TIGER

Journal Articles: 513 results
[#94] Hold the Heat: Global Heat Retention, Global Warming and Calorimetry  Joel D. Burley and Harold S. Johnston
Students perform quantitative calorimetric measurements on samples of ice/water heated by incandescent light bulbs and by convection with room-temperature surroundings.
Burley, Joel D.; Johnston, Harold S. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 224A.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
A New "Bottom-Up" Framework for Teaching Chemical Bonding  Tami Levy Nahum, Rachel Mamlok-Naaman, Avi Hofstein, and Leeor Kronik
This article presents a general framework for bonding that can be presented at different levels of sophistication depending on the student's level and needs. The pedagogical strategy for teaching this model is a "bottom-up" one, starting with basic principles and ending with specific properties.
Levy Nahum, Tami; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Hofstein, Avi; Kronik, Leeor. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1680.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Lewis Structures |
Materials Science |
MO Theory |
Noncovalent Interactions
Ionic Blocks  Richard S. Sevcik, Rex Gamble, Elizabet Martinez, Linda D. Schultz, and Susan V. Alexander
"Ionic Blocks" is a teaching tool designed to help middle school students visualize the concepts of ions, ionic compounds, and stoichiometry. It can also assist high school students in reviewing their subject mastery.
Sevcik, Richard S.; Gamble, Rex; Martinez, Elizabet; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1631.
Ionic Bonding |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmajor Courses |
Stoichiometry
Author of "The Flyleaf Periodic Table" Responds  Roy W. Clark
Since publication of our letter about the multiple forms of periodic tables presented in the flyleaf of textbooks I have received many replies. To these readers and any others who were puzzled by our recommendation I offer this explanation.
Clark, Roy W. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1493.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The Periodic Table: Facts or Committees?  William B. Jensen
I would like to offer two observations relative to the recent letter of Clark and White on the representation of the f-block elements in the periodic table that relate to some disturbing trends in the attitudes of the chemical community towards the nature and use of the periodic tableattitudes that are implicit, though perhaps not intentionally so, in their letter.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1491.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Response to "The Flyleaf Periodic Table"  Laurence Lavelle
Clark and White wonder why the chemistry education community has not uniformly adopted just one form of the periodic table. Part of the answer is that the majority who are silent on this issue do not want to be attacked by the vocal proponents who insist that lanthanum and actinium must be in the f-block and lutetium and lawrencium must be in the d-block.
Lavelle, Laurence. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1491.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The Flyleaf Table: An Alternative  Philip J. Stewart
In their consideration of three ways of treating the f-block elements in the standard periodic table, Clark and White opt to footnote a set 15-elements-wide, including both La and Lu, Ac, and Lr. Their only grounds seem to be that this is what IUPAC chose in 2005, but that decision sounds like an attempt to please everyone, which in the end will please no one.
Stewart, Philip J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1490.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Artistic Periodic Table in Honor of Mendeleev  Antonio Marchal Ingrain
A large periodic table was placed on the main faade of the Sciences Building at the University of Jan (Spain) in November 2007 in honor of Mendeleev on the 100th anniversary of his death and in recognition of the Spanish Year of Science.
Ingrain, Antonio Marchal. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1489.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Lanthanum (La) and Actinium (Ac) Should Remain in the d-block  Laurence Lavelle
This paper discusses the reasons and implications of placing lanthanum and actinium in the f-block and lutetium and lawrencium in the d-block.
Lavelle, Laurence. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1482.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Inner Transition Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements
Elemental Chem Lab  Antonio Joaquín Franco Mariscal
Three puzzles use the symbols of 45 elements to spell the names of 32 types of laboratory equipment usually found in chemical labs.
Franco Mariscal, Antonio Joaquín. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1370.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Remedial Mathematics for Quantum Chemistry  Lodewijk Koopman, Natasa Brouwer, André Heck, and Wybren Jan Buma
A remedial program designed to tackle the problem of insufficient mathematical knowledge in a first-year quantum chemistry course provides weekly online assignments to prepare students for upcoming lectures, monitors students' progress, and offers feedback. As a result, mathematical skills improved and students became more involved in lectures.
Koopman, Lodewijk; Brouwer, Natasa; Heck, André Buma, Wybren Jan. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1233.
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Quantum Chemistry
Examining Quantum Oddities within the Context of Other Major Scientific Theories  Pablo A. Molina
This article presents an epistemological discussion on the conceptual hurdles shared by quantum theory and evolution, gravity, and special relativity, and offers students a logical structure to deal with waveparticle duality, the uncertainty principle, boundary conditions, and the quantization of energy.
Molina, Pablo A. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1229.
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Forecasting Periodic Trends: A Semester-Long Team Exercise for Nonscience Majors  John Tierney
Teams of students in a course for nonscience majors identify trends among the properties of elements in the periodic table, use Excel to plot and produce best-fit equations to describe relationships among those properties, and apply the resulting formulas to predict and justify the properties of missing elements.
Tierney, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1215.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Computational Chemistry |
Main-Group Elements |
Nonmetals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Metals |
Student-Centered Learning
Calorimetry  JCE Editorial Staff
Lists articles describing laboratory exercises using calorimetry measurements.
J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1130.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
An Inexpensive Solution Calorimeter  Emma Kavanagh, Sam Mindel, Giles Robertson, and D. E. Peter Hughes
Describes the construction of a simple solution calorimeter, using a miniature bead thermistor as a temperature-sensing element, that has a response time of a few seconds and made it possible to carry out a thermometric reaction in under a minute.
Kavanagh, Emma; Mindel, Sam; Robertson, Giles; Hughes, D. E. Peter. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1129.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thermal Analysis |
Thermodynamics
Reply to More on CIO and Related Radicals  Mark Kobrak and Warren Hirsch
We thank Prof. Jensen for bringing Dr. Linnetts work on oxygenhalogen diatomics to our attention. We were not aware that quartet theory had been applied in this way.
Kobrak, Mark; Hirsch, Warren. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 783.
Ionic Bonding
More on ClO and Related Radicals  William B. Jensen
The novel Lewis structure for the ClO radical and other related 13e isoelectronic species presented by Hirsch and Kobrak is identical to that proposed by Linnett over 40 years ago for the same species on the basis of his well-known double-quartet approach to Lewis structures.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 783.
Ionic Bonding |
Lewis Structures |
Free Radicals
The Chemical Adventures of Sherlock Holmes: The Serpentine Remains  Ken Shaw
This story is a chemical mystery, set in the context of Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson, that emphasizes qualitative analysis, descriptive chemistry, and forensics.
Shaw, Ken. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 507.
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Coordination Compounds |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Forensic Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis
The Flyleaf Periodic Table  Roy W. Clark and Gary D. White
The restriction of periodic tables to the flyleafs of textbooks results in the inconsistent vivisection and subscripting of the lanthanoids and actinoids.
Clark, Roy W.; White, Gary D. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 497.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Connecting Solubility, Equilibrium, and Periodicity in a Green, Inquiry Experiment for the General Chemistry Laboratory  Kristen L. Cacciatore, Jose Amado, Jason J. Evans, and Hannah Sevian
Presents a novel first-year chemistry experiment that asks students to replicate procedures described in sample lab reports that lack essential information. This structure is designed to promote students' experimental design and data analysis skills as well as their understanding of the importance and essential qualities of written and verbal communication between scientists.
Cacciatore, Kristen L.; Amado, Jose; Evans, Jason J.; Sevian, Hannah. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 251.
Equilibrium |
Green Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Solutions / Solvents |
Stoichiometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Physical Chemistry: Thermodynamics (Horia Metiu)
Taylor & Francis, New York, London, 2006. 694 pp. ISBN: 978-0815340911 (paper). $49.95

Physical Chemistry: Statistical Mechanics (Horia Metiu)
Taylor & Francis, New York, London, 2006. 292 pp. ISBN: 978-0815340850 (paper). $44.95

Physical Chemistry: Kinetics (Horia Metiu)
Taylor & Francis, New York, London, 2006. 169 pp. ISBN: 978-0815340898 (paper). $44.95

Physical Chemistry: Quantum Mechanics (Horia Metiu)
Taylor & Francis, New York, London, 2006. 481 pp. ISBN: 978-0815340874 (paper). $44.95

  John Krenos
Metiu has created a significant set of volumes on undergraduate physical chemistry. The integration of Mathematica and Mathcad workbooks into the four texts provides instructors with an attractive new option in teaching.
Krenos, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 206.
Quantum Chemistry |
Statistical Mechanics |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics
New! JCE Web-Ready Software for All Your Students  
Institutions and individuals can now subscribe to JCE Web Software and access its entire collection of Web-ready titles.
J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 170.
Professional Development |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Introduction of Differential Scanning Calorimetry in a General Chemistry Laboratory Course: Determination of Heat Capacity of Metals and Demonstration of the Law of Dulong and Petit  Ronald P. D'Amelia, Vincent Stracuzzi, and William F. Nirode
The work described herein discusses the use of differential scanning calorimetry in a general chemistry laboratory course to determine the specific heat capacities of metals and introduce the empirical law of Dulong and Petit.
D'Amelia, Ronald P.; Stracuzzi, Vincent; Nirode, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 109.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Heat Capacity |
Instrumental Methods |
Thermal Analysis
The Different Periodic Tables of Dmitrii Mendeleev  Michael Laing
Between 1869 and 1905 the Russian chemist Dmitrii Mendeleev published several tables with different arrangements of the chemical elements. Four of these are compared with periodic tables by Russian scientists from 1934 and 1969.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 63.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The New Periodic Table Live!  
We have brought back everyone's favorite program: Periodic Table Live! It has seen many improvements while retaining its sterling qualities. Perhaps best of all, the current version is available free to everyone from JCE Online and the ChemEd Digital Library.
J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 22.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Gas Clathrate Hydrates Experiment for High School Projects and Undergraduate Laboratories  Melissa P. Prado, Annie Pham, Robert E. Ferazzi, Kimberly Edwards, and Kenneth C. Janda
Presents a procedure for preparing and studying propane clathrate hydrate. This experiment introduces students to this unusual solid while stimulating a discussion of the interplay of intermolecular forces, thermodynamics, and solid structure.
Prado, Melissa P.; Pham, Annie; Ferazzi, Robert E.; Edwards, Kimberly; Janda, Kenneth C. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1790.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Applications of Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Hydrogen Bonding
Concept Maps for General Chemistry   Boyd L. Earl
Two concept maps have been developed to represent the organization of the material in a first-semester general chemistry course. By providing these maps to students and referring to them in class, it is hoped that the instructor can assist students in maintaining a grasp of the "big picture" during the progress of the course.
Earl, Boyd L. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1788.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Gases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stoichiometry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A Simple Calorimetric Experiment That Highlights Aspects of Global Heat Retention and Global Warming  Joel D. Burley and Harold S. Johnston
In this laboratory experiment, general chemistry students verify that heat is consumed in the melting of ice, with no increase in temperature until all the ice has melted. The fundamental calorimetric principles demonstrated by the lab results are then developed to help students better assess and understand the experimental evidence associated with global warming.
Burley, Joel D.; Johnston, Harold S. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1686.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Introducing the Practical Aspects of Computational Chemistry to Undergraduate Chemistry Students  Jason K. Pearson
Presents a laboratory exercise in which students use traditional second-year concepts such as the rigid rotor and harmonic oscillator approximations in conjunction with Gaussian 03 to reinforce practical aspects of computational chemistry.
Pearson, Jason K. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1323.
Computational Chemistry |
MO Theory |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Mendeleev on the Periodic Law: Selected Writings, 1869–1905 (William B. Jensen, ed.)  Theodor Benfey
The periodic properties of the elements is the chemists central organizing principle. Here are 13 of Mendeleevs complete or partial publications that illuminate his developing ideas on periodicity.
Benfey, Theodor. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1279.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Theoretical Chemistry
The Mechanism of Covalent Bonding: Analysis within the Hückel Model of Electronic Structure  Sture Nordholm, Andreas Bäck, and George B. Bacskay
Hckel molecular orbital theory is shown to be uniquely useful in understanding and interpreting the mechanism of covalent bonding. Using the Hckel model it can be demonstrated that the dynamical character of the molecular orbitals is related simultaneously to the covalent bonding mechanism and to the degree of delocalization of the electron dynamics.
Nordholm, Sture; Bäck, Andreas; Bacskay, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1201.
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Mass-Elastic Band Thermodynamics: A Visual Teaching Aid at the Introductory Level  William C. Galley
Demonstrations of five spontaneous isothermal processes involving the coupling of a mass and elastic band and arising from combinations of enthalpy and entropy changes are presented and then dissected. Analogies are drawn between these processes and common spontaneous molecular events such as chemical reactions and phase transitions.
Galley, William C. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1147.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
News from the Periodic Table: An Introduction to "Periodicity Symbols, Tables, and Models for Higher-Order Valency and Donor–Acceptor Kinships"  Henry A. Bent and Frank Weinhold
Proposes that alternative display topologies such as a 2D "left-step" or "step-pyramid" table or 3D "periodic towers" can supplement or supplant the standard periodic table by better emphasizing higher-order patterns of chemical association and reactivity, rather than the physical resemblances of standard-state elemental substances.
Bent, Henry A.; Weinhold, Frank. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1145.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Spectroscopy
Mistake of Having Students Be Mendeleev for Just a Day  Brett Criswell
This article discusses several conceptual features underlying a genuine understanding of the periodic table and describes a set of activities focused on promoting such awareness in students using the FERA (focus, explore, reflect, and apply) learning cycle model.
Criswell, Brett. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1140.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Calcium Carbonate  Jay A. Young
The hazards of calcium carbonate are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1102.
Ionic Bonding |
Laboratory Management
Primo Levi and The Periodic Table: Teaching Chemistry Using a Literary Text  Viktoria Klara Lakatos Osorio, Peter Wilhelm Tiedemann, and Paulo Alves Porto
Describes the use of a problem-solving activity with first-year undergraduate students based on an excerpt from Primo Levi's book The Periodic Table.
Osorio, Viktoria Klara Lakatos; Tiedemann, Peter Wilhelm; Porto, Paulo Alves. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 775.
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Reactions |
Student-Centered Learning
The Origin of the s, p, d, f Orbital Labels  William B. Jensen
Traces the origins of the s, p, d, and f orbital labels.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 757.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Spectroscopy
"Mysteries" of the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics  Rubin Battino
Over the years the subject of thermodynamics has taken on an aura of difficulty, subtlety, and mystery. This article discusses common misconceptions and how to introduce the topic to students.
Battino, Rubin. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 753.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
Predicting the Stability of Hypervalent Molecules  Tracy A. Mitchell, Debbie Finocchio, and Jeremy Kua
In this exercise, students use concepts in thermochemistry such as bond energy, ionization potentials, and electron affinities to predict the relative stability of two hypervalent molecules (PF5 and PH5) relative to their respective non-hypervalent counterparts.
Mitchell, Tracy A.; Finocchio, Debbie; Kua, Jeremy. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 629.
Computational Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Modeling |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Puzzling through General Chemistry: A Light-Hearted Approach to Engaging Students with Chemistry Content  Susan L. Boyd
Presents ten puzzles to make chemistry more interesting while reinforcing important concepts.
Boyd, Susan L. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 619.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Gases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Stoichiometry |
VSEPR Theory |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Introduction of Differential Scanning Calorimetry in a General Chemistry Laboratory Course: Determination of Thermal Properties of Organic Hydrocarbons  Ronald DAmelia, Thomas Franks, and William F. Nirode
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a rugged, easy-to-use instrumental method for thermal analysis determinations. The work described herein discusses the use of DSC in a general chemistry laboratory course to determine thermal properties such as melting points, ?fusionH, ?fusionS, and introduce the concept of polymorphism for organic hydrocarbons.
DAmelia, Ronald; Franks, Thomas; Nirode, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 453.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Instrumental Methods |
Physical Properties |
Thermal Analysis |
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Known-to-Unknown Approach To Teach about Coulomb's Law  P. K. Thamburaj
Analogies from life experiences help students understand the relationships between the quantities involved in Coulomb's law, which in turn help them understand the influence of charge and ionic size on lattice energy, melting points, and solubility of ionic solids.
Thamburaj, P. K. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 438.
Ion Exchange |
Physical Properties |
Ionic Bonding
Electronic Structure Principles and Aromaticity  P. K. Chattaraj, U. Sarkar, and D. R. Roy
Electronic structure principles dictate that aromatic molecules are associated with low energy, polarizability, and electrophilicity but high hardness values, while antiaromatic molecules possess the opposite characteristics. These relationships are demonstrated through B3LYP/6-311G** calculations on benzene and cyclobutadiene.
Chattaraj, P. K.; Sarkar, U.; Roy, D. R. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 354.
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantitative Analysis |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Alkenes |
Quantum Chemistry
Thermochemical Analysis of Neutralization Reactions: An Introductory Discovery Experiment  Kenneth V. Mills and Louise W. Guilmette
Describes a guided-inquiry laboratory pedagogy in which students discover chemical concepts in the lab and the instructor uses their pooled data to guide the lecture portion of the course. This method is illustrated by an experiment that reinforces students' understanding of stoichiometry and allows them to discover neutralization reactions and thermochemistry.
Mills, Kenneth V.; Guilmette, Louise W. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 326.
Acids / Bases |
Stoichiometry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Acids / Bases
Molecular Model of Zincon  William F. Coleman
The Featured Molecules this month are the tautomeric forms of the colorimetric reagent zincon. The structures could be used as an introduction to the concept of tautomerism, with students being asked to develop a definition of the term based on their observations of the difference(s) in linkage in the two forms.
Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 305.
Biological Cells |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Effectiveness of a MORE Laboratory Module in Prompting Students To Revise Their Molecular-Level Ideas about Solutions  Lydia T. Tien, Melonie A. Teichert, and Dawn Rickey
This study investigates the effectiveness of a ModelObserveReflectExplain (MORE) laboratory module in prompting three different populations of general chemistry students to revise their molecular-level ideas regarding chemical compounds dissolved in water.
