Lisensky, George
Calculating the number of days in a century can help clarify the subject of significant figures.
Lisensky, George J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 562.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Dynamic data storage in FORTRAN  Chung-Phillips, Alice
115. Bits and pieces, 44. The purpose of this article is to promote the use of dynamic storage allocation in FORTRAN to chemistry instructors and students in the present computing environment.
Chung-Phillips, Alice J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 500.
Chemometrics
A convenient method to prepare ammonia and hydrogen chloride gases  Thomas, Nicholas C.
The reagents and materials required should be available in most schools and colleges and provide an economical alternative when commercial cylinders of these gases are unavailable.
Thomas, Nicholas C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 431.
Gases |
Laboratory Management
Solving quadratic equations  Brown, R. J. C.
A better technique than the quadratic equation for chemical equilibria is offered here.
Brown, R. J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 409.
Chemometrics |
Equilibrium
Improvements to demonstration of vapor pressure (author response)  Richardson, W. S.
The incorporation of a calculation using the ideal gas law as suggested by Hambly is a welcomed improvement.
Richardson, W. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 278.
Gases
Improvements to demonstration of vapor pressure   Hambly, Gordon F.
The author is offering some improvements to a recent publication on the "Demonstration of Vapor Pressure."
Hambly, Gordon F. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 278.
Gases
Further studies on concept learning versus problem solving  Pickering, Miles
Are there two kinds of students, some who possess an ability to do conceptual problems and some who can do mathematical problems without molecular understanding?
Pickering, Miles J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 254.
Learning Theories |
Stoichiometry |
Gases
Concept learning versus problem solving: Revisited  Sawrey, Barbara A.
A student's ability to solve a numerical problem does not guarantee conceptual understanding of the molecular basis of the problem.
Sawrey, Barbara A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 253.
Learning Theories |
Stoichiometry |
Gases
A simple apparatus to demonstrate differing gas diffusion rates (Graham's law)  Keller, Philip C.
The apparatus described in this note dramatically demonstrates relative diffusion rate effects for common gases like methane and carbon dioxide.
Keller, Philip C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 160.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Introduction to experiment design for chemists  Strange, Ronald S.
One purpose of this paper is to review basic concepts and terminology of experimental design, analysis of data, and optimization.
Strange, Ronald S. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 113.
Chemometrics
Exception to solving chem problems without the factor-label approach (the author replies)  Cardulla, Frank
There are other ways to teach problem solving, and they can produce competent, successful, and enthusiastic students.
Cardulla, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1066.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Exception to solving chem problems without the factor-label approach  Gillette, Marcia L.
The classroom analogy Cardulla uses could be made much more meaningful if it were used to demonstrate the relation between what is obvious and what is not.
Gillette, Marcia L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1065.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A precise determination of absolute zero  Strange, Ronald S.; Lang, Frank T.
Excellent extrapolations to absolute zero can be obtained for dry air using a simple apparatus constructed from an Erlenmeyer flask, an oil manostat and a plastic syringe.
Strange, Ronald S.; Lang, Frank T. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1054.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
What chemistry do our students need to learn?  Hawkes, Stephen J.
Suggested topics of importance to chemistry nonmajors.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 831.
Nonmajor Courses |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Geochemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
The acid-base package: A collection of useful programs for proton-transfer systems  Hawkes, Stephen J.
Four programs that deal with the types of acid-base calculations normally encountered in introductory and analytical chemistry courses.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 830.
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics
Atlantic-Pacific sig figs  Stone, Helen M.
Examples of applications of significant figures in calculations.
Stone, Helen M. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 829.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
The ideal gas law at the center of the sun  Clark, David B.
Applying the ideal gas law to conditions found at the center of the sun.
Clark, David B. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 826.
Gases |
Astrochemistry
High-efficiency condenser for low-boiling liquids and gases  Ali, Saqib; Mazhar, M.
Constructing a high-efficiency condenser for low-boiling liquids and gases using a 2 L plastic bottle.
Ali, Saqib; Mazhar, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 786.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Liquids |
Physical Properties
How to visualize Avogadro's number  van Lubeck, Henk
Three examples to help students visualize the size of a mole.
van Lubeck, Henk J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 762.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Significant figure rules for general arithmetic functions  Graham, D. M.
Rules for determining what happens to the number of significant figures as various types of mathematical operations are performed upon certain quantities.
Graham, D. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 573.
Chemometrics
A stoichiometric journey  Molle, Brian
A story to help students overcome some of the difficulties they encounter in stoichiometry calculations.
Molle, Brian J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 561.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Being a participant in the future  Parker, O. Jerry
Integrating computer technology into undergraduate chemistry courses.
Parker, O. Jerry J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 500.
Administrative Issues |
Chemometrics
A microscale study of gaseous diffusion   Epp, Dianne N.; Lyons, Edward J.; Brooks, David W.
The following microscale experiment compares qualitatively the rates of diffusion in air of chlorine molecules and ammonia molecules.
Epp, Dianne N.; Lyons, Edward J.; Brooks, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 436.
Gases |
Microscale Lab
The relationship between M-demand, algorithms, and problem solving: A neo-Piagetian analysis  Niaz, Mansoor
One of the most important implements developed by the neo-Piagetian theory is task analysis, that is, the evaluation of the M-demand of a problem. M-demand can be defined as: maximum number of steps that the subject must mobilize simultaneously in in the course of executing a task.
Niaz, Mansoor J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 422.
Learning Theories |
Chemometrics
The absorption of UV light by ozone   Koubek, Edward
Using a low-pressure mercury vapor UV lamp and a recently laundered white cotton sheet as a background, one can produce a shadowgraph of ozone emerging from an ozonator.
Koubek, Edward J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 338.
Atmospheric Chemistry
Preparation and cleaning of low-cost plastic manometers  Pollnow, Gilbert F.
The author has developed an improved unbreakable manometer.
Pollnow, Gilbert F. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 333.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Significant Figures and Error Propagation  West, Allen C.
Schwartz is wrong to say that 125 mL +/- 5% means a systematic error of +/-5%.
West, Allen C. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 272.
Chemometrics
Accurate equations of state in computational chemistry projects  Allbee, David; Jones, Edward
101. This article presents one method that allows students to become familiar with the use of modern equations of state and also enhances their understanding of how computers can be used in the study and application of chemistry. [Includes "Editor's note: Changes in the computer series", by Lagowski, J. J., p. 226]
Allbee, David; Jones, Edward J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 226.
Applications of Chemistry |
Chemometrics
Visible spectrophotometric determination of the partition coefficient of methyl violet: A microscale extraction experiment  Sonnenberger, David C.; Ferroni, Edward L.
This experiment is designed to demonstrate the principles of separation by solvent extraction, partition coefficient, and the construction and use of a Beer-Lambert standard curve.
Sonnenberger, David C.; Ferroni, Edward L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 91.
Separation Science |
Chemometrics
Graphical analysis III (Vernier, David L.)  Carpenter, Jeanette; Bowers, Caroline H.
Two reviews of a complete graphing tool suitable for high school and college applications with a wide range of operations varying in complexity.
Carpenter, Jeanette; Bowers, Caroline H. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A269.
Chemometrics
Chemistry according to ROF (Fee, Richard)  Radcliffe, George; Mackenzie, Norma N.
Two reviews on a software package that consists of 68 programs on 17 disks plus an administrative disk geared toward acquainting students with fundamental chemistry content. For instance, acids and bases, significant figures, electron configuration, chemical structures, bonding, phases, and more.
Radcliffe, George; Mackenzie, Norma N. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A239.
Chemometrics |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Equilibrium |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Stoichiometry |
Physical Properties |
Acids / Bases |
Covalent Bonding
Analysis of kinetic data with a spreadsheet program  Henderson, John
An article about spreadsheet templates that accept concentration versus time data for several runs of an experiment, determination of least-squares lines through data points for each run, and will allow the user to exclude points from the least-squares calculation.
Henderson, John J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A150.
Chemometrics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Enzymes
Questions from a can of Pepsi  Mitchell, Tony
A can of Pepsi can be the starting point of countless chemistry questions that students can relate to. The author encourages other instructors to think about helping students understand chemistry as it relates to contemporary society.
Mitchell, Tony J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1070.
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Physical Properties |
Food Science |
Nutrition |
Gases |
Acids / Bases |
Metals
Teaching students to use algorithms for solving generic and harder problems in general chemistry  Kean, Elizabeth; Middlecamp, Catherine Hurt; Scott, D. L.
This paper describes teaching strategies that help students improve their problem-solving skills.
Kean, Elizabeth; Middlecamp, Catherine Hurt; Scott, D. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 987.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Determination of the universal gas constant  Lebman, Thomas A.; Harms, Gwen
An experiment for the calculation of R using R-PV/nT.
Lebman, Thomas A.; Harms, Gwen J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 811.
Gases |
Stoichiometry
Stoichiometry to the rescue (a calculation challenge)   Ramette, Richard W.
Presentation of a question that would be suitable for a take-home exam or a problem set in a general or analytical chemistry course.
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 800.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Gases |
Stoichiometry
The Australian Academy of Science School Chemistry Project: A new-generation secondary school chemistry course  Bucat, R. B.; Cole, A. R. H.
The purpose of this paper is to summarize the philosophies behind the courses described in this paper and the consequent design decisions regarding the selection and sequence of the chemistry content.
Bucat, R. B.; Cole, A. R. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 777.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Metabolism |
Thermodynamics
Soap bubbles and precipitate membranes: Two historical semipermeability experiments adapted for teaching purposes  Nicolini, Nicoletta; Pentella, Antonio
These demonstrations are based on the historical experiments that established our understanding of semipermeability and osmosis.
Nicolini, Nicoletta; Pentella, Antonio J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 614.
Gases |
Surface Science |
Transport Properties |
Electrochemistry
Interfacial phenomena   Anwander, Alberto E.; Grant, Richard P. J. S.; Letcher, Trevor M.
The interfaces between liquids, and liquids and gases, have a number of possible permutations that lead to exotic phenomenon such as antibubbles, floating drops, boules, polyaphrons, and hanging air bubbles. The authors give directions for demonstrating these in the classroom or lab.
Anwander, Alberto E.; Grant, Richard P. J. S.; Letcher, Trevor M. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 608.
Surface Science |
Liquids |
Gases |
Physical Properties |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Will that pop bottle really go pop? An equilibrium question  Deamer, David W.; Selinger, Benjamin K.
These authors challenge a claim that appeared in the journal *New Scientist* regarding carbon dioxide in carbonated beverages and equilibrium.
Deamer, David W.; Selinger, Benjamin K. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 518.
Applications of Chemistry |
Gases |
Equilibrium
Let's separate theories from calculations   Freilich, Mark B.
This author writes in a 'provocative opinion' article challenging the readers to think about heavily emphasizing 'thought problems' in chemistry and allowing students to master those before throwing calculations into the mix.
Freilich, Mark B. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 442.
Chemometrics
An alternative to using the PV = nRT equation   Desmarais, George
This author shares his application of the factor-label method to solving gas problems which involves using the ideal gas constant as the starting point in the relationship.
Desmarais, George J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 392.
Gases |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Avogadro's number: A perverse view  Lehman, Thomas A.
A way to think of Avogadro's number: take anything and double it 79 times.
Lehman, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 282.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
A metal bar to demonstrate one atmosphere   Meloan, Clifton E.
This demonstration helps students gain a more intuitive understanding of units of pressure.
Meloan, Clifton E. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 69.
Gases |
Physical Properties
Remember E = hv is correct only half of the time  Leo, Howard, R.
Reminder that the title equation (Planck) is not algebraically correct.
Leo, Howard, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 11.
Chemometrics |
Photochemistry
Computer-Assisted Blackboard (Soltzberg, L. J.)  Kruger, J. D.
8-disk set of programs (Apple II) designed to help a lecturer illustrate gas laws, the Rutherford atomic model, quantization in a Bohr atom, wave-functions and orbitals, heat and changes in state, kinetics and simple reaction mechanisms, equilibrium, acid-base reactions, and titrations.
Kruger, J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A135.
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Chem Lab Simulations 1: Titrations and Chem Lab Simulations 2: Ideal Gas Law (Gelder, John)  Zemke, Warren T.
Computer programs intended to serve as introductions for students before actual experimentation in the laboratory.
Zemke, Warren T. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A57.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Gases |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Science Volume 4 - Physics / Chemistry Chemical Elements (Minnesota Educational Computing Corporation)  Hartman, Kenneth A.
Six programs, three relating to solubility products, two on gas laws, and a Milliken Oil Drop Experiment.
Hartman, Kenneth A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A26.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Gases
Musical molecular weights revisited  Augustine, Frederick B.
A simple way of comparing the propagation of sound in two different gases.
Augustine, Frederick B. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1053.
Gases |
Physical Properties
An inexpensive device for projecting, measuring, and moving gas  Wojt, Richard
Using disposable plastic syringes to generate, measure, move, and dry gases.
Wojt, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1052.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases
Good numerical technique in chemistry: The quadratic equation  Thompson, H. Bradford
Texts commonly avoid examples with bad round-off problems or handle them by approximation; none of this is necessary, for simple techniques are available to handle quadratic equations easily and precisely.
