Journal Articles: 40 results
Fractional Distillation of Air and Other Demonstrations with Condensed Gases  Maria Oliver-Hoyo and William L. Switzer, III
This demonstration builds upon the commonly performed liquefaction of air not only to show the presence of nitrogen and oxygen, but also the presence of two other components, carbon dioxide and water. Several extensions are suggested: one to show boiling point elevation in solution and another to show the elevation of both boiling point and sublimation point with pressure. No special apparatus is required permitting presentations to audiences in a variety of settings. These demonstrations give the opportunity to discuss properties of gases, solution chemistry, and phase equilibria.
Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Switzer, William L., III. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 251.
Gases |
Qualitative Analysis |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
Nitrogen: It Always Needs a Fix  Kathryn R. Williams
The fixation of nitrogen was a popular topic in early issues of the Journal of Chemical Education. This column, From Past Issues, briefly summarizes articles on the nonbiological methods for nitrogen fixation.
Williams, Kathryn R. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 194.
Industrial Chemistry |
Agricultural Chemistry
The Formula for Ammonia Monohydrate  Stephen J. Hawkes
The reality of NH4OH was argued in J. Chem. Educ. and elsewhere a decade ago. Further evidence is now available. My colleague Darrah Thomas has calculated the geometry and bond lengths of H5NO using Gaussian. The calculation was done using the D95 basis set and the B3LYP method.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1569.
Covalent Bonding
Some History of Nitrates  Dennis W. Barnum
The history of saltpeter is an interesting combination of chemistry, world trade, technology, politics, and warfare.
Barnum, Dennis W. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1393.
Consumer Chemistry |
Geochemistry |
Agricultural Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Nitrogen, Liquid  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for liquid nitrogen.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1133.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
The Liquid Nitrogen Fountain  Robin McRae, Jeffrey A. Rahn, Timothy W. Beamer, and Norm LeBret
Pouring liquid nitrogen into a one-half liter plastic soda bottle and sealing with a large balloon.
McRae, Robin; Rahn, Jeffrey A.; Beamer, Timothy W.; LeBret, Norm . J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1220.
Humic Acids: Marvelous Products of Soil Chemistry  Geoffrey Davies, Elham A. Ghabbour, and Cornelius Steelink
Classification, physical and chemical characteristics, formation, structure and sources of humic substances.
Davies, Geoffrey; Ghabbour, Elham A.; Steelink, Cornelius. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1609.
Agricultural Chemistry |
Metals |
Natural Products |
Plant Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Learning the Functional Groups: Keys to Success  Shannon Byrd and David P. Hildreth
Classification activity and scheme for learning functional groups.
Byrd, Shannon; Hildreth, David P. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1355.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Determination of the Universal Gas Constant, R. A Discovery Laboratory  David B. Moss and Kathleen Cornely
Discovery laboratory in which groups of students collect oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen gas over water and determine the value of the universal gas constant, R, using the ideal gas law.
Moss, David B.; Cornely, Kathleen. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1260.
Disappearing-Reappearing Rabbit Trick: A New Twist to an Old Liquid Nitrogen Demonstration  Elaine K. Haub
A magic hat with a suitable container inserted holds the liquid nitrogen. Instead of a regular balloon, I use a balloon animal in the shape of a rabbit. The rabbit "disappears" as it is lowered into the hat and "reappears" when it is removed from the hat.
Haub, Elaine K. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 46.
A Novel Experiment for Fast and Simple Determination of the Oxygen Content in the Air  Metodija Najdoski and Vladimir M. Petrusevski
The reaction between nitric oxide (NO) and oxygen is used for determination of the oxygen content in the air. The nitrogen dioxide thus produced is dissolved in water. The volume decrease of the gas enables quick and accurate enough determination of the O2 content. The results of 20 measurements give %O2 = 21.04  0.63.
Najdoski, Metodija; Petrusevski, Vladimir M. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1447.
Gases |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Atmospheric Chemistry
Generating Water-Soluble Noxious Gases: An Overhead Projector Demonstration  Sally Solomon, Maria Oliver-Hoyo, and Chinhyu Hur
A simple, inexpensive apparatus to generate and collect water-soluble noxious gases as an overhead projector demonstration can be made from two small beakers and a Petri dish. The detection and generation of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide are described.
