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Journal Articles: 606 results
A New "Bottom-Up" Framework for Teaching Chemical Bonding  Tami Levy Nahum, Rachel Mamlok-Naaman, Avi Hofstein, and Leeor Kronik
This article presents a general framework for bonding that can be presented at different levels of sophistication depending on the student's level and needs. The pedagogical strategy for teaching this model is a "bottom-up" one, starting with basic principles and ending with specific properties.
Levy Nahum, Tami; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Hofstein, Avi; Kronik, Leeor. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1680.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Lewis Structures |
Materials Science |
MO Theory |
Noncovalent Interactions
Author of "The Flyleaf Periodic Table" Responds  Roy W. Clark
Since publication of our letter about the multiple forms of periodic tables presented in the flyleaf of textbooks I have received many replies. To these readers and any others who were puzzled by our recommendation I offer this explanation.
Clark, Roy W. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1493.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The Periodic Table: Facts or Committees?  William B. Jensen
I would like to offer two observations relative to the recent letter of Clark and White on the representation of the f-block elements in the periodic table that relate to some disturbing trends in the attitudes of the chemical community towards the nature and use of the periodic tableattitudes that are implicit, though perhaps not intentionally so, in their letter.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1491.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Response to "The Flyleaf Periodic Table"  Laurence Lavelle
Clark and White wonder why the chemistry education community has not uniformly adopted just one form of the periodic table. Part of the answer is that the majority who are silent on this issue do not want to be attacked by the vocal proponents who insist that lanthanum and actinium must be in the f-block and lutetium and lawrencium must be in the d-block.
Lavelle, Laurence. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1491.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The Flyleaf Table: An Alternative  Philip J. Stewart
In their consideration of three ways of treating the f-block elements in the standard periodic table, Clark and White opt to footnote a set 15-elements-wide, including both La and Lu, Ac, and Lr. Their only grounds seem to be that this is what IUPAC chose in 2005, but that decision sounds like an attempt to please everyone, which in the end will please no one.
Stewart, Philip J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1490.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Artistic Periodic Table in Honor of Mendeleev  Antonio Marchal Ingrain
A large periodic table was placed on the main faade of the Sciences Building at the University of Jan (Spain) in November 2007 in honor of Mendeleev on the 100th anniversary of his death and in recognition of the Spanish Year of Science.
Ingrain, Antonio Marchal. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1489.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Lanthanum (La) and Actinium (Ac) Should Remain in the d-block  Laurence Lavelle
This paper discusses the reasons and implications of placing lanthanum and actinium in the f-block and lutetium and lawrencium in the d-block.
Lavelle, Laurence. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1482.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Inner Transition Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements
Teaching Avogadro's Hypothesis and Helping Students to See the World Differently  Brett Criswell
This article uses a model from educational psychologyChi's theory of ontological misclassificationto explain the source of students' difficulties in understanding Avogadro's hypothesis and provide a method to successfully teach this fundamental concept.
Criswell, Brett. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1372.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Gases
Elemental Chem Lab  Antonio Joaquín Franco Mariscal
Three puzzles use the symbols of 45 elements to spell the names of 32 types of laboratory equipment usually found in chemical labs.
Franco Mariscal, Antonio Joaquín. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1370.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Remedial Mathematics for Quantum Chemistry  Lodewijk Koopman, Natasa Brouwer, André Heck, and Wybren Jan Buma
A remedial program designed to tackle the problem of insufficient mathematical knowledge in a first-year quantum chemistry course provides weekly online assignments to prepare students for upcoming lectures, monitors students' progress, and offers feedback. As a result, mathematical skills improved and students became more involved in lectures.
Koopman, Lodewijk; Brouwer, Natasa; Heck, André Buma, Wybren Jan. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1233.
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Quantum Chemistry
Examining Quantum Oddities within the Context of Other Major Scientific Theories  Pablo A. Molina
This article presents an epistemological discussion on the conceptual hurdles shared by quantum theory and evolution, gravity, and special relativity, and offers students a logical structure to deal with waveparticle duality, the uncertainty principle, boundary conditions, and the quantization of energy.
Molina, Pablo A. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1229.
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
The Correlation of Binary Acid Strengths with Molecular Properties in First-Year Chemistry  Travis D. Fridgen
This article replaces contradictory explanations for the strengths of different binary acids in first-year chemistry textbooks with a single explanation that uses a BornHaber cycle involving homolyic bond dissociation energies, electron affinities, and ion solvation enthalpies to rationalize trends in the strengths of all binary acids.
Fridgen, Travis D. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1220.
Acids / Bases |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics
Forecasting Periodic Trends: A Semester-Long Team Exercise for Nonscience Majors  John Tierney
Teams of students in a course for nonscience majors identify trends among the properties of elements in the periodic table, use Excel to plot and produce best-fit equations to describe relationships among those properties, and apply the resulting formulas to predict and justify the properties of missing elements.
Tierney, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1215.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Computational Chemistry |
Main-Group Elements |
Nonmetals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Metals |
Student-Centered Learning
Flames Tests with Flair  Nicholas C. Thomas
When conducted in a suitable fume hood, spraying hydrogen-filled balloons with aqueous solutions of metal salts provides a simple and safe method for demonstrating flame tests.
Thomas, Nicholas C. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 521.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Gases |
Metals
Using Hydrogen Balloons To Display Metal Ion Spectra  James H. Maynard
Describes a procedure for igniting hydrogen-filled balloons containing metal salts to obtain the brightest possible flash while minimizing the quantity of airborne combustion products.
Maynard, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 519.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Gases |
Metals |
Solutions / Solvents
The Flyleaf Periodic Table  Roy W. Clark and Gary D. White
The restriction of periodic tables to the flyleafs of textbooks results in the inconsistent vivisection and subscripting of the lanthanoids and actinoids.
Clark, Roy W.; White, Gary D. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 497.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Connecting Solubility, Equilibrium, and Periodicity in a Green, Inquiry Experiment for the General Chemistry Laboratory  Kristen L. Cacciatore, Jose Amado, Jason J. Evans, and Hannah Sevian
Presents a novel first-year chemistry experiment that asks students to replicate procedures described in sample lab reports that lack essential information. This structure is designed to promote students' experimental design and data analysis skills as well as their understanding of the importance and essential qualities of written and verbal communication between scientists.
Cacciatore, Kristen L.; Amado, Jose; Evans, Jason J.; Sevian, Hannah. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 251.
Equilibrium |
Green Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Solutions / Solvents |
Stoichiometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Physical Chemistry: Thermodynamics (Horia Metiu)
Taylor & Francis, New York, London, 2006. 694 pp. ISBN: 978-0815340911 (paper). $49.95

Physical Chemistry: Statistical Mechanics (Horia Metiu)
Taylor & Francis, New York, London, 2006. 292 pp. ISBN: 978-0815340850 (paper). $44.95

Physical Chemistry: Kinetics (Horia Metiu)
Taylor & Francis, New York, London, 2006. 169 pp. ISBN: 978-0815340898 (paper). $44.95

Physical Chemistry: Quantum Mechanics (Horia Metiu)
Taylor & Francis, New York, London, 2006. 481 pp. ISBN: 978-0815340874 (paper). $44.95

  John Krenos
Metiu has created a significant set of volumes on undergraduate physical chemistry. The integration of Mathematica and Mathcad workbooks into the four texts provides instructors with an attractive new option in teaching.
Krenos, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 206.
Quantum Chemistry |
Statistical Mechanics |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics
New! JCE Web-Ready Software for All Your Students  
Institutions and individuals can now subscribe to JCE Web Software and access its entire collection of Web-ready titles.
J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 170.
Professional Development |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Enrichment / Review Materials
The Different Periodic Tables of Dmitrii Mendeleev  Michael Laing
Between 1869 and 1905 the Russian chemist Dmitrii Mendeleev published several tables with different arrangements of the chemical elements. Four of these are compared with periodic tables by Russian scientists from 1934 and 1969.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 63.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The New Periodic Table Live!  
We have brought back everyone's favorite program: Periodic Table Live! It has seen many improvements while retaining its sterling qualities. Perhaps best of all, the current version is available free to everyone from JCE Online and the ChemEd Digital Library.
J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 22.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Concept Maps for General Chemistry   Boyd L. Earl
Two concept maps have been developed to represent the organization of the material in a first-semester general chemistry course. By providing these maps to students and referring to them in class, it is hoped that the instructor can assist students in maintaining a grasp of the "big picture" during the progress of the course.
Earl, Boyd L. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1788.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Gases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stoichiometry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
E = mc2: An Intuitive Derivation  James J. Leary and William H. Ingham
Einstein's famous equation E = mc2 is derived using a thought experiment that can easily be understood by any serious student of chemistry.
Leary, James J.; Ingham, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1651.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Instrumental Methods
Introducing the Practical Aspects of Computational Chemistry to Undergraduate Chemistry Students  Jason K. Pearson
Presents a laboratory exercise in which students use traditional second-year concepts such as the rigid rotor and harmonic oscillator approximations in conjunction with Gaussian 03 to reinforce practical aspects of computational chemistry.
Pearson, Jason K. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1323.
Computational Chemistry |
MO Theory |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Guitar Strings as Standing Waves: A Demonstration  Michael Davis
This demonstration uses an acoustic guitar to produce three unique harmonic vibrations, each of which is representative of a standing wave and illustrates the concept of quantization.
Davis, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1287.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Mendeleev on the Periodic Law: Selected Writings, 1869–1905 (William B. Jensen, ed.)  Theodor Benfey
The periodic properties of the elements is the chemists central organizing principle. Here are 13 of Mendeleevs complete or partial publications that illuminate his developing ideas on periodicity.
Benfey, Theodor. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1279.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Theoretical Chemistry
The Mechanism of Covalent Bonding: Analysis within the Hückel Model of Electronic Structure  Sture Nordholm, Andreas Bäck, and George B. Bacskay
Hckel molecular orbital theory is shown to be uniquely useful in understanding and interpreting the mechanism of covalent bonding. Using the Hckel model it can be demonstrated that the dynamical character of the molecular orbitals is related simultaneously to the covalent bonding mechanism and to the degree of delocalization of the electron dynamics.
Nordholm, Sture; Bäck, Andreas; Bacskay, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1201.
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
News from the Periodic Table: An Introduction to "Periodicity Symbols, Tables, and Models for Higher-Order Valency and Donor–Acceptor Kinships"  Henry A. Bent and Frank Weinhold
Proposes that alternative display topologies such as a 2D "left-step" or "step-pyramid" table or 3D "periodic towers" can supplement or supplant the standard periodic table by better emphasizing higher-order patterns of chemical association and reactivity, rather than the physical resemblances of standard-state elemental substances.
Bent, Henry A.; Weinhold, Frank. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1145.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Spectroscopy
Mistake of Having Students Be Mendeleev for Just a Day  Brett Criswell
This article discusses several conceptual features underlying a genuine understanding of the periodic table and describes a set of activities focused on promoting such awareness in students using the FERA (focus, explore, reflect, and apply) learning cycle model.
Criswell, Brett. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1140.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Mustard Gas: Its Pre-World War I History  Ronald J. Duchovic and Joel A. Vilensky
A review of the history of the synthesis of mustard gas by 19th century European chemists highlights the increasing sophistication of the chemical sciences during this time.
Duchovic, Ronald J.; Vilensky, Joel A. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 944.
Applications of Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Toxicology
Primo Levi and The Periodic Table: Teaching Chemistry Using a Literary Text  Viktoria Klara Lakatos Osorio, Peter Wilhelm Tiedemann, and Paulo Alves Porto
Describes the use of a problem-solving activity with first-year undergraduate students based on an excerpt from Primo Levi's book The Periodic Table.
Osorio, Viktoria Klara Lakatos; Tiedemann, Peter Wilhelm; Porto, Paulo Alves. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 775.
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Reactions |
Student-Centered Learning
The Origin of the s, p, d, f Orbital Labels  William B. Jensen
Traces the origins of the s, p, d, and f orbital labels.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 757.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Spectroscopy
Turning Plastic Into Gold: An Analogy To Demonstrate the Rutherford Gold Foil Experiment  Robert B. Gregory
Describes an in-class demonstration designed to be an analogy to the RutherfordGeigerMarsden gold foil experiment that requires only a laser pointer, two picture frames, and a sheet of plastic.
Gregory, Robert B. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 626.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Lasers |
Metals
Puzzling through General Chemistry: A Light-Hearted Approach to Engaging Students with Chemistry Content  Susan L. Boyd
Presents ten puzzles to make chemistry more interesting while reinforcing important concepts.
Boyd, Susan L. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 619.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Gases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Stoichiometry |
VSEPR Theory |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The Analysis of a Murder, a Case Study  Frank J. Dinan, Steven H. Szczepankiewicz, Melinda Carnahan, and Michael T. Colvin
In conjunction with a forensic chemistry case study, students perform strontium determinations, use the data to locate a victim's origin, and act as detectives to formulate a plan to apprehend the murderers.
Dinan, Frank J.; Szczepankiewicz, Steven H.; Carnahan, Melinda; Colvin, Michael T. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 617.
Applications of Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Flame Emission Spectrometry in General Chemistry Labs: Solubility Product (Ksp) of Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate  Frazier W. Nyasulu, William Cusworth III, David Lindquist, and John Mackin
In this general chemistry laboratory, flame emission spectrometry is used to determine the potassium ion concentration in saturated solutions of potassium hydrogen phthalate. From these data the solubility products, the Gibbs free energies of solution, the standard enthalpy of solution, and the standard entropy of solution are calculated.
Nyasulu, Frazier W.; Cusworth, William, III; Lindquist, David; Mackin, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 456.
Acids / Bases |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy |
Equilibrium |
Quantitative Analysis |
Thermodynamics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Electronic Structure Principles and Aromaticity  P. K. Chattaraj, U. Sarkar, and D. R. Roy
Electronic structure principles dictate that aromatic molecules are associated with low energy, polarizability, and electrophilicity but high hardness values, while antiaromatic molecules possess the opposite characteristics. These relationships are demonstrated through B3LYP/6-311G** calculations on benzene and cyclobutadiene.
Chattaraj, P. K.; Sarkar, U.; Roy, D. R. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 354.
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantitative Analysis |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Alkenes |
Quantum Chemistry
Application of Calibrated Peer Review (CPR) Writing Assignments To Enhance Experiments with an Environmental Chemistry Focus  Lawrence D. Margerum, Maren Gulsrud, Ronald Manlapez, Rachelle Rebong, and Austin Love
Proposes the use of Web-based peer-reviewed writing for pre- and postlab assignments for large enrollment first-semester general chemistry laboratory courses. Results show that students submit average essays, but master the material via sequential reviews of exemplary and peer essays.
Margerum, Lawrence D.; Gulsrud, Maren; Manlapez, Ronald; Rebong, Rachelle; Love, Austin. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 292.
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantitative Analysis |
Atomic Spectroscopy
A Mnemonic for Representative Element Groups  Timothy Chambers and Jennifer Arab
It is unclear whether memorizing nonsense-words is any simpler than the task it aims to ease.
Chambers, Timothy; Arab, Jennifer. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1761.
Nonmajor Courses |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A Mnemonic for Representative Element Groups  Timothy Chambers and Jennifer Arab
It is unclear whether memorizing nonsense-words is any simpler than the task it aims to ease.
Chambers, Timothy; Arab, Jennifer. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1761.
Nonmajor Courses |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Entropy and the Shelf Model: A Quantum Physical Approach to a Physical Property  Arnd H. Jungermann
A quantum physical approach relying on energy quantization leads to three simple rules which are the key to understanding the physical property described by molar entropy values.
Jungermann, Arnd H. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1686.
Alcohols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Carboxylic Acids |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Physical Properties |
Quantum Chemistry |
Thermodynamics
Predicting Inorganic Reaction Products: A Critical Thinking Exercise in General Chemistry  David G. DeWit
Describes a course module designed to afford practice in applying the principles encountered throughout the general chemistry sequence to understanding and predicting chemical reactivity and the products of simple inorganic reactions.
DeWit, David G. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1625.
Acids / Bases |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Learning Theories |
Metals |
Nonmetals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Reactions
Dulong and Petit's Law: We Should Not Ignore Its Importance  Mary Laing and Michael Laing
This article describes two student exercises: the determination of the specific heat of a metal and hence its atomic weight and a graphical study of specific heat versus atomic weight for different groups of metals and the confirmation of Dulong and Petit's law.
Laing, Mary; Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1499.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Heat Capacity |
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Magnet and BB Analogy for Millikan's Oil-Drop Experiment  Earl F. Pearson
Describes the use of refrigerator magnets and BB's as an analogy to Millikan's oil-drop experiment. The mass of a single BB is determined without ever measuring the mass of one BB or determining the mass of a known number of BB's.
Pearson, Earl F. . J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1313.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Student-Centered Learning
Millikan: Good to the Last (Oil) Drop  Earl F. Pearson
In this analogy, drop-shaped pieces of magnet represent oil drops, steel BBs represent the electrons, and the mass of a BB represents the charge of an electron. The smallest possible difference in mass between any two samples of BBs should be the mass of a single BB.
Pearson, Earl F. . J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1312A.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Do the Series in the Hydrogen Atom Spectrum Ever Overlap?  David W. Ball
Addresses the question, do the series in the hydrogen atom spectrum ever overlap?
Ball, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 883.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Factors That Influence Relative Acid Strength in Water: A Simple Model  Michael J. Moran
The pKa's of diverse aqueous acids HA correlate well with the sum of two gas-phase properties: the HA bond-dissociation enthalpy and the electron affinity of the A radical. It is suggested that rather than bond strength alone or bond polarity, the sum of the enthalpies of these two steps is a fairly good indicator of relative acidity.
Moran, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 800.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Free Radicals
Demonstrating Void Space in Solids: A Simple Demonstration To Challenge a Powerful Misconception  Mary Whitfield
The concept of bridging analogies is used in a simple demonstration to illustrate the substantial quantity of empty space that remains when solid spheres are packed together. The same demonstration also shows that the percentage of empty space is independent of particle size.
Whitfield, Mary. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 749.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Materials Science |
Solids
Acrostic Puzzles in the Classroom  Dorothy Swain
Acrostic puzzles are an effective vehicle to expose students to the history and philosophy of science without lecturing.
Swain, Dorothy. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 589.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmajor Courses |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Probing the Orbital Energy of an Electron in an Atom  James L. Bills
This article answers an appeal for simple theoretical interpretations of atomic properties. A theoretical snapshot of an atom, showing the screened nuclear charge and the electron to be ionized at its radius of zero kinetic energy, enables anyone to approximate its ionization energy.
Bills, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 473.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Main-Group Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Physical Properties |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
An Improved Flame Test for Qualitative Analysis Using a Multichannel UV–Visible Spectrophotometer  Jonathan P. Blitz, Daniel J. Sheeran, and Thomas L. Becker
Describes the application of a multichannel array spectrometer equipped with a fiber optic probe for the acquisition of emission spectra as a means of performing flame tests for qualitative analysis in the general chemistry laboratory.