Tien, Lydia T.; Teichert, Melonie A.; Rickey, Dawn. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 175.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Conductivity |
Ionic Bonding |
Solutions / Solvents
A Mnemonic for Representative Element Groups  Timothy Chambers and Jennifer Arab
It is unclear whether memorizing nonsense-words is any simpler than the task it aims to ease.
Chambers, Timothy; Arab, Jennifer. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1761.
Nonmajor Courses |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A Mnemonic for Representative Element Groups  Timothy Chambers and Jennifer Arab
It is unclear whether memorizing nonsense-words is any simpler than the task it aims to ease.
Chambers, Timothy; Arab, Jennifer. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1761.
Nonmajor Courses |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Entropy and the Shelf Model: A Quantum Physical Approach to a Physical Property  Arnd H. Jungermann
A quantum physical approach relying on energy quantization leads to three simple rules which are the key to understanding the physical property described by molar entropy values.
Jungermann, Arnd H. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1686.
Alcohols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Carboxylic Acids |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Physical Properties |
Quantum Chemistry |
Thermodynamics
Predicting Inorganic Reaction Products: A Critical Thinking Exercise in General Chemistry  David G. DeWit
Describes a course module designed to afford practice in applying the principles encountered throughout the general chemistry sequence to understanding and predicting chemical reactivity and the products of simple inorganic reactions.
DeWit, David G. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1625.
Acids / Bases |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Learning Theories |
Metals |
Nonmetals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Reactions
Introduction of Differential Scanning Calorimetry in a General Chemistry Laboratory Course: Determination of Molar Mass by Freezing Point Depression  Ronald P. D'Amelia, Thomas Franks, and William F. Nirode
The work described herein uses differential scanning calorimetry to determine the molar mass of three unknowns (nonvolatile organic hydrocarbons) by freezing point depression.
D'Amelia, Ronald P.; Franks, Thomas; Nirode, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1537.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Thermal Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents
Dulong and Petit's Law: We Should Not Ignore Its Importance  Mary Laing and Michael Laing
This article describes two student exercises: the determination of the specific heat of a metal and hence its atomic weight and a graphical study of specific heat versus atomic weight for different groups of metals and the confirmation of Dulong and Petit's law.
Laing, Mary; Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1499.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Heat Capacity |
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Do the Series in the Hydrogen Atom Spectrum Ever Overlap?  David W. Ball
Addresses the question, do the series in the hydrogen atom spectrum ever overlap?
Ball, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 883.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Useful Work of a Process  Norman C. Craig
Acknowledgment of a flaw in the article, Lets Drive Driving Force Out of Chemistry.
Craig, Norman C. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 703.
Bioenergetics |
Biophysical Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
Useful Work of a Process  Bruno Lunelli
Clarifies a potentially misleading statement in the article, Lets Drive Driving Force Out of Chemistry.
Lunelli, Bruno. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 703.
Bioenergetics |
Biophysical Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
No "Driving Forces" in General Chemistry  Evguenii I. Kozliak
A simple and easy-to-remember explanation, that precipitation of a solid and/or formation of water are driving forces of those reactions or drive them to completion, still occurs among instructors.
Kozliak, Evguenii I. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 702.
Bioenergetics |
Biophysical Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
What Happens When Chemical Compounds Are Added to Water? An Introduction to the Model–Observe–Reflect–Explain (MORE) Thinking Frame  Adam C. Mattox, Barbara A. Reisner, and Dawn Rickey
This article describes a laboratory designed to help students understand how different compounds behave when dissolved in water, and introduces the modelobservereflectexplain (MORE) thinking frame, an instructional tool that encourages students to connect macroscopic observations with their understanding of the behavior of particles at the molecular level.
Mattox, Adam C.; Reisner, Barbara A.; Rickey, Dawn. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 622.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Conductivity |
Ionic Bonding |
Solutions / Solvents |
Stoichiometry
Acrostic Puzzles in the Classroom  Dorothy Swain
Acrostic puzzles are an effective vehicle to expose students to the history and philosophy of science without lecturing.
Swain, Dorothy. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 589.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmajor Courses |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Probing the Orbital Energy of an Electron in an Atom  James L. Bills
This article answers an appeal for simple theoretical interpretations of atomic properties. A theoretical snapshot of an atom, showing the screened nuclear charge and the electron to be ionized at its radius of zero kinetic energy, enables anyone to approximate its ionization energy.
Bills, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 473.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Main-Group Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Physical Properties |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
The History of Element 43—Technetium  Roberto Zingales
The author is grateful for additional information that allowed him to correct an earlier mistake.
Zingales, Roberto. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 213.
Isotopes |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The History of Element 43—Technetium  Fathi Habashi
The article From Masurium to Trinacrium: The Troubled Story of Element 43 is the best story so far published about the history of technetium. There is, however, one paragraph on the right column of page 226 that is questionable.
Habashi, Fathi. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 213.
Isotopes |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The History of Element 43—Technetium  Fathi Habashi
The article From Masurium to Trinacrium: The Troubled Story of Element 43 is the best story so far published about the history of technetium. There is, however, one paragraph on the right column of page 226 that is questionable.
Habashi, Fathi. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 213.
Isotopes |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The Origins of the Symbols A and Z for Atomic Weight and Number  William B. Jensen
Traces the origins of the symbols A and Z for atomic weight and atomic number.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1764.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Are Some Elements More Equal Than Others?  Ronald L. Rich
Presents a new periodic chart with 18 columns but no interruptions of atomic numbers at Lanthanum or Actinum, and no de-emphasis of elements 57-71 or 89-103 by seeming to make footnotes of them. It shows some elements more than once in order to illuminate multiple relationships in chemical behavior.
Rich, Ronald L. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1761.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Inner Transition Elements |
Main-Group Elements |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Oxidation State |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements
Trends in Ionization Energy of Transition-Metal Elements  Paul S. Matsumoto
Examines why, as the number of protons increase along a row in the periodic table, the first ionization energies of the transition-metal elements are relatively steady, but that for the main-group elements increases.
Matsumoto, Paul S. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1660.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements
Predicting the Atomic Weights of the Trans-Lawrencium Elements: A Novel Application of Dobereiner's Triads  Sami A. Ibrahim
Dobereiner's concept of triads remain useful for predicting the properties of the super-heavy elements (113118) and for providing reasonable estimates of the atomic weights of all 16 trans-lawrencium elements.
Ibrahim, Sami A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1658.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Main-Group Elements |
Transition Elements
Fully Exploiting the Potential of the Periodic Table through Pattern Recognition  Emeric Schultz
This article describes an approach to learning chemical concepts that uses simple rules and pattern recognition to generate the formulas of the oxides and hydrides of selected elements.
Schultz, Emeric. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1649.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Student-Centered Learning
Einstein Revisited  Leonard Fine
Examines Einstein's contributions to chemistry, particularly his work on the photoelectric effect, molecular dimensions, and Brownian motion.
Fine, Leonard. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1601.
Quantum Chemistry |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
Some Footnotes on the History of Masurium  H. J. Wagner
Some additional comments on a recent article by R. Zingales about the history of element 43.
Wagner, H. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1309.
Isotopes |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The q/T Paradox: Which "Contains More Heat", a Cup of Coffee at 95°C or a Liter of Icewater?  Ed Vitz and Michael J. Schuman
In this demonstration, heat is removed from 10 cm3 of water at ~95C and 42 cm3 of water at ~0C by adding each to a measured sample of liquid nitrogen. The heat removed from the water boils the N2(l), and the quantity of liquid nitrogen that is evaporated by boiling is determined. The quantity of heat that was absorbed is calculated from the heat of vaporization of liquid nitrogen and found to be about 10,000 J in the case of the hot water and 25,000 J in the case of the icewater.
Vitz, Ed; Schuman, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 856.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Heat Capacity |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
Let's Drive "Driving Force" Out of Chemistry  Norman C. Craig
"Driving force" is identified as a misleading concept in analyzing spontaneous change. Driving force wrongly suggests that Newtonian mechanics and determinism control and explain spontaneous processes. The usefulness of the competition of ?H versus ?S in discussing chemical change is also questioned. Entropy analyseswhich consider the contributions to the total change in entropyare advocated.
Craig, Norman C. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 827.
Natural Products |
Bioenergetics |
Biophysical Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
More Elementary Riddles  Kevin Cunningham
Four chemical riddles are presented, each highlighting an element (hydrogen, arsenic, selenium, and beryllium) and some of its significant properties. Each riddle is accompanied by a full explanation of its clues and their relationship to characteristics of that element.
Cunningham, Kevin. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 539.
Main-Group Elements |
Metals |
Nonmetals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Physical Properties
Electronegativity and the Bond Triangle  Terry L. Meek and Leah D. Garner
The dependence of bond type on two parameters, electronegativity difference (??) and average electronegativity (?av), is examined. It is demonstrated that ionic character is governed by the partial charges of the bonded atoms, and metallic character by the HOMOLUMO band gap.
Meek, Terry L.; Garner, Leah D. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 325.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Main-Group Elements
The Meaning of d-Orbital Labels  Guy Ashkenazi
Orbital labels are the angular part of the wave function, expressed in Cartesian coordinates. The mathematical relation between the labels and the shapes of the orbitals is discussed.
Ashkenazi, Guy. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 323.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Transition Elements |
Quantum Chemistry
A Methane Balloon Inflation Chamber  Curtis J. Czerwinski and Tanya J. Cordes
While several lecture demonstrations are possible using methane-filled balloons, it is often inconvenient to prepare these balloons since the pressure from standard laboratory and lecture hall gas nozzles is too low. As a solution to this problem, a methane balloon inflation chamber, prepared from a translucent 3.5-gallon pail and an aspirator or house-vacuum, provides an inexpensive and convenient method for inflating balloons in laboratories or lecture halls. Prepared in this way, methane-filled balloons can be used to demonstrate the effects of vacuum, the lifting power of low-density gases, and the explosive combustion of methane.
Czerwinski, Curtis J.; Cordes, Tanya J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 248.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Calories - Who's Counting?   JCE Editorial Staff
Students determine how many calories are released per gram when marshmallows and cashews burn and then compare the quantity of energy available from carbohydrates vs. fats.
JCE Editorial Staff . J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1440A.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Carbohydrates |
Lipids |
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
Nutrition |
Fatty Acids
An Alternative Thermochemical Container   Robert G. Silberman
Dean Campbell suggests a clever, readily available, and simple alternative to the calorimeters described in my article. I tried his suggestion and egg cartons work well with the appropriate scale up of materials. The only advantage I see to the calorimeter I described is somewhat greater durability and need for smaller amounts of chemicals.
Silberman, Robert G. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1421.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
An Alternative Thermochemical Container  Dean J. Campbell
I was intrigued with the JCE Classroom Activity: #59 "Some Like It Hot, Some Like It Cold." I think that a polystyrene foam egg carton (or even multiple nested cartons) would be an adequate container for mixing the solutions and performing thermochemical measurements.
Campbell, Dean J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1421.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Exothermic Bond Breaking: A Persistent Misconception  William C. Galley
Surveys taken the past several years at the onset of an introductory physical chemistry course reveal that the vast majority of students believe that bond breaking is exothermic.
Galley, William C. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 523.
Covalent Bonding |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Using Science Fiction To Teach Thermodynamics: Vonnegut, Ice-nine, and Global Warming  Charles A. Liberko
When covering the topic of thermodynamics at the introductory level, an example from Kurt Vonnegut, Jr's, fictional novel, Cat's Cradle, is used to take what the students have learned and apply it to a new situation.
Liberko, Charles A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 509.
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Why Chemical Reactions Happen (James Keeler and Peter Wothers)  John Krenos
By concentrating on a limited number of model reactions, this book presents chemistry as a cohesive whole by tying together the fundamentals of thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, and quantum chemistry, mainly through the use of molecular orbital interpretations.
Krenos, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 201.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Quantum Chemistry |
MO Theory
The "Dissing" of Niels Bohr  Andrew R. Peterson
Contributions made by Bohr to the Periodic Law.
Peterson, Andrew R. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 33.
Molecular Modeling |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Discovery Videos: A Safe, Tested, Time-Efficient Way To Incorporate Discovery-Laboratory Experiments into the Classroom  Lyubov Hoffman Laroche, Gary Wulfsberg, and Barbara Young
Using videos to bring discovery-laboratory experiments to classrooms with poor or no lab facilities or equipment, or activities that involve potentially hazardous materials.
Laroche, Lyubov Hoffman; Wulfsberg, Gary; Young, Barbara. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 962.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Enrichment / Review Materials
The Place of Zinc, Cadmium, and Mercury in the Periodic Table  William B. Jensen
Explanation for why the zinc group belongs with the main group elements; includes several versions of periodic tables.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 952.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Main-Group Elements |
Transition Elements |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The Proper Place for Hydrogen in the Periodic Table  Marshall W. Cronyn
Case for hydrogen to be placed above carbon in the periodic table.
Cronyn, Marshall W. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 947.
Main-Group Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The Periodic Table as a Mnemonic Device for Writing Electronic Configurations  Suzanne T. Mabrouk
Method for using the periodic table as a mnemonic device for writing electronic configurations.
Mabrouk, Suzanne T. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 894.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nonmajor Courses |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Three Forms of Energy  Sigthór Pétursson
Calculations comparing the energy involved in three forms: heat, mechanical energy, and expansion against pressure.
Pétursson, Sigthór . J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 776.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Nutrition |
Thermodynamics
Find the Symbols of Elements Using a Letter Matrix Puzzle  V. D. Kelkar
Letter matrix puzzle using chemical symbols.
Kelkar, V. D. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 411.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Main-Group Elements |
Transition Elements |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Periodic Table Live! 3rd Edition: Abstract of Special Issue 17  Nicholas B. Adelman, Jon L. Holmes, Jerrold J. Jacobsen, John W. Moore, Paul F. Schatz, Jaclyn Tweedale, Alton J. Banks, John C. Kotz, William R. Robinson, and Susan Young
CD-ROM containing an interactive journey through the periodic table; includes information about each element, biographies of discoverers, videos of reactions, sources and uses, macro and atomic properties, and crystalline structures.
Adelman, Nicholas B.; Holmes, Jon L.; Jacobsen, Jerrold J.; Moore, John W.; Schatz, Paul F.; Tweedale, Jaclyn; Banks, Alton J.; Kotz, John C.; Robinson, William R.; Young, Susan. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1487.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Solid State Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Reactions |
Crystals / Crystallography
An Interactive Graphical Approach to Temperature Conversions  Jonathan Mitschele
Activity to demonstrate the relationship between the Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature scales by graphing measurements of English- and metric-unit thermometers.
Mitschele, Jonathan. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1235.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Understanding and Interpreting Molecular Electron Density Distributions  C. F. Matta and R. J. Gillespie
A simple introduction to the electron densities of molecules and how they can be analyzed to obtain information on bonding and geometry.
Matta, C. F.; Gillespie, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1141.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
VSEPR Theory
Semiconductor Nanocrystals: A Powerful Visual Aid for Introducing the Particle in a Box  Tadd Kippeny, Laura A. Swafford, and Sandra J. Rosenthal
Using semiconductor nanocrystals as a means for connecting lecture content in quantum mechanics, inorganic, and general chemistry to real-world technological problems.
Kippeny, Tadd; Swafford, Laura A.; Rosenthal, Sandra J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1094.
Quantum Chemistry |
Nanotechnology |
Solid State Chemistry |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Applications of Chemistry
H Is for Enthalpy, Thanks to Heike Kamerlingh Onnes and Alfred W. Porter  Irmgard K. Howard
Origin of the word enthalpy.
Howard, Irmgard K. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 697.
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Solving Quantum Number Problems: An Examination of Novice Performance in Terms of Conceptual Base Requirements  Dilek Ardac
Study to understand gaps and conceptual inconsistencies that may block successful performance when solving quantum number problems and improve problem-solving performance by giving students an opportunity to reflect on their thought processes as they solve problems.
Ardac, Dilek. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 510.
Quantum Chemistry |
Learning Theories
Letter Matrix Puzzle on the Symbols of Elements  V. D. Kelkar
A 3x3 letter matrix puzzle based on the symbols of 35 elements.
Kelkar, V. D. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 456.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Response to Lowe's Potential-Energy-Only Models  Lowe, John P.
Discussion of the suitability of a potential-only model for the successive ionization energies of sulfur for an introductory chemistry course.
Lowe, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 430.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Response to Lowe's Potential-Energy-Only Models (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 155-156)  Frank Rioux and Roger L. DeKock
Discussion of the suitability of a potential-only model for the successive ionization energies of sulfur for an introductory chemistry course.
Rioux, Frank; DeKock, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 429.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
A Chemically Relevant Model for Teaching the Second Law of Thermodynamics  Bryce E. Williamson and Tetsuo Morikawa
Presentation of a chemically relevant model that exemplifies many aspects of the second law: reversibility, path dependence, and extrapolation in terms of electrochemistry and calorimetry.
Williamson, Bryce E.; Morikawa, Tetsuo. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 339.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Thermodynamics
The Mendeleev-Seaborg Periodic Table: Through Z = 1138 and Beyond  Paul J. Karol
Extending the periodic table to very large atomic numbers and its implications for the organization of the periodic table, consideration of relativistic effects, and the relative stability of massive and supermassive atomic nuclei.
Karol, Paul J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 60.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Astrochemistry
Response to Potential-Energy-Only Models (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 155-156)  Frank Rioux and Roger L. DeKock
Example of buffering power in deviations of the pH of sodium acetate from calculated values.
Rioux, Frank; DeKock, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 29.
Acids / Bases |
Carboxylic Acids |
pH |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Semimetallicity?  Stephen J. Hawkes
Analysis of whether semimetals are semiconductors and distinctions between metals, semimetals, and nonmetals.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1686.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nonmetals |
Physical Properties |
Solid State Chemistry |
Conductivity
Demonstrations with Nitrocellulose: Possible Further Pedagogic Value (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1449)  Edward G. Senkbeil
Characteristic of explosives to have fuel and oxidizer in the same structure.