Thompson, H. Bradford J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1009.
Chemometrics
Two fundamental constants  McNaught, Ian J.; Peckham, Gavin D.
Experiment to produce accurate values for both the absolute zero of temperature and the gas constant.
McNaught, Ian J.; Peckham, Gavin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 999.
Gases
A Charles's Law/vapor pressure apparatus  Hall, Philip K.
A simple apparatus to illustrate either Charles's law gas expansion of the vapor pressure created by liquids.
Hall, Philip K. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 969.
Gases |
Liquids
Demonstration of vapor pressure  Richardson, W. S.
Demonstrating the vapor pressure of several different materials using a water manometer.
Richardson, W. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 968.
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Liquids
Reaction stoichiometry and suitable "coordinate systems"  Tykodi, R. J.
Methods for dealing with problems involving reactions stoichiometry: unitize and scale up, factor-label procedure, de Donder ratios, and titration relations.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 958.
Stoichiometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics
Demonstrating the chemistry of air pollution  Hollenberg, J. Leland; Stephens, Edgar R.; Pitts, James N., Jr.
Demonstrations regarding the three essential conditions or ingredients for the formation of photochemical smog and involving NO, NO2, unsaturated hydrocarbons, and O3.
Hollenberg, J. Leland; Stephens, Edgar R.; Pitts, James N., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 893.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Photochemistry
Physical and chemical properties  Boschmann, Erwin
A series of overhead demonstrations regarding physical and chemical properties.
Boschmann, Erwin J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 891.
Physical Properties |
Liquids |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Magnetic Properties |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Gases
Percent oxygen in air  Martins, George F.
Determines the percentage oxygen in air by reacting steel wool with oxygen.
Martins, George F. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 809.
Atmospheric Chemistry
Charles's law: Students develop their own procedure  Rose, Diane
Students are asked to write their own procedure and execute it in the lab.
Rose, Diane J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 712.
Gases
Hard ways and easy ways  Schwartz, Lowell M.
Two examples of common general chemistry calculations and different approaches ("hard" and "easy") to solving them.
Schwartz, Lowell M. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 698.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
An indicating rupture disk for gas cylinders  Bruno, Thomas J.
A device to allow a determination of the approximate condition of the rupture disk in compressed gas cylinders.
Bruno, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 557.
Gases |
Laboratory Management
Solving limiting reagent problems (the author replies)  Kalantar, A. H.
Thanks for clarification and suggestion.
Kalantar, A. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 472.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Solving limiting reagent problems  Skovlin, Dean O.
Uncertainty in the meaning of the term X.
Skovlin, Dean O. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 472.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
A convenient, low-cost method for determining sulfate in acid rain  Johns, Nicholas; Longstaff, Stephen J.
Adapting the thoron colorimetric method for determining low sulfate concentrations quickly, simply, and accurately.
Johns, Nicholas; Longstaff, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 449.
Acids / Bases |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis
Acid rain effects on stone monuments  Charola, A. Elena
What is acid rain? Which stones are used to make mountains? How are the stones affected by acid rain?
Charola, A. Elena J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 436.
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Geochemistry
Statistical evaluation of class data for two buret readings  Gordus, Adon A.
Data that serve to illustrate both random and systematic errors in measurements characteristic of titrations.
Gordus, Adon A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 376.
Chemometrics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Control of variables and the conservation of matter  Giachino, Gary G.
Demonstrates the conservation of matter, but its main value lies in its illustration of the need to control variables and the difficulty this may entail - particularly if a variable is "hidden"; uses a burning candle in a glass flask.
Giachino, Gary G. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 353.
Gases
A safe cell for viewing the critical point of CO2  Botch, Beatrice; Battino, Rubin
Design, construction, and use of a safe cell for viewing the critical point of CO2.
Botch, Beatrice; Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 347.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases |
Liquids
Mole fraction revisited  Mancott, A.
This problem requires the use of algebraic reasoning to derive and solve a fraction linear equation based on the concept of moles and conservation of moles.
Mancott, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 320.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Simple determination of Henry's law constant for carbon dioxide  Levy, Jack B.; Hornack, Fred M.; Levy, Matthew A.
With the aid of inexpensive pressure gauges available from automotive supply stores, the solubility of carbon dioxide in carbonated beverages or other solutions can be studied.
Levy, Jack B.; Hornack, Fred M.; Levy, Matthew A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 260.
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents
Annotating reaction equations  Tykodi, R. J.
Annotating aqueous solution reactions fosters recognition of the fundamental reaction categories; ready recognition of a reaction type is the first step toward understanding the "whys and wherefores" inherent in the reaction.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 243.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Oxidation / Reduction
Carbon dioxide: Its principal properties displayed and discussed  Bent, Henry A.
The principal properties of carbon dioxide demonstrated and discussed.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 167.
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
Slopes of straight lines when neither axis is error free  Kalantar, A. H.
The iterative effective variance method is not reliable and its use is pedagogically unwise.
Kalantar, A. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 28.
Chemometrics
The length of a pestle: A class exercise in measurement and statistical analysis  O'Reilly, James E.
Too many students get through chemistry without acquiring a basic understanding and appreciation of the concepts of measurement science. The purpose of this report is to outline an extremely simple class exercise as a concrete paradigm of the entire process of making chemical measurements and treating data.
O'Reilly, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 894.
Chemometrics
Calculation of Madelung constants in the first year chemistry course  Elert, Mark; Koubek, Edward
76. Bits and pieces, 31. A computer program aids in understanding the nature of the Madelung constants.
Elert, Mark; Koubek, Edward J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 840.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Chemometrics
Teaching significant figures using a learning cycle  Guymon, E. Park; James, Helen J.; Saeger, Spencer L.
Can we teach significant figures in a way that will be better retained by our students? These authors propose a solution.
Guymon, E. Park; James, Helen J.; Saeger, Spencer L. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 786.
Learning Theories |
Chemometrics
A useful balloon demonstration: Pressure difference behavior  Fenster, Ariel E.; Harpp, David N.; Schwarcz, Joseph A.
The authors contribute an interesting variant on the 'crushed can' experiment. [typo: first author's middle initial should be E.]
Fenster, Ariel E.; Harpp, David N.; Schwarcz, Joseph A. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 629.
Gases |
Thermodynamics
Gas cans and gas cubes: Visualizing Avogadro's Law   Bouma, J.
The author shares a strategy for making gas laws "visible" for students.
Bouma, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 586.
Gases |
Stoichiometry
Is volume conserved?: A first general chemistry experiment  Olmsted, John, III.
The author presents an experiment that introduces students to scientific methodology, affords practice in the essential laboratory skill of management, and illustrates some fundamental chemical relationships without requiring any chemical sophistication.
Olmsted, John, III. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 538.
Gases
A flowchart for dimensional analysis  Graham, D. M.
A flowchart to help students organize their thoughts when solving conversion problems.
Graham, D. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 527.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
Where did that number come from?   DeLorenzo, Ronald
With more careful labeling and handling of numbers, instructors can reduce the confusion students sometimes feel when watching problems being solved by the instructor on the board.
DeLorenzo, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 514.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Chemical knowledge versus conventional "wisdom"   Steffel, Margaret J.
A question about the physical properties of gases that rewards students with some knowledge of aviation.
Steffel, Margaret J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 317.
Gases
Factor-label: Another view   Maloy, Joseph T.
It is of interest to our students' academic development that we teach them the mathematical theory behind factor label approaches to problems solving.
Maloy, Joseph T. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 186.
Chemometrics
Unit basis a neglected problem-solving technique   Beichl, George J.
A technique that will prevent students from using ineffective problem-solving techniques such as dimensional analysis.
Beichl, George J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 146.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
On writing equations  Campbell, J.A.
The author presents a very direct approach to writing complicated equations without using a matrix approach.
Campbell, J.A. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 63.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
TRS-80 Chemistry Lab, Volume 1, Review II (Hallgren, Richard C.)  Beck, James D.
Programs covering the kinetic theory, Charles' law, Boyle' law, titration, and solubility.
Beck, James D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, A106.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Precipitation / Solubility
TRS-80 Chemistry Lab, Volume 1, Review I (Hallgren, Richard C.)  Rowe, Frederick J.
Programs covering the kinetic theory, Charles' law, Boyle' law, titration, and solubility.
Rowe, Frederick J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, A105.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Precipitation / Solubility
Molecular size and Raoult's Law  Kovac, Jeffrey
An additional cause for deviations from Raoult's Law that is rarely, if ever, mentioned in freshman chemistry texts.
Kovac, Jeffrey J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1090.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Gases
An interactive, screen-oriented, general linear regression program  Joshi, Bhairav D.
65. Bits and pieces, 26. Description of GSLINE, a program runs linear regressions.
Joshi, Bhairav D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1027.
Chemometrics
Mathematics in the chemistry classroom. Part 2. Elementary entities play their part  Dierks, Werner; Weninger, Johann; Herron, J. Dudley
One of the problems that learners have to overcome when doing stoichiometry calculations is to learn how statements about elementary entities given by formulas and equations are related to statements about portions of substances as measured in the macroscopic world.
Dierks, Werner; Weninger, Johann; Herron, J. Dudley J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1021.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
Pandemonium pesticide: A simple demonstration illustrating some fundamental chemical concepts  Kauffman, George B.; Chooljian, Steven H.; Ebner, Ronald D.
Demonstration that uses large, visible particles to simulate calculations of atomic / molecular mass, percentage composition, and molecular formula.
Kauffman, George B.; Chooljian, Steven H.; Ebner, Ronald D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 870.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Le Châtelier's Principle  Knox, Kerro
Question involving effect of increasing the pressure on the N2 + 3H2 <=> 2NH3 system.
Knox, Kerro J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 863.
Equilibrium |
Gases
Mathematics in the chemistry classroom. Part 1. The special nature of quantity equations  Dierks, Werner; Weninger, Johann; Herron, J. Dudley
Differences between operation on quantities and operation on numbers and how chemical quantities should be described mathematically.
Dierks, Werner; Weninger, Johann; Herron, J. Dudley J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 839.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Interstellar chemistry  Carbo, R.; Ginebreda, A.
Surveys some of the features that characterize interstellar chemistry, particularly the composition of the interstellar medium and the nature of the changes that occur there.
Carbo, R.; Ginebreda, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 832.
Astrochemistry |
Gases |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Determination of molecular dimensions using monolayers: Another approach  McNaught, Ian J.; Peckham, Gavin D.
A preliminary activity to help students understand the concept and calculations of the determination of molecular dimensions using monolayers.
McNaught, Ian J.; Peckham, Gavin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 795.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chemometrics
Propagation of significant figures  Schwartz, Lowell M.
The rules of thumb for propagating significant figures through arithmetic calculations frequently yield misleading results.
Schwartz, Lowell M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 693.
Chemometrics
A different look at the solubility-product principle  Hugus, Z Z., Jr.; Hentz, F. C., Jr.
The progressive addition of Cl- to Ag+ yields an ion-product equal to Ksp at two different points.
Hugus, Z Z., Jr.; Hentz, F. C., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 645.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics
Why teach the gas laws?  Davenport, Derek A.
Justification for teaching the gas laws.
Davenport, Derek A. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 505.
Gases |
Stoichiometry
Why do we teach gas laws?  Roe, Robert, Jr.
Justification for teaching the gas laws.
Roe, Robert, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 505.
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
Measuring the atomic or molecular mass of a gas with a tire gauge and a butane lighter fluid can  Bodner, George M.; Magginnis, Lenard J.
Also demonstrating the mass of air and the dependence of the pressure of a gas on the mass of the sample.
Bodner, George M.; Magginnis, Lenard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 434.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Gases
Working backwards is a forward step in the solution of problems by dimensional analysis  Drake, Robert F.
Solving chemistry calculations by determining the units of the desired answer and then working backwards using dimensional analysis.
Drake, Robert F. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 414.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
"Chemistry" problems without chemical terminology  Ciereszko, Leon S.
Three questions analogous to percentage composition and Charles' law calculations.
Ciereszko, Leon S. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 402.
Chemometrics
Derivation of the ideal gas law  Levine, S.
Derivation of the ideal gas law from a thermodynamic influence.
Levine, S. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 399.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Chemometrics
Using a conversion matrix to simplify stoichiometric calculations from balanced equations  Berger, Selman A.
Two examples of using a conversion matrix to simplify stoichiometric calculations from balanced equations.
Berger, Selman A. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 396.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
Problem-solving skills in chemistry made easier  Fast, Kenneth V.
Step-by-step format for performing common calculations in chemistry.
Fast, Kenneth V. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 396.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
A simplified Dumas flask  Hadley, Fred J.
Using glass tubing as a simple Dumas flask.
Hadley, Fred J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 268.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases
Acid rain analysis by standard addition titration  Ophardt, Charles E.
A simple standard addition titration method for determining the acidity of a rain or snow sample.
Ophardt, Charles E. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 257.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Qualitative Analysis
A convenient device to demonstrate statistically based sampling error in a particulate mixture  Reid, R. S.
Apparatus to demonstrate statistically based sampling error using a mixture of colored beads.