Blitz, Jonathan P.; Sheeran, Daniel J.; Becker, Thomas L. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 277.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Qualitative Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Atomic Spectroscopy
The History of Element 43—Technetium  Roberto Zingales
The author is grateful for additional information that allowed him to correct an earlier mistake.
Zingales, Roberto. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 213.
Isotopes |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The History of Element 43—Technetium  Fathi Habashi
The article From Masurium to Trinacrium: The Troubled Story of Element 43 is the best story so far published about the history of technetium. There is, however, one paragraph on the right column of page 226 that is questionable.
Habashi, Fathi. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 213.
Isotopes |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The History of Element 43—Technetium  Fathi Habashi
The article From Masurium to Trinacrium: The Troubled Story of Element 43 is the best story so far published about the history of technetium. There is, however, one paragraph on the right column of page 226 that is questionable.
Habashi, Fathi. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 213.
Isotopes |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The Origins of the Symbols A and Z for Atomic Weight and Number  William B. Jensen
Traces the origins of the symbols A and Z for atomic weight and atomic number.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1764.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Are Some Elements More Equal Than Others?  Ronald L. Rich
Presents a new periodic chart with 18 columns but no interruptions of atomic numbers at Lanthanum or Actinum, and no de-emphasis of elements 57-71 or 89-103 by seeming to make footnotes of them. It shows some elements more than once in order to illuminate multiple relationships in chemical behavior.
Rich, Ronald L. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1761.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Inner Transition Elements |
Main-Group Elements |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Oxidation State |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements
Trends in Ionization Energy of Transition-Metal Elements  Paul S. Matsumoto
Examines why, as the number of protons increase along a row in the periodic table, the first ionization energies of the transition-metal elements are relatively steady, but that for the main-group elements increases.
Matsumoto, Paul S. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1660.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements
Predicting the Atomic Weights of the Trans-Lawrencium Elements: A Novel Application of Dobereiner's Triads  Sami A. Ibrahim
Dobereiner's concept of triads remain useful for predicting the properties of the super-heavy elements (113118) and for providing reasonable estimates of the atomic weights of all 16 trans-lawrencium elements.
Ibrahim, Sami A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1658.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Main-Group Elements |
Transition Elements
Fully Exploiting the Potential of the Periodic Table through Pattern Recognition  Emeric Schultz
This article describes an approach to learning chemical concepts that uses simple rules and pattern recognition to generate the formulas of the oxides and hydrides of selected elements.
Schultz, Emeric. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1649.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Student-Centered Learning
E = mc2 for the Chemist: When Is Mass Conserved?  Richard S. Treptow
Einstein's famous equation is frequently misunderstood in textbooks and popular science literature. Its correct interpretation is that mass and energy are different measures of a single quantity known as massenergy, which is conserved in all processes.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1636.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Thermodynamics
Einstein Revisited  Leonard Fine
Examines Einstein's contributions to chemistry, particularly his work on the photoelectric effect, molecular dimensions, and Brownian motion.
Fine, Leonard. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1601.
Quantum Chemistry |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
Measurement of the Isotopic Ratio of 10B/11B in NaBH4 by 1H NMR  Murray Zanger and Guillermo Moyna
A simple and remarkably accurate method for estimating the isotopic ratio between 10B and 11B through the use of 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is presented. The experiment relies on the splitting caused by 10B (I = 3) and 11B (I = 3/2) on the 1H signal of a proton directly bound to boron, a phenomenon readily observed on an aqueous sample of NaBH4. In combination with a brief lecture or prelaboratory presentation, this laboratory can serve to introduce students to magnetic properties as well as theoretical and experimental aspects of NMR spectroscopy as early as the freshman-level chemistry.
Zanger, Murray; Moyna, Guillermo. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1390.
Instrumental Methods |
Magnetic Properties |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Isotopes
Some Footnotes on the History of Masurium  H. J. Wagner
Some additional comments on a recent article by R. Zingales about the history of element 43.
Wagner, H. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1309.
Isotopes |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Revisiting the Electric Pickle Demonstration  Michelle M. Rizzo, Tracy A. Halmi, Alan J. Jircitano, Martin G. Kociolek, and Jerry A. Magraw
The electric pickle demonstration has long been used to explore the atomic emission of sodium ions, which emit a brilliant yelloworange glow. The emission from other metal ions including lithium, potassium, strontium, and barium can also be demonstrated by pickling cucumbers with the corresponding chloride salt.
Rizzo, Michelle M.; Halmi, Tracy A.; Jircitano, Alan J.; Kociolek, Martin G.; Magraw, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 545.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Metals
More Elementary Riddles  Kevin Cunningham
Four chemical riddles are presented, each highlighting an element (hydrogen, arsenic, selenium, and beryllium) and some of its significant properties. Each riddle is accompanied by a full explanation of its clues and their relationship to characteristics of that element.
Cunningham, Kevin. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 539.
Main-Group Elements |
Metals |
Nonmetals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Physical Properties
Electronegativity and the Bond Triangle  Terry L. Meek and Leah D. Garner
The dependence of bond type on two parameters, electronegativity difference (??) and average electronegativity (?av), is examined. It is demonstrated that ionic character is governed by the partial charges of the bonded atoms, and metallic character by the HOMOLUMO band gap.
Meek, Terry L.; Garner, Leah D. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 325.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Main-Group Elements
The Meaning of d-Orbital Labels  Guy Ashkenazi
Orbital labels are the angular part of the wave function, expressed in Cartesian coordinates. The mathematical relation between the labels and the shapes of the orbitals is discussed.
Ashkenazi, Guy. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 323.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Transition Elements |
Quantum Chemistry
Turning on the Light: Lessons from Luminescence  Patricia B. OHara, Carol Engelson, and Wayne St. Peter
The goal of this article is to provide secondary school science teachers with a background in an array of luminescent phenomena including fluorescence, phosphorescence, and chemiluminescence that will enable them to teach their students fundamental properties of light and matter. Instructions for building and operating a simple spectrofluorometer and five detailed lesson plans are provided in the Supplemental Material for experiments that utilize these processes.
O'Hara, Patricia B.; Engelson, Carol; St. Peter, Wayne. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 49.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Forensic Chemistry |
Photochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Flame Tests: Which Ion Causes the Color?  Michael J. Sanger
Students determine which of the ions in a series of ten commercially-available ionic compounds are responsible for the observed colors by performing flame test experiments using cotton swabs and a Bunsen burner.
Sanger, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1776A.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Qualitative Analysis |
Student-Centered Learning
Simple Flame Test Techniques Using Cotton Swabs  Michael J. Sanger and Amy J. Phelps
This article describes three new methods for performing simple flame tests using cotton swabs.
Sanger, Michael J.; Phelps, Amy J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 969.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Qualitative Analysis
Boiling Point versus Mass  Michael Laing
I am very pleased that Ronald Rich has written making these comments, because he is pre-eminent in this field, beginning with his early book, Periodic Correlations.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 642.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Boiling Point versus Mass   Ronald L. Rich
Laing gave a useful examination of the boiling points of small molecules versus molecular mass. However, a molecule escaping from a liquid is not closely analogous to a satellite breaking free from the earths gravitational field with the requirement of a minimum escape velocity, such that the required kinetic energy is proportional to the mass of the satellite at that escape velocity.
Rich, Ronald L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 642.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Liquids |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
"We Actually Saw Atoms with Our Own Eyes". Conceptions and Convictions in Using the Scanning Tunneling Microscope in Junior High School  Hannah Margel, Bat-Sheva Eylon, and Zahava Scherz
The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the feasibility and potential contribution of using the STM as a learning tool in junior high school (JHS) to support instruction about the particulate nature of matter.
Margel, Hannah; Eylon, Bat-Sheva; Scherz, Zahava. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 558.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Nanotechnology |
Surface Science |
Learning Theories |
Student-Centered Learning |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Program of Computational Chemistry Exercises for the First-Semester General Chemistry Course  Scott E. Feller, Richard F. Dallinger, and Paul Caylor McKinney
A series of 13 molecular modeling exercises designed for the first-semester general chemistry course is described. The modeling exercises, which are used as both prelecture explorations and postlecture problems, increase in difficulty and in student independence.
Feller, Scott E.; Dallinger, Richard F.; McKinney, Paul Caylor. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 283.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Computational Chemistry |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Why Chemical Reactions Happen (James Keeler and Peter Wothers)  John Krenos
By concentrating on a limited number of model reactions, this book presents chemistry as a cohesive whole by tying together the fundamentals of thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, and quantum chemistry, mainly through the use of molecular orbital interpretations.
Krenos, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 201.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Quantum Chemistry |
MO Theory
The "Dissing" of Niels Bohr  Andrew R. Peterson
Contributions made by Bohr to the Periodic Law.
Peterson, Andrew R. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 33.
Molecular Modeling |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Photogalvanic Cells for Classroom Investigations: A Contribution for Ongoing Curriculum Modernization  Claudia Bohrmann-Linde and Michael W. Tausch
Laboratory experiments examining the fundamental processes in the conversion of light into electrical energy using photogalvanic cells have been developed. These simple cells are suitable for classroom investigations examining the operating principles of photogalvanic cells and the influence of different parameters on their efficiency.
Bohrmann-Linde, Claudia; Tausch, Michael W. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1471.
Electrochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
The KLM-Shell Labels  William B. Jensen
In response to a reader's inquiry, this column traces the origins of the K, L, M labels for the shells of the Bohr atom.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 996.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Discovery Videos: A Safe, Tested, Time-Efficient Way To Incorporate Discovery-Laboratory Experiments into the Classroom  Lyubov Hoffman Laroche, Gary Wulfsberg, and Barbara Young
Using videos to bring discovery-laboratory experiments to classrooms with poor or no lab facilities or equipment, or activities that involve potentially hazardous materials.
Laroche, Lyubov Hoffman; Wulfsberg, Gary; Young, Barbara. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 962.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Enrichment / Review Materials
The Place of Zinc, Cadmium, and Mercury in the Periodic Table  William B. Jensen
Explanation for why the zinc group belongs with the main group elements; includes several versions of periodic tables.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 952.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Main-Group Elements |
Transition Elements |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The Proper Place for Hydrogen in the Periodic Table  Marshall W. Cronyn
Case for hydrogen to be placed above carbon in the periodic table.
Cronyn, Marshall W. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 947.
Main-Group Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The Periodic Table as a Mnemonic Device for Writing Electronic Configurations  Suzanne T. Mabrouk
Method for using the periodic table as a mnemonic device for writing electronic configurations.
Mabrouk, Suzanne T. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 894.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nonmajor Courses |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
ORBITAL  Robert M. Hanson
Software that produces probability-based three-dimensional representations of the hydrogen atom and other single-electron systems.
Hanson, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 710.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Computational Chemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Find the Symbols of Elements Using a Letter Matrix Puzzle  V. D. Kelkar
Letter matrix puzzle using chemical symbols.
Kelkar, V. D. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 411.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Main-Group Elements |
Transition Elements |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials
ORBITAL  Robert M. Hanson
Software for producing probability-based three-dimensional representations of atomic orbitals of the hydrogen atom and other single-electron systems; found on the Advanced Chemistry Collection CD-ROM, 3rd Edition.
Hanson, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 109.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Computational Chemistry
Periodic Table Live! 3rd Edition: Abstract of Special Issue 17  Nicholas B. Adelman, Jon L. Holmes, Jerrold J. Jacobsen, John W. Moore, Paul F. Schatz, Jaclyn Tweedale, Alton J. Banks, John C. Kotz, William R. Robinson, and Susan Young
CD-ROM containing an interactive journey through the periodic table; includes information about each element, biographies of discoverers, videos of reactions, sources and uses, macro and atomic properties, and crystalline structures.
Adelman, Nicholas B.; Holmes, Jon L.; Jacobsen, Jerrold J.; Moore, John W.; Schatz, Paul F.; Tweedale, Jaclyn; Banks, Alton J.; Kotz, John C.; Robinson, William R.; Young, Susan. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1487.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Solid State Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Reactions |
Crystals / Crystallography
Understanding and Interpreting Molecular Electron Density Distributions  C. F. Matta and R. J. Gillespie
A simple introduction to the electron densities of molecules and how they can be analyzed to obtain information on bonding and geometry.
Matta, C. F.; Gillespie, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1141.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
VSEPR Theory
Semiconductor Nanocrystals: A Powerful Visual Aid for Introducing the Particle in a Box  Tadd Kippeny, Laura A. Swafford, and Sandra J. Rosenthal
Using semiconductor nanocrystals as a means for connecting lecture content in quantum mechanics, inorganic, and general chemistry to real-world technological problems.
Kippeny, Tadd; Swafford, Laura A.; Rosenthal, Sandra J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1094.
Quantum Chemistry |
Nanotechnology |
Solid State Chemistry |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Applications of Chemistry
Simple Measurement of Magnetic Susceptibility with a Small Permanent Magnet and a Top-Loading Electronic Balance  Yoshinori Itami and Kozo Sone
Measuring magnetic susceptibility of solid transition metal salts using a simple, inexpensive, and easy-to-handle device.
Itami, Yoshinori; Sone, Kozo. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1002.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Magnetic Properties |
Transition Elements |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Metals
How We Teach Molecular Structure to Freshmen  Michael O. Hurst
Examination of how textbooks discuss various aspects of molecular structure; conclusion that much of general chemistry is taught the way it is for historical and not pedagogical reasons.
Hurst, Michael O. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 763.
Covalent Bonding |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Lewis Structures |
VSEPR Theory |
Valence Bond Theory |
MO Theory
Solving Quantum Number Problems: An Examination of Novice Performance in Terms of Conceptual Base Requirements  Dilek Ardac
Study to understand gaps and conceptual inconsistencies that may block successful performance when solving quantum number problems and improve problem-solving performance by giving students an opportunity to reflect on their thought processes as they solve problems.
Ardac, Dilek. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 510.
Quantum Chemistry |
Learning Theories
Fingerprinting: Commercial Products and Elements  DeeDee Allen and Maria T. Oliver-Hoyo
Activity in which students relate emission spectra to bar codes.
Allen, DeeDee; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 459.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Letter Matrix Puzzle on the Symbols of Elements  V. D. Kelkar
A 3x3 letter matrix puzzle based on the symbols of 35 elements.
Kelkar, V. D. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 456.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Response to Lowe's Potential-Energy-Only Models  Lowe, John P.
Discussion of the suitability of a potential-only model for the successive ionization energies of sulfur for an introductory chemistry course.
Lowe, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 430.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Response to Lowe's Potential-Energy-Only Models (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 155-156)  Frank Rioux and Roger L. DeKock
Discussion of the suitability of a potential-only model for the successive ionization energies of sulfur for an introductory chemistry course.
Rioux, Frank; DeKock, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 429.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
The Mendeleev-Seaborg Periodic Table: Through Z = 1138 and Beyond  Paul J. Karol
Extending the periodic table to very large atomic numbers and its implications for the organization of the periodic table, consideration of relativistic effects, and the relative stability of massive and supermassive atomic nuclei.
Karol, Paul J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 60.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Astrochemistry
Response to Potential-Energy-Only Models (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 155-156)  Frank Rioux and Roger L. DeKock
Example of buffering power in deviations of the pH of sodium acetate from calculated values.
Rioux, Frank; DeKock, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 29.
Acids / Bases |
Carboxylic Acids |
pH |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Putting UV-Sensitive Beads to the Test  Terre Trupp
Explores the temperature behavior of UV-sensitive beads and investigates the effectiveness of sunscreens.
Trupp, Terre. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 648A.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Kinetics |
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Photochemistry
Semimetallicity?  Stephen J. Hawkes
Analysis of whether semimetals are semiconductors and distinctions between metals, semimetals, and nonmetals.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1686.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nonmetals |
Physical Properties |
Solid State Chemistry |
Conductivity
LEDs Are Diodes  George C. Lisensky, S. Michael Condren, Cynthia G. Widstrand, Jonathan Breitzer, and Arthur B. Ellis
Comparison of incandescent bulbs with LEDs powered by AC and DC voltages; shows that LEDs are diodes and illustrates the relative energies of different wavelengths of light.
Lisensky, George C.; Condren, S. Michael; Widstrand, Cynthia G.; Breitzer, Jonathan; Ellis, Arthur B. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1664A.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Materials Science |
Nanotechnology |
Solid State Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Visualizing the Photochemical Steady State with UV-Sensitive Beads (re J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 77, 648A-648B)  Jerry A. Bell
Analysis of the temperature dependence of the color intensity of UV-sensitive beads.
Bell, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1594.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Kinetics |
Photochemistry |
Chemometrics
Boiling Points of the Family of Small Molecules CHwFxClyBrz: How Are They Related to Molecular Mass?  Michael Laing
Investigating the role of molecular mass in determining boiling points of small molecules.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1544.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Liquids |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
The Mole, the Periodic Table, and Quantum Numbers: An Introductory Trio  Mali Yin and Raymond S. Ochs
Suggestions for presenting and developing three key ideas in chemistry: the mole, the periodic table, and quantum numbers.
Yin, Mali; Ochs, Raymond S. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1345.
Nonmajor Courses |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Stoichiometry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Melting Point, Density, and Reactivity of Metals  Michael Laing
Using melting points and densities to the predict the relative reactivities of metals.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1054.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Physical Properties |
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Electrochemistry
Lewis Structures in General Chemistry: Agreement between Electron Density Calculations and Lewis Structures  Gordon H. Purser
The internuclear electron densities of a series of X-O bonds (where X = P, S, or Cl) are calculated using quantum mechanics and compared to Lewis structures for which the formal charges have been minimized; a direct relationship is found between the internuclear electron density and the bond order predicted from Lewis structures in which formal charges are minimized.
Purser, Gordon H. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 981.
Covalent Bonding |
Computational Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Lewis Structures |
Quantum Chemistry
Have Orbitals Really Been Observed? (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1492-1494)  John C. H. Spence, M. O'Keefe, and J. M. Zuo
Clarification of work described in a previous article.
Spence, John C. H.; O'Keefe, M.; Zuo, J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 877.
Computational Chemistry |
MO Theory |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Periodic Patterns (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1053-1056)  Michael Laing
Unique organization of the periodic table.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 877.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Main-Group Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements
Periodic Patterns (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1053-1056)  Michael Laing
Unique organization of the periodic table.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 877.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Main-Group Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements
A Dramatic Flame Test Demonstration  Kristin A. Johnson and Rodney Schreiner
Spraying a methanol / salt solution into the flame of a Meker burner to produce a large, brightly colored flame.
Johnson, Kristin A.; Schreiner, Rodney. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 640.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Screening Percentages Based on Slater Effective Nuclear Charge as a Versatile Tool for Teaching Periodic Trends  Kimberley A. Waldron, Erin M. Fehringer, Amy E. Streeb, Jennifer E. Trosky, and Joshua J. Pearson
Using charge shielding to identify and explain trends within the periodic table.