Senkbeil, Edward G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1596.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Rate Law
Demonstrations with Nitrocellulose: Possible Further Pedagogic Value (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1449)  J. C. Jones
Characteristic of explosives to have fuel and oxidizer in the same structure.
Jones, J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1596.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Rate Law
Beer's Law Revoked? (re J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 694)  Maureen Kendrick Murphy
Question regarding absorbance versus concentration plot for buckminsterfullerene.
Murphy, Maureen Kendrick. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1595.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Ethics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Undergraduate Research |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Beer's Law Revoked? (re J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 694)  Roy W. Clark
Question regarding absorbance versus concentration plot for buckminsterfullerene.
Clark, Roy W. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1595.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Ethics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Undergraduate Research |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
The Mole, the Periodic Table, and Quantum Numbers: An Introductory Trio  Mali Yin and Raymond S. Ochs
Suggestions for presenting and developing three key ideas in chemistry: the mole, the periodic table, and quantum numbers.
Yin, Mali; Ochs, Raymond S. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1345.
Nonmajor Courses |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Stoichiometry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A Simplified Method for Measuring the Entropy Change of Urea Dissolution. An Experiment for the Introductory Chemistry Lab  Charles A. Liberko and Stephanie Terry
Guided inquiry to determine values for changes in enthalpy, Gibb's free energy, and entropy for the dissolution of urea in water.
Liberko, Charles A.; Terry, Stephanie. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1087.
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
The Isothermal Heat Conduction Calorimeter: A Versatile Instrument for Studying Processes in Physics, Chemistry, and Biology  Lars Wadsö, Allan L. Smith, Hamid Shirazi, S. Rose Mulligan, and Thomas Hofelich
A simple but sensitive isothermal heat-conduction calorimeter and five experiments for students to illustrate its use (heat capacity of solids, acid-base titration, enthalpy of vaporization of solvents, cement hydration, and insect metabolism).
Wadsö, Lars; Smith, Allan L.; Shirazi, Hamid; Mulligan, S. Rose; Hofelich, Thomas. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1080.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thermal Analysis |
Thermodynamics
Melting Point, Density, and Reactivity of Metals  Michael Laing
Using melting points and densities to the predict the relative reactivities of metals.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1054.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Physical Properties |
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Electrochemistry
The Conductivity of Molten Materials  Monica E. Thomas, Audrey A. Cleveland, Rubin Battino, David A. Dolson, and Michael R. Hall
Demonstrating the conductivity of molten ionic compounds; includes apparatus for demonstrating conductivity and suggested list of selected test materials and their melting points.
Thomas, Monica E.; Cleveland, Audrey A.; Battino, Rubin; Dolson, David A.; Hall, Michael R. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1052.
Conductivity |
Metals |
Ionic Bonding |
Physical Properties
Lewis Structures in General Chemistry: Agreement between Electron Density Calculations and Lewis Structures  Gordon H. Purser
The internuclear electron densities of a series of X-O bonds (where X = P, S, or Cl) are calculated using quantum mechanics and compared to Lewis structures for which the formal charges have been minimized; a direct relationship is found between the internuclear electron density and the bond order predicted from Lewis structures in which formal charges are minimized.
Purser, Gordon H. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 981.
Covalent Bonding |
Computational Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Lewis Structures |
Quantum Chemistry
Have Orbitals Really Been Observed? (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1492-1494)  John C. H. Spence, M. O'Keefe, and J. M. Zuo
Clarification of work described in a previous article.
Spence, John C. H.; O'Keefe, M.; Zuo, J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 877.
Computational Chemistry |
MO Theory |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Periodic Patterns (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1053-1056)  Michael Laing
Unique organization of the periodic table.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 877.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Main-Group Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements
Periodic Patterns (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1053-1056)  Michael Laing
Unique organization of the periodic table.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 877.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Main-Group Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements
A Simple Computer-Interfaced Calorimeter: Application to the Determination of the Heat of Formation of Magnesium Oxide  Sze-Shun Wong, Natasha D. Popovich, and Shelley J. Coldiron
Design, construction, and laboratory instructional application of a simple computer-controlled, constant-pressure calorimeter.
Wong, Sze-Shun; Popovich, Natasha D.; Coldiron, Shelley J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 798.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Thermodynamics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Screening Percentages Based on Slater Effective Nuclear Charge as a Versatile Tool for Teaching Periodic Trends  Kimberley A. Waldron, Erin M. Fehringer, Amy E. Streeb, Jennifer E. Trosky, and Joshua J. Pearson
Using charge shielding to identify and explain trends within the periodic table.
Waldron, Kimberley A.; Fehringer, Erin M.; Streeb, Amy E.; Trosky, Jennifer E.; Pearson, Joshua J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 635.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Using History to Teach Scientific Method: The Role of Errors  Carmen J. Giunta
This paper lists five kinds of error with examples of each from the development of chemistry in the 18th and 19th centuries: erroneous theories (phlogiston), seeing a new phenomenon everywhere one seeks it (Lavoisier and the decomposition of water), theories erroneous in detail but nonetheless fruitful (Dalton's atomic theory), rejection of correct theories (Avogadro's hypothesis), and incoherent insights (J. A. R. Newlands' classification of the elements).
Giunta, Carmen J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 623.
Nonmajor Courses |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Stoichiometry
Electronegativity and Bond Type: Predicting Bond Type  Gordon Sproul
Important limitations with using electronegativity differences to determine bond type and recommendations for using electronegativities in general chemistry.
Sproul, Gordon. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 387.
Covalent Bonding |
Materials Science |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Ionic Bonding |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Metallic Bonding
Have Orbitals Really Been Observed?  Eric R. Scerri
Recent reports claiming to have observed textbook d orbitals are analyzed and it is argued that what was observed indirectly, and not for the first time, was actually electron density. It is also suggested that the tendency to use the terms electron density and orbital to mean the same thing will give rise to confusion in chemical education.
Scerri, Eric R. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1492.
Computational Chemistry |
MO Theory |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Hell May Be Hotter Than Heaven After All (about J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 503)  M. N. Berberan-Santos
Estimation of temperatures in heaven and hell based on biblical information.
Berberan-Santos, Mário N. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1278.
Nonmajor Courses |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
Ernest Rutherford, Avogadro's Number, and Chemical Kinetics Revisited (about J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 998-1003)  James E. Sturm
Estimation of temperatures in heaven and hell based on biblical information.
Sturm, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1278.
Nonmajor Courses |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Kinetics |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
A Visual Aid in Enthalpy Calculations  Sebastian G. Canagaratna
This article discusses the use of enthalpy-temperature diagrams for reactants and products as a visual aid in the teaching of reaction-enthalpy calculations. By the use of such diagrams the division of the process into a part involving a chemical reaction without a temperature change and a part involving only a temperature change is made visually concrete.
Canagaratna, Sebastian G. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1178.
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Ionization Energies, Parallel Spins, and the Stability of Half-Filled Shells  Peter Cann
Three methods for explaining the decrease in first ionization energies between group V and group VI elements are described and commented upon. The quantum mechanical origin of the unhelpful concept of half-shell stability is explained in terms of exchange energy, for which the alternative term parallel spin avoidance factor is suggested. It is recommended that for pre-university students the simplest explanation, in terms of Coulombic repulsion between two electrons occupying the same orbital, is adopted: it involves fewer difficult concepts than the other explanations and its predictions are no less accurate.
Cann, Peter. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1056.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
A Living Periodic Table  James L. Marshall
A complete "living" periodic table of samples of all the elements through uranium is described. In many instances a sample of an element is accompanied by a direct commercial application. This periodic table is very helpful in enabling the student to gain a hands-on understanding of the true nature of the elements--as opposed to the more usual compilation of mere abstract data.
Marshall, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 979.
Main-Group Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Chemistry Comes Alive!, Volume 4: Abstract of Special Issue 25 on CD-ROM  Jerrold J. Jacobsen, Gordon Bain, Kara Bruce, and John W. Moore
Chemistry Comes Alive!, Volume 4 is the fourth in a series of CD-ROMs for Macintosh and Windows computers. Volume 4 contains two main topics, Reactions in Aqueous Solution and Reactions of the Elements.
Jacobsen, Jerrold J.; Bain, Gordon; Bruce, Kara; Moore, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 799.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Descriptive Chemistry
Studying Thermally Induced Chemical and Physical Transformations in Common Synthetic Polymers: A Laboratory Project  Steven C. Hodgson, John D. Orbell, Stephen W. Bigger, and John Scheirs
A simple project is described for introducing students to some experimental procedures commonly used to measure the effects of thermal treatment on synthetic polymers. The thermally induced changes that occur in the commodity polymers low-density polyethylene (LDPE), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) are examined as a function of the time of thermal treatment in an air-circulating oven.
Hodgson, Steven C.; Orbell, John D.; Bigger, Stephen W.; Scheirs, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 745.
IR Spectroscopy |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermal Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Ionic Crystals: A Simple and Safe Lecture Demonstration of the Preparation of NaI from Its Elements  Zelek S. Herman
A simple and safe classroom demonstration showing the production of sodium iodide (NaI) crystals from elemental sodium and elemental (molecular) iodine is presented. The demonstration, which is quite impressive, naturally fits into the discussion of ionic bonding and the alkali halide crystals.
Herman, Zelek S. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 619.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Thermodynamics |
Ionic Bonding |
Crystals / Crystallography
Elementary "Who Am I" Riddles  R. Aldrin Denny, R. Lakshmi, H. Chitra, and Nandini Devi
Elementary riddles that highlight some properties of elements and their compounds and may provide a change of pace in a freshman chemistry lecture or in a quiz.
Denny, R. Aldrin; Lakshmi, R.; Chitra, H.; Devi, Nandini. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 477.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Reply to Coulombic Models in Chemical Bonding  Smith, Derek W.
Coulombic vs molecular orbital models for explaining the molecular shapes of ionic molecules.
Smith, Derek W. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 445.
Ionic Bonding |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
MO Theory
Coulombic Models in Chemical Bonding  Sacks, Lawrence J.
Coulombic vs molecular orbital models for explaining the molecular shapes of ionic molecules.
Sacks, Lawrence J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 445.
Ionic Bonding |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
MO Theory
News from Online: The Power of the Voice  Carolyn Sweeney Judd
Useful online chemistry resources.
Judd, Carolyn Sweeney. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 299.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Gases
The Periodic Round Table (by Gary Katz)  reviewed by Glen E. Rodgers
The "table" consists of four sets of two finely finished hardwood discs each with the elemental symbols and their corresponding atomic numbers pleasingly and symmetrically wood-burned into their faces.
Rodgers, Glen E. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 164.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Boerhaave on Fire  Damon Diemente
This article offers a selection of passages from Boerhaave's chapter on fire. Boerhaave offers demonstrations and experiments that can be instructively performed today, quantitative data that can be checked against modern equations, and much theory and hypothesis that can be assessed in light of modern chemical ideas.
Diemente, Damon. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 42.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
Using TOPEX Satellite El Niño Altimetry Data to Introduce Thermal Expansion and Heat Capacity Concepts in Chemistry Courses  Harvey F. Blanck
Warm water is less dense than cool water and will float somewhat like ice, with a portion above the surface of the cooler surrounding water. The height of the bump can be used to estimate the excess thermal energy in the warmer water.
Blanck, Harvey F. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1635.
Liquids |
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
The Enthalpy of Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide: A General Chemistry Calorimetry Experiment  Charles J. Marzzacco
The experiment is simple, inexpensive, and colorful. In its simplest form, it can be performed in less than one hour; therefore, it is quite suitable for high school labs, which often have time restrictions. The chemicals required are household or commercial 3% H2O2(aq) and 0.50 M Fe(NO3)3(aq).
Marzzacco, Charles J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1517.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Catalysis
Chemistry Comes Alive! Vol. 3: Abstract of Special Issue 23 on CD-ROM  Jerrold J. Jacobsen and John W. Moore
Volume 3 contains several related topics generally included in an introductory chemistry course. The general areas are Enthalpy and Thermodynamics, Oxidation-Reduction, and Electrochemistry.
Jacobsen, Jerrold J.; Moore, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1311.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
A Classroom Demonstration of Rayleigh Light Scattering in Optically Active and Inactive Systems  Monica Avalos Pecina and Charles A. Smith
The objective of this demonstration is to allow students to make a direct observation of the rotation of polarized light in an optically active medium. The observation is performed by passing a laser beam through a long vertical cylinder, which contains a solution of a nonabsorbing optically active compound.
Pecina, Monica Avalos; Smith, Charles A. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1230.
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Quantum Chemistry
An Apparatus for Temperature Displays  George Papageorgiou and John Xenos
In this article, a new simple and low-cost apparatus is introduced that provides the possibility to display temperature measurements in any lecture hall. The apparatus provides analog displays. Its construction requires only simple and inexpensive materials.
Papageorgiou, George; Xenos, John. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1094.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Letters  
Better treatment of the inner transition elements.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1064.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Inner Transition Elements
Lewis Structures Are Models for Predicting Molecular Structure, Not Electronic Structure  Gordon H. Purser
This article argues against a close relationship between Lewis dot structures and electron structure obtained from quantum mechanical calculations. Lewis structures are a powerful tool for structure prediction, though they are classical models of bonding and do not predict electronic structure.
Purser, Gordon H. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1013.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Computational Chemistry |
Quantum Chemistry |
MO Theory |
Learning Theories |
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Modeling
The Genius of Slater's Rules  James L. Reed
With only a few modifications a procedure has been developed that yields the one-electron energies for atoms and ions with a level of detail very well suited for instruction in the structure and properties of atoms. It provides for the computation of very reasonable values for such properties as ionization energies, electron affinities, promotion energies, electronic transitions, and even XPS and ESCA spectra.
Reed, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 802.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Spectroscopy
Periodic Puns for the Classroom  Paul E. Vorndam
Some puns on the names of the elements are presented.
Vorndam, Paul E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 492.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Learning Theories
The History and Use of Our Earth's Chemical Elements: A Reference Guide (by Robert E. Krebs)  reviewed by Jeffrey D. Bracken
This book is an excellent resource for chemical educators at the high school and college levels. The format of the text is consistent and the writing style is clear and concise, making it ideally suited for student use also.
Bracken, Jeffrey D. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 475.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Geochemistry |
Descriptive Chemistry
Periodic Table Live! 2nd Edition  Alton J. Banks, Jon L. Holmes, Jerrold J. Jacobsen, John W. Moore, Paul F. Schatz, Jaclyn Tweedale, John C. Kotz, and Susan Young
Description of the JCE CD Periodic Table Live! 2nd Edition.
Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.; Jacobsen, Jerrold J.; Moore, John W.; Schatz, Paul F.; Tweedale, Jaclyn; Kotz, John C.; Young, Susan. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 447.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A Different Approach to a 3-D Periodic System Including Stable Isotopes  Alexandru T. Balaban
On a Periodic System with the two dimensions represented by Periods and Columns, one may stack each stable nuclide of an element along the third dimension. This "Downtown Area" representation is helpful for interconnecting concepts of: element, isotope or nuclide (stable vs. radioactive), atomic weight, atomic number, mass number.
Balaban, Alexandru T. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 359.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Isotopes |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
Periodic Tables of Elemental Abundance  Steven I. Dutch
Patterns of element abundance in the sun, chondrite meteorites, and the continental crust of the earth and the moon are portrayed on a periodic table. The abundance of each element is represented by a circle whose radius is proportional to the logarithm of the element's abundance.
Dutch, Steven I. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 356.
Astrochemistry |
Geochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Why Gold and Copper Are Colored but Silver Is Not  Ariel H. Guerrero, Héctor J. Fasoli, and José Luis Costa
Interpretation of the yellow color of gold based on an adequate external electronic configuration (s1d10/s2d9) and s and d sublevels close enough to allow transition between them to proceed significantly.
Guerrero, Ariel H.; Fasoli, Hctor J.; Costa, Jos Luis. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 200.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Metals |
Descriptive Chemistry
The Natural Selection of the Chemical Elements (by R. J. P. Williams and J. J. R. Fraústo da Silva)  George B. Kauffman
A book whose ambitious objective is "to show the relationship of every kind of material around us, living and nonliving, to the properties of the chemical elements of the periodic table." The entire book possesses a strong environmental and interdisciplinary emphasis.
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1559.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Descriptive Chemistry
How Good Is the Quantum Mechanical Explanation of the Periodic System?  Eric R. Scerri
The use of quantum mechanics, or more specifically, orbitals and electronic configurations in teaching general chemistry is now such a widespread trend that it would be utterly futile to try to reverse it. Moreover, orbitals and configurations have been extremely useful in providing a theoretical framework for the unification of a multitude of chemical facts.
Scerri, Eric R. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1384.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
An Alternative Framework for Chemical Bonding  William R. Robinson
Recent, qualitative research in science education has uncovered many nave or incorrect ideas about aspects of science commonly held by students and others at all levels. This article discusses how misconceptions can cluster and compound.
Robinson, William R. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1074.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
Deducing the Shell Model from Ionization Energies and the Use of Models in Introductory Chemistry  Ronald J. Gillespie, Richard S. Moog, and James N. Spencer
A major objection of Rioux and DeKock is the statement in the authors' earlier paper that electron repulsion is responsible for the relative ionization energies of H and He. The commentators work clearly shows that a quantum mechanical treatment of this problem reveals that kinetic energy considerations play a crucial role in these values. However, although their criticism is appropriate in the context of this more sophisticated QM treatment, it does not in any way invalidate the authors original paper, the goal of which was to provide a model, namely the shell model, for the electronic structure of atoms that is consistent with experimental ionization energies.
Gillespie, Ronald J.; Moog, Richard S.; Spencer, James N. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 539.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
The Crucial Role of Kinetic Energy in Interpreting Ionization Energies  Frank Rioux and Roger L. DeKock
The experimental ratio of the ionization energies of H and He is 1.81. The authors show that it is not correct to interpret this ratio using a classical Coulombic potential energy model. Rather a quantum mechanical model is required in which both kinetic and potential energy play a role.