Solomon, Sally; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Hur, Chinhyu. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1581.
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Carbohydrates |
Formation and Dimerization of NO2  Meyer, Edwin F.
Significant problems with the results of this experiment.
Meyer, Edwin F. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1088.
Thermal Physics (and Some Chemistry) of the Atmosphere  Stephen K. Lower
An exploration of how the temperature of the atmosphere varies with altitude can serve as a useful means of illustrating some important principles relating to the behavior of gases and to the absorption and transformation of radiant energy.
Lower, Stephen K. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 837.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Acid Rain Demonstration: The Formation of Nitrogen Oxides as a By-Product of High-Temperature Flames in Connection with Internal Combustion Engines  Jerry A. Driscoll
This demonstration illustrates the formation of nitrogen oxides resulting from a high temperature flame.
Driscoll, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1424.
Equilibrium |
Learning Theories |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Discussion of Water Pollution in the United States and Mexico; with High School Laboratory Activities for the Analysis of Lead, Atrazine, and Nitrate  Paul B. Kelter, Julie Grundman, David S. Hage, James D. Carr, and Carlos Mauricio Castro-Acuña
In the first part of this paper we present an overview of water pollution in the United States and Mexico, including sources, federal regulations and standards, and standard methods for the assessment of overall water quality. The second part of the paper focuses on three water pollutants, lead, atrazine, and nitrate.
Kelter, Paul B.; Grundman, Julie; Hage, David S.; Carr, James D.; Mauricio, Carlos. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1413.
Water / Water Chemistry
Observation of Magnetic Repulsion Acting on Nitrogen Bubble on Water Surface - A Simple Experiment of Studying Diamagnetic Property of Nitrogen  Yukinori Matsuyama, Takashi Yasuoka, Syunmei Mitsuzawa, Tunetaka Sasaki
Observation of the paramagnetic property by a simple experiment showing the attraction of an oxygen bubble on the water surface to a magnet has been reported. In this article, we report the opposite behavior magnetic repulsion observed for a nitrogen bubble by the same method. [Third author's first name misspelled in hard copy and PDF.]
Matsuyama, Yukinori; Yasuoka, Takashi; Mitsuzawa, Syunmei; Sasaki, Tunetaka. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 943.
Learning Theories |
Magnetic Properties |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The authors reply to "The Joys of Liquid Nitrogen"  William T. Nolan and Thaddeus J. Gish
Agreement with Blatchley's interpretation.
Nolan, William R.; Gish, Thaddeus J. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 617.
The Joys of Liquid Nitrogen  Ronald C. Blatchley
Air cooled by liquid nitrogen is mixture of liquid nitrogen and oxygen.
Blatchley, Ronald C. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 616.
Cryophori, Hot Molecules, and Frozen Nitrogen  Hunter, Paul W. W.; Knoespel, Sheldon L.
Freezing water and nitrogen at low atmospheric pressure.
Hunter, Paul W. W.; Knoespel, Sheldon L. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 67.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A demonstration of the molar volume of nitrogen gas  Hughes, Elvin, Jr.
A graphic illustration and a calculation of the approximate molar volume of nitrogen gas.
Hughes, Elvin, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 763.
Gases |
Hot and cold running methane  Stamm, Daniel M.
A series of interesting demonstrations involving liquid nitrogen.
Stamm, Daniel M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 762.
Ammonium hydroxide does not exist  Yoke, John
No matter how the s and three p orbitals are hybridized, nitrogen can form a maximum of only four bonds.
Yoke, John J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 310.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Respect those nitrates in the lab   Nagel, Miriam C.
The prudent teacher will use many references, and cross references, when selecting experiments and demonstrations - particularly where nitrates are involved.
Nagel, Miriam C. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 248.
Stoichiometry to the rescue (a calculation challenge)   Ramette, Richard W.
Presentation of a question that would be suitable for a take-home exam or a problem set in a general or analytical chemistry course.
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 800.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Gases |
Oxidation numbers and their limitations  Woolf, A. A.
An in-depth look at oxidation numbers of various elements in a number of different compounds.
Woolf, A. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 45.