Waldron, Kimberley A.; Fehringer, Erin M.; Streeb, Amy E.; Trosky, Jennifer E.; Pearson, Joshua J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 635.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Using History to Teach Scientific Method: The Role of Errors  Carmen J. Giunta
This paper lists five kinds of error with examples of each from the development of chemistry in the 18th and 19th centuries: erroneous theories (phlogiston), seeing a new phenomenon everywhere one seeks it (Lavoisier and the decomposition of water), theories erroneous in detail but nonetheless fruitful (Dalton's atomic theory), rejection of correct theories (Avogadro's hypothesis), and incoherent insights (J. A. R. Newlands' classification of the elements).
Giunta, Carmen J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 623.
Nonmajor Courses |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Stoichiometry
Electronegativity and Bond Type: Predicting Bond Type  Gordon Sproul
Important limitations with using electronegativity differences to determine bond type and recommendations for using electronegativities in general chemistry.
Sproul, Gordon. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 387.
Covalent Bonding |
Materials Science |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Ionic Bonding |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Metallic Bonding
Chemiluminescence of Tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II): A Glowing Experience  Ed Bolton and Mark M. Richter
When Mg powder or turnings are added to a CH3CN-H2O (50:50 v/v) solution mixture containing 1 mM Ru(bpy)32+ and 40 mM S2O82- (CH3CN = acetonitrile, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, S2O82 = peroxydisulfate) at pH 1.2, a bright orange emission results that is easily visible in a darkened room.
Bolton, Ed; Richter, Mark M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 47.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry
Have Orbitals Really Been Observed?  Eric R. Scerri
Recent reports claiming to have observed textbook d orbitals are analyzed and it is argued that what was observed indirectly, and not for the first time, was actually electron density. It is also suggested that the tendency to use the terms electron density and orbital to mean the same thing will give rise to confusion in chemical education.
Scerri, Eric R. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1492.
Computational Chemistry |
MO Theory |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
No, the Molecular Mass of Bromobenzene Is Not 157 amu: An Exercise in Mass Spectrometry and Isotopes for Early General Chemistry  Steven M. Schildcrout
Even with no background in bonding and structure, students can successfully interpret the output of a modern research instrument. They learn to identify an isotope pattern, assign chemical formulas to ions giving mass spectral peaks, calculate an average atomic weight (for bromine) from measured isotopic abundances, and write balanced equations for ion fragmentation reactions.
Schildcrout, Steven M. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1433.
Isotopes |
Mass Spectrometry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Ernest Rutherford, Avogadro's Number, and Chemical Kinetics Revisited (about J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 998-1003)  James E. Sturm
Estimation of temperatures in heaven and hell based on biblical information.
Sturm, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1278.
Nonmajor Courses |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Kinetics |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
Ionization Energies, Parallel Spins, and the Stability of Half-Filled Shells  Peter Cann
Three methods for explaining the decrease in first ionization energies between group V and group VI elements are described and commented upon. The quantum mechanical origin of the unhelpful concept of half-shell stability is explained in terms of exchange energy, for which the alternative term parallel spin avoidance factor is suggested. It is recommended that for pre-university students the simplest explanation, in terms of Coulombic repulsion between two electrons occupying the same orbital, is adopted: it involves fewer difficult concepts than the other explanations and its predictions are no less accurate.
Cann, Peter. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1056.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
A Drop in the Ocean  Damon Diemente
Teachers of high-school chemistry customarily use calculations done as in-class exercises or as demonstrations to impress their students with the enormity of Avogadro's number and the concomitant miniscularity of atoms and molecules. This article presents and works out one such calculation.
Diemente, Damon. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1010.
Stoichiometry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A Living Periodic Table  James L. Marshall
A complete "living" periodic table of samples of all the elements through uranium is described. In many instances a sample of an element is accompanied by a direct commercial application. This periodic table is very helpful in enabling the student to gain a hands-on understanding of the true nature of the elements--as opposed to the more usual compilation of mere abstract data.
Marshall, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 979.
Main-Group Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
News from Online: Learning Communities  Carolyn Sweeney Judd
Summary of a variety of online, chemistry resources.
Judd, Carolyn Sweeney. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 808.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Chemistry Comes Alive!, Volume 4: Abstract of Special Issue 25 on CD-ROM  Jerrold J. Jacobsen, Gordon Bain, Kara Bruce, and John W. Moore
Chemistry Comes Alive!, Volume 4 is the fourth in a series of CD-ROMs for Macintosh and Windows computers. Volume 4 contains two main topics, Reactions in Aqueous Solution and Reactions of the Elements.
Jacobsen, Jerrold J.; Bain, Gordon; Bruce, Kara; Moore, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 799.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Descriptive Chemistry
Elementary "Who Am I" Riddles  R. Aldrin Denny, R. Lakshmi, H. Chitra, and Nandini Devi
Elementary riddles that highlight some properties of elements and their compounds and may provide a change of pace in a freshman chemistry lecture or in a quiz.
Denny, R. Aldrin; Lakshmi, R.; Chitra, H.; Devi, Nandini. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 477.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
News from Online: The Power of the Voice  Carolyn Sweeney Judd
Useful online chemistry resources.
Judd, Carolyn Sweeney. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 299.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Gases
The Periodic Round Table (by Gary Katz)  reviewed by Glen E. Rodgers
The "table" consists of four sets of two finely finished hardwood discs each with the elemental symbols and their corresponding atomic numbers pleasingly and symmetrically wood-burned into their faces.
Rodgers, Glen E. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 164.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Determination of the Fundamental Electronic Charge via the Electrolysis of Water  Brittany Hoffman, Elizabeth Mitchell, Petra Roulhac, Marc Thomes, and Vincent M. Stumpo
In an illuminating experiment suitable for secondary school students, a Hoffman electrolysis apparatus is employed to determine the fundamental electronic charge. The volume and pressure of hydrogen gas produced via the electrolysis of water during a given time interval are measured.
Hoffman, Brittany; Mitchell, Elizabeth; Roulhac, Petra; Thomes, Marc; Stumpo, Vincent M. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 95.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Electrochemistry |
Gases |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Analysis of Soft Drinks Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Mentorship  Arkim Wilson, Craig Myers, George Crull, Michael Curtis, and Pamela Pasciak Patterson
This mentorship was designed to expose a student to the laboratory routine for a chemist at Bristol Myers Squibb Company (BMS). The student visited BMS, collaborated with BMS scientists, and actually completed a project on site. He was asked to determine the identity of an unknown sample of soft drink retrieved from a fictitious crime scene using NMR spectroscopy.
Wilson, Arkim; Myers, Craig; Crull, George; Curtis, Michael; Pasciak, Pamela M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1414.
Instrumental Methods |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Student / Career Counseling
A Classroom Demonstration of Rayleigh Light Scattering in Optically Active and Inactive Systems  Monica Avalos Pecina and Charles A. Smith
The objective of this demonstration is to allow students to make a direct observation of the rotation of polarized light in an optically active medium. The observation is performed by passing a laser beam through a long vertical cylinder, which contains a solution of a nonabsorbing optically active compound.
Pecina, Monica Avalos; Smith, Charles A. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1230.
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Quantum Chemistry
A Framework for Presenting the Modern Atom  James J. Leary and Tadd C. Kippeny
A flow chart is presented that summarizes major empirical and theoretical accomplishments that contributed to the modern view of the atom. A chronology is included to show the time dependence of the various contributions. Suggestions are made about how this chart can be used in a variety of contexts as a framework for discussing science as a process.
Leary, James J.; Kippeny, Tadd C. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1217.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Letters  
Better treatment of the inner transition elements.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1064.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Inner Transition Elements
Lewis Structures Are Models for Predicting Molecular Structure, Not Electronic Structure  Gordon H. Purser
This article argues against a close relationship between Lewis dot structures and electron structure obtained from quantum mechanical calculations. Lewis structures are a powerful tool for structure prediction, though they are classical models of bonding and do not predict electronic structure.
Purser, Gordon H. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1013.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Computational Chemistry |
Quantum Chemistry |
MO Theory |
Learning Theories |
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Modeling
Flame Tests Using Improvised Alcohol Burners  Veljko Dragojlovic
In this demonstration, an improvised alcohol burner, with a methanol solution of a salt as fuel, produces a long-lasting brightly colored flame.
Dragojlovic, Veljko. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 929.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis
Soda Bottle Orbital Models  Adcock, Louis H.
Better method for connecting bottles.
Adcock, Louis H. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 899.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The Genius of Slater's Rules  James L. Reed
With only a few modifications a procedure has been developed that yields the one-electron energies for atoms and ions with a level of detail very well suited for instruction in the structure and properties of atoms. It provides for the computation of very reasonable values for such properties as ionization energies, electron affinities, promotion energies, electronic transitions, and even XPS and ESCA spectra.
Reed, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 802.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Spectroscopy
Periodic Puns for the Classroom  Paul E. Vorndam
Some puns on the names of the elements are presented.
Vorndam, Paul E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 492.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Learning Theories
The History and Use of Our Earth's Chemical Elements: A Reference Guide (by Robert E. Krebs)  reviewed by Jeffrey D. Bracken
This book is an excellent resource for chemical educators at the high school and college levels. The format of the text is consistent and the writing style is clear and concise, making it ideally suited for student use also.
Bracken, Jeffrey D. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 475.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Geochemistry |
Descriptive Chemistry
Periodic Table Live! 2nd Edition  Alton J. Banks, Jon L. Holmes, Jerrold J. Jacobsen, John W. Moore, Paul F. Schatz, Jaclyn Tweedale, John C. Kotz, and Susan Young
Description of the JCE CD Periodic Table Live! 2nd Edition.
Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.; Jacobsen, Jerrold J.; Moore, John W.; Schatz, Paul F.; Tweedale, Jaclyn; Kotz, John C.; Young, Susan. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 447.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The Ubiquitous Metaphors of Chemistry Teaching  Herbert Beall
The understanding and the confusion resulting from any scientific metaphor thus have to be considered when it is used. For example, a common chemical metaphor for the electron distribution about an atom is a cloud. Some of the entailments of this metaphor are apt, such as the diffuse nature of a cloud. Others, such as the ability of a cloud to evaporate, are not appropriate.
Beall, Herbert. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 366.
Atomic Properties / Structure
A Different Approach to a 3-D Periodic System Including Stable Isotopes  Alexandru T. Balaban
On a Periodic System with the two dimensions represented by Periods and Columns, one may stack each stable nuclide of an element along the third dimension. This "Downtown Area" representation is helpful for interconnecting concepts of: element, isotope or nuclide (stable vs. radioactive), atomic weight, atomic number, mass number.
Balaban, Alexandru T. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 359.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Isotopes |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
Periodic Tables of Elemental Abundance  Steven I. Dutch
Patterns of element abundance in the sun, chondrite meteorites, and the continental crust of the earth and the moon are portrayed on a periodic table. The abundance of each element is represented by a circle whose radius is proportional to the logarithm of the element's abundance.
Dutch, Steven I. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 356.
Astrochemistry |
Geochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Chemistry of the Heaviest Elements-One Atom at a Time  Darleane C. Hoffman and Diana M. Lee
A 75-year perspective of the chemistry of the heaviest elements, including a 50-year retrospective view of past developments, a summary of current research achievements and applications, and some predictions about exciting, new developments that might be envisioned within the next 25 years.
Hoffman, Darleane C.; Lee, Diana M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 331.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Isotopes |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Separation Science |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Why Gold and Copper Are Colored but Silver Is Not  Ariel H. Guerrero, Héctor J. Fasoli, and José Luis Costa
Interpretation of the yellow color of gold based on an adequate external electronic configuration (s1d10/s2d9) and s and d sublevels close enough to allow transition between them to proceed significantly.
Guerrero, Ariel H.; Fasoli, Hctor J.; Costa, Jos Luis. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 200.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Metals |
Descriptive Chemistry
The Gravity of the Situation  Damon Diemente
This article presents a few calculations demonstrating that gravitational attraction between atoms is many orders of magnitude weaker than the gravitational attraction between Earth and an atom, and that the gravitational attraction between two ions is many orders of magnitude weaker than the electromagnetic attraction between them.
Diemente, Damon. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 55.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
The Natural Selection of the Chemical Elements (by R. J. P. Williams and J. J. R. Fraústo da Silva)  George B. Kauffman
A book whose ambitious objective is "to show the relationship of every kind of material around us, living and nonliving, to the properties of the chemical elements of the periodic table." The entire book possesses a strong environmental and interdisciplinary emphasis.
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1559.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Descriptive Chemistry
Modeling Nuclear Decay: A Point of Integration between Chemistry and Mathematics  Kent J. Crippen and Robert D. Curtright
A four-part activity utilizing a graphing calculator to investigate nuclear stability is described. Knowledge acquired through the activity provides background for answering the societal question of using nuclear materials for energy production.
Crippen, Kent J.; Curtright, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1434.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Chemometrics
How Good Is the Quantum Mechanical Explanation of the Periodic System?  Eric R. Scerri
The use of quantum mechanics, or more specifically, orbitals and electronic configurations in teaching general chemistry is now such a widespread trend that it would be utterly futile to try to reverse it. Moreover, orbitals and configurations have been extremely useful in providing a theoretical framework for the unification of a multitude of chemical facts.
Scerri, Eric R. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1384.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Orbital Models Made of Plastic Soda Bottles  Vyacheslav V. Samoshin
The models for demonstration of shape and direction of atomic and molecular orbitals, their overlaps, interactions, and hybridizations may be easily constructed from plastic soda bottles. When the bottles are screwed into the lids, the models of sp3, sp2, or sp hybridized atoms are obtained.
Samoshin, Vyacheslav V. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 985.
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Molecular Modeling |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Percent Composition and Empirical Formula - A New View  George L. Gilbert
A new method of obtaining the empirical formula for a compound from its percent composition is proposed. The method involves the determination of a minimum molar mass for the compound based on the percentage of each element, obtaining the lowest common molar mass and using this data to calculate the integer values used in writing the empirical formula.
Gilbert, George L. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 851.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Demonstrating Electron Transfer and Nanotechnology: A Natural Dye-Sensitized Nanocrystalline Energy Converter  Greg P. Smestad and Michael Gratzel
A unique solar cell fabrication procedure has been developed using natural anthocyanin dyes extracted from berries. It can be reproduced with a minimum amount of resources in order to provide an interdisciplinary approach for lower-division undergraduate students learning the basic principles of biological extraction, physical chemistry, and spectroscopy as well as environmental science and electron transfer.
Smestad, Greg P.; Grtzel, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 752.
Photochemistry |
Plant Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Dyes / Pigments |
Nanotechnology |
Separation Science |
Spectroscopy
Using Balls of Different Sports To Model the Variation of Atomic Sizes  Gabriel Pinto
In this article, an analogy is described about the order of magnitude of the variation of atomic sizes that can be used for discussion in introductory chemistry classes. The order of magnitude of this variation, involving microscopic magnitudes, is difficult for students to imagine.
Pinto, Gabriel. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 725.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Experimental 4s and 3d Energies in Atomic Ground States  James L. Bills
A new definition is given for the effective charge Zf. HF orbital energies e4s and e3d are used in concert with I4s and I3d to answer four questions: Why does the 4s sublevel fill before 3d? Why is ionization easier for 4s than 3d? When 4s23dn has e3d < e4s, why doesn't 4s23dn -> 4s13dn+1? Why are Cr and Cu each 4s13dn+1 instead of 4s23dn?
Bills, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 589.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Deducing the Shell Model from Ionization Energies and the Use of Models in Introductory Chemistry  Ronald J. Gillespie, Richard S. Moog, and James N. Spencer
A major objection of Rioux and DeKock is the statement in the authors' earlier paper that electron repulsion is responsible for the relative ionization energies of H and He. The commentators work clearly shows that a quantum mechanical treatment of this problem reveals that kinetic energy considerations play a crucial role in these values. However, although their criticism is appropriate in the context of this more sophisticated QM treatment, it does not in any way invalidate the authors original paper, the goal of which was to provide a model, namely the shell model, for the electronic structure of atoms that is consistent with experimental ionization energies.
Gillespie, Ronald J.; Moog, Richard S.; Spencer, James N. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 539.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
The Crucial Role of Kinetic Energy in Interpreting Ionization Energies  Frank Rioux and Roger L. DeKock
The experimental ratio of the ionization energies of H and He is 1.81. The authors show that it is not correct to interpret this ratio using a classical Coulombic potential energy model. Rather a quantum mechanical model is required in which both kinetic and potential energy play a role.
Rioux, Frank; DeKock, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 537.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
In Defense of Quantum Numbers  Robert M. Richman
A recent paper has argued that the derivation of the periodic table using quantum numbers is a topic that should be eliminated from introductory chemistry courses because it is too abstract, mysterious, and esoteric. A rebuttal is offered based on the claim that it would be wrong to omit discussions of the inductive approach of Mendeleev and the deductive approach initiated by Schroedinger, because they compose the consummate example of that interaction of empirical and rational epistemologies that defines how chemists think.
Richman, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 536.
Learning Theories |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Quantum Chemistry
News from Online: Photons and Lasers  Carolyn Sweeney Judd
Online resources related to light and lasers.
Judd, Carolyn Sweeney. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 526.
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
An Improved Method for Students' Flame Tests in Qualitative Analysis  William D. Bare, Tom Bradley, and Elizabeth Pulliam
A new method for flame tests to be performed by students is presented. The method involves the use of a hot wire to vaporize the sample,which is subsequently drawn into the flame via the burner air vent.
William D. Bare, Tom Bradley, and Elizabeth Pulliam. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 459.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Demonstrations on Paramagnetism with an Electronic Balance  Adolf Cortel
The demonstration shows the paramagnetism of common inorganic compounds by measuring the force with which they are attracted by a magnet over the plate of an electronic balance.
Cortel, Adolf. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 61.
Magnetic Properties |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Flame Tests That Are Portable, Storable, and Easy To Use  George M. McKelvy
How to build a portable, storable, and easy to use flame test apparatus.
McKelvy, George M. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 55.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy
The Disappearing Liquid  H. D. Gesser and Ian Ward
Mixing ethanol and water in a volumetric flask results in a noticeable reduction in the volume of the mixture.
Gesser, H. D.; Ward, Ian. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1357.
Liquids |
Solutions / Solvents |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Getting Close with the Instructional Scanning Tunneling Microscope  Carl Steven Rapp
This state-of-the-art instrumentation is making it possible for students to actually view atoms in their own classroom. What is truly amazing, however, is that the ISTM can be set up and atomic resolution images obtained in about an hour.
Rapp, Carl Steven. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1087.