Rioux, Frank; DeKock, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 537.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
In Defense of Quantum Numbers  Robert M. Richman
A recent paper has argued that the derivation of the periodic table using quantum numbers is a topic that should be eliminated from introductory chemistry courses because it is too abstract, mysterious, and esoteric. A rebuttal is offered based on the claim that it would be wrong to omit discussions of the inductive approach of Mendeleev and the deductive approach initiated by Schroedinger, because they compose the consummate example of that interaction of empirical and rational epistemologies that defines how chemists think.
Richman, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 536.
Learning Theories |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Quantum Chemistry
A Closer Look at the Addition of Equations and Reactions  Damon Diemente
Chemists occasionally find it convenient or even necessary to express an overall reaction as the sum of two or more component reactions. A close examination, however, reveals that the resemblance between chemical algebraic equations is entirely superficial, and that the real meaning of addition in chemical equations is subtle and varies from case to case. In high-school courses, students are likely to encounter the addition of equations in thermochemistry, in electrochemistry, and in kinetics.
Diemente, Damon. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 319.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Reactions
Demonstrating Heat Changes on the Overhead Projector with a Projecting Thermometer  Chinhyu Hur, Sally Solomon, and Christy Wetzel
Heat changes can be observed by using a culture dish and a thermometer that is projected onto a screen using an overhead projector.
Hur, Chinhyu; Solomon, Sally; Wetzel, Christy. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 51.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Heat Capacity, Body Temperature, and Hypothermia  Doris R. Kimbrough
A finger in and out of water are compared to demonstrate the difference between heat capacities and their effect on body temperature.
Kimbrough, Doris R. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 48.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
A Note on the Term "Chalcogen"  William B. Jensen
It is argued that the best translation of the term "chalcogen" is "ore former." It is further suggested that the term chalcogenide should be replaced with the term chalcide in order to maintain a parallelism with the terms halogen and halide.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1063.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Descriptive Chemistry
An Integrated-Circuit Temperature Sensor for Calorimetry and Differential Temperature Measurement  Mark Muyskens
Application of an integrated-circuit (IC) temperature sensor which is easy-to-use, inexpensive, rugged, easily computer-interfacable and has good precision is described. The design, based on the National Semiconductor LM35 IC chip, avoids some of the difficulties associated with conventional sensors (thermocouples, thermistors, and platinum resistance thermometers) and a previously described IC sensor.
Muyskens, Mark. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 850.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermal Analysis |
Thermodynamics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
The Periodic Building of the Elements: Can a Periodic Table Be Transformed into a Stereo One?  Fu-cheng He, Xiang-yuan Li
A periodic table of any size can be transformed into a stereo model which is called the Periodic Building of the Elements (PBE). To construct the PBE a submodel of the main group and the transition elements should be made in advance, and then a submodel of the lanthanides and the actinides is made in a simple procedure. The whole model is obtained by simply combining these two submodels together.
He, Fu-cheng; Li, Xiang-yuan . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 792.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Teaching Chemistry with Electron Density Models  Gwendolyn P. Shusterman and Alan J. Shusterman
This article describes a powerful new method for teaching students about electronic structure and its relevance to chemical phenomena. This method, developed and used for several years in general chemistry and organic chemistry courses, relies on computer-generated three-dimensional models of electron density distributions.
Shusterman, Gwendolyn P.; Shusterman, Alan J. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 771.
Learning Theories |
Computational Chemistry |
Molecular Modeling |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Periodic Table Live! Abstract of Special Issue 17  Alton J. Banks, Jon L. Holmes, John C. Kotz, Susan Young, Paul F. Schatz, John W. Moore
Periodic Table Live! combines on a single CD-ROM the digital video from the Periodic Table CD (1) with the graphical and descriptive databases of the elements from the Illustrated Periodic Table (2) and Chemistry Navigator (3) to form a unified, easy-to-use, dynamic tour of the periodic table. Also the Chemistry Navigator and Illustrated Periodic Table upgrades.
Banks, Alton J.; Holmes Jon L.; Kotz, John C.; Young, Susan; Schatz, Paul F.; Moore, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 445.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Heat Flow vs. Cash Flow: A Banking Analogy  Charles M. Wynn, Sr.
An analogy is drawn between the withdrawal of money from an automated teller machine (ATM) and an exothermic chemical reaction.
Wynn, Charles M. Sr. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 397.
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Three Programs for DOS: Abstract of Volume 10B, Number 1 2. Periodic Table Games  John S. Martin
The Periodic Table Games are intended to expose students to the vocabulary of chemistry: formulas, combination rules, and descriptive chemistry. They may be played by an individual against the computer, or by several competing players.
Martin, John S. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 346.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Die Chemischen Elemente: Ein Streifzug durch das Periodensystem by Lucien F. Trueb  reviewed by George B. Kauffman
A Ramble through the Periodic System is divided into two parts: Part I, "The Conception of the Elements and the Periodic System" (14 pp), and Part II, "The Elements" (381 pp). The first considers the idea of the elements from Democritus to Lavoisier, the discovery and development of the periodic system, and the origin of the elements, including nucleosynthesis. The second, consisting of 23 chapters, describes each of the elements from hydrogen and its isotopes (16 pp) to the heaviest of the known transactinides (element 112).
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 344.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
How Efficient is a Laboratory Burner in Heating Water?  Michael P. Jansen
When a laboratory (or Bunsen) burner is used to heat water, all of the energy liberated by the burning fuel is not absorbed by the water. This article describes a procedure for determining the percentage efficiency of this common apparatus. This experiment is suitable for secondary school students who are familiar with stoichiometry , simple calorimetry, heats of reaction, collection of gas by downward displacement of water.
Jansen, Michael P. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 213.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Reports from Other Journals: Gleanings from Scientific American  Paul F. Schatz
Scientific American provides a rich resource of background and general interest material for topics of chemical interest that can be used to supplement and enhance chemistry lecture and laboratory courses.
Schatz, Paul F. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A234.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Laboratory Management
Quantum Analogies on Campus  Ngai Ling Ma
By using examples drawn from daily life of students, simple analogies are used to illustrate a few quantum concepts which include: wave function, quantum numbers, states, degeneracy of states, transitions, selection rules, probability and probability density, operators and wave-particle dualism.
Ma, Ngai Ling. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1016.
Quantum Chemistry
A Simple Method for Determining the Temperature Coefficient of Voltaic Cell Voltage  Alfred E. Saieed, Keith M. Davies
This article describes a relatively simple method for preparing voltaic cells, and through their temperature coefficient, ?E/?T, it explores relationships between ?G, ?H,and ?S for the cell reactions involved.
Saieed, Alfred E.; Davies, Keith M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 959.
Electrochemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Modified Demonstration of the Activation Energy Concept  Jin Li, Le-Sui Dai, Li-Shu You
This paper describes a modified method that can be used to present both exothermic and endothermic cases.
Li, Jin; Dai, Le-Sui; You, Li-Shu. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 948.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Home-Study Microlabs  Dietmar Kennepohl
This article presents the use of microscaled chemistry experiments for individual home study and how it can be incorporated into a course with traditional laboratory work.
Kennepohl, Dietmar. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 938.
Microscale Lab |
Solutions / Solvents |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Precipitation / Solubility
Symmetry Elements and Operations  Albert W.M. Lee, K.M. Leung, W.J Daniel, C.L. Chan
Symmetry Elements and Operations is a multimedia presentation that illustrates the basics of symmetry with three dimensional molecular models and simple text explanations.
Lee, Albert W.M.; Leung, K.M.; Kwong, Daniel W.J.; Chan, C.L. . J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 924.
Molecular Modeling |
Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Quantum Chemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Simple and Attractive Demonstraction of the Reversibility of Chemical Reactions  Celestyn M. Brozek
The reversibility of chemical reactions is demonstrated by dehydration of CuSO4  5H2O and the subsequent hydration of CuSO4. The associated heat consumption and the subsequent heat production illustrate the concept of endothermic and exothermic reactions.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 837.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Reactions
NMR Shielding and the Periodic Table  I. P. Gerothanassis and C. G. Kalodimos
The object of this article is to find periodic, structurally significant observables that can be correlated to the nuclear shielding or alternatively to investigate whether chemical shift can be used to intensify the periodic disposition of valence electrons.
Gerothanassis, I. P.; Kalodimos, C. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 801.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Instrumental Methods
Using Physics Principles in the Teaching of Chemistry  Warren Gulden
Chemistry and physics may be separate subjects, but that should not prohibit the use of physics in a chemistry course. When this is done, students can use traditional physics principles or laws for the purpose of understanding chemistry better.
Gulden, Warren. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 771.
Ionic Bonding |
Physical Properties |
Electrochemistry |
Hydrogen Bonding
Interactive Computer Visualization in the Introductory Chemistry Curriculum  Victoria M. Bragin
This project explores the use of technological innovations to facilitate learning in introductory chemistry courses by those with a poor academic background, while also challenging those prepared to master the curriculum.
Bragin, Victoria M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 747.
Gases |
Rate Law |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Electrochemistry
Electronic Configuration Pattern Found in Pascal's Triangle  Robert L. Duncan
A simple method for revealing the electronic configuration pattern within Pascal's Triangle is discussed. The origin of this unique pattern may be part of a combinatoric and is suggested a link may be made to quantum mechanics. Based on this triangular array an alternate representation of the Periodic Table is presented.
Duncan, Robert L. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 742.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
SIRS: Simulations and Interactive Resources, III  Martin, John S.
Simulations and Interactive Resources (SIRs) are designed to support interactive lectures in introductory chemistry. This third issue of SIRs includes five new SIRs as well as updated and final versions of all previously published SIRs.
Martin, John S. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 722.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Reactions |
Electrochemistry |
Kinetics
An Approach to Reaction Thermodynamics through Enthalpies, Entropies, and Free Energies of Atomization  James N. Spencer, Richard S. Moog, and Ronald J. Gillespie
An alternative to the conventional method of calculating enthalpies of reaction is presented, using enthalpies of atomization in place of enthalpies of formation. This allows the student to see directly that the reaction enthalpies are determined by the difference in bond strengths in the reactants and products.
James N. Spencer, Richard S. Moog, and Ronald J. Gillespie. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 631.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium |
Reactions |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Stoichiometry
Group Project Format in First-Semester General Chem Lab  Theresa C. Varco-Shea, Jeanne Darlington, and Marilyn Turnbull
Recent changes in the laboratory portion of our general chemistry course have included group projects, writing reports, and oral presentations.
Varco-Shea, Theresa C.; Darlington, Jeanne; Turnbull, Marilyn. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 536.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Salts are Mostly Not Ionized  Stephen J. Hawkes
The popular assumption that all salts are totally ionized in aqueous solution is false. Moreover, it is approximated only by alkali metal salts and by salts of alkaline earth metals with high atomic numbers.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 421.
Ionic Bonding |
Metals |
Solutions / Solvents
CAI for Chemistry  Lesile Glasser, John D. Bradley, George Brink, and Pam van Zyl
These six programs provide an opportunity for interactive practice of general chemistry material.
Glasser, L.; Bradley, J. D.; Brink, G.; van Zyl, P. . J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 323.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Electrochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A Simple and Convenient Microscale Procedure for Investigation of Charles' Law  Snyder, Donald M.
Experimental procedure for establishing temperature/volume relationship for a gas and determining the value of absolute zero using very simple equipment; includes sample data and analysis.
Snyder, Donald M. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A98.
Gases |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Microscale Lab
Quick Method for Making Colored-Flame Flash Paper  Sally Solomon, Chinhyu Hur, Alan Lee, and Kurt Smith
Procedure for making for making colored-flame (and multicolored) flash paper.
Solomon, Sally; Hur, Chinhyu; Lee, Alan; Smith, Kurt. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1133.
Reactions |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Celsius to Fahrenheit--Quick and Dirty  Colin Hester
Simple algorithm for converting Celsius temperature to Fahrenheit temperature.
Hester, Colin. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1026.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
A Mnemonic Method for Assigning the Electronic Configurations of Atoms  Nerea Iza and Manuel Gil
An algorithm for determining electronic configurations.
Iza, Nerea; Gil, Manuel. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1025.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Moseley's Work on X-Rays and Atomic Number  C. W. Haigh
Explanation of the relationship between Moseley's work in determining atomic numbers, the spectrum of the hydrogen atom, the Bohr theory, and Slater's rules for screening constants.
Haigh, C. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1012.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Determination of Heats of Fusion: Using Differential Scanning Calorimetry for the AP Chemistry Course   Susan M. Temme
Using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in AP chemistry.
Temme, Susan M. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 916.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermal Analysis |
Thermodynamics
A Pictorial Analogy for Energy Content and Temperature  Thomas D. Crute
Analogy to help students distinguish between heat and temperature.
Crute, Thomas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 914.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
First-Year Chemistry in the Context of the Periodic Table   Sheila D. Woodgate
Integration of descriptive chemistry into chemistry curricula, particularly inorganic chemistry.
Woodgate, Sheila D. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 618.
Main-Group Elements |
Transition Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation State |
Acids / Bases
Common Textbook and Teaching Misrepresentations of Lewis Structures   Laila Suidan, Jay K. Badenhoop, Eric D. Glendening, and Frank Weinhold
Clarifying leading Lewis structures using computational software.
Suidan, Laila; Badenhoop, Jay K.; Glendening, Eric D.; Weinhold, Frank. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 583.
Lewis Structures |
Covalent Bonding |
Quantum Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Bond Energy Data Summarized  Kildahl, Nicholas K.
A periodic table that summarizes a variety of bond energy information.
Kildahl, Nicholas K. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 423.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
The Periodic Table CD  Banks, Alton J; Holmes, Jon L.
Description of the Periodic Table CD, containing a database of still images and motion sequences of reactions and uses/applications of each chemical element.
Banks, Alton J; Holmes, Jon L. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 409.
Main-Group Elements |
Transition Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Reactions
A Quantitative van Arkel Diagram  Jensen, William B.
Using van Arkel diagrams to schematically represent relationships between ionic, covalent, and metallic bonds.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 395.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
Presenting the Periodic System with Pictures  Bolmgren, Ingmari
Simulating Mendeleev's development of the periodic table by organizing colored cardboard circles.
Bolmgren, Ingmari J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 337.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Main-Group Elements
Put the Body to Them!  Perkins, Robert R.
Examples of chemistry demonstrations involving student participation, including quantized states and systems, boiling point trends, intermolecular vs. intramolecular changes, polar/nonpolar molecules, enantiomers and diastereomers, and chromatography.
Perkins, Robert R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 151.
Chromatography |
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Quantum Chemistry |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers
The Periodic Table Video Disk: Second Edition  Banks, Alton J.
A database of visual information about the chemical elements.
Banks, Alton J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 126.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Descriptive Chemistry
Studying Activity Series of Metals: Using Deep-Learning Strategies  Hoon, Tien-Ghun; Goh, Ngoh-Khang; Chia, Lian-Sai
Uses a unit of the activity series of metals to demonstrate the teaching of the interrelationships between chemical concepts by linking new information to previously known material.
Hoon, Tien-Ghun; Goh, Ngoh-Khang; Chia, Lian-Sai J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 51.
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements
Periodic Trends for the Entropy of Elements  Thoms, Travis
Graphical representation and explanation for periodic trends in the entropy of elements.
Thoms, Travis J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 16.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Thermodynamics |
Main-Group Elements |
Transition Elements
The Illustrated Periodic Table  Kotz, John C.; Moore, John W.; Schatz, Paul F.
The Illustrated Periodic Table provides means for exploring the properties of chemical elements using a graphics-oriented environment.
Kotz, John C.; Moore, John W.; Schatz, Paul F. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1063.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The Periodic Table of Atoms: Arranging the Elements by a Different Set of Rules  Treptow, Richard S.
The periodic table found in this paper is based on the properties of free gaseous atoms rather than atoms in a chemical environment.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1007.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Chemistry Navigator  Kotz, John C.; Young, Susan
Chemistry Navigator is a hyperbook-database of information in the form of descriptive text, numerical values of properties, full color photos of chemicals and reactions, three dimensional molecular structures, QuickTime animations of structural features, and graphs showing periodic trends, relative elemental abundances, and other properties.
Kotz, John C.; Young, Susan J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 941.
Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Some Analogies for Teaching Atomic Structure at the High School Level  Goh, Ngoh Khang; Chia, Lian Sai; Tan, Daniel
Analogies for orbitals, Hund's rule, and the four quantum numbers.
Goh, Ngoh Khang; Chia, Lian Sai; Tan, Daniel J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 733.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Multimedia Chemistry Lectures  Whitnell, Robert M.; Fernandes, Eric A.; Almassizadeh, Farshad; Love, John J. C.; Dugan, Brookie M.; Sawrey, Barbara A.; Wilson, Kent R.
Development of a full set of multimedia lectures for the second quarter of a two-quarter physical chemistry sequence.
Whitnell, Robert M.; Fernandes, Eric A.; Almassizadeh, Farshad; Love, John J. C.; Dugan, Brookie M.; Sawrey, Barbara A.; Wilson, Kent R. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 721.
Quantum Chemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Statistical Mechanics
Simulations and Interactive Resources  Martin, John S.
12 Simulations and Interactive Resources (SIRs) including Periodic Table Displays, Electron Orbits and Orbitals, Electron Configurations, Barometers and Manometers, Vapor Pressure, Ideal Gas Behavior, Heat Capacity and Heat of Reaction, Approach to Equilibrium, The Law of Chemical Equilibrium, Titration Curves, Electrochemical Cells, and Rate of Reaction.
Martin, John S. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 667.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Gases |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Rate Law
Calorie Content of Foods: A Laboratory Experiment Introducing Measuring by Calorimeter  Cohen, Bernard L.; Schilken, Catherine A.
Overcoming the challenges posed by determining the calorie content of food by calorimetry.
Cohen, Bernard L.; Schilken, Catherine A. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 342.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Food Science
An Economical, Safe, and Sturdy Student Calorimeter  Ruekberg, Ben
Replacing the styrofoam, coffee cup calorimeter with the Snak Jar.
Ruekberg, Ben J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 333.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
On Using Incomplete Theories as Cataloging Schemes: Aufbau, Abbau, and VSEPR  Tykodi, R. J.