Reid, R. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 252.
Chemometrics
A gas kinetic explanation of simple thermodynamic processes  Waite, Boyd A.
Proposes a simplified, semi-quantitative description of heat, work, and internal energy from the viewpoint of gas kinetic theory; both heat and work should not be considered as forms of energy but rather as different mechanisms by which internal energy is transferred from system to surroundings.
Waite, Boyd A. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 224.
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Thermodynamics
Why isn't my rain as acidic as yours?  Zajicek, O. T.
Calculating of pH values of acid rain and comparisons to uncontaminated samples.
Zajicek, O. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 158.
Acids / Bases |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
pH |
Chemometrics
Invisible water: A gas density demonstration  Maciel, Richard P.
Demonstrating the density of 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (TTE), whose density is about six times that of air.
Maciel, Richard P. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 153.
Gases |
Physical Properties
Limiting reagent problems made simple for students  Kalantar, A. H.
Method for determining the limiting reagent among three or more reactants.
Kalantar, A. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 106.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Five Avogadro's number problems  Todd, David
Five problems involving Avogadro's number.
Todd, David J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 76.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
A LAP on moles: Teaching an important concept  Ihde, John
The objective of the Learning Activity Packet on moles include understanding the basic concept of the mole as a chemical unit, knowing the relationships between the mole and the atomic weights in the periodic table, and being able to solve basic conversion problems involving grams, moles, atoms, and molecules. [Debut]
Ihde, John J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 58.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Graphical Analysis, Review II (Dice, David R.)  Sievers, Dennis
A computerized program that generates graphs of empirical data.
Sievers, Dennis J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, A324.
Chemometrics
Graphical Analysis, Review I (Dice, David R.)  Palmer, Glenn E.
A computerized program that generates graphs of empirical data.
Palmer, Glenn E. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, A323.
Chemometrics
The Elements of Style in Chemistry, A Computer-assisted Instruction Supported Text (Beatty, James W.; Beatty, James J.)  Crawford, Victor A.
Intended to support students who have trouble solving important types of problems in chemistry.
Crawford, Victor A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, A27.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Chemometrics
Uncertainty analysis by the "worst case" method  Gordon, Roy; Pickering, Miles; Bisson, Denise
A new method of uncertainty propagation that is in many ways superior to the traditional manipulation of absolute and relative uncertainty.
Gordon, Roy; Pickering, Miles; Bisson, Denise J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 780.
Chemometrics
The factor-label method: Is it all that great?  Navidi, Marjorie H.; Baker, A. David
The development of reasoning skills in chemistry is better achieved by postponing the introduction of the factor-label method.
Navidi, Marjorie H.; Baker, A. David J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 522.
Chemometrics
What a smell!  Perkins, Robert
How many molecules of vanillin are necessary in order to smell it anywhere within the Goodyear Airship hangar?
Perkins, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 384.
Gases |
Stoichiometry
Cooking with chemistry  Grosser, Arthur E.
Two demonstrations involving cooking eggs and suggestions for many more examples of cooking that illustrate important principles of chemistry. From the "State-of-the-Art Symposium for Chemical Educators: Chemistry of the Food Cycle".
Grosser, Arthur E. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 362.
Food Science |
Gases |
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics
Diffusion of gases - Kinetic molecular theory of gases  Schlecht, K. D.
Changing the pressure inside a container with a porous surface through the diffusion of hydrogen or helium.
Schlecht, K. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 251.
Gases |
Transport Properties |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
The density of solids  Burgess, Dale
Using density measurements as an opportunity to discuss experimental procedures, error, and significant figures.
Burgess, Dale J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 242.
Chemometrics |
Physical Properties
The density and apparent molecular weight of air  Harris, Arlo D.
Simple procedure for determining the density and apparent molecular weight of air.
Harris, Arlo D. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 74.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
Gas laws and gas behavior  Schmuckler, Joseph S.
A collection of activities from past issues of the Journal and The Science Teacher.
Schmuckler, Joseph S. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 73.
Gases
Enduring distributions that deny Boltzmann  Nash, Leonard K.
Examines two practical steady- state distributions: the atmosphere and its lapse rate and the ocean and its vertical quasi-uniformity.
Nash, Leonard K. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 22.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases
Teaching factor-label method without sleight of hand  Garrett, James M.
As an aid in teaching the factor-label method, the author has developed a rather simple card game involving the matching of symbols and colors.
Garrett, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 962.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Boyle's law experiment  Hermens, Richard A.
This experiment regarding Boyle's law adheres to qualifications which allow the experiment to be meaningful to the students, is safe and simple to perform, low in cost, easy to set up and maintain, obtains reproducible results, and is capable of being performed in a reasonable length of time.
Hermens, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 764.
Gases
Reflections upon mathematics in the introductory chemistry course  Goodstein, Madeline P.
It is the purpose of this paper to call attention to the lack of mathematical competence by chemistry students and to invite consideration of one conceptual scheme which may be used to unify the mathematical approach.
Goodstein, Madeline P. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 665.
Chemometrics |
Gases
NH4HC03: a stimulant for learning  Richards, R. Ronald
Students, professors, and the literature have all been confused by the unusual dissociation equilibrium of NH4HCO3.
Richards, R. Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 555.
Equilibrium |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Gases
On the chemically impossible "other" roots in equilibrium problems  Ludwig, Oliver G.
Students often have a hard time knowing when to disregard equilibrium roots that are too large or are negative. The author suggests a convincing proof that helps students understand how the relationship between the conceptual and mathematical.
Ludwig, Oliver G. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 547.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Empirical pKb and pKa for nonmetal hydrides from periodic table position  Bayless, Philip L.
The equation in this article was developed by the author. It estimates the aqueous pKa for certain acids to an average deviation of 0.1pK unit for those with experimentally determined values and agrees with experimentally determined values, and as well as with estimates for those too weak or too strong to be measured.
Bayless, Philip L. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 546.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Chemometrics
Le Châtelier's principle: the effect of temperature on the solubility of solids in liquids  Brice, L. K.
The purpose of this article is to provide a rigorous but straightforward thermodynamic treatment of the temperature dependence of solubility of solids in liquids that is suitable for presentation at the undergraduate level. The present discussion may suggest how to approach the qualitative aspects of the subject for freshman.
Brice, L. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 387.
Thermodynamics |
Liquids |
Solids |
Chemometrics |
Equilibrium
The use of the Warnier-Orr program design method in the preparation of general chemistry tutorials   Hach, Edwin E., Jr.
39. In this article, a modified Warnier-Orr approach is illustrated for a computer tutorial involving ideal gas calculations.
Hach, Edwin E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 348.
Gases |
Chemometrics
The spilled can of paint   Perkins, Robert
The writer describes a problem for students to work out in order to better understand units of conversion.
Perkins, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 343.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
The liquid silver parade   Perkins, Robert
The activity described in this note is useful in illustrating how small atoms are to students.
Perkins, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 343.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Titration calculations- a problem-solving approach  Waddling, Robin E. L.
This author shares a strategy for helping students who might be struggling with understanding how to calculate and understand titration data.
Waddling, Robin E. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 230.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics
The chemical oceanographer   Abel, Robert B.
Oceanography holds fascinating subject matter for students learning chemistry.
Abel, Robert B. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 221.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Food Science |
Geochemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Applications of Chemistry
Mass spectral analysis of halogen compounds   Holdsworth, David K.
37. Bits and pieces, 14. A pocket calculator can be programmed to decide and display the halogen combination in a molecular-ion cluster by examination of the (M+2)/M or (X+2)/X percentage values.
Holdsworth, David K. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 103.
Chemometrics |
Mass Spectrometry
A pocket calculator program for the solution of pH problems via the method of successive approximations   Guida, Wayne C.
37. Bits and pieces, 14. A description of a pocket calculator program for the solution of pH problems via the method of successive approximations .
Guida, Wayne C. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 101.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics
An effective demonstration of some properties of real vapors  Metsger, D. Scott
The apparatus described in this article has been found by the authors to be the most effective in vividly illustrating the behavior of a nearly ideal gas to first year chemistry students.
Metsger, D. Scott J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 67.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Physical Properties |
Solids
What's in the air? How much is too much? Measurement of toxic gases, vapors, and particulates - Limits of exposure  Freifeld, Milton
Methods for measuring organic vapors, various compounds and particulates in laboratory atmospheres and criteria for safe levels.
Freifeld, Milton J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, A351.
Gases |
Toxicology
Data generation in the classroom  Blanco, Luis H.
A pendulum device for generating data for statistical analysis.
Blanco, Luis H. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 1028.
Chemometrics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Boyle's law and the monster marshmallow  Broniec, Rick
Evacuating the air surrounding a marshmallow with a vacuum pump.
Broniec, Rick J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 974.
Gases
Vapor pressure apparatus for general chemistry  Long, Joseph W.
A simple apparatus for collecting vapor pressure data; relies on a mercury manometer.
Long, Joseph W. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 933.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases
Collapsing can  Sands, Richard D.
Demonstrates the solubility of ammonia gas in water.
Sands, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 866.
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Boyle's law - A different view  Sharma, B. D.
For a fixed mass of gas at constant temperature the energy of the gas is fixed and independent of its pressure and volume.
Sharma, B. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 827.
Gases
The titration of air with nitric oxide: An application of Gay-Lussac's law of combining volumes in a general chemistry experiment  Everett, Kenneth G.
Gay-Lussac's law of combining volumes is demonstrated through the reaction between NO and the oxygen in air.
Everett, Kenneth G. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 802.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases
The estimation of Avogadro's number using cetyl alcohol as the monolayer  Feinstein, H. I.; Sisson, Robert F., III
Results and calculations using cetyl alcohol as the monolayer in estimating Avogadro's number.
Feinstein, H. I.; Sisson, Robert F., III J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 751.
Stoichiometry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chemometrics
Chemical equation balancing: A general method which is quick, simple, and has unexpected applications  Blakley, G. R.
Using matrices to solve mathematical equations and balance chemical equations. From "The Goals of General Chemistry - A Symposium."
Blakley, G. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 728.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Mathematics in data analysis: An introduction  Wang, Taitzer
The meaning of simple mathematical equations are described in a perspective that, for some reasons, many beginning students do not seem to be able to obtain from reading textbooks on the subject.
Wang, Taitzer J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 592.
Chemometrics
The use of a filmstrip projector to present a critical point demonstration  Nyquist, H. LeRoy
A demonstration to illustrate the concepts of critical temperature and critical pressure.
Nyquist, H. LeRoy J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 522.
Gases |
Liquids
Recurrent difficulties: Solving quantitative problems  Kramers-Pals, H.; Lambrechts, J.; Wolff, P. J.
Investigating the process students use to solve quantitative problems using a think aloud strategy.
Kramers-Pals, H.; Lambrechts, J.; Wolff, P. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 509.
Chemometrics
A simple experiment for determining vapor pressure and enthalpy of vaporization of water  Levinson, Gerald S.
It is possible to determine the vapor pressure of water using only a tall beaker, a graduated cylinder, and a thermometer.
Levinson, Gerald S. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 337.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Entropy and its role in introductory chemistry  Bickford, Franklin R.
The concept of entropy as it applies to phase changes.
Bickford, Franklin R. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 317.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Solids |
Liquids |
Gases
Cinema, flirts, snakes, and gases  Hartwig, Dcio R.; Filho, Romeu C. Rocha
Explaining the kinetic behavior of gases through several analogies.
Hartwig, Dcio R.; Filho, Romeu C. Rocha J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 295.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases
Notes from physics journals  Smith, Douglas D.
Solution with an index of refraction that matches that of Pyrex glass and a reverse cartesion diver.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 243.
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents
Remedial mathematics for the introductory chemistry course: The "CHEM. 99" concept  Bohning, James J.
An approach that is aimed specifically at mathematical deficiencies and based on the premise that the deductive reasoning process that accompanies basic mathematical technique is crucial for a meaningful comprehension of general chemistry principles.
Bohning, James J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 207.
Chemometrics
Ignition of magnesium in porcelain  Feinstein, H. I.
Demonstrating the presence of nitrogen in air without ruining the porcelain glaze of a crucible.
Feinstein, H. I. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 159.
Laboratory Management |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis
Buffers  Gold, Marvin
A demonstration based on buffer calculations.
Gold, Marvin J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 155.
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics
Calculation of statistical thermodynamic properties  Vicharelli, P. A.; Collins, C. B.
25. Bits and pieces, 9. A computer program for the calculation of specific heat, entropy, enthalpy, and Gibbs free energy of polyatomic molecules.
Vicharelli, P. A.; Collins, C. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 131.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Chemometrics
CAI Programs in BASIC and an associated MATH subroutine  Anderson, Robert Hunt
25. Bits and pieces, 9. Four BASIC programs involving basic calculations and mathematical problems in chemistry.
Anderson, Robert Hunt J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 129.
Chemometrics |
Enrichment / Review Materials
The ammonia fountain-an implosion danger  Kauffman, George B.
Flat-bottomed flasks should never be used in the ammonia-fountain demonstration.
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 80.
Gases
Lemon meringue pie  Smith, Douglas D.