Instrumental Methods |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nanotechnology |
Surface Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
A Note on the Term "Chalcogen"  William B. Jensen
It is argued that the best translation of the term "chalcogen" is "ore former." It is further suggested that the term chalcogenide should be replaced with the term chalcide in order to maintain a parallelism with the terms halogen and halide.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1063.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Descriptive Chemistry
A Refrigerator Magnet Analog of Scanning-Probe Microscopy  Julie K. Lorenz, Joel A. Olson, Dean J. Campbell, George C. Lisensky, and Arthur B. Ellis
The magnetic interactions between a flexible-sheet refrigerator magnet and a probe tip cut from the same magnet is used as a macroscopic analog of scanning probe microscopies.
Lorenz, Julie K.; Olson, Joel A.; Campbell, Dean J.; Lisensky, George C.; Ellis, Arthur B. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1032A.
Surface Science |
Materials Science |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nanotechnology |
Magnetic Properties
Observation of Magnetic Repulsion Acting on Nitrogen Bubble on Water Surface - A Simple Experiment of Studying Diamagnetic Property of Nitrogen  Yukinori Matsuyama, Takashi Yasuoka, Syunmei Mitsuzawa, Tunetaka Sasaki
Observation of the paramagnetic property by a simple experiment showing the attraction of an oxygen bubble on the water surface to a magnet has been reported. In this article, we report the opposite behavior magnetic repulsion observed for a nitrogen bubble by the same method. [Third author's first name misspelled in hard copy and PDF.]
Matsuyama, Yukinori; Yasuoka, Takashi; Mitsuzawa, Syunmei; Sasaki, Tunetaka. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 943.
Learning Theories |
Magnetic Properties |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Atomic and Molecular Structure in Chemical Education: A Critical Analysis from Various Perspectives of Science Education  Georgios Tsaparlis
The perspectives employed in this paper are (i) the Piagetian developmental perspective, (ii) the Ausbelian theory of meaningful learning, (iii) the information processing theory, and (iv) the alternative conceptions movement. The implications for teaching and curriculums are discussed.
Tsaparlis, Georgios. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 922.
Learning Theories |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Constructivism
The Periodic Building of the Elements: Can a Periodic Table Be Transformed into a Stereo One?  Fu-cheng He, Xiang-yuan Li
A periodic table of any size can be transformed into a stereo model which is called the Periodic Building of the Elements (PBE). To construct the PBE a submodel of the main group and the transition elements should be made in advance, and then a submodel of the lanthanides and the actinides is made in a simple procedure. The whole model is obtained by simply combining these two submodels together.
He, Fu-cheng; Li, Xiang-yuan . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 792.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
VSEPR Theory Demo  Janice Parker
This article describes a procedure to demonstrate electron pair repulsion (or molecular arrangement) using cow magnets and simple laboratory equipment.
Parker, Janice. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 776.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory
Teaching Chemistry with Electron Density Models  Gwendolyn P. Shusterman and Alan J. Shusterman
This article describes a powerful new method for teaching students about electronic structure and its relevance to chemical phenomena. This method, developed and used for several years in general chemistry and organic chemistry courses, relies on computer-generated three-dimensional models of electron density distributions.
Shusterman, Gwendolyn P.; Shusterman, Alan J. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 771.
Learning Theories |
Computational Chemistry |
Molecular Modeling |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Dymystification at What Cost? (re J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 617 and 627)  R. J. Gillespie, J. N. Spencer, R. S. Moog
Rationale for using Allen's scale of electronegativities.
Gillespie, R. J.; Spencer, J. N.; Moog, R. S. . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 480.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Dymystification at What Cost? (re J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 617 and 627)  Eric Scerri
Errors and questionable rationale for using Allen's scale of electronegativities.
Scerri, Eric. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 480.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Periodic Table Live! Abstract of Special Issue 17  Alton J. Banks, Jon L. Holmes, John C. Kotz, Susan Young, Paul F. Schatz, John W. Moore
Periodic Table Live! combines on a single CD-ROM the digital video from the Periodic Table CD (1) with the graphical and descriptive databases of the elements from the Illustrated Periodic Table (2) and Chemistry Navigator (3) to form a unified, easy-to-use, dynamic tour of the periodic table. Also the Chemistry Navigator and Illustrated Periodic Table upgrades.
Banks, Alton J.; Holmes Jon L.; Kotz, John C.; Young, Susan; Schatz, Paul F.; Moore, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 445.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The Traveling Electron  Richard Pendarvis
An analogy is drawn between the location of students on vacation and the probability of finding an electron at some point in space. Students participate in developing the analogy by indicating how far from campus they were during a given vacation period.
Pendarvis, Richard. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 396.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Three Programs for DOS: Abstract of Volume 10B, Number 1 2. Periodic Table Games  John S. Martin
The Periodic Table Games are intended to expose students to the vocabulary of chemistry: formulas, combination rules, and descriptive chemistry. They may be played by an individual against the computer, or by several competing players.
Martin, John S. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 346.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Die Chemischen Elemente: Ein Streifzug durch das Periodensystem by Lucien F. Trueb  reviewed by George B. Kauffman
A Ramble through the Periodic System is divided into two parts: Part I, "The Conception of the Elements and the Periodic System" (14 pp), and Part II, "The Elements" (381 pp). The first considers the idea of the elements from Democritus to Lavoisier, the discovery and development of the periodic system, and the origin of the elements, including nucleosynthesis. The second, consisting of 23 chapters, describes each of the elements from hydrogen and its isotopes (16 pp) to the heaviest of the known transactinides (element 112).
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 344.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Electron Affinities of the Alkaline Earth Metals and the Sign Convention for Electron Affinity  John C. Wheeler
It has been known since 1987, both theoretically and experimentally, that the ion Ca- is stable. It is now certain that Sr-, Ba-, and Ra- are also stable, and accurate values for the electron affinities of Ca-, Sr-, and Ba- have been determined. Recommended values for these electron affinities, in the units commonly employed in introductory texts and with the sign convention used here, are 2.37, 5.03, and 13.95 kJ/mol for Ca, Sr, and Ba, respectively.
Wheeler, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 123.
Metals |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Concept Maps in Chemistry Education  Alberto Regis, Pier Giorgio Albertazzi, Ezio Roletto
This article presents and illustrates a proposed application of concept maps in chemistry teaching in high schools. Three examples of the use of concept maps in chemistry teaching are reported and discussed with reference to: atomic structure, oxidation-reduction and thermodynamics.
Regis, Alberto; Albertazzi, Pier Giorgio; Roletto, Ezio. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1084.
Learning Theories |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics
Quantum Analogies on Campus  Ngai Ling Ma
By using examples drawn from daily life of students, simple analogies are used to illustrate a few quantum concepts which include: wave function, quantum numbers, states, degeneracy of states, transitions, selection rules, probability and probability density, operators and wave-particle dualism.
Ma, Ngai Ling. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1016.
Quantum Chemistry
Symmetry Elements and Operations  Albert W.M. Lee, K.M. Leung, W.J Daniel, C.L. Chan
Symmetry Elements and Operations is a multimedia presentation that illustrates the basics of symmetry with three dimensional molecular models and simple text explanations.
Lee, Albert W.M.; Leung, K.M.; Kwong, Daniel W.J.; Chan, C.L. . J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 924.
Molecular Modeling |
Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Quantum Chemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials
NMR Shielding and the Periodic Table  I. P. Gerothanassis and C. G. Kalodimos
The object of this article is to find periodic, structurally significant observables that can be correlated to the nuclear shielding or alternatively to investigate whether chemical shift can be used to intensify the periodic disposition of valence electrons.
Gerothanassis, I. P.; Kalodimos, C. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 801.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Instrumental Methods
An Easily Constructed and Versatile Molecular Model  Sandra A. Hernandez, Nora M. Rodriguez, and Oscar Quinzani
This article discusses inexpensive, easily carried, and semipermanent molecular models that the students may build by themselves.
Hernandez, Sandra A.; Rodriguez, Nora M.; Quinzani, Oscar V. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 748.
Molecular Modeling |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Interactive Computer Visualization in the Introductory Chemistry Curriculum  Victoria M. Bragin
This project explores the use of technological innovations to facilitate learning in introductory chemistry courses by those with a poor academic background, while also challenging those prepared to master the curriculum.
Bragin, Victoria M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 747.
Gases |
Rate Law |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Electrochemistry
Electronic Configuration Pattern Found in Pascal's Triangle  Robert L. Duncan
A simple method for revealing the electronic configuration pattern within Pascal's Triangle is discussed. The origin of this unique pattern may be part of a combinatoric and is suggested a link may be made to quantum mechanics. Based on this triangular array an alternate representation of the Periodic Table is presented.
Duncan, Robert L. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 742.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
SIRS: Simulations and Interactive Resources, III  Martin, John S.
Simulations and Interactive Resources (SIRs) are designed to support interactive lectures in introductory chemistry. This third issue of SIRs includes five new SIRs as well as updated and final versions of all previously published SIRs.
Martin, John S. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 722.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Reactions |
Electrochemistry |
Kinetics
On the Masses of the Fundamental Particles in the Bound State  R. Subramanium, N. K. Goh, and L. S. Chia
A simple computational approach is presented to show that the masses of the fundamental particles are not only lower in the elements but are also different for the various elements. Only basic concepts relating to an atom such as mass number, atomic number, relative isotopic mass, and Avogadro's Number are required.
R. Subramanium, N. K. Goh, and L. S. Chia. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 663.
Atomic Properties / Structure
An Approach to Reaction Thermodynamics through Enthalpies, Entropies, and Free Energies of Atomization  James N. Spencer, Richard S. Moog, and Ronald J. Gillespie
An alternative to the conventional method of calculating enthalpies of reaction is presented, using enthalpies of atomization in place of enthalpies of formation. This allows the student to see directly that the reaction enthalpies are determined by the difference in bond strengths in the reactants and products.
James N. Spencer, Richard S. Moog, and Ronald J. Gillespie. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 631.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium |
Reactions |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Stoichiometry
Ionization Energies, Electronegativity, Polar Bonds, and Partial Charges  James N. Spencer, Richard S. Moog, and Ronald J. Gillespie
Ionization energies obtained experimentally from photoelectron spectroscopy provide a convenient and simple method for obtaining electronegativity values that correlate well with the standard methods of Pauling, Allred, and Rochow.
James N. Spencer, Richard S. Moog, and Ronald J. Gillespie. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 627.
Covalent Bonding |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy
Bonding and Molecular Geometry without Orbitals- The Electron Domain Model  Ronald J. Gillespie, James N. Spencer, and Richard S. Moog
An alternative to the conventional valence bond approach to bonding and geometry-the electron domain model-is presented. This approach avoids some of the problems with the standard approach and presents fewer difficulties for the student, while still providing a physical basis for the VSEPR model and a link to the valence bond model.
Ronald J. Gillespie, James N. Spencer, and Richard S. Moog. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 622.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory
Electron Configurations from Experiment  Ronald J. Gillespie, James N. Spencer, and Richard S. Moog
Alternative methods of introducing students to atomic energy levels and electron configurations are presented based on experimental evidence rather than quantum mechanics.
Ronald J. Gillespie, James N. Spencer, and Richard S. Moog. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 617.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy
Group Project Format in First-Semester General Chem Lab  Theresa C. Varco-Shea, Jeanne Darlington, and Marilyn Turnbull
Recent changes in the laboratory portion of our general chemistry course have included group projects, writing reports, and oral presentations.
Varco-Shea, Theresa C.; Darlington, Jeanne; Turnbull, Marilyn. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 536.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Tape and Tetrahedra  John W. Hill
I have found a simple solution to the problem of visualizing the tetrahedron. I use masking tape or labeling tape to connect the hydrogen atoms to one another. The tape represents the edges of the tetrahedron; the four hydrogen atoms are the corners.
Hill, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 531.
Molecular Modeling |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Glowing Veggies  Pirketta Scharlin, Audrey A. Cleveland, Rubin Battino, Monica E. Thomas, and Arnold George
In this paper we extend our work to other vegetables and the spectra generated by other elements than the sodium in pickle brines. We also did a study on the effect of concentration and voltage on glow intensity.
Scharlin, Pirketta; Cleveland, Audrey A.; Battino, Rubin; Thomas, Monica E. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 457.
Conductivity |
Food Science |
Atomic Properties / Structure
CAI for Chemistry  Lesile Glasser, John D. Bradley, George Brink, and Pam van Zyl
These six programs provide an opportunity for interactive practice of general chemistry material.
Glasser, L.; Bradley, J. D.; Brink, G.; van Zyl, P. . J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 323.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Electrochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A Millikan Oil Drop Analogy  Doris A. Eckey
As an aid to understanding, an analogy is drawn between the manner in which the charge on a single electron is deduced from the total charge on an oil drop, and a rather peculiar pricing system in a surreal candy store.
Eckey, Doris. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 237.
Atomic Properties / Structure
A 3-D Diagram of the Relationships among Atomic Orbitals  Donald M. Graham
A stereo diagram is presented of the relationships among the three quantum numbers required to identify atomic orbitals. This provides students with an immediate visual image of the constraints on the values of the quantum numbers.
Graham, Donald M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 210.
Atomic Properties / Structure
A Mnemonic Method for Assigning the Electronic Configurations of Atoms  Nerea Iza and Manuel Gil
An algorithm for determining electronic configurations.
Iza, Nerea; Gil, Manuel. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1025.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Moseley's Work on X-Rays and Atomic Number  C. W. Haigh
Explanation of the relationship between Moseley's work in determining atomic numbers, the spectrum of the hydrogen atom, the Bohr theory, and Slater's rules for screening constants.
Haigh, C. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1012.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
What Does It Mean?: Reflections on Concentration, Activity, and Electrode Potential  Pietro Lanza
Explanation of electrode potential and the mechanism of the electrode process for determining concentration.
Lanza, Pietro. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1009.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Electrochemistry
Syringe Ammonia Fountain  Jin Li and Ai-Zhi Peng
Energizing various metallic chlorides in watch glasses with methanol to introduce atomic emission spectroscopy.
Li, Jin; Peng, Ai-Zhi; Burgett, P. Clayton. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 828.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Singlet Oxygen at the Laundromat  David Keeports
Method for demonstrating the production of singlet molecular oxygen.
Keeports, David . J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 822.
Atomic Properties / Structure
pKw Is Almost Never 14.0: Contribution from the Task Force on the General Chemistry Curriculum  Stephen J. Hawkes
Corrections to the errors made in the ionic equilibrium chapters of introductory chemistry textbooks.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 799.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
First-Year Chemistry in the Context of the Periodic Table   Sheila D. Woodgate
Integration of descriptive chemistry into chemistry curricula, particularly inorganic chemistry.
Woodgate, Sheila D. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 618.
Main-Group Elements |
Transition Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation State |
Acids / Bases
Common Textbook and Teaching Misrepresentations of Lewis Structures   Laila Suidan, Jay K. Badenhoop, Eric D. Glendening, and Frank Weinhold
Clarifying leading Lewis structures using computational software.
Suidan, Laila; Badenhoop, Jay K.; Glendening, Eric D.; Weinhold, Frank. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 583.
Lewis Structures |
Covalent Bonding |
Quantum Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Bond Energy Data Summarized  Kildahl, Nicholas K.
A periodic table that summarizes a variety of bond energy information.
Kildahl, Nicholas K. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 423.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
The Periodic Table CD  Banks, Alton J; Holmes, Jon L.
Description of the Periodic Table CD, containing a database of still images and motion sequences of reactions and uses/applications of each chemical element.
Banks, Alton J; Holmes, Jon L. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 409.
Main-Group Elements |
Transition Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Reactions
Three-Dimensional Graphical Visualization of One-Electron Atomic Orbitals  Ramachandran, B.; Kong, P. C.
173. Bits and pieces, 53. Software to produce contour plots of atomic orbitals.
Ramachandran, B.; Kong, P. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 406.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Where the Electrons Are  Barth, Roger
173. Bits and pieces, 53. Software for realistic modeling of electronic orbitals using contour plots of probability densities.
Barth, Roger J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 401.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Presenting the Periodic System with Pictures  Bolmgren, Ingmari
Simulating Mendeleev's development of the periodic table by organizing colored cardboard circles.
Bolmgren, Ingmari J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 337.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Main-Group Elements
An Easily Constructed Salicylate-Ion-Selective Electrode for Use in the Instructional Laboratory  Creager, Stephen E.; Lawrence, Kyle D.; Tibbets, Craig R.
Construction and use of a salicylate-ion-selective electrode; includes a calibration curve.
Creager, Stephen E.; Lawrence, Kyle D.; Tibbets, Craig R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 274.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Ion Selective Electrodes
Put the Body to Them!  Perkins, Robert R.
Examples of chemistry demonstrations involving student participation, including quantized states and systems, boiling point trends, intermolecular vs. intramolecular changes, polar/nonpolar molecules, enantiomers and diastereomers, and chromatography.
Perkins, Robert R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 151.
Chromatography |
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Quantum Chemistry |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers
The Periodic Table Video Disk: Second Edition  Banks, Alton J.
A database of visual information about the chemical elements.
Banks, Alton J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 126.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Descriptive Chemistry
Use of Electrochemical Concentration Cells to Demonstrate the Dimeric Nature of Mercury(I) in Aqueous Media  Bhattacharya, Deepta; Peters, Dennis G.
Experimental procedure for demonstrating that divalent mercury is monovalent in aqueous solution; includes data and analysis.
Bhattacharya, Deepta; Peters, Dennis G. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 64.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Studying Activity Series of Metals: Using Deep-Learning Strategies  Hoon, Tien-Ghun; Goh, Ngoh-Khang; Chia, Lian-Sai
Uses a unit of the activity series of metals to demonstrate the teaching of the interrelationships between chemical concepts by linking new information to previously known material.
Hoon, Tien-Ghun; Goh, Ngoh-Khang; Chia, Lian-Sai J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 51.
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements
Periodic Trends for the Entropy of Elements  Thoms, Travis
Graphical representation and explanation for periodic trends in the entropy of elements.
Thoms, Travis J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 16.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Thermodynamics |
Main-Group Elements |
Transition Elements
The Hydride Ion and Its Loosely Bound Outer Electron  Li, Wai-Kee
The author is giving credit for a conclusion on the electron configuration of the hydrogen atom that was incorrectly referenced to him.
Li, Wai-Kee J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1098.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The Illustrated Periodic Table  Kotz, John C.; Moore, John W.; Schatz, Paul F.
The Illustrated Periodic Table provides means for exploring the properties of chemical elements using a graphics-oriented environment.
Kotz, John C.; Moore, John W.; Schatz, Paul F. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1063.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The Periodic Table of Atoms: Arranging the Elements by a Different Set of Rules  Treptow, Richard S.
The periodic table found in this paper is based on the properties of free gaseous atoms rather than atoms in a chemical environment.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1007.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A Student's Travels, Close Dancing, Bathtubs, and the Shopping Mall: More Analogies in Teaching Introductory Chemistry   Rayner-Canham, Geoff
Four analogies are described for use in introductory chemistry classes.