How to restructure as cataloging schemes the aufbau and abbau procedures for obtaining the ground-state electronic structures of atoms and monatomic ions.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 273.
VSEPR Theory |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Visualization of the Abstract in General Chemistry  Paselk, Richard A.
A series of software programs for beginning chemistry, including a series of modules addressing the fundamental phenomena associated with bonding, the microscopic phenomena underlying commonly observed systems, and a reference periodic table.
Paselk, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 225.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Classifying Substances by Electrical Character: An Alternative to Classifying by Bond Type  Nelson, P. G.
An alternative classification of substances based on their electrical properties.
Nelson, P. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 24.
Conductivity |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Semiconductors
Photon-initiated hydrogen-chlorine reaction: A student experiment at the microscale level   Egolf, Leanne M.; Keiser, Joseph T.
This lab offers a way to integrate the principles of thermodynamics and kinetics as well as other valuable instrumental methods.
Egolf, Leanne M.; Keiser, Joseph T. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A208.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Electrochemistry |
Free Radicals |
Microscale Lab |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics
The Periodic Table and the Human Element (Emsley, John)  Kauffman, George B.; Kauffman, Laurie M.
Review of videos centered on personal stories told through the elements.
Kauffman, George B.; Kauffman, Laurie M. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A51.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Delayed explosions  Battino, Rubin; Battino, Benjamin S.; Li, Yixin; Llaguno, Claro
A container is filled with a fuel and lit through a small hole. Variations of this demo are included.
Battino, Rubin; Battino, Benjamin S.; Li, Yixin; Llaguno, Claro J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 1030.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
The repeating "exploding" flask: A demonstration of heterogeneous catalysis   Battino, Rubin; Letcher, Trevor M.; Rivett, Douglas E. A.
This demonstration can be used to illustrate heterogeneous catalysis and thermochemistry.
Battino, Rubin; Letcher, Trevor M.; Rivett, Douglas E. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 1029.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Catalysis
The activation energy of a slap bracelet   Kramer, F. Axtell.
This accessory/toy can be used to help students understand activation energy.
Kramer, F. Axtell. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 1002.
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Heat of solution of hydrogen chloride: A laboratory experiment  Harms, Gregory S.; Lehman, Thomas A.
A simple technique for measuring the heat of solution of HCl in water.
Harms, Gregory S.; Lehman, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 955.
Acids / Bases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Introducing chemistry to chemical engineering students   Bottani, Eduardo Jorge
Description of changes introduced to a general chemistry course for chemical engineering students.
Bottani, Eduardo Jorge J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 935.
Quantum Chemistry |
Materials Science
Banish quantum mechanics from general chemistry?   Schaefer, Henry F., III.
Is the subject of quantum mechanics unteach-able at the general level? This author disagrees with a previous article in which a case was made for removing quantum mechanics from general chemistry.
Schaefer, Henry F., III. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 782.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Quantum Chemistry
"Qual": From a different viewpoint  Laing, Michael
Author contends that traditional teaching techniques in inorganic chemistry need to be reconsidered.
Laing, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 666.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Metals |
Qualitative Analysis |
Coordination Compounds
Pictorial analogies VII: Quantum numbers and orbitals   Fortman, John J.
Quantum number n is related to the size of a house, l is related to the shape of a house, and m is compared to the direction the house is facing. Pictures are included.
Fortman, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 649.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Pictorial analogies VI: Radial and angular wave function plots   Fortman, John J.
The distribution of an electron around a nucleus is likened to a friend who enjoys eating at restaurants ... especially those close to his/her home.
Fortman, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 549.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Electronegativity and bond type: I. Tripartate separation  Sproul, Gordon D.
As a unifying concept of bonding, electronegativity has been widely applied but gets only a limited treatment in most general chemistry texts.
Sproul, Gordon D. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 531.
Ionic Bonding |
Covalent Bonding |
Electrochemistry
Using the electrician's multimeter in the chemistry teaching laboratory: Part 1. Colorimetry and thermometry experiments  Andres, Roberto T.; Sevilla, Fortunato, III
The multimeter could be a very useful instrument for the chemistry laboratory bench. In this paper, the versatility of the multimeter in the chemistry teaching laboratory is demonstrated.
Andres, Roberto T.; Sevilla, Fortunato, III J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 514.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Equilibrium |
Stoichiometry |
Kinetics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Bleaching with Chlorine: Another Tomato Juice Demonstration   Nemetz, Thomas M.; Ball, David W.
Bubbling chlorine gas through tomato juice produces dramatic color changes. This paper provides safe instructions for the demonstration.
Nemetz, Thomas M.; Ball, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 154.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Reactions
On a Relation between the Heisenberg and deBroglie Principles  Ludwig, Oliver G.
Author suggests a way of looking at the wave-particle duality with a more concrete application of both relations and an insightful interpretation of the deBroglie principle for use in general chemistry.
Ludwig, Oliver G. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 28.
Quantum Chemistry
Quanta: A Handbook of Concepts, Second Edition (Atkins, P.W.)  Goddard, John D.
This handbook is a unique source of the sorts of explanations we should all like to give "off the cuff" for the quantum mechanical phenomena of importance in our various areas of chemistry.
Goddard, John D. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A167.
Quantum Chemistry
Dimitri Mendeleyev: Father of the Periodic Table (Films for the Humanities and Sciences)  Kauffman, George B.
This videocassette gives a multifaceted portrait of the periodic table's creator, Dimitri Ivanovich Mendeleyev.
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A140.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A spontaneous exothermic reaction between two solids: A safe demonstration  Scott, Earle S.
Reaction between equal masses of hydroxylamine hydrochloride and sodium nitrite.
Scott, Earle S. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1028.
Solids |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Reactions
Storing solar energy in calcium chloride  Wilkins, Curtis C.; Hunter, Norman W.; Pearson, Earl F.
Using common chemistry concepts to determine the feasibility of storing solar energy in calcium chloride hexahydrate.
Wilkins, Curtis C.; Hunter, Norman W.; Pearson, Earl F. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 753.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Argon-potassium atomic weight inversion in the periodic table.  Arnikar, H. J.
An explanation for the Ar-K inversion in terms of the nuclear characteristics of the naturally occurring isotopes of these elements.
Arnikar, H. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 687.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Geochemistry |
Isotopes
The nature of the chemical bond-Once more (3).  Scerri, E. R.
Whether or not the aufbau principle is an illusion, as Ogilvie calls it, should be thoroughly investigated.
Scerri, E. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 602.
Quantum Chemistry
The nature of the chemical bond-Once more (2).  Scott, J. M. W.
The mathematical description of chemical phenomena via quantum mechanics is no less obscure than its purely verbal counterpart, for at some point, the abstract mathematics must be translated into terms familiar to chemists or remain at a level of abstraction that is virtually useless to the chemist working at the bench.
Scott, J. M. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 600.
Quantum Chemistry
The nature of the chemical bond-Once more (1).  Edmiston, Clyde.
The original article is a classic case of incorrect conclusions drawn from largely correct facts.
Edmiston, Clyde. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 600.
Quantum Chemistry |
MO Theory
The nature of the chemical bond - 1992  Pauling, Linus
Commentary on errors in an earlier article on the nature of the chemical bond.
Pauling, Linus J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 519.
Covalent Bonding |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The best Aufbau mnemonic: The periodic table  Ludwig, Oliver G.
Using the periodic table exclusively to rationalize electron assignments has the advantage of emphasizing the experimental aspect of the science and avoids giving the impression that chemistry is nothing but a set of mysterious rules.
Ludwig, Oliver G. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 430.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The howling gummy bear   Sullivan, Dan M.
This demonstration illustrates the fact that we consume high-energy foods in order to obtain the reduced carbon they contain.
Sullivan, Dan M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 326.
Carbohydrates |
Food Science |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
A chemical literature/periodic table exercise for general chemistry.  Schneider, Marilyn J.
This article describes an exercise where students are assigned an element and asked to research recent work on the element.
Schneider, Marilyn J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 232.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Who's in charge?   Perry, William D.; Vogel, Glenn C.
This paper attempts to clarify what chemists mean when they talk about ionic charges, partial charges, oxidation numbers, and formal charges.
Perry, William D.; Vogel, Glenn C. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 222.
Ionic Bonding |
Oxidation State
Periodic properties in a family of common semiconductors: Experiments with light emitting diodes  Lisensky, George C.; Penn, Rona; Geselbracht, Margret J.; Ellis, Arthur B.
The prevalence of LED's and their low cost make LED's ideal for classroom demonstrations or laboratory experiments showing the connection between periodic trends in physical/chemical properties and a common high tech device.
Lisensky, George C.; Penn, Rona; Geselbracht, Margret J.; Ellis, Arthur B. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 151.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Semiconductors
KC? Discoverer with Knowledgeable Counselor  Cabrol, Daniel; Moore, John W.; Rittenhouse, Rita C.
KC? Discoverer is a program that permits students and faculty to explore a wide range of properties of the elements and is closely coordinated with the periodic table.
Cabrol, Daniel; Moore, John W.; Rittenhouse, Rita C. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 40.
Physical Properties |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
MacMendeleev: A program for exploring the periodic table (Clardy, Jon)  Bertrand, Gary L.
A review for a software program that serves as a database for properties of the elements.
Bertrand, Gary L. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A291.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Physical Properties
A divertimento on the symbols of the elements  Earl, Boyd L.
Ideas for games using the symbols of the elements.
Earl, Boyd L. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1011.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A procedure for determining formulas for the simple p-block oxoacids  Kildahl, Nicholas K.
Formulae for p-block oxoacids baffle high school and undergraduate students. This paper presents a procedure for developing these formulas based on the concept of total coordination number of the central atom in the molecule or ion.
Kildahl, Nicholas K. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1001.
Acids / Bases |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Collecting and using the chemical elements  Solomon, Sally; Bates, Donald J.
The Royal Society of Chemistry "Periodic Table of Elements" poster succeeds in attracting the attention of people who walk past it. This paper discusses the assembly of the element display, prices, sources, and handling tips for each element and specific suggestions about how to use the elements in classroom situations.
Solomon, Sally; Bates, Donald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 991.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
KC? Discoverer: Exploring the properties of the chemical elements  Liebel, Michael
This software program allows users to explore a large number of properties of the elements. The program can find all elements associated with a certain property, graph numeric properties against other numeric properties, list elements, sort elements, and use the periodic table to select elements.
Liebel, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 956.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Physical Properties |
Chemometrics |
Descriptive Chemistry
A short qualitative analysis scheme without hazardous wastes  Petty, John T.
A description of laboratory procedures that utilize the important pedagogy of qualitative analysis schemes while being more safe to perform than the traditional procedures.
Petty, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 942.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Metals |
Qualitative Analysis |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The preparation of halogen waters   Diemente, Damon
Aqueous solutions of halogens can provide important demonstrations regarding periodicity, however many instructors are understandably hesitant to handle halogens. This author discusses the safe handling of halogens.
Diemente, Damon J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 932.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A simple laboratory experiment illustrating the relative nature of atomic weights  Huff, Randolph B.; Evans, David W.
The concept of atomic weight scale remains a source of confusion for beginning chemistry students. This paper proposes a simple lab experience that could help students better understand this idea.
Huff, Randolph B.; Evans, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 675.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Aufbau mnemonics   Scerri, Eric R.
Assignment of electron configurations represents an approximation that is inconsistent with quantum mechanics.
Scerri, Eric R. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 445.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Bright-line spectrum analogy   Samsa, Richard A.
An analogy for bright-line emission using common items, such as sand and an eraser.
Samsa, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 412.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry |
Quantum Chemistry
Aufbau rewritten.  Singh, Ramsharan; Dikshit, S. K.
A handy little chart to help with learning ground-state electron configurations.
Singh, Ramsharan; Dikshit, S. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 396.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Measuring the heat of sublimation of dry ice with a polystyrene foam cup calorimeter  Burgstahler, Albert W.; Bricker, Clark E.
Two versions of an insulated cup calorimetry experiment.
Burgstahler, Albert W.; Bricker, Clark E. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 332.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
The disco analogy   Battino, Rubin
A fantastic idea in helping students visualize the quantum mechanical model of the atom.
Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 285.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Alternative flame test procedures  Barnes, Zexia K.
An alternative to using Nichrome wire where the limited volume of solution delivered makes it difficult to see the color in the flame.
Barnes, Zexia K. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 246.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Photochemistry
The correct interpretation of Hund's rule as applied to "uncoupled states" orbital diagrams  Campbell, Mark L.
The application of Hund's rule by general chemistry students is appropriate as long as Hund's rule is interpreted correctly.
Campbell, Mark L. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 134.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
How to get more from ionization energies in the teaching of atomic structure  Mirone, Paolo
A wealth of experimental data could be exploited more extensively and profitably than what is presently done in the teaching of atomic structure.
Mirone, Paolo J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 132.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
There are no such things as orbitals-Act two!  Simons, Jack
What is the role of molecular orbital theory in chemistry instruction?
Simons, Jack J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 131.
MO Theory |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Introduction to Modern Inorganic Chemistry, Fourth Edition (Mackay, K.M.; Mackay, R.A.)  Boschmann, Erwin
The authors put forth a two-fold strategy; to provide a broad base through a study of the periodic table and to treat selected topics in depth.
Boschmann, Erwin J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A52.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Bomb calorimeter simulation  Olney, David J.
Simulation of the apparatus and use of a bomb calorimeter; contains nine known samples and eight unknowns.
Olney, David J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 922.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
The H2 + Cl2 explosion as a chemical analogue of the photoelectric effect: A true quantum mechanical demonstration  Knox, Kerro
The photochemical hydrogen-chlorine reaction affords a good example of the quantum aspect of light and its interaction with matter.
Knox, Kerro J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 897.
Reactions |
Quantum Chemistry |
Photochemistry
Periodic chart pedagogy  Yoder, Claude H.; Yoder, Carolyn S.
Questions based upon a hypothetical set of quantum numbers and their relationships; includes answers.
Yoder, Claude H.; Yoder, Carolyn S. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 759.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
How do electrons get across nodes? A problem in the interpretation of the quantum theory  Nelson, P. G.
Suggested responses to the question "How do electrons get across nodes?".
Nelson, P. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 643.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
"New" schemes for applying the Aufbau principle  Freeman, Robert D.
Two, essentially identical schemes for remembering how to write electronic configurations are not really new.
Freeman, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 576.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A numerical period table and the f-series chemical elements  Osorio, Hernan von Marttens
A numerical periodic table and its advantages (determining electronic configurations).
Osorio, Hernan von Marttens J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 563.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements
Experiments with "Calo-pH Meter"   Paris, Michel R.; Aymes, Daniel J.

Paris, Michel R.; Aymes, Daniel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 510.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Development of a new design for multipurpose meter: "Calo-pH Meter"   Paris, Michel R.; Aymes, Daniel J.; Poupon, Rene; Gavasso, Roland
The purpose of this article is to describe the design of a common box that can be turned into a simple voltmeter, a pH meter, or a calorimeter.
Paris, Michel R.; Aymes, Daniel J.; Poupon, Rene; Gavasso, Roland J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 507.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry |
pH |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Applying KC?DISCOVERER in the introductory chemistry laboratory  Furstenau, Ronald P.; Amend, John R.
115. Bits and pieces, 44. KC?DISCOVERER contains a wide variety of physical and chemical properties of the elements.
Furstenau, Ronald P.; Amend, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 500.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Heat of solution and colligative properties: An illustration of enthalpy and entropy   Mundell, Donald W.
This demonstration provides a means for challenging the students to interpret some examples where both enthalpy and entropy are possible.
Mundell, Donald W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 426.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents
Wet labs, computers, and spreadsheets  Durham, Bill
The following is a description of some commonly encountered experiments that have been modified for computerized data acquisition.
Durham, Bill J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 416.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Kinetics |
Electrochemistry
The periodicity of electron affinity  Myers, R. Thomas
In general, the values of electron affinity for the elements can be understood in terms of their ground state electron configuration, and the screening (effective nuclear charge) exerted on the added electron by the electrons already present in the neutral atom.
Myers, R. Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 307.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The nature of the chemical bond--1990: There are no such things as orbitals!  Ogilivie, J. F.
The author discusses the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics, the laws and theories, and the relationship of quantum-mechanics to atomic and molecular structure, as well as their relevance to chemical education.
Ogilivie, J. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 280.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
An alternate use of dilithium crystals   Lang, Frank T.
A Star Trek example of a mass-to-energy conversion important in nuclear reactions.
Lang, Frank T. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 277.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
A mnemonic for oxy-anions  Hawkes, Steven J.
A mnemonic rule for oxy-anions which utilizes the periodic table.
Hawkes, Steven J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 149.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The toppling box: A macroscopic analogy to single-step exothermic reactions  Eberlein, Thomas H.
Students who are unfamiliar with energy diagrams may find it difficult to visualize the energy changes associated with the processes occurring during a reaction.
Eberlein, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 26.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
How good is your bleach?  McCullough, Thomas, C. S. C.; Tyminski, Herminia
The exothermic reaction between acetone and household bleach is used to compare the strengths of various brands of bleach.
McCullough, Thomas, C. S. C.; Tyminski, Herminia J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 973.
Consumer Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Videodisc display program  Rose, Martin
The "Videodisc Display Program" is specifically designed to display video sequences from "The Periodic Table Videodisc".
Rose, Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 927.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The electronic periodic chart of the elements  von Marttens Osorio, Hernan; Goldschmidt, Alfonso
A scheme for the arrangement of the elements that allows students to understand and write down the electronic configuration of any given element.
von Marttens Osorio, Hernan; Goldschmidt, Alfonso J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 758.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Predicting nuclear stability using the periodic table  Blanck, Harvey F.
Develops several empirical rules to use with the periodic table as an aid to recalling those nuclides that are stable.
Blanck, Harvey F. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 757.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Isotopes
"The Periodic Stack"  Farris, Mike
A Hypercard stack that operates on a data base of information about the properties and reactions of the chemical elements.