Organometallics |
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction
Heat of vaporization of nitrogen  Hamlet, Peter
A very simple procedure for measuring the heat of vaporization of nitrogen.
Hamlet, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1060.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Thermodynamics and reactions in the dry way  Tykodi, Ralph J.
In dealing with reactions in the dry way, we can actually "see" in detail the workings of the thermodynamic machinery responsible for moving the reaction in the spontaneous direction. This note presents ideas at the general chemistry level.
Tykodi, Ralph J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 107.
Thermodynamics |
Oxidation / Reduction
A simultaneous analysis problem for advanced general chemistry laboratories  Leary, James J.; Gallaher, T. N.
The goal of this experiment is to determine the percentage Mg3N2 and the percentage Mg formed when magnesium metal is ignited in a crucible using a Bunsen burner.
Leary, James J.; Gallaher, T. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 673.
Quantitative Analysis |
Fluorimetric analysis of nitrate in real samples  Miguel, Antonio H.; Braun, Robert D.
The fluorimetric analysis of "real" samples is often undesirable as a student experiment, since prior separations of elaborate sample preparations are required. It is the purpose of this paper to report a fluorimetric, student experiment for the determination of trace nitrate in river water and soil.
Miguel, Antonio H.; Braun, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 682.
Agricultural Chemistry |
Nitrogen Fixation. An interdisciplinary frontier  Schneller, Stewart W.
Examines biological nitrogen fixation, inorganic complexes related to N2ase, and non-enzymatic nitrogen fixation.
Schneller, Stewart W. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 786.
Plant Chemistry
Nitrate analysis. A laboratory experiment for the nonscience major course  King, Donald M.; Lampman, Gary M.; Smith, John III
The authors have found the brucine method for the detection and estimation of nitrate in fresh water to work well as a laboratory experiment for their nonscience major general chemistry course.
King, Donald M.; Lampman, Gary M.; Smith, John III J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 647.
Nonmajor Courses
Nitrogen chemistry. E. Nitrites and nitrates  Mancuso, Carl J.; Alyea, Hubert N.; Slabaugh, W. A.
Demonstrations include nitric acid + H2S, sodium nitrate + carbon, fire-writing with KNO3, nitrate ring test, nitrate versus nitrite, and micro-analysis for nitrogen compounds.
Mancuso, Carl J.; Alyea, Hubert N.; Slabaugh, W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A607.
Qualitative Analysis |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction
Nitrogen chemistry. D. Oxides of nitrogen  Alyea, Hubert N.
NO and NO2 from Cu + HNO3 and nitrogen dioxide.
Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A607.
Nitrogen chemistry. C. Fixation of nitrogen  Mancuso, Carl J.
Demonstrations include air + Al-amalgam; the arc process for NO2; and the Ostwald process: NH3 + O2 and NO to HNO3.
Mancuso, Carl J. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A567.
Agricultural Chemistry |
Nitrogen chemistry. A. Nitrogen. B. Ammonia  Mancuso, Carl J.; Alyea, Hubert N.
Demonstration include an ammonia generator; ammonia diffusion throughout a rubber balloon; ammonium chloride smoke; and secret writing using HgNH2Cl + Hg.
Mancuso, Carl J.; Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A567.
Group 1. The Alkali Metals B. The Alkali Metals. Ammonium ion  Young, James A.
Demonstration of the formation of an ammonium amalgam.
Young, James A. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A1005.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Analysis for nitrite by evolution of nitrogen: A general chemistry laboratory experiment  Bartlett, J. Kenneth
This experiment involves analysis for the sodium nitrite content of a sodium nitrite-sodium chloride mixture by decomposition to nitrogen while heating in the presence of ammonium chloride solution.
Bartlett, J. Kenneth J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 475.
Dreiding model of a reversible nitrogen atom  Gootjes, J.; Bakuwel, G.
Presents a modification of a plastic Dreiding model that allows conformational changes to be represented.
Gootjes, J.; Bakuwel, G. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 407.
Molecular Modeling
The electronic structures and stereochemistry of NO2+, NO2, and NO2-  Panckhurst, M. H.
A comparison of the electronic structures and stereochemistry of NO2+, NO2, and NO2-.
Panckhurst, M. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 270.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Resonance Theory