Rayner-Canham, Geoff J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 943.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Equilibrium
Chemistry Navigator  Kotz, John C.; Young, Susan
Chemistry Navigator is a hyperbook-database of information in the form of descriptive text, numerical values of properties, full color photos of chemicals and reactions, three dimensional molecular structures, QuickTime animations of structural features, and graphs showing periodic trends, relative elemental abundances, and other properties.
Kotz, John C.; Young, Susan J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 941.
Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Nuclear Shapes: From the Mundane to the Exotic  Yates, Steven W.
The shape and stability of atomic nuclei.
Yates, Steven W. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 837.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Some Analogies for Teaching Atomic Structure at the High School Level  Goh, Ngoh Khang; Chia, Lian Sai; Tan, Daniel
Analogies for orbitals, Hund's rule, and the four quantum numbers.
Goh, Ngoh Khang; Chia, Lian Sai; Tan, Daniel J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 733.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Multimedia Chemistry Lectures  Whitnell, Robert M.; Fernandes, Eric A.; Almassizadeh, Farshad; Love, John J. C.; Dugan, Brookie M.; Sawrey, Barbara A.; Wilson, Kent R.
Development of a full set of multimedia lectures for the second quarter of a two-quarter physical chemistry sequence.
Whitnell, Robert M.; Fernandes, Eric A.; Almassizadeh, Farshad; Love, John J. C.; Dugan, Brookie M.; Sawrey, Barbara A.; Wilson, Kent R. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 721.
Quantum Chemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Statistical Mechanics
Simulations and Interactive Resources  Martin, John S.
12 Simulations and Interactive Resources (SIRs) including Periodic Table Displays, Electron Orbits and Orbitals, Electron Configurations, Barometers and Manometers, Vapor Pressure, Ideal Gas Behavior, Heat Capacity and Heat of Reaction, Approach to Equilibrium, The Law of Chemical Equilibrium, Titration Curves, Electrochemical Cells, and Rate of Reaction.
Martin, John S. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 667.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Gases |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Rate Law
Transition Metals and the Aufbau Principle  Vanquickenborne, L. G.; Pierloot, K.; Devoghel, D.
Explanation of why the ground state configuration of the neutral transition metals is in most cases 3dn4s2, and why the ground state configuration of the corresponding ions is obtained by preferentially removing the 4s electrons.
Vanquickenborne, L. G.; Pierloot, K.; Devoghel, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 469.
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Atomic Spectra-Graph  Surovell, Todd
Displays the emission spectra of over 80 elements; data are encapsulated into Microsoft Excel spreadsheets.
Surovell, Todd J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 422.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy
On Using Incomplete Theories as Cataloging Schemes: Aufbau, Abbau, and VSEPR  Tykodi, R. J.
How to restructure as cataloging schemes the aufbau and abbau procedures for obtaining the ground-state electronic structures of atoms and monatomic ions.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 273.
VSEPR Theory |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Further Aufbau Nonsense  Scerri, Eric R.
Aufbau mnemonics are counterproductive.
Scerri, Eric R. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 270.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Visualization of the Abstract in General Chemistry  Paselk, Richard A.
A series of software programs for beginning chemistry, including a series of modules addressing the fundamental phenomena associated with bonding, the microscopic phenomena underlying commonly observed systems, and a reference periodic table.
Paselk, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 225.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The Periodic Table and the Human Element (Emsley, John)  Kauffman, George B.; Kauffman, Laurie M.
Review of videos centered on personal stories told through the elements.
Kauffman, George B.; Kauffman, Laurie M. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A51.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Introducing chemistry to chemical engineering students   Bottani, Eduardo Jorge
Description of changes introduced to a general chemistry course for chemical engineering students.
Bottani, Eduardo Jorge J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 935.
Quantum Chemistry |
Materials Science
Banish quantum mechanics from general chemistry?   Schaefer, Henry F., III.
Is the subject of quantum mechanics unteach-able at the general level? This author disagrees with a previous article in which a case was made for removing quantum mechanics from general chemistry.
Schaefer, Henry F., III. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 782.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Quantum Chemistry
The Caltech chemistry animation project   Lewis, Nathan S.
Animations are being produced on subjects such as: atomic and molecular orbitals, lattices, VSPER, nucleophilic substitution, stereochemistry, sigma and pi bonding, and many more.
Lewis, Nathan S. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 739.
Stereochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
MO Theory |
Crystals / Crystallography
"Qual": From a different viewpoint  Laing, Michael
Author contends that traditional teaching techniques in inorganic chemistry need to be reconsidered.
Laing, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 666.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Metals |
Qualitative Analysis |
Coordination Compounds
Pictorial analogies VII: Quantum numbers and orbitals   Fortman, John J.
Quantum number n is related to the size of a house, l is related to the shape of a house, and m is compared to the direction the house is facing. Pictures are included.
Fortman, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 649.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Pictorial analogies VI: Radial and angular wave function plots   Fortman, John J.
The distribution of an electron around a nucleus is likened to a friend who enjoys eating at restaurants ... especially those close to his/her home.
Fortman, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 549.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Bleaching with Chlorine: Another Tomato Juice Demonstration   Nemetz, Thomas M.; Ball, David W.
Bubbling chlorine gas through tomato juice produces dramatic color changes. This paper provides safe instructions for the demonstration.
Nemetz, Thomas M.; Ball, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 154.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Reactions
On a Relation between the Heisenberg and deBroglie Principles  Ludwig, Oliver G.
Author suggests a way of looking at the wave-particle duality with a more concrete application of both relations and an insightful interpretation of the deBroglie principle for use in general chemistry.
Ludwig, Oliver G. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 28.
Quantum Chemistry
Quanta: A Handbook of Concepts, Second Edition (Atkins, P.W.)  Goddard, John D.
This handbook is a unique source of the sorts of explanations we should all like to give "off the cuff" for the quantum mechanical phenomena of importance in our various areas of chemistry.
Goddard, John D. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A167.
Quantum Chemistry
Dimitri Mendeleyev: Father of the Periodic Table (Films for the Humanities and Sciences)  Kauffman, George B.
This videocassette gives a multifaceted portrait of the periodic table's creator, Dimitri Ivanovich Mendeleyev.
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A140.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Line spectra using a CD disc  Brouwer, Henry
Viewing the emission spectrum from a gas discharge tube or element heated in a flame using a CD disk.
Brouwer, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 829.
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Rediscovering the wheel: The flame test revisited  Ragsdale, Ronald O.; Driscoll, Jerry A.
Exciting metallic salts in burning methanol to produce colors visible throughout a large lecture hall.
Ragsdale, Ronald O.; Driscoll, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 828.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Metals
Electronegativity and atomic charge  Reed, James L.
Because electronegativity is such a fundamental concept, it should be continually developed in sophistication throughout the curriculum; considers the energy function, atomic charges, and chemical reactivities.
Reed, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 785.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Comments invited on changes in definition of "atomic weight"  Richardson, D. E.
Invitation to comment on changes in definition of "atomic weight" by the Commission on Atomic Weights and Isotopic Abundances of IUPAC.
Richardson, D. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 736.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Argon-potassium atomic weight inversion in the periodic table.  Arnikar, H. J.
An explanation for the Ar-K inversion in terms of the nuclear characteristics of the naturally occurring isotopes of these elements.
Arnikar, H. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 687.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Geochemistry |
Isotopes
Rutherford: Exploring the scattering of alpha particles.  Rittenhouse, Robert C.
This simulation permits students to design and implement scattering experiments of the sort performed by Rutherford, Geiger, and Marsden.
Rittenhouse, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 637.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The nature of the chemical bond-Once more (3).  Scerri, E. R.
Whether or not the aufbau principle is an illusion, as Ogilvie calls it, should be thoroughly investigated.
Scerri, E. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 602.
Quantum Chemistry
The nature of the chemical bond-Once more (2).  Scott, J. M. W.
The mathematical description of chemical phenomena via quantum mechanics is no less obscure than its purely verbal counterpart, for at some point, the abstract mathematics must be translated into terms familiar to chemists or remain at a level of abstraction that is virtually useless to the chemist working at the bench.
Scott, J. M. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 600.
Quantum Chemistry
The nature of the chemical bond-Once more (1).  Edmiston, Clyde.
The original article is a classic case of incorrect conclusions drawn from largely correct facts.
Edmiston, Clyde. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 600.
Quantum Chemistry |
MO Theory
The nature of the chemical bond - 1992  Pauling, Linus
Commentary on errors in an earlier article on the nature of the chemical bond.
Pauling, Linus J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 519.
Covalent Bonding |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The best Aufbau mnemonic: The periodic table  Ludwig, Oliver G.
Using the periodic table exclusively to rationalize electron assignments has the advantage of emphasizing the experimental aspect of the science and avoids giving the impression that chemistry is nothing but a set of mysterious rules.
Ludwig, Oliver G. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 430.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Alternative Aufbau mnemonics   Bevak, Joseph P.; McDevitt, Eugene J.
Author believes there is a better alternative to Aufabu mnemonics.
Bevak, Joseph P.; McDevitt, Eugene J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 430.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Atomic spectroscopy with a compact disc   Mebane, Robert C.; Rybolt, Thomas R.
The compact disc used by the music industry provides a convenient and ubiquitous diffraction grating that can be used with a mercury street lamp to explore the electronic structure of atoms through simple atomic spectroscopy observations.
Mebane, Robert C.; Rybolt, Thomas R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 401.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Orbital Transitions  Liebl, Michael
"Orbital Transitions" displays two-dimensional plots of the changing electron probability density function in the hydrogen atom as an electron moves from one orbital to another.
Liebl, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 400.
Atomic Properties / Structure
A spectacular demonstration of flame tests   Thomas, Nicholas C.; Brown, Rachel
The authors present an alternate flame test demonstration that utilizes guncotton as the combustible material.
Thomas, Nicholas C.; Brown, Rachel J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 326.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Analogical demonstrations   Fortman, John J.
By illustrating an analogy with a visual demonstration, a student is aided in both understanding and remembering a lesson.
Fortman, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 323.
Physical Properties |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides |
Acids / Bases
A chemical literature/periodic table exercise for general chemistry.  Schneider, Marilyn J.
This article describes an exercise where students are assigned an element and asked to research recent work on the element.
Schneider, Marilyn J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 232.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
An overhead projector demonstration of nuclear beta emission   Fortman, John J.
This demonstration illustrates an analogy for beta emission, with its concurrent conversion of a neutron to a proton.
Fortman, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 162.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Close packing of identical spheres   Ostercamp, Daryl L.
Ordinary marbles can be placed in a wooden rack on the stage of an overhead projector to illustrate the close-pack coordination of 12, the arrangement with 12 nearest neighbor atoms.
Ostercamp, Daryl L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 162.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Periodic properties in a family of common semiconductors: Experiments with light emitting diodes  Lisensky, George C.; Penn, Rona; Geselbracht, Margret J.; Ellis, Arthur B.
The prevalence of LED's and their low cost make LED's ideal for classroom demonstrations or laboratory experiments showing the connection between periodic trends in physical/chemical properties and a common high tech device.
Lisensky, George C.; Penn, Rona; Geselbracht, Margret J.; Ellis, Arthur B. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 151.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Semiconductors
KC? Discoverer with Knowledgeable Counselor  Cabrol, Daniel; Moore, John W.; Rittenhouse, Rita C.
KC? Discoverer is a program that permits students and faculty to explore a wide range of properties of the elements and is closely coordinated with the periodic table.
Cabrol, Daniel; Moore, John W.; Rittenhouse, Rita C. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 40.
Physical Properties |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
MacMendeleev: A program for exploring the periodic table (Clardy, Jon)  Bertrand, Gary L.
A review for a software program that serves as a database for properties of the elements.
Bertrand, Gary L. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A291.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Physical Properties
Chem 1 concept builder (Lower, Steve with Instructional Software)  Hair, Sally R.
A review of a software package designed for tutorial and drill.
Hair, Sally R. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A19.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A divertimento on the symbols of the elements  Earl, Boyd L.
Ideas for games using the symbols of the elements.
Earl, Boyd L. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1011.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A procedure for determining formulas for the simple p-block oxoacids  Kildahl, Nicholas K.
Formulae for p-block oxoacids baffle high school and undergraduate students. This paper presents a procedure for developing these formulas based on the concept of total coordination number of the central atom in the molecule or ion.
Kildahl, Nicholas K. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1001.
Acids / Bases |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Collecting and using the chemical elements  Solomon, Sally; Bates, Donald J.
The Royal Society of Chemistry "Periodic Table of Elements" poster succeeds in attracting the attention of people who walk past it. This paper discusses the assembly of the element display, prices, sources, and handling tips for each element and specific suggestions about how to use the elements in classroom situations.
Solomon, Sally; Bates, Donald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 991.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
KC? Discoverer: Exploring the properties of the chemical elements  Liebel, Michael
This software program allows users to explore a large number of properties of the elements. The program can find all elements associated with a certain property, graph numeric properties against other numeric properties, list elements, sort elements, and use the periodic table to select elements.
Liebel, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 956.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Physical Properties |
Chemometrics |
Descriptive Chemistry
A short qualitative analysis scheme without hazardous wastes  Petty, John T.
A description of laboratory procedures that utilize the important pedagogy of qualitative analysis schemes while being more safe to perform than the traditional procedures.
Petty, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 942.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Metals |
Qualitative Analysis |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Adding colors and sparkles to hydrogen balloon explosions   Fortman, John J.
This short paper provides instructions and a table with needed quantities. The author also notes advice and insights into the quality of colors and sparkles produced.
Fortman, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 937.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The preparation of halogen waters   Diemente, Damon
Aqueous solutions of halogens can provide important demonstrations regarding periodicity, however many instructors are understandably hesitant to handle halogens. This author discusses the safe handling of halogens.
Diemente, Damon J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 932.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Developmental instruction: Part II. Application of the Perry model to general chemistry  Finster, David C.
The Perry scheme offers a framework in which teachers can understand how students make meaning of their world, and specific examples on how instructors need to teach these students so that the students can advance as learners.
Finster, David C. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 752.
Learning Theories |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Chemometrics |
Descriptive Chemistry
A simple laboratory experiment illustrating the relative nature of atomic weights  Huff, Randolph B.; Evans, David W.
The concept of atomic weight scale remains a source of confusion for beginning chemistry students. This paper proposes a simple lab experience that could help students better understand this idea.
Huff, Randolph B.; Evans, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 675.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Aufbau mnemonics   Scerri, Eric R.
Assignment of electron configurations represents an approximation that is inconsistent with quantum mechanics.
Scerri, Eric R. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 445.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Bright-line spectrum analogy   Samsa, Richard A.
An analogy for bright-line emission using common items, such as sand and an eraser.
Samsa, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 412.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry |
Quantum Chemistry
Aufbau rewritten.  Singh, Ramsharan; Dikshit, S. K.
A handy little chart to help with learning ground-state electron configurations.
Singh, Ramsharan; Dikshit, S. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 396.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
The disco analogy   Battino, Rubin
A fantastic idea in helping students visualize the quantum mechanical model of the atom.
Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 285.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
An old new idea   Chauffe, Leroy
Hakala's scheme for applying the Aufbau principle in writing electron configurations for atoms. Please note that the letter cites the wrong article. The correct citation is for Volume 66, number 4, page 319...not page 310.
Chauffe, Leroy J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 270.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Alternative flame test procedures  Barnes, Zexia K.
An alternative to using Nichrome wire where the limited volume of solution delivered makes it difficult to see the color in the flame.
Barnes, Zexia K. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 246.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Photochemistry
The correct interpretation of Hund's rule as applied to "uncoupled states" orbital diagrams  Campbell, Mark L.
The application of Hund's rule by general chemistry students is appropriate as long as Hund's rule is interpreted correctly.
Campbell, Mark L. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 134.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
How to get more from ionization energies in the teaching of atomic structure  Mirone, Paolo
A wealth of experimental data could be exploited more extensively and profitably than what is presently done in the teaching of atomic structure.
Mirone, Paolo J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 132.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
There are no such things as orbitals-Act two!  Simons, Jack
What is the role of molecular orbital theory in chemistry instruction?
Simons, Jack J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 131.
MO Theory |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
MolVib: Visualizing molecular vibrations  Huber, Daniel
A software program that features animations that aid in visualizing molecular vibrations. This program can be used appropriately in several levels of chemistry.
Huber, Daniel J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 39.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Introduction to Modern Inorganic Chemistry, Fourth Edition (Mackay, K.M.; Mackay, R.A.)  Boschmann, Erwin
The authors put forth a two-fold strategy; to provide a broad base through a study of the periodic table and to treat selected topics in depth.
Boschmann, Erwin J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A52.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Simple Inorganic Substances: A New Approach (Sanderson, R.T.)  Kauffman, Goerge B.
This book stresses the cause-and-effect relationship between the structures of atoms and the properties of their compounds, with an emphasis on providing a thorough understanding of the most familiar and important inorganic compounds.
Kauffman, Goerge B. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A26.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Descriptive Chemistry
A visible spectrometer  Martin, James D.
An overhead projector spectrophotometer.
Martin, James D. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1061.
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The H2 + Cl2 explosion as a chemical analogue of the photoelectric effect: A true quantum mechanical demonstration  Knox, Kerro
The photochemical hydrogen-chlorine reaction affords a good example of the quantum aspect of light and its interaction with matter.
Knox, Kerro J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 897.
Reactions |
Quantum Chemistry |
Photochemistry
Simulation of Rutherford's experiment  Bishop, Carl B.
Apparatus and procedure to simulate Rutherford's classic gold foil experiment.
Bishop, Carl B. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 889.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Electron dormitory: Analogue  Morreale, Charles
Analogous reasoning and relating filling a dormitory with people and an atom with electrons.
Morreale, Charles J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 862.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Spectacular classroom demonstration of the flame test for metal ions  Mattson, Bruce M.; Snipp, Robert L.; Michels, Gary D.
Spraying a 1 M solution of a metal salt into the flame of a large Fisher burner.
Mattson, Bruce M.; Snipp, Robert L.; Michels, Gary D. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 791.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Periodic chart pedagogy  Yoder, Claude H.; Yoder, Carolyn S.
Questions based upon a hypothetical set of quantum numbers and their relationships; includes answers.
Yoder, Claude H.; Yoder, Carolyn S. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 759.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Picturing atomic magnitudes  Nelson, P. G.
Helping students to visualize the sizes of atoms.
Nelson, P. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 720.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Keeping track of directions of atomic orbitals: A useful device in organic chemistry  Talaty, Erach R.
The usefulness of keeping track of the directions of atomic orbitals.
Talaty, Erach R. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 655.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Alkenes |
Alkynes
How do electrons get across nodes? A problem in the interpretation of the quantum theory  Nelson, P. G.