Farris, Mike J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 756.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Physical Properties
The periodic table - A new arrangement  Laing, Michael
Suggestion for a new arrangement of elements in the periodic table to best indicate the relationships between subgroups.
Laing, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 746.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Let us make the table periodic  Campbell, J. Arthur
Making the periodic table look periodic.
Campbell, J. Arthur J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 739.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A clinical digital thermometer for calorimetry  Hon, Ping-Kay
Modifying an inexpensive clinical thermometer for making thermochemical measurements.
Hon, Ping-Kay J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 695.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Another quantum number?  Perrino, Charles T.; Peterson, Donald L.
The presentation of the concept of "spin" in many textbooks is inconsistent, misleading, and in some cases even incorrect.
Perrino, Charles T.; Peterson, Donald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 623.
Quantum Chemistry
Designing a periodic table: A laboratory approach  Irons, Mary E.
What follows is a laboratory approach to help students gain some insight to the relationship of the elements on the table and also to help students review the scientific method.
Irons, Mary E. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 155.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Periodic law (Curry,E.; Chandler, J.; Mackay, L.)  Lechner, Joseph H.; Gardlund, Sharon L.
Two reviews of a software program which serves as a data base for 20 items of information on the first 103 elements.
Lechner, Joseph H.; Gardlund, Sharon L. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A333.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Descriptive Chemistry
Chemistry according to ROF (Fee, Richard)  Radcliffe, George; Mackenzie, Norma N.
Two reviews on a software package that consists of 68 programs on 17 disks plus an administrative disk geared toward acquainting students with fundamental chemistry content. For instance, acids and bases, significant figures, electron configuration, chemical structures, bonding, phases, and more.
Radcliffe, George; Mackenzie, Norma N. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A239.
Chemometrics |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Equilibrium |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Stoichiometry |
Physical Properties |
Acids / Bases |
Covalent Bonding
Write an autobiography of an element  Vanorden, Naola
A clever and creative assignment for students to learn chemistry and sharpen their communication skills.
Vanorden, Naola J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 995.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Introduction to atomic structure: Demonstrations and labs  Ciparick, Joseph D.
This paper presents a sequence of demonstrations and activities that help offer evidence to students to scaffold an understanding of atomic structure.
Ciparick, Joseph D. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 892.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
A simple mnemonic device for electron configuration  Grenda, Stanley C.
This visual device provides a great alternative to the usual way of remembering orbital order.
Grenda, Stanley C. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 697.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Heating values of fuels: An introductory experiment  Rettich, Timothy R.; Battino, Rubin; Karl, David J.
This experiment is a simple, inexpensive way for students to determine the heats of combustion of common solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels.
Rettich, Timothy R.; Battino, Rubin; Karl, David J. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 554.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Applications of Chemistry
Flame colors demonstration   Peyser, John R.; Luoma, John R.
A simple and exciting display producing little smoke or ash.
Peyser, John R.; Luoma, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 452.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Qualitative Analysis |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Quantum Chemistry
The wave particle duality: Teaching via a visual metaphor  Bernstein, J.; Shaik, S. S.
Some popular 'optical illusions' can be used to help students understand the wave particle duality and will be sure to capture student interest and attention.
Bernstein, J.; Shaik, S. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 339.
Quantum Chemistry
An overhead demonstration of some descriptive chemistry of the halogens and LeChtelier's principle  Hansen, Robert C.
Colorful demonstrations that illustrate Le Chtelier's principle, solubility rules, and periodic trends.
Hansen, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 264.
Equilibrium |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The theoretical emperor is wearing the proper clothing! A detailed defense of teaching quantum chemical ideas in undergraduate chemistry courses   Edmiston, Clyde K.
The author of this provocative opinion piece defends current standard practice in teaching quantum chemistry.
Edmiston, Clyde K. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 219.
Quantum Chemistry
Principles of electronegativity Part I. General nature  Sanderson, R. T.
The concept of electronegativity has been modified, expanded, and debated. The concept can be used to help students gain valuable insights and understanding of the cause-and-effect relationship between atomic structure and compound properties. This is the first in a series of articles that explores the important concept of electronegativity.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 112.
Electrochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Orbital plots of the hydrogen atom  Liebl, Michael
89. Bits and pieces, 36. The software described in this article enable a 48K Apple II with a single disk drive to plot the orbitals of the hydrogen atom in one, two, or three dimensions. This visualization of orbitals allows students to understand their importance in understanding chemistry.
Liebl, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 23.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Periodic contractions among the elements: Or, on being the right size  Mason, Joan
Contraction across the row, irregularities in the build up of the periodic table, the second row anomaly relativistic contraction and expansion among the heavier elements, post-transition anomaly, periodicities of physicochemical properties.
Mason, Joan J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 17.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Relative atomic mass scale: A teaching aid  Baumgartner, Erwin; Benitez, Carlos; Cirelli, Alicia Fernandez; Flores, Luz Lastres
Relative atomic mass can be a confusing concept for students and a source of frustration for instructors. These authors propose an idea called a RAM scale.
Baumgartner, Erwin; Benitez, Carlos; Cirelli, Alicia Fernandez; Flores, Luz Lastres J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 16.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Chemical Elements (Fleisher, Paul)  Harrison, Thomas G.
A computer program designed to help first-year students learn more about the chemical elements.
Harrison, Thomas G. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A25.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Heat of vaporization of nitrogen  Hamlet, Peter
A very simple procedure for measuring the heat of vaporization of nitrogen.
Hamlet, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1060.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Electronegativity: A mnemonic rule  Kapellos, S.; Mavrides, A.
A rule for the electronegativities of the second and third row elements.
Kapellos, S.; Mavrides, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 941.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The chemical bond  DeKock, Roger L.
Overview of the chemical bond; considers ionic bonds, covalent bonds, Lewis electron dot structures, polar molecules and hydrogen bonds, and bonding in solid-state elements.
DeKock, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 934.
Ionic Bonding |
Covalent Bonding |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Solid State Chemistry |
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The new format for the periodic table of elements: Concerns of a high school chemistry teacher  Krishnan, C. V.
Change in the format used to designate subgroups of elements in the periodic table will add to the confusion of high school students.
Krishnan, C. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 558.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Enthalpy and Hot Wheels: An analogy  Bonneau, Marcia C.
Demonstrating the relationship between activation energy and the heat of a reaction using a "Hot Wheels" track and car to simulate a potential energy diagram.
Bonneau, Marcia C. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 486.
Kinetics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
Periodic table message question  Wieder, Milton J.
This question presents an interesting technique for testing students' grasp of trends in periodicity.
Wieder, Milton J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 320.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Using chemistry's crystal ball  Allen, Bill
An exercise requiring students to identify nine elements, each suggested by a set of four to six clues describing physical and chemical properties of an element.
Allen, Bill J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 227.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Physical Properties |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials
The energy relationships of corn production and alcohol fermentation  Van Koevering, Thomas E.; Morgan, Michael D.; Younk, Thomas J.
The production of alcohol from corn lends itself well to illustrating the practical applications of scientific principles that deal with energy transformations and inefficiencies.
Van Koevering, Thomas E.; Morgan, Michael D.; Younk, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 11.
Natural Products |
Applications of Chemistry |
Plant Chemistry |
Green Chemistry |
Alcohols |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Photosynthesis
An upward view of the periodic table: Getting to the bottom of it  Guenther, William B.
Develops the 18-group basis of the periodic table; shows that, while the 1-18 designations can give unambiguous information to students, no printed designations are needed for teaching; and shows how to obtain unique, physical group definitions that avoid the problems of conflicting and changeable chemical interpretations.
Guenther, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 9.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Is the theoretical emperor really wearing any clothes?   Sanderson, R. T.
The author asserts that general chemistry material both pushes material of doubtful value and omits material that is useful to many.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 845.
Theoretical Chemistry |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
The periodic table as a data base  Goth, George W.
76. Bits and pieces, 31. A software program helps students better understand periodicity.
Goth, George W. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 836.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Teaching an introductory course in qualitative analysis in order to enhance learning general chemistry  Shamai, Ruth; Stavy, Ruth
These two authors have found that qualitative analysis is an excellent way for concrete operational thinkers to become formal thinkers.
Shamai, Ruth; Stavy, Ruth J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 707.
Qualitative Analysis |
Learning Theories |
Metals |
Ionic Bonding
Subatomic pea shooter  Smith, Bruce G.
The author presents readers with a demonstration that is useful in enticing students to learn about atomic structure and theory.
Smith, Bruce G. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 629.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Features associated with chemical elements (FACES)  Larsen, Russell D.
72. Chemical education is in need of new and better visual representation for correlating and condensing the vast amount of experimental data that has been accumulated for chemical and physical phenomenon. The periodic table in this note represents these properties through various facial features, allowing for an identification of patterns in the table.
Larsen, Russell D. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 505.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Exploring chemistry by computer: KC? Discoverer   Feng, Aw; Moore, John W.
70. Bits and pieces, 28. This program provides students with a computer-searchable handbook of chemical facts for all the elements.
Feng, Aw; Moore, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 327.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Chemical Demonstrations: A Handbook for Teachers of Chemistry, Volume I (Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.)  Kauffman, George B.
81 tested demonstrations grouped into 4 chapters: thermochemistry, chemiluminescence, polymers, and color and equilibria of metal ion precipitates and complexes.
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, A31.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Photochemistry |
Metals
A note concerning safety in bomb calorimetry  Wilson, Leland Y.; Tatum, Roger
Safety measures when using bomb calorimeters.
Wilson, Leland Y.; Tatum, Roger J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 902.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
IUPAC table of atomic weights to four significant figures  Greenwood, N. N.; Peiser, H. S.
Masses for the first 103 elements scaled so the mass of 12C is exactly 12.
Greenwood, N. N.; Peiser, H. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 744.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A model to illustrate the brittleness of ionic and metallic crystals  Birk, James P.
Uses magnetic strips to explain the difference in brittleness between ionic and metallic solids.
Birk, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 667.
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Metals |
Physical Properties |
Crystals / Crystallography
The transuranium elements  Seaborg, Glenn T.
History of the discovery of the transuranium elements.
Seaborg, Glenn T. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 463.
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Revised atomic form periodic table  Strong, Frederick C., III
A circular periodic table.
Strong, Frederick C., III J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 456.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A thermochemistry experiment for freshman chemistry lab  Miller, D. P.
A thermochemistry procedure in which colors change during the experiment.
Miller, D. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 172.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
A LAP on moles: Teaching an important concept  Ihde, John
The objective of the Learning Activity Packet on moles include understanding the basic concept of the mole as a chemical unit, knowing the relationships between the mole and the atomic weights in the periodic table, and being able to solve basic conversion problems involving grams, moles, atoms, and molecules. [Debut]
Ihde, John J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 58.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
An inexpensive thermistor thermometer for beginning chemistry laboratories  Srivastava, Shyam B.; Meloan, Clifton E.
Design of a thermistor thermometer for heats-of-reaction measurements to 0.1C over short temperature ranges.
Srivastava, Shyam B.; Meloan, Clifton E. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1027.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Further reflections on heat  Hornack, Frederick M.
Confusion regarding the nature of heat and thermodynamics.
Hornack, Frederick M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 869.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Illustrating the Heisenberg uncertainty principle  Peckham, Gavin D.
An analogy used with an overhead projector.
Peckham, Gavin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 868.
Quantum Chemistry
E-Z s,p  Leach, John M.
Easier method for recalling the filling order of orbitals.
Leach, John M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 652.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
On the filling order of orbitals (aufbau order)  Karp, Steward
Two of the suggested mnemonic devices are more trouble than they are worth.
Karp, Steward J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 565.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Nutrition (diet) and athletics  Lineback, David R.
Nutritional requirements of athletes, energy use for various activities, carbohydrate loading, and myths and fallacies.
Lineback, David R. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 536.
Nutrition |
Bioenergetics |
Metabolism |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Carbohydrates
Chemical storage of solar energy using an old color change demonstration  Spears, L. Gene, Jr.; Spears, Larry G.
The results of a student research project that could be used as an experiment to illustrate the potential of hydrates salts for solar energy storage.
Spears, L. Gene, Jr.; Spears, Larry G. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 252.
Photochemistry |
Coordination Compounds |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
The amazing periodic table  Finholt, James
A simple activity to help students understand the experimental basis for the periodic table.
Finholt, James J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 190.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Recommended format for the periodic table of the elements  Loening, K. L.
This format provides an unequivocal designation for each subgroup in the 18-column periodic table.
Loening, K. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 136.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
4s, 3d, what?  Carpenter, A. Kurtz
The author presents a method to help students memorize the order of electron orbitals.
Carpenter, A. Kurtz J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 562.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Why doesn't the electron fall into the nucleus?  Mason, Franklin P.; Richardson, Robert W.
This paper presents a simple, yet essentially correct model of the atom that can be used to answer the title question for even beginning students of chemistry.
Mason, Franklin P.; Richardson, Robert W. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 40.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
A fluorescence lecture demonstration  Bozzelli, Joseph W.
A fluorescence demonstration can be related to several aspects of molecular theory and quantized energy levels; suggests eight different fluorescent dye solutions.
Bozzelli, Joseph W. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 787.
Photochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments
Why teach the electron configuration of the elements are we do?  Millikan, Roger C.
Out of 106 elements in the table of electron configurations, there are 29 special cases - rules that only work 73% of the time seem hardly worth teaching.
Millikan, Roger C. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 757.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Chemical energy: A learning package  Cohen, Ita; Ben-Zvi, Ruth
Problems associated with the teaching of chemical energy and an instructional package designed to overcome those difficulties.
Cohen, Ita; Ben-Zvi, Ruth J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 656.
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
A unified approach to the study of chemical reactions in freshman chemistry  Cassen, T.; DuBois, Thomas D.
An approach that aims to provide students with the background that will enable them to make reasonable predictions as to the likely products of a chemical reaction.
Cassen, T.; DuBois, Thomas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 377.
Reactions |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A needed replacement for the customary description of chemical bonding  Sanderson, R. T.
Description of and encouragement to use an alternative to the covalent / ionic model for chemical bonding.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 376.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
Presenting the Bohr atom  Haendler, Blanca L.
A more significant consideration of the role of the Bohr theory in the development of quantum mechanics would have many benefits for introductory and advanced chemistry classes.
Haendler, Blanca L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 372.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Developing models: What is the atom really like?  Records, Roger M.
Using physical and computer models to illustrate historical changes in our view of the atom.
Records, Roger M. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 307.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Quantum chemistry  Davenport, Richard P., Capt.
Videocassette on quantum numbers.
Davenport, Richard P., Capt. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 260.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Group IA elements: Chemical properties (a); Group IA elements: Chemical properties (b)  Dombrink, Kathleen J.
Film loop that demonstrates reactions between alkali metals and halogens.
Dombrink, Kathleen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 260.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Reactions |
Metals
A laboratory learning cycle: Hot stuff  Silberman, Robert G.
A calorimetry lab that allows students to design an experiment to solve a problem.
Silberman, Robert G. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 229.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Calculation of statistical thermodynamic properties  Vicharelli, P. A.; Collins, C. B.
25. Bits and pieces, 9. A computer program for the calculation of specific heat, entropy, enthalpy, and Gibbs free energy of polyatomic molecules.
Vicharelli, P. A.; Collins, C. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 131.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Chemometrics
Lemon meringue pie  Smith, Douglas D.
The chemistry and physics of lemon meringue pie.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 60.
Gases |
Ionic Bonding |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Proteins / Peptides
Building a periodic table  Fowler, Linda S.
The activity described in this paper yielded comments such as, "I've never had so much fun taking a test. That was great" and "That lady must be crazy - that was impossible". Student understanding of periodic trends are authentically challenged and assessed in this problem.
Fowler, Linda S. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 634.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
"The Dancing Wu Li Masters"  Stapleton, George W.
After reading "The Dancing Wu Li Masters", this author became convinced that the right person can explain the most difficult ideas in a clear, refreshing, and logical manner.
Stapleton, George W. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 574.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
An illustration of applied calorimetry - Dieting students  Perkins, Robert R.
The author shares a question that catches student interest and exemplifies the theoretical concepts of calorimetry.
Perkins, Robert R. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 548.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Applications of Chemistry
Dramatic demonstrations for a large audience: The formation of hydroxyl ions in the reaction of sodium with water   Hutton, Alan T.
This procedure allows the popular sodium-reacting-with-water reaction to be observable in large lecture theaters.
Hutton, Alan T. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 506.
Reactions |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Dramatic demonstrations for a large audience: The formation of hydroxyl ions in the reaction of sodium with water   Hutton, Alan T.
This procedure allows the popular sodium-reacting-with-water reaction to be observable in large lecture theaters.
Hutton, Alan T. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 506.
Reactions |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A classroom learning cycle: Using diagrams to classify matter  James, Helen J.; Nelson, Samuel L.
A learning cycle is developed that deals with the classification of matter and is designed to provide students with an understanding in terms of atom, molecule, element, compound, solution, and heterogeneous matter. [Debut]
James, Helen J.; Nelson, Samuel L. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 476.
Physical Properties |
Learning Theories |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Constructivism
Exchange stabilization and the variation of ionization energy in the pn and dn series  Blake, Antony B.
This article is concerned with two types of ionizations that are of special importance to chemists. The author's main purpose is to clarify current textbook interpretations of the peculiar decrease in ionization energy following completion of a half-filled p or d shell.
Blake, Antony B. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 393.
MO Theory |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Quantum Chemistry
Wolfgang Pauli (1900-1958): A brief anecdotal biography   Festa, Roger R.
A brief biography about one of quantum mechanics' most important intellectual contributors.
Festa, Roger R. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 273.
Quantum Chemistry
Maxwell's demon  Schmuckler, Joseph S.

Schmuckler, Joseph S. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 183.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Maxwell's demon  Schmuckler, Joseph S.

Schmuckler, Joseph S. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 183.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
A specific heat analogy  McCullough, Brother Thomas, CSC
An analogy for helping students to understand the concepts of specific heat and heat transfer problems.