The chemistry and physics of lemon meringue pie.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 60.
Gases |
Ionic Bonding |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Proteins / Peptides
Basic mathematics for beginning chemistry (Goldish, Dorthoy M.)  Ellison, Herbert R.

Ellison, Herbert R. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, A65.
Chemometrics |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Enrichment / Review Materials
A practical Solvay process experiment  McKee, J. R.; Kauffman, J. M.
This note features practical augmentation to the Solvay process experiment.
McKee, J. R.; Kauffman, J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 1035.
Gases |
Separation Science
Think   Wheeler, S. J., James D.
Students have an easy enough time crunching numbers, but it is alarming how little they understand the concepts behind the numbers. Students should not be making remarks such as, "If they keep changing how they write the problems, how am I supposed to know how to solve them?"
Wheeler, S. J., James D. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 1004.
Learning Theories |
Chemometrics
Small things and large numbers   Rosenberg, Milton H.
Some challenging solubility problems are featured in this note.
Rosenberg, Milton H. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 962.
Solutions / Solvents |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Superlative problems  Akers, Hugh A.; Akers, Gwyn E.
The data in the Guinness Book of World Records holds great potential for fun, interesting chemistry exercises.
Akers, Hugh A.; Akers, Gwyn E. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 795.
Chemometrics
Balancing complex redox equations by inspection   Kolb, Doris
A step-by-step walk through of the inspection process for balancing equations.
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 642.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
A statistical note on the time lag method for second-order kinetic rate constants  Schwartz, Lowell M.
A clever method for finding second-order kinetic rate constants by using a time lag method that avoids direct measurement of the end point reading P(infinity) can easily be programmed.
Schwartz, Lowell M. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 588.
Chemometrics |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
A mathematics readiness test for prospective chemistry students  Weisman, Rence L.
A mathematics readiness test is prepared to determine whether students have the minimum competency necessary to succeed in chemistry.
Weisman, Rence L. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 564.
Chemometrics |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
How big is Avogadro's number (or how small are atoms, molecules and ions)  Fulkrod, John E.
Calculating the volume occupied by Avogadro's number of drops of water helps students understand the magnitude of this quantity while giving them practice at using scientific notation and the metric system.
Fulkrod, John E. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 508.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
Pressure and the exploding beverage container   Perkins, Robert R.
The question in this article is an extension of exploding pop bottles to illustrate the balancing of a chemical equation, enthalpy, stoichiometry, and vapor pressure calculations, and the use of the Ideal Gas Equation. The question is aimed at the first-year level student.
Perkins, Robert R. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 363.
Stoichiometry |
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Chemometrics
Spectacular gas density demonstration using methane bubbles   Snipp, Robert; Mattson, Bruce; Hardy, Winters
An unforgettable demonstration of the relative densities of gases can be performed by creating giant methane bubbles with the aid of a small funnel and toy soap bubble solution.
Snipp, Robert; Mattson, Bruce; Hardy, Winters J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 354.
Physical Properties |
Gases
Balloons and the teaching of chemistry  Dewhurst, F.; Dewhurst, F. R.
Balloons are a remarkably useful tool for the chemical educationalist. Balloons can not only provide cheap, safe, and easy-to-use alternatives to more complex and costly equipment, but also they can be used as effective teaching aids to demonstrate principles of structural chemistry.
Dewhurst, F.; Dewhurst, F. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 44.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A specific heat analogy  McCullough, Brother Thomas, CSC
An analogy for helping students to understand the concepts of specific heat and heat transfer problems.
McCullough, Brother Thomas, CSC J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 896.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Chemometrics
Sweet heat  O'Connor, Rod
What would be the net enthalpy change for the complete combustion of 5.00 g of glucose at body temperature?
O'Connor, Rod J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 889.
Carbohydrates |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Chemometrics
Gases and their behavior  Schmuckler, Joseph S.

Schmuckler, Joseph S. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 885.
Gases
Teaching and learning problem solving in science. Part I: A general strategy  Mettes, C. T. C. W.; Pilot, A.; Roossink, H. J.; Kramers-Pals, H.
A systematic approach to solving problems and on designing instruction where students learn this approach.
Mettes, C. T. C. W.; Pilot, A.; Roossink, H. J.; Kramers-Pals, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 882.
Chemometrics
Empirical formulas - A ratio problem  Knox, Kerro
A problem involving an analogy between ratios of boys to girls given their average weights and percentage composition of the class by weight.
Knox, Kerro J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 879.
Chemometrics |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Mole fraction analogies  DeLorenzo, Ron
An analogy to help students solve concentration problems.
DeLorenzo, Ron J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 733.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics |
Solutions / Solvents
Stormy weather  Taylor, Thomas E.
Question regarding the formation of rain clouds and the exothermic process of condensation.
Taylor, Thomas E. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 732.
Thermodynamics |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Dissociation of a weak acid  Ladd, M. F. C.
An earlier treatment of the equilibrium of a weak acid in water gives, for certain ranges of concentration, significantly incorrect results.
Ladd, M. F. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 669.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
A "road map" problem for freshman chemistry students  Burness, James H.
Question suitable for a take-home type of exam.
Burness, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 647.
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Significant figures: Removing the zero mystique  Treptow, Richard S.
Zeros are significant if they appear before a number takes on size or as stand-ins for unknown digits.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 646.
Chemometrics
Properly opening a beer can and Boyle's law  DeLorenzo, Ron
Why tapping the side of a can or bottle can reduce spray when opening.
DeLorenzo, Ron J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 601.
Gases
Whatever became of significant figures? The trend toward numerical illiteracy  Anderlik, Barbara
How does one persuade students, when working with physical measurements, to part with excess digits and become numerically literate.
Anderlik, Barbara J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 591.
Chemometrics
Bicarbonate in Alka-Seltzer: A general chemistry experiment  Peck, Larry; Irgolic, Kurt; O'Connor, Rod
Determining the percentage bicarbonate ion by mass in Alka-Seltzer.
Peck, Larry; Irgolic, Kurt; O'Connor, Rod J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 517.
Quantitative Analysis |
Gases |
Stoichiometry |
Acids / Bases
An illustration to demonstrate the smallness of molecules  Kingston, David W.
An exercise in dimensional analysis.
Kingston, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 506.
Chemometrics
PV work demonstration (Corridor demonstration)  Koubek, E.
A hallway demonstration regarding the work done in pulling out a piston on display.
Koubek, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 374.
Gases
Correlating Celsius and Fahrenheit temperatures by the "unit calculus"  Gorin, George
Deriving the mathematical relationship between Celsius and Fahrenheit temperatures.
Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 350.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
A Charles' law demonstration rehatched  Markow, Peter G.
Modifications to simplify the "Egg in a Bottle" demonstration.
Markow, Peter G. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 307.
Gases
Adopting SI units in introductory chemistry  Davies, William G.; Moore, John W.
Conventions associated with SI units, conversion relationships commonly used in chemistry, and a roadmap method for solving stoichiometry problems.
Davies, William G.; Moore, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 303.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Adding another dimension to dimensional analysis  DeLorenzo, Ronald
Adding words to typical dimensional analysis work to improve understanding and communication.
DeLorenzo, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 302.
Chemometrics
A chemistry lesson at Three Mile Island  Mammano, Nicholas J.
Teaching principles of general chemistry through references made to the nuclear incident at Three Mile Island.
Mammano, Nicholas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 286.
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Stoichiometry |
Nonmajor Courses |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Pressure measuring devices and pressure calculations  Schultz, Charles W.
A question requiring an understanding of the principle of operation of pressure gauges.
Schultz, Charles W. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 285.
Gases
The solution: "Derivation of the ideal gas law"  Bosch, Warren L.; Crawford, Crayton M.; Gensler, Walter J.; Haim, Albert; Levine, Ira N.; Linde, Peter F.; Salzsieder, John C.; Silberszye, Waldemar; Viehland, Larry A.; Waser, Jurg
A response to the misinterpretations that appeared in the referenced article regarding the gas laws.
Bosch, Warren L.; Crawford, Crayton M.; Gensler, Walter J.; Haim, Albert; Levine, Ira N.; Linde, Peter F.; Salzsieder, John C.; Silberszye, Waldemar; Viehland, Larry A.; Waser, Jurg J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 201.
Gases
Significant digits: Numbers and their logarithms  Clever, H. Lawrence
The number of digits to report in a base 10 logarithm is an unresolved problem for many students.
Clever, H. Lawrence J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 824.
Chemometrics |
pH
Balloon balance thermometer: A lecture demonstration of Charles' Law  Carney, G. D.; Kern, C. W.
The balloon-balance thermometer makes use of air as a thermometric fluid, a water bath as the thermometric vessel, and the readings of a triple beam balance as a thermometer scale.
Carney, G. D.; Kern, C. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 823.
Gases
The gases of life  J. Chem. Educ. Staff
Considers the topics of diffusion, oxygen transport through the lungs, oxygen in arterial blood, and CO2 transfer.
J. Chem. Educ. Staff J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 748.
Gases |
Transport Properties |
Equilibrium
Lecture demonstration of vanishing meniscus in vapor liquid transition  Duus, H. C.
Shows how the interface between vapor and liquid propane vanishes.
Duus, H. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 614.
Liquids |
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
The problem: "Derivation of the ideal gas law"  Vaitkunas, John J.
Outline for a lesson on gases, and suggestions for approaches to the ideal gas law.
Vaitkunas, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 530.
Gases
The physically meaningful solution of the quadratic equation  Levy, Mel; Byers, Larry D.
Shows that the potential ambiguity of two unequal but physically meaningful roots never arises.
Levy, Mel; Byers, Larry D. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 526.
Chemometrics
Calculators in freshman chemistry - An alternative view  Gold, Marvin
There is a serious negative aspect to allowing freshmen use of calculators in chemistry.
Gold, Marvin J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 526.
Chemometrics
The variation of vapor pressure with temperature  Davenport, Derek A.; Srinivasan, Viswanathan
Comparing the pressure of three cans of lighter fluid at different temperatures.
Davenport, Derek A.; Srinivasan, Viswanathan J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 474.
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
Ga(U)Ge pressure and absolute pressure  Davenport, Derek A.
Air is progressively removed from a test tube; the pressure inside is measured using a standard tire-pressure gauge that is found to read atmospheric pressure when the test tube is fully evacuated.
Davenport, Derek A. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 322.
Gases
Boyle's law  Davenport, Derek A.
Increasing weights are placed on a sealed syringe, compressing the air inside, and increasing weights pull the plunger from a held syringe, expanding the air inside. In both cases, plots of "P" vs. V are recorded.
Davenport, Derek A. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 322.
Gases
Measurement errors: A lecture demonstration  Munn, Robert J.
A lecture demonstration to realistically discuss precision, accuracy, averaging, data rejection, and significant digits.
Munn, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 267.
Chemometrics
How many significant digits in 0.05C?  Power, James D.
Textbooks abound with erroneous examples, such as 33F = 0.56C.
Power, James D. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 239.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Calculators, slide rules, and significant figures  McCullough, Thomas, CSC
Using a slide rule to help students understand the concept of significant figures before using a calculator.
McCullough, Thomas, CSC J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 238.
Chemometrics
An experiment oriented approach to teaching the kinetic molecular theory  Wiseman, Frank L., Jr.
A series of experiments designed to illustrate the kinetic molecular theory and the differences between solids, liquids, and gases.
Wiseman, Frank L., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 233.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases |
Solids |
Liquids |
Nonmajor Courses
Participatory lecture demonstrations  Battino, Rubin
Examples of participatory lecture demonstrations in chromatography, chemical kinetics, balancing equations, the gas laws, the kinetic-molecular theory, Henry's law, electronic energy levels in atoms, translational, vibrational, and rotational energies of molecules, and organic chemistry.
Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 39.
Chromatography |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Kinetics |
Stoichiometry |
Gases |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A discovery experiment. CO2 soap bubble dynamics  Millikan, Roger C.
Students often make a choice of major based upon the view of a subject that they derive from the beginning course. Rare are the chemistry courses that provide the excitement and chance for discovery, while providing a basic understanding of chemistry. This article describes an experiment that does provide such an opportunity.
Millikan, Roger C. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 807.
Gases |
Physical Properties |
Surface Science
An Exercise with Boyle's law  Moeller, Michael B.
A procedure for doing a demonstration of Boyles' law.
Moeller, Michael B. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 584.
Gases
Intuitive and general approach to acid-base equilibrium calculations  Felty, Wayne L.
The purpose of this paper is to show that the usual intuitive approach used in general chemistry can be readily extended without introduction of additional, sophisticated concepts to give the general, exact expression and to point out the pedagogical advantage of its use.
Felty, Wayne L. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 576.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Bubble pressure and volume. A demonstration experiment  Christian, Sherril D.; Enwall, Eric
An interesting phenomenon which illustrates several important principles, is the dependence of the size of a soap bubble on pressure. The subject is introduced to the class by the black box experiment presented in this article.
Christian, Sherril D.; Enwall, Eric J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 536.
Gases |
Surface Science
Pressure calculations   Schultz, Charles W.
This question requires students to be able to distinguish two kinds of pressure: Boyles law pressure of gas (that depends on volume) from the equilibrium vapor pressure above a liquid (that does not).