Suggested responses to the question "How do electrons get across nodes?".
Nelson, P. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 643.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
"New" schemes for applying the Aufbau principle  Freeman, Robert D.
Two, essentially identical schemes for remembering how to write electronic configurations are not really new.
Freeman, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 576.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A numerical period table and the f-series chemical elements  Osorio, Hernan von Marttens
A numerical periodic table and its advantages (determining electronic configurations).
Osorio, Hernan von Marttens J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 563.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements
Applying KC?DISCOVERER in the introductory chemistry laboratory  Furstenau, Ronald P.; Amend, John R.
115. Bits and pieces, 44. KC?DISCOVERER contains a wide variety of physical and chemical properties of the elements.
Furstenau, Ronald P.; Amend, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 500.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Why the Daniell cell works!  Martins, George F.
The strength of bonds between atoms in metals, the relative ease of removing electrons from atoms, and the energy lowering of the attraction of water molecules for positive ions in solution all aid beginning student's understanding of why reactions occur.
Martins, George F. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 482.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Metals |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Understanding electron configurations   Rieck, David F.
The author has successfully employed an analogy for understanding electron configurations recommended for use in secondary schools as well as in nonmajor sections of college general chemistry.
Rieck, David F. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 398.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nonmajor Courses
Magnetic marbles as teaching aids  Hill, John W.
Magnetic marbles are valuable teaching aids for teachers who have steel chalkboards in their classroom.
Hill, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 320.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Ion Exchange
The periodicity of electron affinity  Myers, R. Thomas
In general, the values of electron affinity for the elements can be understood in terms of their ground state electron configuration, and the screening (effective nuclear charge) exerted on the added electron by the electrons already present in the neutral atom.
Myers, R. Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 307.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The nature of the chemical bond--1990: There are no such things as orbitals!  Ogilivie, J. F.
The author discusses the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics, the laws and theories, and the relationship of quantum-mechanics to atomic and molecular structure, as well as their relevance to chemical education.
Ogilivie, J. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 280.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A formula for calculating atomic radii of metals  Ping, Mei; Xiubin, Lei; Yuankai, Wen
In this paper, the authors present a theoretical formula for calculating metallic radii.
Ping, Mei; Xiubin, Lei; Yuankai, Wen J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 218.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Metals
A mnemonic for oxy-anions  Hawkes, Steven J.
A mnemonic rule for oxy-anions which utilizes the periodic table.
Hawkes, Steven J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 149.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A student experiment to demonstrate the energy loss and straggling of electrons in matter  de Bruin, M.; Huijgen, F. W. J.
The experiment described has been applied routinely for several years in introductory courses in the application of radiation and isotopes. The results obtained give direct insight into the characteristics of the phenomena associated with the absorption of energetic electrons in matter.
de Bruin, M.; Huijgen, F. W. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 86.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Isotopes
Demonstrations for nonscience majors: Using common objects to illustrate abstract concepts  Laurita, William
Some concrete examples of common chemical phenomena designed for a class of nonscience majors.
Laurita, William J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 60.
Nonmajor Courses |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Visualization of electron clouds in atoms and molecules  Douglas, John E.
110. Visualization of the electron orbital concept continues to challenge and intrigue chemical educators. [October and November 1989 Computer Series both inadvertently called number 107. Numbering restored by skipping 109 and calling January 1990 number 110.]
Douglas, John E. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 42.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Teaching the shapes of the hydrogenlike and hybrid atomic orbitals  Allendoerfer, Robert D.
The purpose of this article to show that, in this age of computer graphics, the "difficult to obtain" argument no longer has merit and to give an example of where the standard treatment gives insufficient attention to detail in describing the nodal surfaces of hybrid orbitals.
Allendoerfer, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 37.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The most useful actinide isotope: Americium-241  Navratil, James D.; Schulz, Wallace W.; Seaborg, Glenn T.
This paper briefly reviews Americium's discovery, nuclear and chemical properties, and its uses with an emphasis on its production and separations chemistry.
Navratil, James D.; Schulz, Wallace W.; Seaborg, Glenn T. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 15.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Separation Science |
Applications of Chemistry
The use of a simple spectrometer/microcomputer arrangement for teaching atomic theory in general chemistry courses  Casanova, J.; Arellano, M.; Lazo, L.; Gomez, H.
Experiment involving the analysis of a discharge tube to introduce students to the hydrogen atom model.
Casanova, J.; Arellano, M.; Lazo, L.; Gomez, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A201.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Multiport student spectrometer  Bishop, Carl B.
A spectrometer that can be used simultaneously by seven students to observe a single spectrum emitted by an element of compound in a single light tube against a calibrated screen.
Bishop, Carl B. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1037.
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Atomic Properties / Structure
An entirely fabulous account of the origin of the Pauli exclusion principle  Ruekberg, Ben
A fictitious story relating Pauli's "discovery" of the exclusion principle
Ruekberg, Ben J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 983.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Videodisc display program  Rose, Martin
The "Videodisc Display Program" is specifically designed to display video sequences from "The Periodic Table Videodisc".
Rose, Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 927.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The electronic periodic chart of the elements  von Marttens Osorio, Hernan; Goldschmidt, Alfonso
A scheme for the arrangement of the elements that allows students to understand and write down the electronic configuration of any given element.
von Marttens Osorio, Hernan; Goldschmidt, Alfonso J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 758.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Predicting nuclear stability using the periodic table  Blanck, Harvey F.
Develops several empirical rules to use with the periodic table as an aid to recalling those nuclides that are stable.
Blanck, Harvey F. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 757.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Isotopes
"The Periodic Stack"  Farris, Mike
A Hypercard stack that operates on a data base of information about the properties and reactions of the chemical elements.
Farris, Mike J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 756.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Physical Properties
The periodic table - A new arrangement  Laing, Michael
Suggestion for a new arrangement of elements in the periodic table to best indicate the relationships between subgroups.
Laing, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 746.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Let us make the table periodic  Campbell, J. Arthur
Making the periodic table look periodic.
Campbell, J. Arthur J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 739.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The discovery of the electron, proton, and neutron  Peake, Barrie M.
Brief history of the discovery of the electron, proton, and neutron.
Peake, Barrie M. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 738.
Atomic Properties / Structure
What is an element?  Roundy, Willard H., Jr.
Problems with using outdated definitions of what constitutes an element.
Roundy, Willard H., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 729.
Isotopes |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The historic atom: From d to q  Smith, Richard
A Styrofoam model of the atom that has been used to show middle and high school students the historical development of the atomic model.
Smith, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 637.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Another quantum number?  Perrino, Charles T.; Peterson, Donald L.
The presentation of the concept of "spin" in many textbooks is inconsistent, misleading, and in some cases even incorrect.
Perrino, Charles T.; Peterson, Donald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 623.
Quantum Chemistry
Transition metal configurations and limitations of the orbital approximation  Scerri, Eric R.
Points out a misconception concerning the "building up" of the transition elements and their first ionization energies that is reinforced by many chemistry texts.
Scerri, Eric R. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 481.
Transition Elements |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Hund's Rule-Like Behavior among Humans!  Nambi, Parthasarathy
On my Metro bus ride to work every day, I have consistently observed Hund's rule-like behavior among humans.
Nambi, Parthasarathy J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 359.
Atomic Properties / Structure
A new mnemonic scheme for applying the Aufbau principle  Parsons, Raymond W.
This paper proposes a new mnemonic scheme for arriving at the ground-state electron configuration of a neutral, isolated atom.
Parsons, Raymond W. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 319.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Ammonium hydroxide does not exist  Yoke, John
No matter how the s and three p orbitals are hybridized, nitrogen can form a maximum of only four bonds.
Yoke, John J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 310.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Designing a periodic table: A laboratory approach  Irons, Mary E.
What follows is a laboratory approach to help students gain some insight to the relationship of the elements on the table and also to help students review the scientific method.
Irons, Mary E. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 155.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Periodic law (Curry,E.; Chandler, J.; Mackay, L.)  Lechner, Joseph H.; Gardlund, Sharon L.
Two reviews of a software program which serves as a data base for 20 items of information on the first 103 elements.
Lechner, Joseph H.; Gardlund, Sharon L. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A333.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Descriptive Chemistry
Chemistry according to ROF (Fee, Richard)  Radcliffe, George; Mackenzie, Norma N.
Two reviews on a software package that consists of 68 programs on 17 disks plus an administrative disk geared toward acquainting students with fundamental chemistry content. For instance, acids and bases, significant figures, electron configuration, chemical structures, bonding, phases, and more.
Radcliffe, George; Mackenzie, Norma N. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A239.
Chemometrics |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Equilibrium |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Stoichiometry |
Physical Properties |
Acids / Bases |
Covalent Bonding
Bowling balls and beads: A concrete analogy to the Rutherford experiment   Lorenz, Mary V.
Visual suggestions for understanding the design of the Rutherford experiment.
Lorenz, Mary V. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1082.
Atomic Properties / Structure
A new approach for determining electronic configurations of atoms  Darsey, Jerry A.
The "Pascal's Christmas Tree" method for determining the structure of atoms.
Darsey, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1036.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Write an autobiography of an element  Vanorden, Naola
A clever and creative assignment for students to learn chemistry and sharpen their communication skills.
Vanorden, Naola J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 995.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Introduction to atomic structure: Demonstrations and labs  Ciparick, Joseph D.
This paper presents a sequence of demonstrations and activities that help offer evidence to students to scaffold an understanding of atomic structure.
Ciparick, Joseph D. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 892.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
A simple mnemonic device for electron configuration  Grenda, Stanley C.
This visual device provides a great alternative to the usual way of remembering orbital order.
Grenda, Stanley C. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 697.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
A colorful demonstration to simulate orbital hybridization  Emerson, David W.
A simple, colorful demonstration involving nothing more than several beakers of colored water can speed up student comprehension of hybrid orbitals at the introductory level.
Emerson, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 454.
Covalent Bonding |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Flame colors demonstration   Peyser, John R.; Luoma, John R.
A simple and exciting display producing little smoke or ash.
Peyser, John R.; Luoma, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 452.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Qualitative Analysis |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Quantum Chemistry
The wave particle duality: Teaching via a visual metaphor  Bernstein, J.; Shaik, S. S.
Some popular 'optical illusions' can be used to help students understand the wave particle duality and will be sure to capture student interest and attention.
Bernstein, J.; Shaik, S. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 339.
Quantum Chemistry
An overhead demonstration of some descriptive chemistry of the halogens and LeChtelier's principle  Hansen, Robert C.
Colorful demonstrations that illustrate Le Chtelier's principle, solubility rules, and periodic trends.
Hansen, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 264.
Equilibrium |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The theoretical emperor is wearing the proper clothing! A detailed defense of teaching quantum chemical ideas in undergraduate chemistry courses   Edmiston, Clyde K.
The author of this provocative opinion piece defends current standard practice in teaching quantum chemistry.
Edmiston, Clyde K. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 219.
Quantum Chemistry
Principles of electronegativity Part I. General nature  Sanderson, R. T.
The concept of electronegativity has been modified, expanded, and debated. The concept can be used to help students gain valuable insights and understanding of the cause-and-effect relationship between atomic structure and compound properties. This is the first in a series of articles that explores the important concept of electronegativity.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 112.
Electrochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Orbital plots of the hydrogen atom  Liebl, Michael
89. Bits and pieces, 36. The software described in this article enable a 48K Apple II with a single disk drive to plot the orbitals of the hydrogen atom in one, two, or three dimensions. This visualization of orbitals allows students to understand their importance in understanding chemistry.
Liebl, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 23.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Periodic contractions among the elements: Or, on being the right size  Mason, Joan
Contraction across the row, irregularities in the build up of the periodic table, the second row anomaly relativistic contraction and expansion among the heavier elements, post-transition anomaly, periodicities of physicochemical properties.
Mason, Joan J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 17.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Relative atomic mass scale: A teaching aid  Baumgartner, Erwin; Benitez, Carlos; Cirelli, Alicia Fernandez; Flores, Luz Lastres
Relative atomic mass can be a confusing concept for students and a source of frustration for instructors. These authors propose an idea called a RAM scale.
Baumgartner, Erwin; Benitez, Carlos; Cirelli, Alicia Fernandez; Flores, Luz Lastres J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 16.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Computer-Assisted Blackboard (Soltzberg, L. J.)  Kruger, J. D.
8-disk set of programs (Apple II) designed to help a lecturer illustrate gas laws, the Rutherford atomic model, quantization in a Bohr atom, wave-functions and orbitals, heat and changes in state, kinetics and simple reaction mechanisms, equilibrium, acid-base reactions, and titrations.
Kruger, J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A135.
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Chemical Elements (Fleisher, Paul)  Harrison, Thomas G.
A computer program designed to help first-year students learn more about the chemical elements.
Harrison, Thomas G. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A25.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Enrichment / Review Materials
The Heisenberg uncertainty principle: An application to the shell structure of atoms and orbit descriptions of molecules  Hartcourt, Richard D.
A further novel use of the uncertainty principle to deduce the 2n2 shell occupancy rule for atoms.
Hartcourt, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1070.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The ground state electronic structure for atoms and monoatomic ions  Tykodi, R. J.
The aufbau (build up) rule for neutral atoms and monatomic anions and the abbau (tear down) rule for monatomic cations.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 943.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Electronegativity: A mnemonic rule  Kapellos, S.; Mavrides, A.
A rule for the electronegativities of the second and third row elements.
Kapellos, S.; Mavrides, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 941.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The new format for the periodic table of elements: Concerns of a high school chemistry teacher  Krishnan, C. V.
Change in the format used to designate subgroups of elements in the periodic table will add to the confusion of high school students.
Krishnan, C. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 558.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Hydrogen atom spectrum using an AA spectrophotometer  Douglas, John; von Nagy Felsobuki, Ellak I.
Using an AA spectrophotometer to measure the Balmer series of the hydrogen atom spectrum.
Douglas, John; von Nagy Felsobuki, Ellak I. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 552.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Periodic table message question  Wieder, Milton J.
This question presents an interesting technique for testing students' grasp of trends in periodicity.
Wieder, Milton J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 320.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Using chemistry's crystal ball  Allen, Bill
An exercise requiring students to identify nine elements, each suggested by a set of four to six clues describing physical and chemical properties of an element.
Allen, Bill J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 227.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Physical Properties |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials
A two-dimensional working model of the neon electron configuration  Bricker, Clark E.
A demonstration that shows a dynamic, two-dimensional working model of the arrangement of the 10 electrons found in the neon core.
Bricker, Clark E. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 133.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Sociology and Pauli's aufbau rules  Hill, Scott T.
A demonstration to preface the discussion of Pauli's exclusion principle and Hund's rule.
Hill, Scott T. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 27.
Atomic Properties / Structure
An upward view of the periodic table: Getting to the bottom of it  Guenther, William B.
Develops the 18-group basis of the periodic table; shows that, while the 1-18 designations can give unambiguous information to students, no printed designations are needed for teaching; and shows how to obtain unique, physical group definitions that avoid the problems of conflicting and changeable chemical interpretations.
Guenther, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 9.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The squeezed-earth problem   Rhodes, Gale
This take-home-exam question promotes a discussion in class and demonstrates the conceptual difficulties in understanding protons and neutrons.
Rhodes, Gale J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 970.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Solid State Chemistry
Is the theoretical emperor really wearing any clothes?   Sanderson, R. T.
The author asserts that general chemistry material both pushes material of doubtful value and omits material that is useful to many.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 845.
Theoretical Chemistry |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
The periodic table as a data base  Goth, George W.
76. Bits and pieces, 31. A software program helps students better understand periodicity.
Goth, George W. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 836.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The periodic table and electron configurations  Strong, Judith A.
This author shares her approach to having students learn electron configurations.
Strong, Judith A. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 834.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Subatomic pea shooter  Smith, Bruce G.
The author presents readers with a demonstration that is useful in enticing students to learn about atomic structure and theory.
Smith, Bruce G. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 629.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Aufbau on a chessboard  Hovland, Allan K.
A chess or checkerboard offers a convenient frame of reference for a mnemonic to use in writing the electron configuration of the elements.
Hovland, Allan K. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 607.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Features associated with chemical elements (FACES)  Larsen, Russell D.
72. Chemical education is in need of new and better visual representation for correlating and condensing the vast amount of experimental data that has been accumulated for chemical and physical phenomenon. The periodic table in this note represents these properties through various facial features, allowing for an identification of patterns in the table.
Larsen, Russell D. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 505.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Exploring chemistry by computer: KC? Discoverer   Feng, Aw; Moore, John W.
70. Bits and pieces, 28. This program provides students with a computer-searchable handbook of chemical facts for all the elements.
Feng, Aw; Moore, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 327.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The significance of arrows in orbital diagrams   Burdman, Clark S.
The author noticed that introductory texts rarely explain electron spin notations. He provides a brief explanation aimed at the student level.
Burdman, Clark S. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 320.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Capillary tube flame test  Boueher, John H.
An interesting alternative for nichrome wire flames tests is to use a capillary tube.
Boueher, John H. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 158.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Is an atom of copper malleable?  Ben-Zvi, Ruth; Eylon, Bat-Sheva; Silberstein, Judith
It is important to study the mental pictures of the atomic model formed by students at an early stage of their studies, since misunderstanding this model may prevent meaningful learning at later stages.
Ben-Zvi, Ruth; Eylon, Bat-Sheva; Silberstein, Judith J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 64.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Pandemonium pesticide: A simple demonstration illustrating some fundamental chemical concepts  Kauffman, George B.; Chooljian, Steven H.; Ebner, Ronald D.
Demonstration that uses large, visible particles to simulate calculations of atomic / molecular mass, percentage composition, and molecular formula.
Kauffman, George B.; Chooljian, Steven H.; Ebner, Ronald D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 870.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Competition analogy  Felty, Wayne L.
Using football competition as an analogy for bond polarity.
Felty, Wayne L. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 869.
Covalent Bonding |
Atomic Properties / Structure
IUPAC table of atomic weights to four significant figures  Greenwood, N. N.; Peiser, H. S.
Masses for the first 103 elements scaled so the mass of 12C is exactly 12.
Greenwood, N. N.; Peiser, H. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 744.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
An improved calcium flame test  Pearson, Robert S.
Flame tests using strips of chromatography paper dipped in aqueous solutions of metallic chlorides.
Pearson, Robert S. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 622.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The transuranium elements  Seaborg, Glenn T.
History of the discovery of the transuranium elements.
Seaborg, Glenn T. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 463.
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Revised atomic form periodic table  Strong, Frederick C., III
A circular periodic table.
Strong, Frederick C., III J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 456.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Measuring the atomic or molecular mass of a gas with a tire gauge and a butane lighter fluid can  Bodner, George M.; Magginnis, Lenard J.
Also demonstrating the mass of air and the dependence of the pressure of a gas on the mass of the sample.