McCullough, Brother Thomas, CSC J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 896.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Chemometrics
Sweet heat  O'Connor, Rod
What would be the net enthalpy change for the complete combustion of 5.00 g of glucose at body temperature?
O'Connor, Rod J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 889.
Carbohydrates |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Chemometrics
Groups and subgroups in the periodic table of the elements: A proposal of modification in the nomenclature  Araneo, Antonio
A proposal to eliminate the "A" and "B" designations of subgroups and replace them with letters referring directly to the electronic structures of atoms.
Araneo, Antonio J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 784.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Dense, denser, densest  Conroy, Lawrence E.
Iridium is more dense than osmium.
Conroy, Lawrence E. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 528.
Physical Properties |
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Alternate energy  Taylor, Thomas E.
At what concentration does the uranium impurities found in coal equal its energy content?
Taylor, Thomas E. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 500.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Crossword puzzle of the elements  Barr, Irene
Crossword puzzle of the elements; solution of page 500 of this issue.
Barr, Irene J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 495.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The heat of combustion of cereals  Glachino, Gary G.
Determining the heat of combustion of common children's cereals.
Glachino, Gary G. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 372.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Food Science
The experimental determination of the heat of vaporization of volatile liquids  Chames, Frances; Farver, Nina; Grieve, Catherine; Lynche, Archie; Mac, Michelle; Rickel, Renee; Sears, Jerry
An experiment whereby the heat of vaporization of a volatile liquid can be determined from an Arrhenius plot.
Chames, Frances; Farver, Nina; Grieve, Catherine; Lynche, Archie; Mac, Michelle; Rickel, Renee; Sears, Jerry J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 362.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
An element a day keeps theory at bay  Potts, Richard A.
Incorporating a brief discussion of the chemistry of a different element into each day's lecture.
Potts, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 290.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Descriptive Chemistry
4s Sometimes is below 3d - the author replies  Pilar, Frank L.
Reply to criticism of original article.
Pilar, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 767.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
4s Sometimes is below 3d  Carlton, Terry S.
Seeks to correct flaws in cited article.
Carlton, Terry S. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 767.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A low-cost classroom demonstration of the Aufbau Principle  Hanley, James R. III; Hanley, James R., Jr.
Uses golf balls placed in egg cartons to represent the placement of electrons in orbitals.
Hanley, James R. III; Hanley, James R., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 747.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Solar energy storage: A demonstration experiment  Kimmel, Howard S.; Tomkins, Reginald P. T.
A demonstration of a phase transition that can be used for heat storage.
Kimmel, Howard S.; Tomkins, Reginald P. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 615.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Empirical formulas  Ryan, Dennis P.
This question forces one to duplicate the line of reasoning used by Dalton in his initial formulation of atomic weights; it tests for the ability to deduce atomic sizes and to calculate empirical formulas.
Ryan, Dennis P. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 528.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Computer quiz on the periodic table  Wasson, J. S.
An interactive computer (Fortran) program entitled PERIOD.
Wasson, J. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 527.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Determination of solution enthalpy: An easy and simple method  Karunakaran, K.
A method that does not involve the preparation and analysis of saturated solutions at different temperatures.
Karunakaran, K. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 389.
Solutions / Solvents |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Management
Word search puzzle  Claus, Alison S.
This puzzle contains the names of all elements from hydrogen to hahnium (element 105).
Claus, Alison S. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 44.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Main-Group Elements |
Transition Elements
Using the Aufbau principle   Whitmer, John C.
This question is written with the belief that general chemistry students should not only attain an understanding of the Aufbau principle enabling them to write down electron configurations, they ought also recognize the correspondence between the quantum numbers and the structures of the periodic table.
Whitmer, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 515.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Molar volumes: Microscopic insight from macroscopic data  Davenport, Derek A.; Fosterling, Robert B.; Srinivasan, Viswanathan
The molar volumes of the alkali metal halides; molar volumes of binary hydrogen compounds; molar volumes of the first transition series; molar volumes of the lanthanoids and actinoids; molar volumes of the carbon family; molar volumes of isotopically related species; aquated ions and ions in aqueous solution.
Davenport, Derek A.; Fosterling, Robert B.; Srinivasan, Viswanathan J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 93.
Inner Transition Elements |
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Stoichiometry |
Gases |
Transition Elements |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Isotopes
Elemental evolution and isotopic composition  Rydberg, J.; Choppin, G. R.
Reviews elemental abundances and the processes of elemental creation.
Rydberg, J.; Choppin, G. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 742.
Astrochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Isotopes |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Geochemistry
Discarded energy: The heat of combustion of garbage  Jensen, Trescott E.; Eatough, Delbert J.; Hansen, Lee D.
Calorimetry data for burning different samples of shredded garbage is found to be higher than that for wood.
Jensen, Trescott E.; Eatough, Delbert J.; Hansen, Lee D. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 700.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
What is an element?  Kolb, Doris
Reviews the history of the discovery, naming, and representation of the elements; the development of the spectroscope and the periodic table; radioactive elements and isotopes; allotropes; and the synthesis of future elements.
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 696.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Isotopes
Computer games in chemistry  Smith, Stanley G.; Chabay, Ruth
Describes several chemistry computer games, including one involving organic synthesis.
Smith, Stanley G.; Chabay, Ruth J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 688.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Synthesis |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Emphasis on elements  J. Chem. Educ. Staff
Lists major metals and minerals, current metal reserves, and elemental composition of the human body and the oceans. [Debut]
J. Chem. Educ. Staff J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 551.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Geochemistry |
Metals
Hydrogen bonding and heat of solution  Friedman, Norman
An experiment that clearly illustrates the role of hydrogen bond formation and its effect on the heat of solution.
Friedman, Norman J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 248.
Hydrogen Bonding |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Chemical aspects of Bohr's 1913 theory  Kragh, Helge
The chemical content of Bohr's 1913 theory has generally been neglected in the treatises on the history of chemistry; this paper regards Bohr as a theoretical chemist and discusses the chemical aspects of his atomic theory.
Kragh, Helge J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 208.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Theoretical Chemistry
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
203-205. Three chemistry questions and their answers.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 587.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Particles, waves, and the interpretation of quantum mechanics  Christoudouleas, N. D.
A brief description of the conceptual basis of quantum mechanics and the Copenhagen interpretation.
Christoudouleas, N. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 573.
Quantum Chemistry
The experimental values of atomic electron affinities. Their selection and periodic behavior  Chen, E. C. M.; Wentworth, W. E.
Presents experimental values of atomic electron affinities and discusses their determination.
Chen, E. C. M.; Wentworth, W. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 486.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Demonstrating a quantum phenomenon with Polaroid sunglasses  Carlton, Terry S.
This demonstration can be used to show that measuring devices for quantum mechanical properties sometimes change the state of systems on which they operate.
Carlton, Terry S. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 322.
Quantum Chemistry
Heat of combustion of zirconium. A general chemistry experiment  Banks, Richard C.; Carter, Loren; Peterson, Ellis R.
Experiment consists of a flash bulb surrounded by water and fired by a battery.
Banks, Richard C.; Carter, Loren; Peterson, Ellis R. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 235.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
The spectrum of atomic lithium. An undergraduate laboratory experiment  Miller, Kenneth J.
The author gives a background on the theory and experimental procedure for the spectrum of atomic lithium.
Miller, Kenneth J. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 805.
Quantum Chemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A general chemistry molecular orbital computer project  Campbell, J. H.
The author introduces a computer project that may aid in helping students learn about linear combination of atomic orbitals.
Campbell, J. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 673.
MO Theory |
Quantum Chemistry
Quantum mechanics in a course required of all freshmen  Barnes, Donald G.
The author describes a new courses which provides a common introductory experience for student who will eventually major in science and those who will not.
Barnes, Donald G. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 396.
Quantum Chemistry
Line spectrum demonstration for the large lecture hall  Driscoll, Jerry A.
The undergraduate's learning experience with quantum mechanics and Bohr's theory can be greatly enhanced by the presentation of a line spectrum demonstration, but these are often hard to see in large lecture halls. The authors present a physical arrangement of an apparatus that can be easily assembled to allow for easier student viewing in a lecture-hall situation.
Driscoll, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 97.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Spectroscopy
Regularities and relations among ionization potentials of nontransition elements  Liebman, Joel F.
Provides several semiempirical procedures for investigating ionization potentials.
Liebman, Joel F. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 831.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A simplified undergraduate calorimetry experiment  Bartle, K. D.; Osborn, P. M.
A glass calorimeter for determining ?H for the neutralization of a strong acid with a strong base.
Bartle, K. D.; Osborn, P. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 637.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A practical energy experiment or lecture demonstration  Garin, David L.
Presents two demonstrations: one involves heating different volumes of water on the same heater and measuring their temperatures; the other involves heating different volumes of water on the same heater and calculating the heat of vaporization.
Garin, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 497.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
A computer program for heat of combustion calculations  Wilhoit, Randolph C.; Bell, Mary Ellen; Subach, Daniel J.; Chen, Carol
A computer program is available for converting raw combustion data to the standard state energy of combustion.
Wilhoit, Randolph C.; Bell, Mary Ellen; Subach, Daniel J.; Chen, Carol J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 486.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Chemometrics
Enthalpy and entropy of evaporation from measured vapor pressure using a programmable desk calculator  McEachern, Douglas M.
A program for a calculator that calculates the heat of evaporation of a solid or a liquid and the corresponding entropy change.
McEachern, Douglas M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 190.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Chemometrics
The science of chemistry: periodic properties and chemical behavior (Howald, Reed A.; Manch, Walter A.)  Leonard, Jack E.

Leonard, Jack E. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A698.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The Planck radiation law and the efficiency of a light bulb  Lehman, Thomas A.
This experiment uses the Planck equation to determine the efficiency of an ordinary light bulb, expressed as the ratio of visible light energy to total emitted energy.
Lehman, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 832.
Quantum Chemistry |
Photochemistry
Heat capacity and the equipartition theorem  Dence, Joseph B.
Describes the classical equipartition theorem, its modifications due to quantum mechanics, and its application to some substances.
Dence, Joseph B. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 798.
Quantum Chemistry
Gimmicks for mid-year motivation  Adams, Richard C.
Suggestions include directions for making peanut brittle, examining common, antiquated names for chemical compounds, and periodic puns.
Adams, Richard C. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 536.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Consumer Chemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Electron configuration diagram  Krupsaw, Marylin; Ng, George
A simpler schematic diagram for remembering the order of filling subshells when constructing electron configurations.
Krupsaw, Marylin; Ng, George J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 433.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Convenient, inexpensive unknowns for oxygen bomb calorimetry  Shearer, Edmund C.
Ordinary aspirin tablets make excellent samples for oxygen bomb calorimetry.
Shearer, Edmund C. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 410.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Solubility of lead bromide in nitrate media. A study of ionic interactions  Cooper, J. N.
Students are asked to determine, as a class, the solubility of lead bromide at a fixed temperature in solutions covering a range of known sodium nitrate concentrations.
Cooper, J. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 282.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
Five questions requiring an application of basic chemical principles.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 269.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Agricultural Chemistry |
Metabolism |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Proteins / Peptides
An octagonal prismatic periodic table  Kow, Tang Wah
Presents an octagonal, prismatic periodic table
Kow, Tang Wah J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 59.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The periodic system of chemical elements: A history of the first hundred years (van Spronsen, J. W.)  Oesper, Ralph. E.

Oesper, Ralph. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A856.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Miscellaneous  Alyea, Hubert N.
13 demonstrations, including electrophoresis, electrolysis, corrosion inhibition, endothermic and exothermic reactions, crystals and crystallization, reactions with sodium, and the kinetics of H2O2 decomposition.
Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A387.
Electrophoresis |
Dyes / Pigments |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Reactions |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Kinetics
A classroom demonstration of exothermicity  Boschmann, Erwin
The heat generated by dissolving NaOH in water causes iodine crystals to sublime.
Boschmann, Erwin J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A206.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Mendeleev's law: A demonstration  Emerson, Kenneth
This demonstration simulates Mendeleev's efforts to organize the elements into a periodic table.
Emerson, Kenneth J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A67.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Aufbau principle: A simple model for demonstration  Sagi, Seetarama Raju
This electrical model of the atom used light bulbs to illustrate how the electron density gradually increases around the nucleus with successive additions of electrons to the various orbitals.
Sagi, Seetarama Raju J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 648.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Forces and quantum field theory  Brescia, Frank
This article seeks to explain the nature of forces between nucleons in terms of the quantum field theory for the general reader using a simple analogy.
Brescia, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 642.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Instant first aid  Kaufman, James A.
Explains how instant ice and hot packs work.
Kaufman, James A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 518.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Reactions |
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry
Periodicity and the lanthanides and actinides  Moeller, Therald
Examines periodic trends among the elements and particularly within the lanthanide and actinide series.
Moeller, Therald J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 417.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Oxidation State
The periodic systems of D. I. Mendeleev and problems of nuclear chemistry  Gol'danskii, V. I.; translated by Avakian, Peter
Examines the acquisition and identification of new chemical elements and the structure of the eighth period of the periodic table.
Gol'danskii, V. I.; translated by Avakian, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 406.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Metals
The second law - How much, how soon, to how many?  Bent, Henry A.
Discussion of the conceptual components of thermodynamics, their mathematical requirements, and where they might be best placed in the curriculum.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 337.
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
An electronegativity spectrum for the periodic table  Guenther, W. B.
This periodic table uses a spectrum of colors coded to electronegativity values and gives equal legitimacy to s, p, d, and f blocks of elements.
Guenther, W. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 317.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Ionic versus covalent bonding  Goldish, Dorothy M.
Ionic sodium chloride dissolves in water but covalent benzyl chloride does not.
Goldish, Dorothy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A497.
Ionic Bonding |
Covalent Bonding |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
A spontaneous endothermic reaction  Hambly, Arthur N.
Barium hydroxide and ammonium thiocyanate react in a flask, causing the water beneath it to freeze.
Hambly, Arthur N. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A55.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Reactions
Volkswagen versus the hummingbird  Nebbia, Giorgio
Questions the cited (046-07-0455) thermodynamic calculations.
Nebbia, Giorgio J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 701.
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Chemometrics
The noble gases and the periodic table: Telling it like it was  Wolfenden, John H.
It is instructive to discover that many great scientists have reported erroneous observations as well as mistaken interpretations of experimental data.
Wolfenden, John H. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 569.
Gases |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Fuel conversion in transport phenomena  Gerlach, E. R.
Calculations comparing the fuel efficiency of a hummingbird with that of a Volkswagen.
Gerlach, E. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 455.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Haight, Gilbert P., Jr.; Rechnitz, Garry A.
(1) Suggestions for presenting the relationship between the Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature scales. (2) Why are 4s rather than 3d electrons involved in the first and second ionizations of the first row transition elements? - answer by Haight. (3) The basis for the mnemonic ordering of atomic orbitals. (4) What is a liquid-liquid membrane electrode? Is it the same as an ion-selective electrode? - answer by Rechnitz.
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Haight, Gilbert P., Jr.; Rechnitz, Garry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 444.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Transition Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Electrochemistry |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Membranes
Indirect calorimetry by computer in the general chemistry course  DeMattia, Dennis; Gruhn, Thomas; Gorman, Mel
Describes the use of a Fortran IV program to stimulate student interest in the applications and potential of computer techniques in chemistry.
DeMattia, Dennis; Gruhn, Thomas; Gorman, Mel J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 398.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
Thermochemistry of hypochlorite oxidations  Bigelow, M. Jerome
Students mix various proportions of aqueous sodium hypochlorite and sodium sulfite and plot the change in temperature to determine the stoichiometry of the reaction.
Bigelow, M. Jerome J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 378.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Thermodynamics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Quagliano, James V.; Danehy, James P.
(1) Why different potential for copper/zinc cells when using nitrates vs. sulfates? Why is neither cell potential as large as predicted by Nerst equation? (2) Do elements in the zinc subgroup belong to the transition series? - answer by Quagliano. (3) How can the 2,4,5-trichloro derivative of phenoxyacetic acid be prepared? - answer by Danehy.
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Quagliano, James V.; Danehy, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 227.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Metals |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds
Spontaneous combustion  Geoghegan, John T.; Sheers, Edward H.
Linseed oil is observed to char cotton over a period of time.
Geoghegan, John T.; Sheers, Edward H. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A429.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Educational film loops on atomic and molecular structure  Wahl, Arnold C.; Blukis, Uldis
Describes six films dealing with fundamental principles of atomic and molecular structure.
Wahl, Arnold C.; Blukis, Uldis J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 787.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
A simple vacuum apparatus for lecture experiments  Peterson, L. K.; Ruddy, F. H.
Describes a simple vacuum apparatus and examples of its use in lecture situations.
Peterson, L. K.; Ruddy, F. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 742.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Liquids |
Physical Properties |
Transport Properties |
Stoichiometry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Demonstration of the uncertainty principle  Laurita, William
Describes a conceptual demonstration of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle.
Laurita, William J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 461.
Quantum Chemistry
Why does methane burn?  Sanderson, R. T.
A thermodynamic explanation for why methane burns.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 423.
Thermodynamics |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
A calorimeter for general chemistry  Garin, D. L.
Suggests an insulated food jar as a durable and suitable calorimeter for general chemistry.
Garin, D. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 37.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Recent developments in calorimetry: Part two. Some associated measurements (cont.)  Wilhoit, Randolph C.
Examines the measurement of electricity, calorimetric standards, solution calorimetry, and specific types of calorimeters.
Wilhoit, Randolph C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A685.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Recent developments in calorimetry (continued) Part 2. Some associated measurements  Wilhoit, Randolph C.
Topics examined include thermocouples, resistance thermometers, thermistors, and quartz crystal thermometers.
Wilhoit, Randolph C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A629.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Recent developments in calorimetry. Part 1. Introductory survey of calorimetry  Wilhoit, Randolph C.
Explores the scope and purpose of calorimetric investigation, types of calorimeters, areas of calorimetric investigation and the procedures and calculations involved.
Wilhoit, Randolph C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A571.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Observation of stationary waves  Yamana, Shukichi
A convenient way of observing standing waves.