Schultz, Charles W. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 515.
Gases |
Chemometrics
Development of intellectual skills in the laboratory  Ophardt, Charles E.
This first semester laboratory was designed to give instruction and practice in the intellectual skills of application, analysis, synthesis, and in Piaget's formal operations.
Ophardt, Charles E. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 485.
Learning Theories |
Qualitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Balancing an atypical redox equation  Carrano, S. A.
The author presents a particularly tricky redox problem and walks readers through a solution.
Carrano, S. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 382.
Chemometrics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry
Chemical predictions from pKa values  Hassanali, A.
The problem presented here develops student understanding of both pKa calculations and organic acids.
Hassanali, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 378.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Chemometrics
Teaching the method of successive approximations  Nassiff, Peter J.; Boyko, E. R.
The purpose of this papers is to help the teacher show the student why basic methods of successive approximations work, how they may be applied, and under what conditions it will be successful.
Nassiff, Peter J.; Boyko, E. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 376.
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
Gases
Acid-base reactions in the gaseous state (an illustrative experiment)   Corso, C. R.; De Oliveira, J. E.
Instructions for a simple method that demonstrates acid-base reactions in the gaseous state.
Corso, C. R.; De Oliveira, J. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 244.
Acids / Bases |
Gases
Collision theory  Myers, Richard S.
The question presented here can be employed in general or physical chemistry courses.
Myers, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 243.
Chemometrics |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics
The chemical equation. Part I: Simple reactions  Kolb, Doris
A chemical equation is often misunderstood by students as an "equation" that is used in chemistry. However, a more accurate description is that it is a concise statement describing a chemical reaction expressed in chemical symbolism.
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 184.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Reactions
General chemistry-pressure measurement   Steffel, Margaret J.
This question allows students to demonstrate the understanding of the operation of barometers and vapor pressure at a freshman level.
Steffel, Margaret J. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 102.
Gases |
Quantitative Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Molar volumes: Microscopic insight from macroscopic data  Davenport, Derek A.; Fosterling, Robert B.; Srinivasan, Viswanathan
The molar volumes of the alkali metal halides; molar volumes of binary hydrogen compounds; molar volumes of the first transition series; molar volumes of the lanthanoids and actinoids; molar volumes of the carbon family; molar volumes of isotopically related species; aquated ions and ions in aqueous solution.
Davenport, Derek A.; Fosterling, Robert B.; Srinivasan, Viswanathan J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 93.
Inner Transition Elements |
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Stoichiometry |
Gases |
Transition Elements |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Isotopes
A pre-general chemistry course for the underprepared student  Krannich, Larry K.; Patick, David; Pevear, Jesse
Outline and evaluation of a course in chemical problem solving.
Krannich, Larry K.; Patick, David; Pevear, Jesse J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 730.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Chemometrics
Gasoline vapor: An invisible pollutant  Stephens, Edgar R.
An apparatus and procedure to demonstrate the substantial contribution vaporized gasoline makes to hydrocarbon pollution.
Stephens, Edgar R. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 682.
Physical Properties |
Gases |
Atmospheric Chemistry
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
330-333. Four questions and their answers; includes comments made by readers on earlier questions 130, 153, 154, 171, 172, 181.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 678.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Metals |
pH
Chemical equilibrium: Analogies that separate the mathematics from the chemistry  DeLorenzo, Ronald A.
Demonstrates that the mathematics of chemical equilibria are not difficult, particularly when put in a non-chemical context.
DeLorenzo, Ronald A. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 676.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Ultraviolet absorption of ozone  Driscoll, Jerry A.
A demonstration of the absorption of ultraviolet radiation by ozone.
Driscoll, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 675.
Gases |
Atmospheric Chemistry
On significant figures  MacCarthy, Patrick
Illustrating the decrease in uncertainty that accompanies an increase in significant figures.
MacCarthy, Patrick J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 578.
Chemometrics
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
315-322. Eight questions on subjects related to environmental chemistry and their answers.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 498.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Applications of Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry
Simple classroom experiment on uncertainty of measurement  Sen, B.
This activity demonstrates several aspects regarding the statistical treatment of data.
Sen, B. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 468.
Chemometrics
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
309-314. Six questions involving practical applications of chemistry.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 437.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Toxicology |
Alcohols |
Gases |
Natural Products
Ideal and non-ideal gases. An experiment with surprise value  Chirpich, Thomas P.
Compares the behavior of an ideal gas (air) with a non-ideal gas (water vapor) as they are cooled from 100C to room temperature.
Chirpich, Thomas P. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 378.
Gases
Great spray can debate  Bassow, Herb
A curriculum scenario that takes the problems raised by the technological, economic, and political contexts of the fluorocarbon controversy as its point of focus.
Bassow, Herb J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 371.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Applications of Chemistry
Simplified Boyle's Law demonstration  Miller, Daniel W.
Placing a sealed syringe in bell jar attached to a vacuum pump and reading the volume of air inside the syringe at various reduced pressures.
Miller, Daniel W. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 245.
Gases
Le Chtelier's principle: A laboratory exercise  Friedman, Frederica
Le Chtelier's principle can be demonstrated by showing that water can boil at temperatures below 100C due to reduced vapor pressure.
Friedman, Frederica J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 236.
Equilibrium |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases |
Water / Water Chemistry
Calculators and significant figures  Satek, Larry C.
A demonstration on the topic of significant figures and random errors.
Satek, Larry C. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 177.
Chemometrics
3 [Three] basketballs = 1 [one] mole of ideal gas at STP  Jardine, Fred H.
The volume of three basketballs = one mole of ideal gas at STP.
Jardine, Fred H. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 112.
Stoichiometry |
Gases
Cookbook dimensional analysis  DeLorenzo, Ronald
Frequently, teachers will hear, "...it looks easy when you do it..." when teaching dimensional analysis. This teacher advises others on a way to help students gain self-efficacy with this problem solving-strategy.
DeLorenzo, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 633.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
A criterion for the simple approximation in dissociation equilibria  Leffler, Amos J.
The author demonstrates quantitative criterion for the assumption that permits the neglect of the amount of dissociated species in the denominator of the dissociation equation.
Leffler, Amos J. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 460.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Lab safety: The case of the errant cylinder   Ozaruk, N.
The anchoring of compressed gas cylinders to keep them from being knocked over, with the accompanying possibility of breaking off the valve, is an accepted safe practice. However, there has been some skepticism as to what would have happened if a cylinder valve was knocked off. The author shares a vivid description that appeared in the National Safety Council Chemical Section Newsletter. Also: a high school safety rules booklet; a hazardous materials safety booklet; and wall charts on Laboratory Techniques and Laboratory Safety.
Ozaruk, N. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 373.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Gases
A computer program for calculation of boiling points at sub- and super-atmospheric pressures  Davis, Charles C.; Wright, C. David
An interactive program has been written in Fortran IV for the IBM 370/125 which will compute the boiling points of organic compounds at a range of pressures.
Davis, Charles C.; Wright, C. David J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 355.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases
A computer program for calculation of boiling points at sub- and super-atmospheric pressures  Davis, Charles C.; Wright, C. David
An interactive program has been written in Fortran IV for the IBM 370/125 which will compute the boiling points of organic compounds at a range of pressures.
Davis, Charles C.; Wright, C. David J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 355.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases
A logic diagram for teaching stoichiometry  Tyndall, John R.
Presents a diagram that the author found helpful in teaching the fundamentals of stoichiometry.
Tyndall, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 492.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Maximizing profits in equilibrium processes  Rish, Ronald J.
Provides the student with an example in which both chemical principles and calculus are applied to a realistic industrial situation where profits are a must.
Rish, Ronald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 441.
Equilibrium |
Industrial Chemistry |
Chemometrics
Ideal gas laws. Experiments for general chemistry  Deal, Walter J.
Several gas-law experiments designed to verify the relationship PV = constant at constant temperature and to calculate the gas constant R.
Deal, Walter J. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 405.
Gases
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
188-192. Five biochemistry related questions and their answers.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 390.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Chromatography |
Gases |
Nutrition
Hydrocarbon combustion equilibria in first-year chemistry  Davidson, Scott
An article describing a way to extend the study of multiple equilibria to gaseous systems is available on request.
Davidson, Scott J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 387.
Equilibrium |
Gases
Molar solubility calculations and the control equilibrium  Chaston, S. H. H.
The Control-Equilibrium method uses as its starting point a precise procedure for obtaining the equilibrium that accounts for the bulk of the decomposition of starting materials.
Chaston, S. H. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 206.
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics |
Equilibrium
Some people love 22.4 (letter 2)  Haight, G. P.
Disagreement with statements in the cited article.
Haight, G. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 204.
Gases
Some people love 22.4 (letter 1)  Schweikert, William W.
Disagreement with statements in the cited article.
Schweikert, William W. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 204.
Gases
A simple gas chromatograph for teaching purposes  Wollrab, Adalbert
A simple apparatus for demonstrating the separation of a mixture of pentane and hexane gas.
Wollrab, Adalbert J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 200.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Gases
Illustrating large and small numbers. A problem for the birds  Sattler, Louis
A calculation designed to illustrate the relative size of Avogadro's number. The solution from p. 181 is reproduced in this PDF.
Sattler, Louis J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 180.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
FeSCN2+ - A computer aid to the CHEM Study experiment  McCall, Arthur J., Jr.
A Fortran program assists in making the calculations that accompany investigation of the iron(III)thiocyanate equilibrium system.
McCall, Arthur J., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 118.
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Chemometrics
Effective insect fogging - The origin of sea breezes - Hot air balloons  Plumb, Robert C.
Three applications of the changes in pressure or volume of a gas when its temperature is changed.
Plumb, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 104.
Gases |
Applications of Chemistry
Discussion: Mathematics in the first-year chemistry course  Richter, G. P.
Report of the Third Biennial Conference on Chemical Education and the Second Centennial of Chemistry Celebration.
Richter, G. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 19.
Conferences |
Professional Development |
Chemometrics
Properties of air-A freshman chemistry lecture demonstration  Schultz, C. W.
A simple yet dramatic lecture demonstration can help tie together concepts of oxygen chemistry, combustion, gas properties and rates of reactions.
Schultz, C. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 751.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Gases
A Dalton's law experiment for students in the health sciences  Feigl, Dorothy M.
The number of students who take an introductory chemistry course in preparation for the health sciences is increasing. This note is an illustration of Dalton's law of partial pressures adapted to demonstrate the ability of the lungs to effect the removal of excess dioxide from the body.
Feigl, Dorothy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 273.
Gases |
Biophysical Chemistry
The extent of reaction as a unifying basis for stoichiometry in elementary chemistry  Garst, John F.
The author uses a more approachable symbol for "moles rxn per liter". The author outlines this approach with some examples.
Garst, John F. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 194.
Stoichiometry |
Gases
Lecture experiment: A quantitative illustration of LeChatelier's principle  Nelson, D. L.; Ginns, E. I.; Richtol, H. H.; Reeves, R. R.
A short experiment involving the popular gaseous nitrogen dioxide system has been developed into a lecture demonstration which quantitatively illustrates the behavior of a homogeneous gas-phase equilibrium under conditions of varying temperature and pressure.
Nelson, D. L.; Ginns, E. I.; Richtol, H. H.; Reeves, R. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 721.
Equilibrium |
Gases
Nitric acid in rain water  Gleason, Geoffrey I.
This trace analysis experiment is based on the conversion of nitrate to nitrite using a cadmium amalgam reductor column.
Gleason, Geoffrey I. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 718.
Acids / Bases |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry
Computer-enhanced laboratory experience. An example of a totally integrated approach  Davis, Leslie N.; Coffey, Charles E.; Macero, Daniel J.
A gas law experiment (Boyle's Law) adapted to make use of computer assisted instruction.
Davis, Leslie N.; Coffey, Charles E.; Macero, Daniel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 711.
Gases |
Thermodynamics
A Charles' Law experiment using a balloon or a plastic bag  Murdock, Howard D.; Hawthorne, Robert M., Jr.
A general chemistry experiment that demonstrates Charles' Law clearly, quickly, and relatively quantitatively.
Murdock, Howard D.; Hawthorne, Robert M., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 528.
Gases
A computer program for heat of combustion calculations  Wilhoit, Randolph C.; Bell, Mary Ellen; Subach, Daniel J.; Chen, Carol
A computer program is available for converting raw combustion data to the standard state energy of combustion.
Wilhoit, Randolph C.; Bell, Mary Ellen; Subach, Daniel J.; Chen, Carol J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 486.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Chemometrics
CO2 snow  Fernelius, W. Conard
Method for producing CO2 "snow."
Fernelius, W. Conard J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 466.
Laboratory Management |
Gases
Scuba diving and the gas laws  Cooke, E. D.; Baranowski, Conrad
Three illustrations of physical-chemical principles drawn from scuba diving.
Cooke, E. D.; Baranowski, Conrad J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 425.
Gases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Thermodynamics
Footnote to the house heating exemplum  Plumb, Robert C.; Campbell, J. A.
Offers a simple proof regarding an earlier column.