Bodner, George M.; Magginnis, Lenard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 434.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Gases
Relativistic effects at the freshman level  Banna, M. Salim
Relativistic effects can be used to help explain a variety of physical and chemical properties.
Banna, M. Salim J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 197.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
Gram formula weights and fruit salad  Felty, Wayne L.
Effective analogy and explanation of gram formula weights.
Felty, Wayne L. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 61.
Stoichiometry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A LAP on moles: Teaching an important concept  Ihde, John
The objective of the Learning Activity Packet on moles include understanding the basic concept of the mole as a chemical unit, knowing the relationships between the mole and the atomic weights in the periodic table, and being able to solve basic conversion problems involving grams, moles, atoms, and molecules. [Debut]
Ihde, John J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 58.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Updating the atomic theory in general chemistry  Whitman, Mark
Presents a descriptive overview of the recent achievements that have furthered the understanding of atomic structure to provide instructors with the background necessary to enhance their classroom presentations.
Whitman, Mark J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 952.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Suitable light sources and spectroscopes for student observation of emission spectra in lecture halls  Hughes, Elvin, Jr.
Assembly of a simple, rugged spectroscope suitable for the lecture hall.
Hughes, Elvin, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 908.
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Illustrating the Heisenberg uncertainty principle  Peckham, Gavin D.
An analogy used with an overhead projector.
Peckham, Gavin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 868.
Quantum Chemistry
E-Z s,p  Leach, John M.
Easier method for recalling the filling order of orbitals.
Leach, John M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 652.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Analogies that indicate the size of atoms and molecules and the magnitude of Avogardo's number  Alexander, M. Dale; Ewing, Gordo J.; Abbott, Floyd T.
Three analogies to help students imagine the sizes of atoms, molecules, and Avogadro's number.
Alexander, M. Dale; Ewing, Gordo J.; Abbott, Floyd T. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 591.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stoichiometry
On the filling order of orbitals (aufbau order)  Karp, Steward
Two of the suggested mnemonic devices are more trouble than they are worth.
Karp, Steward J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 565.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Should orbitals be x-rated in beginning chemistry courses?  Bent, Henry A.
Memorizing orbital rules helps students earn credits in science without knowing what science is.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 421.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Electronic structure prediction for transition metal ions  Nance, Lewis E.
A useful mnemonic for the electronic structure for M (II) elements.
Nance, Lewis E. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 339.
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Oxidation State |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A simple aid for teaching the theory of atomic structure  Chiang, Hung-cheh; Tseng, Ching-Hwei
A simple game to demonstrate the Pauli exclusion principle, Hund's rule, quantum numbers, electronic energy levels, and electron configurations.
Chiang, Hung-cheh; Tseng, Ching-Hwei J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 216.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The amazing periodic table  Finholt, James
A simple activity to help students understand the experimental basis for the periodic table.
Finholt, James J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 190.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Models to depict hybridization of atomic orbitals  Stubblefield, C. T.
Six models of hybridization: linear, trigonal, tetrahedral, planar, trigonal bipyrimidal, and octahedral.
Stubblefield, C. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 158.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Covalent Bonding |
Coordination Compounds
Recommended format for the periodic table of the elements  Loening, K. L.
This format provides an unequivocal designation for each subgroup in the 18-column periodic table.
Loening, K. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 136.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
4s, 3d, what?  Carpenter, A. Kurtz
The author presents a method to help students memorize the order of electron orbitals.
Carpenter, A. Kurtz J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 562.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
The use of an air-natural gas flame in atomic absorption  Melucci, Robert C.
The experiment reported in this paper demonstrates that students can get excellent results using air-natural gas flame in atomic absorption, and a tremendous advantage in safety is gained for a small sacrifice in the limit of detectability.
Melucci, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 238.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Why doesn't the electron fall into the nucleus?  Mason, Franklin P.; Richardson, Robert W.
This paper presents a simple, yet essentially correct model of the atom that can be used to answer the title question for even beginning students of chemistry.
Mason, Franklin P.; Richardson, Robert W. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 40.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
A simulation of Rutherford experiment  Hau, Kit-Tai
An overhead demonstration simulating Rutherford's experiment to detect the atomic nucleus.
Hau, Kit-Tai J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 973.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
Determination of sodium in salt substitute by flame emission spectroscopy  Goodney, David E.
Using this procedure a student should be able to report the ppm Na in a salt substitute with an error of a few percent.
Goodney, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 875.
Food Science |
Consumer Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A fluorescence lecture demonstration  Bozzelli, Joseph W.
A fluorescence demonstration can be related to several aspects of molecular theory and quantized energy levels; suggests eight different fluorescent dye solutions.
Bozzelli, Joseph W. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 787.
Photochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments
Why teach the electron configuration of the elements are we do?  Millikan, Roger C.
Out of 106 elements in the table of electron configurations, there are 29 special cases - rules that only work 73% of the time seem hardly worth teaching.
Millikan, Roger C. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 757.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A unified approach to the study of chemical reactions in freshman chemistry  Cassen, T.; DuBois, Thomas D.
An approach that aims to provide students with the background that will enable them to make reasonable predictions as to the likely products of a chemical reaction.
Cassen, T.; DuBois, Thomas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 377.
Reactions |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Presenting the Bohr atom  Haendler, Blanca L.
A more significant consideration of the role of the Bohr theory in the development of quantum mechanics would have many benefits for introductory and advanced chemistry classes.
Haendler, Blanca L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 372.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Developing models: What is the atom really like?  Records, Roger M.
Using physical and computer models to illustrate historical changes in our view of the atom.
Records, Roger M. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 307.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Illustrating the problem described by Heisenberg's uncertainty principle  Cosser, Ronald C.
A simple overhead projector demonstration illustrating Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle.
Cosser, Ronald C. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 300.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Quantum chemistry  Davenport, Richard P., Capt.
Videocassette on quantum numbers.
Davenport, Richard P., Capt. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 260.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Group IA elements: Chemical properties (a); Group IA elements: Chemical properties (b)  Dombrink, Kathleen J.
Film loop that demonstrates reactions between alkali metals and halogens.
Dombrink, Kathleen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 260.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Reactions |
Metals
Building a periodic table  Fowler, Linda S.
The activity described in this paper yielded comments such as, "I've never had so much fun taking a test. That was great" and "That lady must be crazy - that was impossible". Student understanding of periodic trends are authentically challenged and assessed in this problem.
Fowler, Linda S. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 634.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
"The Dancing Wu Li Masters"  Stapleton, George W.
After reading "The Dancing Wu Li Masters", this author became convinced that the right person can explain the most difficult ideas in a clear, refreshing, and logical manner.
Stapleton, George W. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 574.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Dramatic demonstrations for a large audience: The formation of hydroxyl ions in the reaction of sodium with water   Hutton, Alan T.
This procedure allows the popular sodium-reacting-with-water reaction to be observable in large lecture theaters.
Hutton, Alan T. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 506.
Reactions |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Dramatic demonstrations for a large audience: The formation of hydroxyl ions in the reaction of sodium with water   Hutton, Alan T.
This procedure allows the popular sodium-reacting-with-water reaction to be observable in large lecture theaters.
Hutton, Alan T. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 506.
Reactions |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A moir pattern analogy to electron motion  Bard, James R.
The optical illusion produced by this pattern may help students better understand the motion of electrons in atoms.
Bard, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 480.
Atomic Properties / Structure
A classroom learning cycle: Using diagrams to classify matter  James, Helen J.; Nelson, Samuel L.
A learning cycle is developed that deals with the classification of matter and is designed to provide students with an understanding in terms of atom, molecule, element, compound, solution, and heterogeneous matter. [Debut]
James, Helen J.; Nelson, Samuel L. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 476.
Physical Properties |
Learning Theories |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Constructivism
Exchange stabilization and the variation of ionization energy in the pn and dn series  Blake, Antony B.
This article is concerned with two types of ionizations that are of special importance to chemists. The author's main purpose is to clarify current textbook interpretations of the peculiar decrease in ionization energy following completion of a half-filled p or d shell.
Blake, Antony B. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 393.
MO Theory |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Quantum Chemistry
Wolfgang Pauli (1900-1958): A brief anecdotal biography   Festa, Roger R.
A brief biography about one of quantum mechanics' most important intellectual contributors.
Festa, Roger R. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 273.
Quantum Chemistry
Homemade models of the five d-atomic orbitals  Saieed, Alfred E.
Styrofoam shapes are used to represent the d-atomic orbitals.
Saieed, Alfred E. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 805.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Groups and subgroups in the periodic table of the elements: A proposal of modification in the nomenclature  Araneo, Antonio
A proposal to eliminate the "A" and "B" designations of subgroups and replace them with letters referring directly to the electronic structures of atoms.
Araneo, Antonio J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 784.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A visual aid to demonstrate the VSEPR theory  Meloan, Cliff E.
Using a clear globe and magnets to demonstrate the VSEPR theory.
Meloan, Cliff E. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 668.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory
How does the electron cross the node?  Johnsen, Russell H.; Lloyd, Winston D.
Confusion arises from the assumption that the electron is a particle, when the model that produces an orbital diagram assumes that the electron behaves as a wave.
Johnsen, Russell H.; Lloyd, Winston D. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 651.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Dense, denser, densest  Conroy, Lawrence E.
Iridium is more dense than osmium.
Conroy, Lawrence E. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 528.
Physical Properties |
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Crossword puzzle of the elements  Barr, Irene
Crossword puzzle of the elements; solution of page 500 of this issue.
Barr, Irene J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 495.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
An element a day keeps theory at bay  Potts, Richard A.
Incorporating a brief discussion of the chemistry of a different element into each day's lecture.
Potts, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 290.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Descriptive Chemistry
Spectroscopic cation analysis using metal salt pills  Barnard, Sister Marquita
Making metal salt pills for spectroscopic cation flame analysis using a Carver press.
Barnard, Sister Marquita J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 153.
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
4s Sometimes is below 3d - the author replies  Pilar, Frank L.
Reply to criticism of original article.
Pilar, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 767.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
4s Sometimes is below 3d  Carlton, Terry S.
Seeks to correct flaws in cited article.
Carlton, Terry S. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 767.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A low-cost classroom demonstration of the Aufbau Principle  Hanley, James R. III; Hanley, James R., Jr.
Uses golf balls placed in egg cartons to represent the placement of electrons in orbitals.
Hanley, James R. III; Hanley, James R., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 747.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Electronegativity, bond energy, and chemical reactivity  Myers, R. Thomas
The Pauling electronegativity concept can be used to help rationalize several kinds of chemical reactions.
Myers, R. Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 711.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Reactions
Empirical formulas  Ryan, Dennis P.
This question forces one to duplicate the line of reasoning used by Dalton in his initial formulation of atomic weights; it tests for the ability to deduce atomic sizes and to calculate empirical formulas.
Ryan, Dennis P. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 528.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Computer quiz on the periodic table  Wasson, J. S.
An interactive computer (Fortran) program entitled PERIOD.
Wasson, J. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 527.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Producing flame spectra  Smith, Douglas D.
Adding the desired salt to canned heat.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 48.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Word search puzzle  Claus, Alison S.
This puzzle contains the names of all elements from hydrogen to hahnium (element 105).
Claus, Alison S. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 44.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Main-Group Elements |
Transition Elements
Participatory lecture demonstrations  Battino, Rubin
Examples of participatory lecture demonstrations in chromatography, chemical kinetics, balancing equations, the gas laws, the kinetic-molecular theory, Henry's law, electronic energy levels in atoms, translational, vibrational, and rotational energies of molecules, and organic chemistry.
Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 39.
Chromatography |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Kinetics |
Stoichiometry |
Gases |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Using the Aufbau principle   Whitmer, John C.
This question is written with the belief that general chemistry students should not only attain an understanding of the Aufbau principle enabling them to write down electron configurations, they ought also recognize the correspondence between the quantum numbers and the structures of the periodic table.
Whitmer, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 515.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The electron game: A novel approach to aid in the teaching of electronic structures of atoms  Wiseman, Frank L., Jr.
The author reports a competitive group activity called "The electron game" that has been used as an aid to teaching the aufbau principle for determining atomic electronic structure to nonscience major chemistry students in an introductory chemistry course.
Wiseman, Frank L., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 325.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Lecture projectable atomic orbital cross-sections and bonding interactions  Shepherd, Rex E.
Models using small Styrofoam balls and slinky toys improve student understanding of covalent bonds.
Shepherd, Rex E. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 317.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory |
Molecular Modeling
Molar volumes: Microscopic insight from macroscopic data  Davenport, Derek A.; Fosterling, Robert B.; Srinivasan, Viswanathan
The molar volumes of the alkali metal halides; molar volumes of binary hydrogen compounds; molar volumes of the first transition series; molar volumes of the lanthanoids and actinoids; molar volumes of the carbon family; molar volumes of isotopically related species; aquated ions and ions in aqueous solution.
Davenport, Derek A.; Fosterling, Robert B.; Srinivasan, Viswanathan J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 93.
Inner Transition Elements |
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Stoichiometry |
Gases |
Transition Elements |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Isotopes
Elemental evolution and isotopic composition  Rydberg, J.; Choppin, G. R.
Reviews elemental abundances and the processes of elemental creation.
Rydberg, J.; Choppin, G. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 742.
Astrochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Isotopes |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Geochemistry
What is an element?  Kolb, Doris
Reviews the history of the discovery, naming, and representation of the elements; the development of the spectroscope and the periodic table; radioactive elements and isotopes; allotropes; and the synthesis of future elements.
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 696.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Isotopes
Computer games in chemistry  Smith, Stanley G.; Chabay, Ruth
Describes several chemistry computer games, including one involving organic synthesis.
Smith, Stanley G.; Chabay, Ruth J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 688.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Synthesis |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Atomic wave functions  Fitzpatrick, Noel; Wilson, Owen
A booklet containing wave functions drawn using a Calcomp plotter is available.
Fitzpatrick, Noel; Wilson, Owen J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 676.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Emphasis on elements  J. Chem. Educ. Staff
Lists major metals and minerals, current metal reserves, and elemental composition of the human body and the oceans. [Debut]
J. Chem. Educ. Staff J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 551.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Geochemistry |
Metals
But if atoms are so tiny...  Kolb, Doris
Reviews the atomic theory, the laws of chemical combination, atomic weight scales, Avogadro's hypothesis, the development of the mass spectrograph, the meaning of atomic weight, and the difference between mass and weight in answering the question "If atoms are so small, how can we know how much they weigh?" [Debut]
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 543.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Mass Spectrometry
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
303-308. Six practical, environmental chemistry application questions and their answers. Q303 submitted by Jerry Ray Dias.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 369.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Metals |
Toxicology |
Coordination Compounds |
Membranes |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Chemical aspects of Bohr's 1913 theory  Kragh, Helge
The chemical content of Bohr's 1913 theory has generally been neglected in the treatises on the history of chemistry; this paper regards Bohr as a theoretical chemist and discusses the chemical aspects of his atomic theory.
Kragh, Helge J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 208.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Theoretical Chemistry
Particles, waves, and the interpretation of quantum mechanics  Christoudouleas, N. D.
A brief description of the conceptual basis of quantum mechanics and the Copenhagen interpretation.
Christoudouleas, N. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 573.
Quantum Chemistry
The experimental values of atomic electron affinities. Their selection and periodic behavior  Chen, E. C. M.; Wentworth, W. E.
Presents experimental values of atomic electron affinities and discusses their determination.
Chen, E. C. M.; Wentworth, W. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 486.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Demonstrating a quantum phenomenon with Polaroid sunglasses  Carlton, Terry S.
This demonstration can be used to show that measuring devices for quantum mechanical properties sometimes change the state of systems on which they operate.
Carlton, Terry S. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 322.
Quantum Chemistry
Converting a television system into a quantitative atomic emission spectrograph  Richtol, H. H.; Reeves, R. R.; Nelson, D. L.
The conversion involves placing a transmission grating over the lens of a television camera that is focussed on a discharge tube.
Richtol, H. H.; Reeves, R. R.; Nelson, D. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 198.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
What is oxidation?  Herron, J. Dudley
Why do most teachers continue to define oxidation and reduction in terms of a gain and loss of electrons rather than in terms of a change in oxidation number? [Debut]
Herron, J. Dudley J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 51.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Reactions
A general chemistry laboratory project utilizing atomic absorption  Testa, J. F.; Wyatt, J. L.
This project involves the preparation and purification of an unknown inorganic compound followed by qualitative and quantitative analysis for the materials used in the preparation.
Testa, J. F.; Wyatt, J. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 50.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis
The spectrum of atomic lithium. An undergraduate laboratory experiment  Miller, Kenneth J.
The author gives a background on the theory and experimental procedure for the spectrum of atomic lithium.
Miller, Kenneth J. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 805.
Quantum Chemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A general chemistry molecular orbital computer project  Campbell, J. H.
The author introduces a computer project that may aid in helping students learn about linear combination of atomic orbitals.
Campbell, J. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 673.
MO Theory |
Quantum Chemistry
Quantum mechanics in a course required of all freshmen  Barnes, Donald G.
The author describes a new courses which provides a common introductory experience for student who will eventually major in science and those who will not.
Barnes, Donald G. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 396.
Quantum Chemistry
Line spectrum demonstration for the large lecture hall  Driscoll, Jerry A.
The undergraduate's learning experience with quantum mechanics and Bohr's theory can be greatly enhanced by the presentation of a line spectrum demonstration, but these are often hard to see in large lecture halls. The authors present a physical arrangement of an apparatus that can be easily assembled to allow for easier student viewing in a lecture-hall situation.
Driscoll, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 97.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Spectroscopy
Regularities and relations among ionization potentials of nontransition elements  Liebman, Joel F.
Provides several semiempirical procedures for investigating ionization potentials.
Liebman, Joel F. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 831.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The Rutherford scattering experiment: CAI in the laboratory  Garbarino, John R.; Wartell, M. A.
Briefly describes a computer generated Rutherford scattering experiment.
Garbarino, John R.; Wartell, M. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 792.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The stability of the hydrogen atom  Rioux, Frank
The Kimball-Neumark-Kleiss model of the atom is conceptually correct, requires only simple mathematics, and clearly explains the stability of the hydrogen atom.
Rioux, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 550.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Electron affinity. The zeroth ionization potential  Brooks, David W.; Meyers, Edward A.; Sicilio, Fred; Nearing, James C.
It is the purpose of this article to present the merits of adopting the terminology zeroth ionization potential to describe the energy change that occurs when a gaseous anion loses an electron.
Brooks, David W.; Meyers, Edward A.; Sicilio, Fred; Nearing, James C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 487.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Charge and mass of the electron. An introductory experiment  Thompson, C. C.
Procedure for the electrolytic determination of the charge and mass of the electron requiring only the use of a balance and the careful recording of data.
Thompson, C. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 435.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Electrochemistry |
Metals
The science of chemistry: periodic properties and chemical behavior (Howald, Reed A.; Manch, Walter A.)  Leonard, Jack E.