Yamana, Shukichi J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A465.
Quantum Chemistry
Basic concepts in quantum mechanics (Kompaneyets, Alexander)  Bent, Henry A.

Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A80.
Quantum Chemistry
The nature of " ionic" solids: The coordinated polymeric model  Sanderson, R. T.
The author discusses and questions the validity of considering some solids as purely ionic and offers the coordinated polymeric model as a plausible alternative.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 516.
Solids |
Ionic Bonding
The use of tables of data in teaching: The students discover laws about ionization potentials  Haight, G. P., Jr.
Students are asked to see what they can discover in a table of ionization potentials of the elements like that presented in most general chemistry textbooks.
Haight, G. P., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 468.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Mathematics for scientists. Mathematical methods in the physical sciences. Mathematics for quantum chemistry (Bak, Thor A.; Lichtenberg, Jonas; Boas, Mary L.; Anderson, Jay Martin)  Moore, Walter J.

Moore, Walter J. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 246.
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Quantum Chemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Energy B. Heat energy   Klug, Evangeline B.; Hornbeck, Leroy G.; Alyea, Hubert N.
Demonstrations of the heat of crystallization (sodium acetate and Na2S2O3[5H2O]), heat of formation (ZnCl2), heat of hydration (CaO and CuSO4), heat of neutralization, heat of solvation (alcohols), evaporation of ether and methyl chloride, and heat of solution (NH4NO3).
Klug, Evangeline B.; Hornbeck, Leroy G.; Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A1079.
Reactions |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Precipitation / Solubility
Electronegativities and group IVA chemistry  Payne, Dwight A., Jr.; Fink, Frank Hall
The teacher of inorganic chemistry should present the representative elements of group IVA and their properties as an intellectual and empirical form of investigation rather than as a mere collection of information.
Payne, Dwight A., Jr.; Fink, Frank Hall J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 654.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Demonstrations of spontaneous endothermic reactions  Matthews, G. W. J.
The reaction between hydrated metal chlorides and thionyl chloride provides a series of valuable experiments that can be used to demonstrate spontaneous endothermic reactions.
Matthews, G. W. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 476.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Atomic orbitals: Limitations and variations  Cohen, Irwin; Bustard, Thomas
The three most widely used methods of arriving at a set of atomic orbitals afford respective hydrogen-like orbitals, self-consistent field orbitals, and various analytical approximations such as the Slater or Morse orbitals, all of which may differ greatly in shape and size from each other.
Cohen, Irwin; Bustard, Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 187.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Concepts of species and state in chemistry and molecular physics  Goodfriend, P. L.
This article examines the concepts of species and state in chemistry and molecular physics.
Goodfriend, P. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 95.
Quantum Chemistry |
Diastereomers |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A molecular spectral corroboration of elementary operator quantum mechanics  Gerkin, Roger E.
This experiment has been prepared especially for first year students and assumed no prior familiarity with either theory or practice of spectrophotometry.
Gerkin, Roger E. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 490.
Quantum Chemistry |
Spectroscopy
Enthalpies of formation of solid salts  Neidig, H. A.; Yingling, R. T.
This investigation introduces the student to several important areas of thermochemistry, including enthalpies of neutralization, enthalpies of dissolution, enthalpies of formation, and Hess' Law.
Neidig, H. A.; Yingling, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 474.
Thermodynamics |
Solids |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Relationship of enthalpy of solution, solvation energy, and crystal energy  Neidig, H. A., Yingling, R. T.
The primary objectives of this investigation are to relate enthalpy of solution, solvation energy, and crystal energy using Hess' Law and to acquaint students with Born-Haber type energy cycles.
Neidig, H. A., Yingling, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 473.
Thermodynamics |
Solutions / Solvents |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
A sensitive inexpensive thermometer  Slabaugh, W. H.
Presents a circuit diagram for a simple thermistor.
Slabaugh, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 467.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Letters  Zuckerman, J. J.
Comments on the controversy concerning which element is top - carbon or hydrogen.
Zuckerman, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 457.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Tangent-sphere models of molecules. III. Chemical implications of inner-shell electrons  Bent, Henry A.
While a study of atomic core sizes might seem to hold little promise of offering interesting insights into the main body of chemical theory, it is demonstrated here that from such a study emerges a picture of chemical bonding that encompasses as particular cases covalent, ionic, and metallic bonds.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 302.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
Behavior of electrons in atoms: Structure, spectra, and photochemistry of atoms (Hochstrasser, Robin M.)  Gregory, N. W.

Gregory, N. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 62.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Quantum Chemistry
Thermochemical investigations for a first-year college chemistry course. A survey of existing literature  Ewing, Galen W.
The purpose of this article is to review some of the experiments that appear in the literature involving thermochemistry.
Ewing, Galen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 26.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Collecting the chemical elements  Hammond, C. R.
Describes how to go about making a collection of the chemical elements.
Hammond, C. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 401.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A clockwise spiral system of the chemical elements  Griff, H. K.
Presents a spiral periodic table.
Griff, H. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 191.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A periodic table  Ternstrom, Torolf
Presents a periodic organization that includes the neutron and neutrino.
Ternstrom, Torolf J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 190.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Illuminated periodic table  Cordes, A. W.
A picture of an illuminated periodic table in use at the University of Arkansas.
Cordes, A. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 189.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A rational periodic table  Sanderson, R. T.
Presents one author's attempt to bring greater rationality to the organization of the elements.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 187.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Principles of chemical reaction  Sanderson, R. T.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature of chemical change in the hope of recognizing and setting forth the basic principles that help us to understand why they occur.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 13.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics |
Synthesis |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
Heat of precipitation  Clever, H. L.
Provides suggestions for research to accompany earlier published articles.
Clever, H. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A386.
Undergraduate Research |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
A classical electrostatic view of chemical forces  Jaffe, H. H.
This paper reviews the different types of forces involved in the formation of chemical compounds, solids and liquids.
Jaffe, H. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 649.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Relationship of exothermicities of compounds to chemical bonding  Siegel, Bernard
The sign and magnitude of the standard heat of formation of a chemical compound is often used incorrectly to characterize its relative stability compared to other compounds.
Siegel, Bernard J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 308.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Covalent Bonding
The language of quantum mechanics  Maybury, Robert H.
Presents background material for teaching students important concepts regarding quantum mechanics that forms the basis of much of chemistry.
Maybury, Robert H. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 367.
Quantum Chemistry
Electronegativity chart  Barrett, Richard L.
This brief note describes an electronegativity wall chart suitable for classroom use.
Barrett, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 251.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Demonstrations of simple bonding using magnets  Baker, Wilbur L.
Demonstrates a variety of bonding using iron washers, magnets, and steel balls.
Baker, Wilbur L. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 131.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
Calorimetry  Kokes, R. J.; Dorfman, M. K.; Mathia, T.
The freshman chemistry lab involves measuring the heat capacities of nickel and copper and the heats of two neutralization reactions.
Kokes, R. J.; Dorfman, M. K.; Mathia, T. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 90.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Periodic classification of the elements  Redfern, J. P., Salmon, J. E.
Presents a periodic organization that takes into account the dual nature of the elements hydrogen, thorium, protactinium, and uranium.
Redfern, J. P., Salmon, J. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 41.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Temperature and power measurements in precision solution calorimetry  O'Hara, William F.; Wu, Ching-Hsien; Hepler, Loren G.
Presents the design of a calorimetric apparatus, and accompanying circuit schematic, and their application to calorimetry measurements.
O'Hara, William F.; Wu, Ching-Hsien; Hepler, Loren G. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 512.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Heat of reaction and H2SO4 concentration: A general chemistry experiment  Wolthuis, Enno; Leegwater, Arie; Ploeg, John Vander
This procedure measures the heat of reaction between water and sulfuric acid of various concentrations; this information is used to determine the concentration of an unknown acid sample.
Wolthuis, Enno; Leegwater, Arie; Ploeg, John Vander J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 472.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Heat of precipitation: A general chemistry experiment  Clever, H. Lawrence
This heat of precipitation experiment is conducted in a simple calorimeter constructed by each student from an Erlenmeyer flask.
Clever, H. Lawrence J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 470.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
Principles of chemical bonding  Sanderson, R. T.
Develops, through 25 statements, the basic principles of chemical bonding.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 382.
Covalent Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A flashbulb bomb calorimeter  Hornyak, Frederick M.
This report describes a do-it-yourself experiment in thermochemistry using flashbulbs as calorimeter bombs.
Hornyak, Frederick M. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 97.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Water equivalent of vacuum flask calorimeter by the ice fusion method  Dunicz, Boleslaw Ludwik
Presents the design of a vacuum flask calorimeter and describes the determination of its water equivalent by the ice fusion method.
Dunicz, Boleslaw Ludwik J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 635.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple ice calorimeter: A first experiment in thermochemistry  Mahan, Bruce H.
This note describes a relatively crude and simple ice calorimeter that can be supplied to each student.
Mahan, Bruce H. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 634.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thermodynamics
A complete table of electronegativities  Little, Elbert J., Jr.; Jones, Mark M.
Provides a complete periodic table of electronegativity values.
Little, Elbert J., Jr.; Jones, Mark M. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 231.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Models for demonstrating electronegativity and "partial charge"  Sanderson, R. T.
Describes a three-dimensional set of atomic models arranged periodically to illustrate trend in electronegativity and the use of molecular models to illustrate important concepts in general chemistry.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 507.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Nonmetals
The atomic form periodic table  Strong, Frederick C.
Presents an "atomic form" of the periodic table, which offers some advantages to the standard organization.
Strong, Frederick C. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 344.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A demonstration model illustrating the aufbau principle  Everett, D. H.
Describes the construction of a physical device capable of illustrating the relationship between the relative energies of electron orbitals in many-electron atoms, the electronic structure of atoms, and the periodic table.
Everett, D. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 298.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Letters to the editor  Kenney, Malcolm E.
Provides a photograph of a periodic table that displays periodic trends in electronegativity.
Kenney, Malcolm E. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 204.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
More mnemonics  Clark, Louis W.
Provides mnemonic devices for memorizing the transition elements in periods four, five, and six.
Clark, Louis W. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 57.
Transition Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
An electron locator  Weis, Norman D.; Meek, John S.
Presents a circular device whose rotation indicates the configuration of electrons within the elements of the periodic table.
Weis, Norman D.; Meek, John S. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 570.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A schematic representation of valence  Sanderson, R. T.
This paper describes a new chart representing the valence structure of atoms; by studying this chart, with the help of a few simple rules, students of elementary chemistry can acquire a useful understanding of chemical combination.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 541.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Nonmetals
Teaching electron configurations  Eichinger, Jack W., Jr.
Time can be saved and confusion avoided by developing a systematic chart of the elements based on the energy levels of atomic orbitals very early in the general college chemistry course.
Eichinger, Jack W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 504.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A periodic table and new periodic functions  Szabo, Z. G.; Lakatos, B.
A theoretically correct yet simple periodic system may be obtained by rearranging the long periodic table in such a way that the inert gases are situated in the middle.
Szabo, Z. G.; Lakatos, B. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 429.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Some aspects of organic molecules and their behavior. I. Electronegativity  Reinmuth, Otto
Reviews the concept of electronegativity as a means of helping introductory students understand aspects of organic molecules and their behavior.
Reinmuth, Otto J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 272.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
The electron chart  Eichinger, Jack W., Jr.
Presents a periodic wall chart organized according to the increasing energy of valence electrons.
Eichinger, Jack W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 70.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The fable of the atomic theater  Kerker, Milton
Organizes the elements in a periodic sequence resembling seats in a theater.
Kerker, Milton J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 32.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A periodic table: The "Aufbauprinzip" as a basis for classification of the elements  Longuet-Higgins, H. C.
This note recommends a presentation of the periodic table designed to show as directly as possible how the place of an element in the table is related to the electronic structure of the atom.
Longuet-Higgins, H. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 30.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
An adjustable periodic chart for lecture purposes  Estok, George K.
This periodic table can be converted from the short to the long and extra-long forms.
Estok, George K. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 618.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A helical periodic table  Rice, William E.
A three-dimensional representation of the periodic table can provide an additional coordinate to represent the difference between subgroups without disrupting the vertical sequence of elements in a whole group.
Rice, William E. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 492.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A new periodic chart with electronegativities  Sanderson, R. T.
This paper describes a new chart that has been designed to portray clearly and vividly patterns in relative atomic radius, electronic configuration, and electronegativity.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 443.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A chart of chemical compounds based on electronegativities  Yeh, Ping-Yuan
This short note presents a chart of chemical compounds based on the relative electronegativities of the elements.
Yeh, Ping-Yuan J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 134.
Covalent Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
A new periodic table based on the energy sequence of atomic orbitals  Walker, W. R.; Curthoys, G. C.
Since the theory of atomic and molecular orbitals has proven to be of such value in interpreting the data of inorganic chemistry, it is hoped that a new periodic table based on the energy sequence of atomic orbitals will be an aid to the further systematizing of chemical knowledge.
Walker, W. R.; Curthoys, G. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 69.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A variable periodic system  Scheer, Roderich
This variable periodic system uses small cards to represent each elements and can be arranged to illustrate the short or long forms of the periodic table.
Scheer, Roderich J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 590.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Calorimeter for determining heat capacities of liquids  Greene, Stanley A.
This paper describes a method for utilizing a constant-power heating device that eliminates the need for a preponderance of equipment yet permits reasonable accuracy in determining the heat capacities of liquids.
Greene, Stanley A. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 577.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids
A three-dimensional periodic chart  Sell, Octavia S.
Demonstrates the construction of a three-dimensional periodic table from a conventional Hubbard chart.
Sell, Octavia S. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 524.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Regularities among the representative elements: The "paired electron rule"  Condon, F. E.
If the oxidation states characteristic of various groups are correlated in terms of electron subshells, they become reasonable and logical rather than mere facts to be memorized.
Condon, F. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 651.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Oxidation State
A cut-out chart of the periodic system  Clauson, Jennie E.
Colored discs in a cylinder of transparent plastic represent the arrangement of elements in the periodic table. Also provides a chart that can be cut out and turned into a similar cylinder.
Clauson, Jennie E. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 550.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
One more periodic table  Sanderson, R. T.
This periodic table is constructed to highlight electronic differences.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 481.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A new space model of the periodic system of elements  Horie, S.
Describes a three-dimensional model of the periodic system of elements.
Horie, S. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 382.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The periodic table of elements  Chaverri, Gil R.
Suggestion for improving the organization of the periodic table for pedagogical purposes.
Chaverri, Gil R. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 632.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Letters  Bowden, S. T.
The author calls for the standardization of the periodic table.
Bowden, S. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 426.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Demonstration of the intermediate position of cobalt between iron and nickel  Goldstein, Ernst M.
The different oxidizability of ferrous, cobaltous, and nickelous hydroxides, together with increasing color deepness of the oxidation products, can be used to demonstrate that cobalt is intermediate in its properties between iron and nickel.
Goldstein, Ernst M. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 387.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Qualitative Analysis
Letters  Hakala, Reino W.
The author points out a reference to a relationship between atomic weight and atomic number.
Hakala, Reino W. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 44.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The electron as an element  Ramsay, W.
Reprint of a short article examining the bonding of sodium and chlorine.
Ramsay, W. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 2.
Ionic Bonding
A periodic table for the lecture room  Fornoff, Frank J.; Post, Glenn I.; Rhoda, Richard N.; Collier, Herman E., Jr.
Presents the design and construction of a periodic table for the lecture room that illustrates a number of periodic relationships.
Fornoff, Frank J.; Post, Glenn I.; Rhoda, Richard N.; Collier, Herman E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 626.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Letters  Ferreira, Ricardo Carvalho
The author points out earlier work associated with a recent Journal article dealing with the periodic table and the transition elements.
Ferreira, Ricardo Carvalho J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 372.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Transition Elements
The long form of the periodic table  Glockler, George; Popov, A. I.
The authors comment on the independent publication of a periodic table similar to one they produced earlier.
Glockler, George; Popov, A. I. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 358.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A space model of the periodic system of elements  Clauson, Jennie E.
Illustrates a three-dimensional model of the periodic system of elements.
Clauson, Jennie E. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 250.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A periodic table showing the relative sizes of elements and their ions  Klingenberg, Joseph; Springman, Leroy
Describes a periodic chart representing the relative sizes of atoms and ions that was constructed by a senior undergraduate.
Klingenberg, Joseph; Springman, Leroy J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 81.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The periodic table: The 6d-5f mixed transition group  Coryell, Charles D.
With relatively few modifications, the Bohr-type periodic table presented by Glocker and Popov can be made to reflect more instructively the rather complex relationships obtained in the neighborhood of the 4f or gadolinium transition group and, more importantly, in the 6d-5f sequence extending from actinium through the region of uranium and the synthetic earths to element 103.
Coryell, Charles D. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 62.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A temperature-equilibrium demonstration  Brown, John A.
This demonstration makes use of the colored cobaltous complexes in a mixed solvent to show the dependence of some equilibria on temperature.
Brown, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 640.
Equilibrium |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Coordination Compounds
A common misunderstanding of Hess' law  Davis, Thomas. W.
The statement, sometimes attributed to Hess, that "In any series of chemical or physical changes the total heat effect is independent of the path by which the system goes from its initial to its final state" is incorrect.
Davis, Thomas. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 584.
Stoichiometry |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
The lanthanide contraction as a teaching aid  Keller, R N.
This paper presents a modified form of the atomic volume curve that illustrates graphically the lanthanide contraction; a number of chemical consequences of this effect are also discussed.
Keller, R N. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 312.
Transition Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Valency and the periodic table  Glockler, George; Popov, Alexander I.
Presents a modification of the Bohr-Thomsen-Akhumov periodic table stressing patterns to found among the rare earth elements.
Glockler, George; Popov, Alexander I. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 212.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Oxidation State |
Transition Elements |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A lecture room periodic table  Dutton, Frederic B.
Describes a large periodic table capable of illuminating individual elements and displaying their electronic configurations.
Dutton, Frederic B. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 110.
Periodicity / Periodic Table