Plumb, Robert C.; Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 365.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
A quick scored item analysis for objective tests  Stokes, Jimmy C.; Strickland, James F., Jr.
Analyzing test data with students in the classroom.
Stokes, Jimmy C.; Strickland, James F., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 354.
Chemometrics
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
Six questions requiring an application of chemical principles.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 281.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Lipids |
Gases |
Electrochemistry
The chemistry of pollution - An experimental course  Frank, David L.
Briefly outlines the goals and topics of a course entitled "Chemistry of Air Pollution."
Frank, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 209.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry
Enthalpy and entropy of evaporation from measured vapor pressure using a programmable desk calculator  McEachern, Douglas M.
A program for a calculator that calculates the heat of evaporation of a solid or a liquid and the corresponding entropy change.
McEachern, Douglas M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 190.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Chemometrics
Commercial gas replaces hydrogen in general chemistry laboratory  Ehlert, Thomas C.
Methane can be used in place of hydrogen to reduce metal oxides.
Ehlert, Thomas C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 162.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Laboratory Management |
Gases |
Metals
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
Eight questions regarding the application of chemistry and their solutions.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 62.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Applications of Chemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry
Problem solving for chemistry (Peters, Edward I.)  Fiekers, Bernard A., S. J.

Fiekers, Bernard A., S. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A491.
Chemometrics
Chemical calculations (Benson, Sidney W.)  Melgaard, Kennett G.

Melgaard, Kennett G. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A98.
Chemometrics
The determination of dissolved oxygen by the Winkler method. A student laboratory experiment  McCormick, Patrick G.
This method is based on the reaction between oxygen and a suspension of manganese(II) hydroxide in a strongly alkaline solution.
McCormick, Patrick G. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 839.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Gases |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
Seven questions requiring an application of basic principles of chemistry.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 831.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Applications of Chemistry |
Gases |
Dyes / Pigments |
Metals
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
Seven questions requiring the application of basic principles of chemistry.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 769.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Applications of Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Gases |
Astrochemistry
Significant digits in logarithm-antilogarithm interconversions  Jones, Donald E.
Most textbooks are in error in the proper use of significant digits when interconverting logarithms and antilogarithms.
Jones, Donald E. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 753.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
A "relevant" first experiment for freshman chemistry laboratory  Macomber, Roger S.
This activity involves popping corn and introduces students to the processes of observation and inference as well as the use of the analytical balance and gravimetric procedure.
Macomber, Roger S. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 714.
Chemometrics
Demonstrating Avogadro's hypothesis with the molecular dynamics simulator  Young, Jay A.; Plumb, Robert C.
The Molecular Dynamics Simulator simulate closely the behaviors predicted by the mathematical descriptions of the kinetic molecular theory.
Young, Jay A.; Plumb, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 709.
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
Five questions requiring an application of basic principles of chemistry.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 707.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Applications of Chemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Astrochemistry
Student flowmeters and an air pollution experiment  Kohn, Harold W.
Using glass wool as an absorbent for atmospheric contaminants and three simple devices for measuring flow rates of gases.
Kohn, Harold W. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 643.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
Eight questions requiring the application of basic principles of chemistry.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 624.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Applications of Chemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases
An interactive program for teaching pH and logarithms  Eskinazi, Jak; Macero, Daniel J.
A computer program written in APL for teaching students logarithms and pH calculations.
Eskinazi, Jak; Macero, Daniel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 571.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics
Dissolved oxygen. A relevant experiment for the introductory laboratory  Stagg, William R.
Students measure the dissolved oxygen content of water from several natural sources as well as the change in solubility with temperature.
Stagg, William R. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 427.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Gases
Determination of the molar volume of a gas at standard temperature and pressure. A lecture demonstration  Zaborowski, Leon M.
Using massed balloons of measured and corrected volume to determine the molar volume of a gas at standard temperature and pressure.
Zaborowski, Leon M. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 361.
Gases
The two-place logarithm table. An aid to understanding and use of logarithms  Freiser, Henry
Presents a two-place logarithm table that serves to aid the understanding and use of logarithms.
Freiser, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 325.
Chemometrics
Density of a binary mixture. A classroom or laboratory exercise  Feinstein, H. I.
Provides a hypothetical problem in the density of a binary mixture.
Feinstein, H. I. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 111.
Physical Properties |
Chemometrics
Using alligation alternate to solve composition problems  Mancott, Anatol
Problems involving the composition of mixtures may be solved by using the relatively obscure method of "alligation alternate" in lieu of the standard algebraic procedure with no loss in accuracy; includes five examples.
Mancott, Anatol J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 57.
Chemometrics |
Solutions / Solvents |
Isotopes
The effervescence of ocean surf  Plumb, Robert C.; Blanchard, Duncan C.; Bilofsky, Howard S.; Bridgman, Wilbur B.
A pure liquid will not foam, but all true solutions will, as dictated by the fundamental concepts of surface thermodynamics enunciated by Gibbs.
Plumb, Robert C.; Blanchard, Duncan C.; Bilofsky, Howard S.; Bridgman, Wilbur B. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 29.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics
Visualization of the atomic absorption of mercury vapor by use of a fluorescent screen  Argauer, Robert J.; White, Charles E.
Presents a demonstration to visualize the presence of metallic mercury vapor.
Argauer, Robert J.; White, Charles E. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 27.
Toxicology |
Gases |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Air pollution measurements in the freshman laboratory  Suplinkas, Raymond J.
Summarizes the equipment and procedures used to measure air pollution (NO, NO2, and O3) in a freshman chemistry laboratory.
Suplinkas, Raymond J. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 24.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis
Gas Laws, Equilibrium, and the Commercial Synthesis of Nitric acid. A Simple Demonstration  Alexander, M. Dale
This demonstration of the commercial production of nitric acid uses a simple apparatus to illustrate a number of basic chemical concepts, including Le Chatelier's principle.
Alexander, M. Dale J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 838.
Synthesis |
Industrial Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Equilibrium |
Reactions |
Stoichiometry
Tire Inflation Thermodynamics  Plumb, Robert C.; Connors, John J.
Explains why inflating a tire with a hand pump heats the air being pumped into the tire.
Plumb, Robert C.; Connors, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 837.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Applications of Chemistry
Audio taped explanations of freshman experimental calculations  Harrison, Aline M.
The authors have found audio tapes to be effective replacements for live, in-lab explanations of experimental calculations.
Harrison, Aline M. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 826.
Chemometrics |
Laboratory Management
SI units in physico-chemical calculations  Norris, A. C.
This article demonstrates how the adoption of SI units affects some of the more important physico-chemical calculations found at the undergraduate level.
Norris, A. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 797.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Bag-assembly for gas experiment  Gregory, Michael
An improved bag-assembly has been devised for use with the Chem Study Experiment, "The Weights of Equal Volumes of Gases."
Gregory, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 796.
Gases
Concept of empirical temperature for introductory chemistry  Ander, Paul
This presentation is used in a freshman course prior to the discussion of the empirical gas laws for dilute gases, i.e., Boyle's Charles', Dalton's etc.,
Ander, Paul J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 325.
Gases
Demonstration notes: Spontaneous combustion  Johnson, Joseph E.
Modifications or additions to previously published demonstration.
Johnson, Joseph E. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A439.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Gases |
Transport Properties |
Coordination Compounds
Acid-base reaction parameters  Freiser, Henry
The author demonstrates how the combined algebraic graphical approach can be extended to acid-base titration curve calculations as well as to buffer and sharpness index formulation.
Freiser, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 809.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics
Grading the copper sulfide experiment  Novick, Seymour
The author recommends a more liberal analysis in grading the copper sulfide experiment.
Novick, Seymour J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 785.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Chemical exponentialism for beginners  Larson, G. Olof
Presents a method for introducing and reviewing exponential mathematical operations.
Larson, G. Olof J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 693.
Chemometrics
Improvement in a Charles' law capillary tube experiment for introductory chemistry laboratory  Sawyer, Albert K.
Improving a Charles' law capillary tube experiment for the determination of absolute zero by using a volume-temperature measurement at about -80C using a dry ice/acetone cooling mixture.
Sawyer, Albert K. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 573.
Gases
Prolonging death (in apples)  Plumb, Robert C.
Using controlled atmosphere storage to prolong the freshness of vegetables and fruits after they have been harvested.
Plumb, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 518.
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Agricultural Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Gases
Understanding a culprit before eliminating it. An application of Lewis acid-base principles to atmospheric SO2 as a pollutant  Brasted, Robert C.
The SO2 molecule offers ample opportunities for teaching practical chemistry. [Debut of first run. This feature reappeared in 1986.]
Brasted, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 447.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions |
Applications of Chemistry |
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Properties / Structure
An improvement of the vapor density experiment in the general chemistry course  Seiwald, Robert; Gruhn, Thomas; Gorman, Mel
Suggests adding Rhodamine B to the liquid phase to make it highly visible.
Seiwald, Robert; Gruhn, Thomas; Gorman, Mel J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 390.
Gases |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Sealed tube experiments  Campbell, J. A.
Lists and briefly describes a large set of "sealed tube experiments," each of which requires less than five minutes to set-up and clean-up, requires less than five minutes to run, provides dramatic results observable by a large class, and illustrates important chemical concepts.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 273.
Thermodynamics |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Liquids |
Gases |
Rate Law |
Equilibrium
Cloud Caps on High Mountains  Stevenson, Philip E.
The formation of cloud caps on high mountains illustrates cooling in an adiabatic expansion and the change in vapor pressure of a liquid with temperature.
Stevenson, Philip E. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 272.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
Environmental chemistry in the classroom  Day, Jean W.
The environmental sciences is an especially good vehicle for relating chemistry to other disciplines in courses for nonscientists.
Day, Jean W. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 260.
Nonmajor Courses |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
A lecture-laboratory experiment in gas-liquid partition chromatography  McKay, Edward S.; Vasers, Alise
After being introduced to the chromatographic process in lecture, each student is given a copy of a chromatogram of an unknown mixture and asked to identify its composition and the concentration of each component.
McKay, Edward S.; Vasers, Alise J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 239.
Gases |
Liquids |
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Quantitative Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis
The snowmaking machines  Plumb, Robert C.
Illustrating principles of thermodynamics in gas expansions and phase changes.
Plumb, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 176.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Sea-lab experiment  Plumb, Robert C.
Illustrating the principles of the kinetic theory of gases.
Plumb, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 175.
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
Chemical principles exemplified  Plumb, Robert C.
Introduction to a new series, containing "exempla" (brief anecdotes about materials and phenomena which exemplify chemical principles). [Debut]
Plumb, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 175.
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium |
Photochemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Hydrolysis of sodium carbonate  Nakayama, F. S.
Presents a procedure for obtaining the ion concentrations of the various component species produced by the hydrolysis of sodium carbonate.
Nakayama, F. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 67.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Chemometrics |
pH
Component concentrations in solutions of weak acids  Goldish, Dorothy M.
presents a new approach to teaching the subject of weak acid equilibria and its associated calculations.
Goldish, Dorothy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 65.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
pH
Essential Math for the Sciences: Algebra, Trigonometry, and Vectors (Beiser, Arthur)  Reuland, Donald J.

Reuland, Donald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A899.
Chemometrics
Thermal decomposition of water by the use of the Nernst glower  Glaser, John O.
Relies on a Nernst glower to decompose water vapor into hydrogen and oxygen gas.
Glaser, John O. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A497.
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction
Baby bottles and elementary chemistry  Davenport, D. A.
Presents several experiments that rely on baby bottles, including Charles' Law expansion, vapor pressure of volatile liquids, molecular weights of volatile liquids, and closed-atmosphere experiments.
Davenport, D. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 878.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Gases |
Liquids |
Oxidation / Reduction
An inexpensive vacuum and gas handling system for the freshman laboratory  Zuehlke, R. W.; Cartier, P. G.
Presents an inexpensive vacuum and gas handling system for the freshman laboratory.
Zuehlke, R. W.; Cartier, P. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 874.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Gases
A pseudo-Charles law experiment to teach vapor pressure concepts  Sinclair, Dean L.
This deliberately deceptive experiment impresses upon students the basic ideas of vapor pressure and illustrates the scientific method.
Sinclair, Dean L. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 814.
Gases
Stable isotopes of the atmosphere  Eck, C. F.
This article briefly presents the composition of air, the discovery of isotopes, their concentration in air, and reviews their current enrichment status.
Eck, C. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 706.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Isotopes |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
Volkswagen versus the hummingbird  Nebbia, Giorgio
Questions the cited (046-07-0455) thermodynamic calculations.
Nebbia, Giorgio J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 701.
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Chemometrics
LTE.  Crocker, Roger
The author points out that the objections raised to his earlier work are academic.
Crocker, Roger J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 699.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
LTE. Algebra and chemical equations  Copley, George Novello
The author questions the mathematic validity of the cited work.
Copley, George Novello J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 699.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
An improved equivalent weight apparatus  Brown, Oliver L.
Presents an improved apparatus for the reaction of weighed samples of metals with hydrochloric acid and the measurement of the volume of hydrogen evolved.
Brown, Oliver L. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 617.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Metals |
Laboratory Management |
Reactions |
Gases |
Stoichiometry
The noble gases and the periodic table: Telling it like it was  Wolfenden, John H.
It is instructive to discover that many great scientists have reported erroneous observations as well as mistaken interpretations of experimental data.
Wolfenden, John H. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 569.
Gases |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Friday experiments  Bissey, Jack E.
Provides data on an unknown gas and asks readers to determine if it is ideal, as well as its molecular weight and chemical formula.
Bissey, Jack E. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 497.
Gases |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Fuel conversion in transport phenomena  Gerlach, E. R.
Calculations comparing the fuel efficiency of a hummingbird with that of a Volkswagen.
Gerlach, E. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 455.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The thermal decomposition of 2,5-dihydrofuran vapor: An experiment in gas kinetics  Rubin, Jay A.; Filseth, Stephen V.
Describes an experiment designed to illustrate manipulations with a vacuum system and the conduct of kinetic measurements.
Rubin, Jay A.; Filseth, Stephen V. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 57.
Kinetics |
Gases
Circular slide rule conversion of pH to [H+]  Grimm, Larry C.
This short note discusses the use of a circular slide rule to convert pH to [H+].
Grimm, Larry C. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 22.
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Effect of shock on CS2 vapor  Viswanathan, Arcot
An explosive shock separates CS2 into its constituent elements.
Viswanathan, Arcot J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A901.
Gases |
Separation Science
The heat of compression  Gachic, L.
Demonstrates the heat generated when a gas is compressed.
Gachic, L. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A569.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases
Carbon and its inorganic compounds. C. Carbon dioxide   Colo, August J.; Alyea, Hubert N.
Demonstrates the production of CO2 from dry ice and limestone and acid.
Colo, August J.; Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A326.
Gases |
Synthesis
Carbon and its inorganic compounds. B. Carbon monoxide   Colo, August J.
Demonstrates the formation of carbon monoxide.
Colo, August J. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A326.
Gases |
Synthesis
Carbon and its inorganic compounds. A. Carbon   Alyea, Hubert N.; Frick, Charlotte; Colo, August J.
Demonstrations include to crystalline structure of diamond vs. graphite and the absorption of tars, dyes, ammonia, and benzene on carbon.
Alyea, Hubert N.; Frick, Charlotte; Colo, August J. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A225.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Gases
Hazardous chemicals data  National Fire Protection Association
Explains aspects of chemical hazard data and presents hazards associated with acetaldehyde.
National Fire Protection Association J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A115.
Chemometrics |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Laboratory Management
Apparatus for determining vapor density  Uglum, K. L.; Carson, L. M.; Riley, R. V.
Presents a simplified vapor-density experiment suitable for use as a freshman demonstration or an undergraduate physical chemistry experiment.
Uglum, K. L.; Carson, L. M.; Riley, R. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 203.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties
A simple vacuum apparatus for lecture experiments  Peterson, L. K.; Ruddy, F. H.
Describes a simple vacuum apparatus and examples of its use in lecture situations.
Peterson, L. K.; Ruddy, F. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 742.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Liquids |
Physical Properties |
Transport Properties |
Stoichiometry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Bolte, John
(1) Is the mole a number or a weight? (2) Is there an easy way to locate a compound by volume and page in Beilstein? (3) What are the stages evident in a gas discharge tube as the pressure of the gas and the voltage are changed? - answer by Bolte
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Bolte, John J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 718.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Gases
An apparatus for the investigation of Graham's law of effusion  Rice, Laurence A.; Chang, James C.
Modification of an earlier apparatus for the investigation of Graham's law of effusion and its applications.
Rice, Laurence A.; Chang, James C. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 676.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Transport Properties |
Gases
Structure units: Aids in the interpretation of chemical reactions  Strong, Laurence E.
the proposal to define structure units as generators of the various properties of a substance has a considerable advantage over the usual definition of a structure unit as the endpoint of some prescribed scheme of subdivision.
Strong, Laurence E. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 51.
Learning Theories |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Solids |
Liquids |
Gases
Group zero. The atmosphere. B. Substances in the air  Slabaugh, W. H.; Klug, Evangeline B.; Alyea, Hubert N.; Cooper, Edwin H.
Demonstrations include the analysis of air for oxygen content, paper burned in air, air + limewater, air + barium hydroxide, breathing into limewater, and the pH change from breath.
Slabaugh, W. H.; Klug, Evangeline B.; Alyea, Hubert N.; Cooper, Edwin H. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A599.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
pH
Chlorine trifluoride.  Steere, Norman V.
Summarizes the hazards associated with chlorine trifluoride.
Steere, Norman V. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A1057.
Chemometrics |
Laboratory Management
The range of validity of Graham's Laws  Kirk, A. D.
It is the purpose of this article to discuss effusion, diffusion, and some related processes and to outline the range of validity of Graham's law.
Kirk, A. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 745.
Gases |
Transport Properties
Graham's Laws of diffusion and effusion  Mason, E. A.; Kronstadt, Barbara
The purpose of this article is to review Graham's laws of diffusion and effusion, offer simple but essentially correct theoretical explanations for both laws, and to present experiments on the diffusion law.
Mason, E. A.; Kronstadt, Barbara J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 740.
Transport Properties |
Gases
Accurate measurement of gas volumes by a soap-film method  Hello, O.
The measurement of small gas volumes can be greatly improved by using the soap-film apparatus described in this article.
Hello, O. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 568.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases
Analysis for nitrite by evolution of nitrogen: A general chemistry laboratory experiment  Bartlett, J. Kenneth
This experiment involves analysis for the sodium nitrite content of a sodium nitrite-sodium chloride mixture by decomposition to nitrogen while heating in the presence of ammonium chloride solution.
Bartlett, J. Kenneth J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 475.
Gases
Capillary tube experiments for introductory chemistry laboratory  Gesser, H. D.; Lithown, Caroline; Brattston, D.; Thompson, Ian
Describes the use of a capillary tube to determine how vapor changes with temperature.
Gesser, H. D.; Lithown, Caroline; Brattston, D.; Thompson, Ian J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 387.
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Charles' Law: A general chemistry experiment  Haworth, Daniel T.
This paper describes an apparatus that can be used to determine the value of absolute zero.
Haworth, Daniel T. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 353.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An experimental approach to the ideal gas law  Breck, W. G.; Holmes, F. W.
It is possible to introduce to students the equation of state, PV = nRT, by an experimental method that demonstrates that PV/T remains constant for a given amount of gas.
Breck, W. G.; Holmes, F. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 293.
Gases
Teaching kinetic molecular theory by the factor change method  Koons, Lawrence F.
Develops the "factor change method" for teaching kinetic molecular theory and presents examples of its application.
Koons, Lawrence F. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 288.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases
The critical temperature: A necessary consequence of gas non-ideality  Pilar, F. L.
Illustrates in a non-mathematical fashion that any gas composed of mutually interacting particles of finite volume must exhibit a critical temperature.
Pilar, F. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 284.
Gases
VII - Combustion and flame  Anderson, Robbin C.
Presents and describes an extensive bibliography on the study of combustion and flames.
Anderson, Robbin C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 248.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Gases
The significance of significant figures  Pinkerton, Richard C.; Gleit, Chester E.
This paper is an attempt to clarify some of our ideas about numerical data, measurements, mathematical operations, and significant figures.
Pinkerton, Richard C.; Gleit, Chester E. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 232.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Hard sphere simulation of statistical mechanical behavior of molecules  Plumb, Robert C.
Describes the design and use of a demonstration device to illustrate the kinetic behavior of gases, liquids, and solids.
Plumb, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 648.
Statistical Mechanics |
Gases |
Liquids |
Solids |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Equilibrium |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Manometric apparatus for vapor and solution studies  Taha, Ahmed A.; Grigsby, Ronald D.; Johnson, James R.; Christian, Sherril D.; Affsprung, Harold E.
Presents a device that can be sued to obtain vapor density and PVT measurements, vapor pressures of solutions and liquids, dew-point pressures and compositions, solubilities of gases in liquids, solubilities of slightly-miscible liquids, equilibrium constants for association reactions in solutions, interactions of vapors and gases with solids, and gas and vapor viscosities.
Taha, Ahmed A.; Grigsby, Ronald D.; Johnson, James R.; Christian, Sherril D.; Affsprung, Harold E. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 432.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Gases |
Liquids |
Solids
The relationship between Avogadro's Principle and the Law of Gay-Lussac  Feifer, Nathan
Teaching Avogadro's Principle as an explanation of the phenomena described by Gay-Lussac's Law gives the instructor an opportunity to stress some of the basic assumptions in chemistry and to highlight the logic implicit in Avogadro's reasoning.
Feifer, Nathan J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 411.
Stoichiometry |
Gases
Constant rate gas generator  Asakura, Shizuo
By reversing the usual procedure of a Kipp generator and dropping the liquid reagent onto the solid, a constant flow of gas may be obtained.
Asakura, Shizuo J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 203.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
IV - Isoelectronic systems  Bent, Henry A.
A detailed consideration of the principles of isoelectric systems.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 170.
Gases |
Nonmetals |
Covalent Bonding
Compressed gas cylinders and cylinder regulators used in laboratories  Pinney, George
Presents safety guidelines regarding the use of compressed gas cylinders and cylinder regulators in laboratories.
Pinney, George J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A976.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Gases
Kinetic energies of gas molecules  Aherne, John C.
The graph representing the distribution of kinetic energy among the molecules of a gas found in many textbooks is incorrect.
Aherne, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 655.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases
Statistical analysis of data in the general chemistry laboratory  Chapin, Earl C.; Burns, Richard F.
Students are asked to analyze data collected with respect to determinations of Dumas molecular weight, equivalent weight of a metal, equivalent weight of an acid, and molecular weight by freezing point depression.
Chapin, Earl C.; Burns, Richard F. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 564.
Chemometrics
Determination of Avogadro's number by Perrin's law  Slabaugh, W. H.
The experimental procedure for determining Avogadro's number by the Perrin method includes preparing a monodisperse colloid, ascertaining the mass of the particles, and making an accurate count of the number of particles at two points in the equilibrated colloid.
Slabaugh, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 471.
Stoichiometry |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases |
Colloids
A gas scrubber for eliminating noxious vapors  Goddard, Charles; Henry, Malcolm C.
Presents an apparatus for preventing the escape of undesirable materials into the air.
Goddard, Charles; Henry, Malcolm C. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 136.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Computer program for the calculation of acid-base titration curves  Emery, Allan R.
Describes the development of a computer program for the calculation of acid-base titration curves.
Emery, Allan R. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 131.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Chemometrics
Teaching ionic equilibrium: Use of log chart transparencies  Freiser, Henry; Fernando, Quintus
The use of graphical methods brings the problem of significance of various terms in complicated expressions into proper focus. Furthermore, a pictorial representation permits the student to see at a glance how the concentrations of various species in a system at equilibrium change with conditions.
Freiser, Henry; Fernando, Quintus J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 35.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Chemometrics |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Solubility and pH Calculations (Butler, James N.)  Ramette, R. W.

Ramette, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A970.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Problem solving in chemistry (Tilbury, Glen)  Whitney, Richard M.

Whitney, Richard M. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A532.
Chemometrics |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Thermal expansion of gases  Barnard, W. Robert
Liquid nitrogen is poured over an inflated balloon.
Barnard, W. Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A139.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
Maximum work revisited (Letters)  Mysels, Karol J.
Comments on an earlier "Textbook Error" article that considers at length errors in the calculation of work done in compression or expansion of an ideal gas.
Mysels, Karol J. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 677.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
Maximum work revisited (Letters)  Bauman, Robert
Comments on an earlier "Textbook Error" article that considers at length errors in the calculation of work done in compression or expansion of an ideal gas.
Bauman, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 676.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
Maximum work revisited (Letters)  Kokes, Richard J.
Comments on an earlier "Textbook Error" article that considers at length errors in the calculation of work done in compression or expansion of an ideal gas.
Kokes, Richard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 675.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
Maximum work revisited (Letters)  Bauman, Robert
Comments on an earlier "Textbook Error" article that considers at length errors in the calculation of work done in compression or expansion of an ideal gas.
Bauman, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 675.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
Operator formalism in dimensional analysis  Musulin, Boris
Describes another approach to dimensional analysis.
Musulin, Boris J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 622.
Chemometrics
The Carnot cycle and Maxwell's relations  Nash, Leonard K.
Maxwells equations can be derived from nothing more than the Carnot cycle and the deployment of the simplest plane geometry.
Nash, Leonard K. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 368.
Thermodynamics |
Chemometrics
Beer's law without calculus  Pinkerton, Richard C.
There is no good reason for using calculus in the presentation of Beer's law.
Pinkerton, Richard C. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 366.
Chemometrics
"Compounds" (?) of the noble gases prior to 1962  Chernick, Cedric L.
Reviews past efforts to generate compounds of the noble gases.
Chernick, Cedric L. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 185.
Nonmetals |
Gases
The chemistry of the noble gases  Hyman, Herbert H.
Summarizes the chemistry of the noble gases and their bond-forming abilities.
Hyman, Herbert H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 174.
Gases |
Main-Group Elements |
Covalent Bonding
A method of visual representation of three dimensional functions  Lemlich, Arthur; Zinsser, Hans H.
Lego blocks are used to visually represent three-dimensional functions.
Lemlich, Arthur; Zinsser, Hans H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 165.
Chemometrics |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
Work of compressing an ideal gas  Bauman, Robert P.
In formulating examples of compression problems there should be an explicit statement that the process is reversible, or at least slow.
Bauman, Robert P. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 102.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
Demonstration notes: Oxygen in air  Glanz, Joseph
Explains that the popular method of demonstrating the percentage volume of oxygen in air is fraut with errors.
Glanz, Joseph J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A477.
Gases |
Atmospheric Chemistry
Demonstration notes: Fog formation  Benson, John E.
Suggests a modification to producing a cloud in a jar.
Benson, John E. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A477.
Gases |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
An amperometric-kinetic experiment emphasizing the importance of error treatment  Young, J. A.
Provides suggestions for student research based on an earlier article published in the Journal.
Young, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A139.
Undergraduate Research |
Kinetics |
Chemometrics
Chemical calculations (Benson, Sidney W.)  Masterton, William L.

Masterton, William L. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 499.
Chemometrics |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Letters to the editor  Caughlan, Charles N.
Calls attention to another article suggesting the use of hypodermic syringes to verify Boyle's law.
Caughlan, Charles N. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 229.
Gases
Basic mathematics of science and engineering (Wood, Reuben E.)  Rosenberg, Robert M.

Rosenberg, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A60.
Chemometrics |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Hypodermic syringes in quantitative elementary chemistry experiments. Part 2. General chemistry experiments  Davenport, Derek A.; Saba, Afif N.
Presents a variety of experiments that make use of hypodermic syringes in quantitative elementary chemistry.
Davenport, Derek A.; Saba, Afif N. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 617.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Liquids |
Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Stoichiometry
Letters  Frigerio, Norman A.; Trotter, Phillip J.
Disposable plastic syringes are found to be more suitable than glass ones to demonstrate P, V, T relationships.
Frigerio, Norman A.; Trotter, Phillip J. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 594.
Gases
Balancing ionic equations by the method of undetermined coefficients  Haas, Rudy; Gayer, Karl H.
Describes a mathematical method for balancing chemical equations.
Haas, Rudy; Gayer, Karl H. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 537.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Some aspects of chemical kinetics for elementary chemistry  Benson, Sidney W.
The author suggests greater efforts to address the issue of kinetics and reaction mechanisms in introductory chemistry.
Benson, Sidney W. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 321.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Descriptive Chemistry
A simple gas law apparatus  Carter, K. N.
The apparatus presented here can be used to verify the ideal gas law, determine the vapor pressure of water at an elevated temperature, or determine the number of moles of dry air under two different sets of conditions for comparison.
Carter, K. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 302.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases
Dalton's law of partial pressures  Dutton, Frederic B.
Demonstrates that breaking a sealed ampule of ether in a closed system increases the pressure inside that system.
Dutton, Frederic B. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, A545.
Gases |
Ethers
A simple method for finding slopes  Hoare, James P.
Describes a simple method for determining the tangent at any point on a given curve using a solid glass rod.
Hoare, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 570.
Chemometrics
An approach to complex equilibrium problems  Butler, James N.
Presents an approach to equilibrium problems that sets up enough equations relating the various concentrations present to define the system completely and then makes approximations that simplify the equations.
Butler, James N. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 141.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
An improved gas generator for elementary chemistry  Thiessen, G. W.; Hall, M.
Describes a small-scale adaptation of the Lassieur generator that provides a self-controlled evolution of gas from solid and liquid reagents.
Thiessen, G. W.; Hall, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 19.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A reagent bottle for dispensing insoluble gases  Bixby, Louis W.
This apparatus can be used to generate hydrogen and oxygen collected through water displacement.
Bixby, Louis W. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 430.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases
Kinetic molecular theory from a jukebox  Easley, W. K.; Powers, Glenn F.
Uses dancers to various styles of music as an analogy for differences between the atomic and molecular motions in solids, liquids, and gases.
Easley, W. K.; Powers, Glenn F. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 302.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Solids |
Liquids |
Gases
Vapor pressure determination: An elementary experiment  Radley, Edward T.
The approximate vapor pressure of low boiling liquids may be estimated by measuring the increase in length of an air column trapped between two short columns of mercury in a uniform diameter tube.
Radley, Edward T. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 35.
Gases
Vapor density apparatus for general chemistry laboratory  Masterton, W. L.; Williams, T. R.
Presents the design of an apparatus that eliminates errors due to absorption and evaporation in the determination of molecular weights of volatile liquids.
Masterton, W. L.; Williams, T. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 528.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Physical Properties |
Liquids
Determination of vapor pressure: A general chemistry laboratory experiment  Wolthuis, Enno; Brummel, Roger; Bout, Paul Vanden
Provides a method for obtaining good vapor pressure measurements using simple equipment.
Wolthuis, Enno; Brummel, Roger; Bout, Paul Vanden J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 494.
Gases |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A test tube automatic gas generator  Alpern, D. K.
A simple design for an automatic gas generator can be used to produce common gases such as hydrogen from zinc and hydrochloric acid.
Alpern, D. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 302.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases
The hydrogen organ  Eddy, Robert D.
The hydrogen organ can be used to demonstrate a variety of physical and chemical properties.
Eddy, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 256.
Gases
Textbook errors: XX. Miscellanea No. 2  Mysels, Karol J.
Subjects considered include the meaning of "element," the solubility of phenol in carbonate solutions, and the change of vapor pressure with temperature.
Mysels, Karol J. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 568.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Phenols |
Gases |
Liquids
A temperature sensitive stirring rod: Liquefaction of NO2 as a student experiment  Eddy, Robert D.; Scholes, Samuel R., Jr.
NO2 is generated from Pb(NO3)2 and collected, condensed, and sealed in a hollow stirring rod, which is then observed in hot, cool, and cold water.
Eddy, Robert D.; Scholes, Samuel R., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 527.
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Initial ratio of reactants to give, at equilibrium, a maximum yield of products  Haslam, E.
Derivation of the initial ratio of reactants to give, at equilibrium, a maximum yield of products.
Haslam, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 471.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
An exact titration equation  Bolie, Victor W.
The purpose of this paper is to show the development of a titration equation for a precipitation reaction which is exact in the mathematical sense.
Bolie, Victor W. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 449.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics |
Undergraduate Research
Radioactive decay calculations without calculus  Guenther, William B.
Presents a method for half-life calculations that does not rely on the use of calculus.
Guenther, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 414.
Chemometrics |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
Solution of problems in chemistry  Trousdale, Everett A.
Presents a method for analyzing and solving mole calculations.
Trousdale, Everett A. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 299.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
Some demonstrations with the overhead projector  Keenan, C. W.
This paper describes the construction and use of demonstration apparatus to be used in conjunction with an overhead projector.
Keenan, C. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 36.
Electrochemistry |
Gases |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Transport Properties
Radioisotopes on your rooftop  Lockhart, Luther, B., Jr.
The collection, recovery, and measurement of radioactive materials from atomic testing can be done through the use of relatively simple procedures and is a good exercise in tracer chemistry.
Lockhart, Luther, B., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 602.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Isotopes
Dimensional analysis of chemical laws and theories  Benfey, O. Theodore
The dimensional analysis of the kinetic theory and organic structural theory.
Benfey, O. Theodore J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 286.
Chemometrics |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
On the second order rate equation  Said, Abdel S.
Presents a derivation of the rate equation of a second order reaction.
Said, Abdel S. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 251.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Chemometrics
Textbook errors: Guest column. XII: The lubricating properties of graphite  Lavrakas, Vasilis
The presentation of the correct lamellar structure of graphite is generally followed in textbooks by an erroneous statement that the lubricating properties of graphite are due to the easy slippage between layers.
Lavrakas, Vasilis J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 240.
Solids |
Gases
A formula for indirect gravimetry  Fiekers, B. A.
Derivation of a formula for indirect gravimetry and application to a sample problem.
Fiekers, B. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 575.
Gravimetric Analysis |
Chemometrics |
Quantitative Analysis
A graphical method for determining the order of homogeneous reactions  Wright, J. H.; Black, J. H.; Coull, James
Provides a review of classical kinetics, derivation of the reaction order equation, and the determination of reaction order using a graph provided.
Wright, J. H.; Black, J. H.; Coull, James J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 542.
Kinetics |
Chemometrics
Letters to the editor  Saxena, Satish Chandra
The author offers a restatement of Avogadro's law.
Saxena, Satish Chandra J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 188.
Gases |
Stoichiometry
Letters to the editor  Wolf, Milton G.
The author offers a means of determining the percentage composition of oxygen in air through burning phosphorus.
Wolf, Milton G. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 148.
Atmospheric Chemistry
The experimental determination of an error distribution  Nelson, Lloyd S.
Discusses an experiment in which students are asked to the average deviation and probable errors in their measurements.
Nelson, Lloyd S. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 126.
Chemometrics
A simple Charles law experiment  Damerell, V. R.
This simple procedure allows students to produce a satisfactory verification of Charles' law.
Damerell, V. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 534.
Gases
Textbook errors: III. The solubility of gases in liquids  Mysels, Karol J.
Rising temperature is generally said to reduce the solubility of gases in liquids, yet the facts disagree with any such generalization.
Mysels, Karol J. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 399.
Gases |
Liquids |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents
Pocket slide rule for pH calculations  Pitzer, Edgar C.
A pocket slide rule may be used for direct conversion from hydrogen-ion activity to pH, or vice versa, without the need for arithmetical computation.
Pitzer, Edgar C. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 300.
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Chemometrics
Finding the rest point of an undamped analytical balance  Stacy, Irving F.
Provides a mathematical analysis for finding the rest point of an undamped analytical balance.
Stacy, Irving F. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 90.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Chemometrics
A general equation for approximate hydronium ion calculations  Drenan, James W.
Presents a general equation for simplifying calculations of the hydronium ion.
Drenan, James W. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 36.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
pH |
Chemometrics
Le Châtelier's principle and the equilibrium constant  Miller, Arild J.
Many students of chemistry have difficulty in understanding how the position of equilibrium in a gaseous reaction can change when the pressure is altered, in accordance with Le Châtelier's principle, without causing a corresponding variation in the equilibrium constant.
Miller, Arild J. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 455.
Equilibrium |
Reactions |
Gases
Proper place problems  MacKenzie, Scott
A mathematical analysis of evaluating problems in which students are asked to place items in the correct order.
MacKenzie, Scott J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 428.
Chemometrics
Letters to the editor  Wolf, Milton G.
The author extends his earlier suggestions regarding the collection of chlorine to hydrogen sulfide.
Wolf, Milton G. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 387.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Gases
A log table for pH problems  Condon, Francis E.
Provides a readily remembered log table suitable for computing pH from hydronium-ion concentration and the reverse.
Condon, Francis E. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 323.
pH |
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Determination of the density of oxygen gas  Fiekers, B. A.
The "Oxybomb," a small cartridge of compressed oxygen, is used for determining the density of oxygen gas in laboratory or lecture.
Fiekers, B. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 139.
Gases |
Physical Properties
Letters to the editor  Lash, M. E.
The author clarifies the definition of critical temperature, which is often stated uncritically in textbooks.
Lash, M. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 102.
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters to the editor  Weaver, Elbert C.
Acknowledges and corrects an error in the referenced article regarding an example of Pearson's square.
Weaver, Elbert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 102.
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics
Letters to the editor  Wescott, Emery N.
Points out an error in the referenced article regarding an example of Pearson's square.
Wescott, Emery N. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 101.
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics
Letters to the editor  Wolf, Milton G.
The results of collecting chlorine through the displacement of saturated aqueous solutions of calcium chloride and sodium chloride.
Wolf, Milton G. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 48.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Gases
Mathematical chemistry  Swinbourne, Ellice S.; Lark, P. David
Examines some of the challenges involved in the design of a course in mathematics suitable for undergraduate chemists.
Swinbourne, Ellice S.; Lark, P. David J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 570.
Chemometrics |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
The kinetic structure of gases  Slabaugh, W. H.
Describes a model that illustrates the kinetic properties of gases and ii use to demonstrate the effect of temperature changes on the motion of gas particles.
Slabaugh, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 68.
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Gas-collection bottles  Shumaker, Earl
Recommends making gas-collection bottles community property in the laboratory to save space in students' storage drawers.
Shumaker, Earl J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 229.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases
A procedure for solving equilibrium problems  Boyd, Robert Neilson
A procedure for solving equilibrium problems is illustrated through several sample problems.
Boyd, Robert Neilson J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 198.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Support for compressed gas cylinders  Young, Roland S.; Snaddon, R.
Describes the use of rubber suction discs to secure compressed gas cylinders.
Young, Roland S.; Snaddon, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 528.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Gases
Letters  de Milt, Clara
The author calls for a mnemonic device to assist students in learning the gas laws and points out the omission of Graham's law from a recent textbook.
de Milt, Clara J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 115.
Gases