Leonard, Jack E. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A698.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The Planck radiation law and the efficiency of a light bulb  Lehman, Thomas A.
This experiment uses the Planck equation to determine the efficiency of an ordinary light bulb, expressed as the ratio of visible light energy to total emitted energy.
Lehman, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 832.
Quantum Chemistry |
Photochemistry
Heat capacity and the equipartition theorem  Dence, Joseph B.
Describes the classical equipartition theorem, its modifications due to quantum mechanics, and its application to some substances.
Dence, Joseph B. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 798.
Quantum Chemistry
Gimmicks for mid-year motivation  Adams, Richard C.
Suggestions include directions for making peanut brittle, examining common, antiquated names for chemical compounds, and periodic puns.
Adams, Richard C. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 536.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Consumer Chemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Electron configuration diagram  Krupsaw, Marylin; Ng, George
A simpler schematic diagram for remembering the order of filling subshells when constructing electron configurations.
Krupsaw, Marylin; Ng, George J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 433.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Solubility of lead bromide in nitrate media. A study of ionic interactions  Cooper, J. N.
Students are asked to determine, as a class, the solubility of lead bromide at a fixed temperature in solutions covering a range of known sodium nitrate concentrations.
Cooper, J. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 282.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
An octagonal prismatic periodic table  Kow, Tang Wah
Presents an octagonal, prismatic periodic table
Kow, Tang Wah J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 59.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Visualization of the atomic absorption of mercury vapor by use of a fluorescent screen  Argauer, Robert J.; White, Charles E.
Presents a demonstration to visualize the presence of metallic mercury vapor.
Argauer, Robert J.; White, Charles E. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 27.
Toxicology |
Gases |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The periodic system of chemical elements: A history of the first hundred years (van Spronsen, J. W.)  Oesper, Ralph. E.

Oesper, Ralph. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A856.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Mendeleev's law: A demonstration  Emerson, Kenneth
This demonstration simulates Mendeleev's efforts to organize the elements into a periodic table.
Emerson, Kenneth J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A67.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Model to illustrate bonding and symmetry of transition metal complexes  Betteridge, D.
Describes a physical model used to demonstrate the combination of atomic orbitals of the transition metal ion with those on surrounding ligands to give molecular orbitals.
Betteridge, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 824.
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Coordination Compounds |
Molecular Modeling |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Group Theory / Symmetry
Transparent 3-D models of electron probability distributions  McClellan, A. L.
The authors describe transparent, three-dimensional models in which regions of high electron probability seem to float in space, without definite boundaries and with the "internal" variations of probability density clearly visible.
McClellan, A. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 761.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
A new way of presenting atomic orbitals  Linnett, J. W.; Bordass, W. T.
Uses three-dimensional contour diagrams to plot and illustrate electron distributions and atomic orbitals.
Linnett, J. W.; Bordass, W. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 672.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Aufbau principle: A simple model for demonstration  Sagi, Seetarama Raju
This electrical model of the atom used light bulbs to illustrate how the electron density gradually increases around the nucleus with successive additions of electrons to the various orbitals.
Sagi, Seetarama Raju J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 648.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Forces and quantum field theory  Brescia, Frank
This article seeks to explain the nature of forces between nucleons in terms of the quantum field theory for the general reader using a simple analogy.
Brescia, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 642.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Nuclear concepts as part of the undergraduate chemistry curriculum  Caretto, A. A., Jr.; Sugihara, T. T.
It is proposed that there are distinct advantages to a freshman curriculum that introduces nuclear concepts simultaneously with the discussion of analogous atomic and molecular concepts.
Caretto, A. A., Jr.; Sugihara, T. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 569.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Interpretation of oxidation-reduction  Goodstein, Madeline P.
Presents an interpretation of the oxidation number system based upon the electronegativity principle, thus removing the adjective "arbitrary" frequently found in the descriptions of oxidation number.
Goodstein, Madeline P. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 452.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Reactions
Role of f electrons in chemical binding  Johnson, O.
Data presented suggests that f electrons, by their ineffective screening of the nuclear charge, exert an indirect effect on the binding strength of actions.
Johnson, O. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 431.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Metals |
Transition Elements
Periodicity and the lanthanides and actinides  Moeller, Therald
Examines periodic trends among the elements and particularly within the lanthanide and actinide series.
Moeller, Therald J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 417.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Oxidation State
The periodic systems of D. I. Mendeleev and problems of nuclear chemistry  Gol'danskii, V. I.; translated by Avakian, Peter
Examines the acquisition and identification of new chemical elements and the structure of the eighth period of the periodic table.
Gol'danskii, V. I.; translated by Avakian, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 406.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Metals
The mole again!  Haack, N. H.
Discusses the definition of the mole.
Haack, N. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 324.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
An electronegativity spectrum for the periodic table  Guenther, W. B.
This periodic table uses a spectrum of colors coded to electronegativity values and gives equal legitimacy to s, p, d, and f blocks of elements.
Guenther, W. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 317.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Choppin, Gregory R.; Young, J. P.
(1) Is there more to nuclear stability than only the neutron to proton ration? - answer by Choppin. (2) What are the products generated by the electrolysis of molten potassium nitrate with stainless steel electrodes? - answer by Young.
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Choppin, Gregory R.; Young, J. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 73.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Isotopes |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Electrochemistry
High school courses  Briggs, A. G.
The author points out that students may be more accepting of chemistry content (such as the size of the atom) if they are allowed to experiment for themselves.
Briggs, A. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 700.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Contour diagrams for relativistic orbitals  Szabo, Attila
The purpose of this article is to amplify an earlier JCE article regarding taking pictorial representations of atomic orbitals too literally.
Szabo, Attila J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 678.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; House, J. E., Jr.; Campbell, J. A.
(1) When is the rule valid that the rate of reaction approximately doubles with a ten-degree temperature rise? - answer by House. (2) On the colors of transition metal complexes. (3) On an electrolysis experiment in which an acid solution is used to minimize the hydrolysis of Cu 2+. - answer by Campbell.
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; House, J. E., Jr.; Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 674.
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Transition Elements |
Coordination Compounds |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Acids / Bases
On the discovery of the electron  Morrow, B. A.
Thomson's experiment resolved the controversy concerning the corpuscular or wave nature of cathode rays, while Millikan's experiment resolved the controversy concerning the continuous or discrete nature of electrical phenomena.
Morrow, B. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 584.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The noble gases and the periodic table: Telling it like it was  Wolfenden, John H.
It is instructive to discover that many great scientists have reported erroneous observations as well as mistaken interpretations of experimental data.
Wolfenden, John H. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 569.
Gases |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Haight, Gilbert P., Jr.; Rechnitz, Garry A.
(1) Suggestions for presenting the relationship between the Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature scales. (2) Why are 4s rather than 3d electrons involved in the first and second ionizations of the first row transition elements? - answer by Haight. (3) The basis for the mnemonic ordering of atomic orbitals. (4) What is a liquid-liquid membrane electrode? Is it the same as an ion-selective electrode? - answer by Rechnitz.
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Haight, Gilbert P., Jr.; Rechnitz, Garry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 444.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Transition Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Electrochemistry |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Membranes
Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Quagliano, James V.; Danehy, James P.
(1) Why different potential for copper/zinc cells when using nitrates vs. sulfates? Why is neither cell potential as large as predicted by Nerst equation? (2) Do elements in the zinc subgroup belong to the transition series? - answer by Quagliano. (3) How can the 2,4,5-trichloro derivative of phenoxyacetic acid be prepared? - answer by Danehy.
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Quagliano, James V.; Danehy, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 227.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Metals |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds
Improving potassium flame tests  Strong, Frederick C., III
Describes ways for optimizing the classical flame test for potassium.
Strong, Frederick C., III J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 178.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Qualitative Analysis
Educational film loops on atomic and molecular structure  Wahl, Arnold C.; Blukis, Uldis
Describes six films dealing with fundamental principles of atomic and molecular structure.
Wahl, Arnold C.; Blukis, Uldis J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 787.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Stereo plots of hydrogen-like electron densities  Cromer, Don T.
Presents a series of stereo plots of computer-generated, hydrogen-like electron densities.
Cromer, Don T. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 626.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Demonstration of the uncertainty principle  Laurita, William
Describes a conceptual demonstration of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle.
Laurita, William J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 461.
Quantum Chemistry
A model for illustrating d orbitals  Baker, Wilbur L.
This model illustrates the directional properties of the d orbitals.
Baker, Wilbur L. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 135.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The five equivalent d orbitals  Powell, Richard E.
Several textbooks assert that there is no way of choosing the five d orbitals so they have the same shape but differ only in their orientation.
Powell, Richard E. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 45.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Atomic Structure. Radioactivity. B. Nuclear Phenomena: Radioactivity  Surina, Albert A.; Alyea, Hubert N.
Demonstration include the use of an electroscope and Geiger counter in measuring radioactivity and the formation of fog in an evacuated bottle.
Surina, Albert A.; Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A545.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
Observation of stationary waves  Yamana, Shukichi
A convenient way of observing standing waves.
Yamana, Shukichi J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A465.
Quantum Chemistry
Basic concepts in quantum mechanics (Kompaneyets, Alexander)  Bent, Henry A.

Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A80.
Quantum Chemistry
Anticipating "valences" from electron configurations  Eichinger, Jack W., Jr.
Describes a procedure for predicting "valences" from electron configurations that works well for most metals.
Eichinger, Jack W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 689.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Metals |
Transition Elements
The use of tables of data in teaching: The students discover laws about ionization potentials  Haight, G. P., Jr.
Students are asked to see what they can discover in a table of ionization potentials of the elements like that presented in most general chemistry textbooks.
Haight, G. P., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 468.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Mathematics for scientists. Mathematical methods in the physical sciences. Mathematics for quantum chemistry (Bak, Thor A.; Lichtenberg, Jonas; Boas, Mary L.; Anderson, Jay Martin)  Moore, Walter J.

Moore, Walter J. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 246.
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Quantum Chemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials
The electron repulsion theory of the chemical bond. I. New models of atomic structure  Luder, W. F.
Describes the electron repulsion theory of electron configuration and applies it to representative elements.
Luder, W. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 206.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Metals
Models illustrating d orbitals involved in multiple bonding  Barrett, Edward J.
Describes the use of Framework Molecular Orbital Models to illustrate the d orbitals involved in multiple bonding
Barrett, Edward J. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 146.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Covalent Bonding
Electronegativities and group IVA chemistry  Payne, Dwight A., Jr.; Fink, Frank Hall
The teacher of inorganic chemistry should present the representative elements of group IVA and their properties as an intellectual and empirical form of investigation rather than as a mere collection of information.
Payne, Dwight A., Jr.; Fink, Frank Hall J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 654.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The spectrum of atomic hydrogen: A mass scale freshman laboratory experiment  Companion, A. L.; Schug, K.
Student-built spectroscopes are used to measure the Balmer series for hydrogen.
Companion, A. L.; Schug, K. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 591.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Fusion reactions under the microscope  Benedetti-Pichler, A. A.; Vikin, Joe
An electrically heated wire is used to identify a variety of cations and anions according to colors observed under a microscope.
Benedetti-Pichler, A. A.; Vikin, Joe J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 421.
Reactions |
Qualitative Analysis |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Cardboard orbital domain models  Kapauan, A. F.
Describes the construction of orbital domain models from cardboard.
Kapauan, A. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 412.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The spectrum of atomic hydrogen: A freshman laboratory experiment  Hollenberg, J. Leland
This experiment allows more precise measurements of the wavelengths of the emission spectrum of atomic hydrogen with a spectrophotometer than those previously published.
Hollenberg, J. Leland J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 216.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Atomic orbitals: Limitations and variations  Cohen, Irwin; Bustard, Thomas
The three most widely used methods of arriving at a set of atomic orbitals afford respective hydrogen-like orbitals, self-consistent field orbitals, and various analytical approximations such as the Slater or Morse orbitals, all of which may differ greatly in shape and size from each other.
Cohen, Irwin; Bustard, Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 187.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Concepts of species and state in chemistry and molecular physics  Goodfriend, P. L.
This article examines the concepts of species and state in chemistry and molecular physics.
Goodfriend, P. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 95.
Quantum Chemistry |
Diastereomers |
Molecular Properties / Structure
General chemistry exercise using atomic and molecular orbital models  Walker, Ruth A.
Styrofoam balls and pipecleaners are used to construct models designed to convey an understanding of the three-dimensionality of the electron distribution in the ground state atom and the effect of bonding on this distribution.
Walker, Ruth A. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 672.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
A molecular spectral corroboration of elementary operator quantum mechanics  Gerkin, Roger E.
This experiment has been prepared especially for first year students and assumed no prior familiarity with either theory or practice of spectrophotometry.
Gerkin, Roger E. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 490.
Quantum Chemistry |
Spectroscopy
Letters  Zuckerman, J. J.
Comments on the controversy concerning which element is top - carbon or hydrogen.
Zuckerman, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 457.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Letters  Cohen, Irwin
The discussion of shapes of atoms by Johnson and Rettew illustrates a common and readily understandable misunderstanding.
Cohen, Irwin J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 397.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Tangent-sphere models of molecules. III. Chemical implications of inner-shell electrons  Bent, Henry A.
While a study of atomic core sizes might seem to hold little promise of offering interesting insights into the main body of chemical theory, it is demonstrated here that from such a study emerges a picture of chemical bonding that encompasses as particular cases covalent, ionic, and metallic bonds.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 302.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
The structure of atoms (Lagowski, J. J.)  Cohen, Irwin

Cohen, Irwin J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 178.
Atomic Properties / Structure
On the shapes of f orbitals  Ogryzlo, E. A.
Contour plots are a more appropriate representation of an f orbital than polar plots.
Ogryzlo, E. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 150.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Simplified d orbital models assist in teaching coordination concepts  Nicholson, Douglas G.
Presents a three-dimensional model, containing representatives of all lobes of the five d orbitals, prepared for each of the tetrahedral, square planar, and octahedral coordination configurations.
Nicholson, Douglas G. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 148.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Coordination Compounds
Shapes of atoms  Johnson, Ronald C.; Rettew, R. R.
Examines the shapes of various atoms as a function of occupied orbitals.
Johnson, Ronald C.; Rettew, R. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 145.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Domain representations of orbitals  Adamson, Arthur W.
Presents orbital domains and physical models to represent them as a more accurate way of visualizing atoms.
Adamson, Arthur W. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 140.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Behavior of electrons in atoms: Structure, spectra, and photochemistry of atoms (Hochstrasser, Robin M.)  Gregory, N. W.

Gregory, N. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 62.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Quantum Chemistry
Atomic orbital molecular models  Martins, George
Atomic orbital molecular models are constructed using molded white expanded polystyrene in the form of spheres and teardrops.
Martins, George J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 658.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
MO Theory
Precise atomic and molecular models  Adler, Alan D.; Steele, William J.
Presents designs for skeletal or lattice and space-filling models
Adler, Alan D.; Steele, William J. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 656.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Letters  Gates, Henry S.
Brings the reader's attention to work done by Petit and Dulong in revising a large number of atomic weights in order to bring all of their reported atomic heat capacities into agreement with the hypothesis that atomic heat capacity is the same for all elements.
Gates, Henry S. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 575.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
Collecting the chemical elements  Hammond, C. R.
Describes how to go about making a collection of the chemical elements.
Hammond, C. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 401.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
An atomic and molecular orbital models kit  Stone, A. Harris; Siegelman, Irwin
The models presented here allows one to see the overlap that constitutes covalent bonds.
Stone, A. Harris; Siegelman, Irwin J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 395.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Geometry of the f orbitals  Becker, Clifford
Presents physical models of the f orbitals.
Becker, Clifford J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 358.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The shapes of the f orbitals  Friedman, H. G., Jr.; Choppin, G. R.; Feuerbacher, D. G.
Presents pictures of the f orbitals and discusses their ligand field splitting.
Friedman, H. G., Jr.; Choppin, G. R.; Feuerbacher, D. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 354.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory
Atomic and molecular models made from vinyl covered wire  Larson, G. Olof.
This paper presents a series of scalar models made from vinyl covered wire.
Larson, G. Olof. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 219.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A clockwise spiral system of the chemical elements  Griff, H. K.
Presents a spiral periodic table.
Griff, H. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 191.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A periodic table  Ternstrom, Torolf
Presents a periodic organization that includes the neutron and neutrino.
Ternstrom, Torolf J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 190.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Illuminated periodic table  Cordes, A. W.
A picture of an illuminated periodic table in use at the University of Arkansas.
Cordes, A. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 189.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A rational periodic table  Sanderson, R. T.
Presents one author's attempt to bring greater rationality to the organization of the elements.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 187.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A simple model of the d orbitals  Douglas, Bodie E.
Presents a simple model of the d orbitals constructed from plastic sponges.
Douglas, Bodie E. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 40.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Contour surfaces for atomic and molecular orbitals  Ogryzlo, E. A.; Porter, Gerald B.
Describes the determination of and illustrates contour surfaces for atomic and molecular orbitals.
Ogryzlo, E. A.; Porter, Gerald B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 256.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Chemical cliches  Davis, John B.
The supposed high stability of the rare gas configuration is incorrect.
Davis, John B. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 565.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The language of quantum mechanics  Maybury, Robert H.
Presents background material for teaching students important concepts regarding quantum mechanics that forms the basis of much of chemistry.
Maybury, Robert H. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 367.
Quantum Chemistry
Energy level diagrams and extranuclear building of the elements  Keller, R. N.
Simplified diagrams showing the approximate order of electronic energy levels in atoms and mnemonic devices to aid in predicting electronic configurations for atoms are often misleading with respect to the actual energy of binding of the electrons in atoms and ions of the transition elements.
Keller, R. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 289.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Electronegativity chart  Barrett, Richard L.
This brief note describes an electronegativity wall chart suitable for classroom use.
Barrett, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 251.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Representation of electrons in orbitals  Joseph, Lionel
A picture of a physical model representing electrons in orbitals.
Joseph, Lionel J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 216.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Periodic classification of the elements  Redfern, J. P., Salmon, J. E.
Presents a periodic organization that takes into account the dual nature of the elements hydrogen, thorium, protactinium, and uranium.
Redfern, J. P., Salmon, J. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 41.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Three-dimensional models of atomic orbitals  Hoogenboom, Bernard E.
Using balloons to illustrate three-dimensional models of atomic orbitals.
Hoogenboom, Bernard E. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 40.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Cloud chamber, molecular film, and atomic weight of silver  Kokes, R. J.; Dorfman, M. K.; Mathia, T.
Observing the traces of elementary particles in a cloud chamber, estimating the size of a molecule using a soap film, and quantitatively determining the atomic weight of silver.
Kokes, R. J.; Dorfman, M. K.; Mathia, T. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 18.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The science study series. Volumes 12 and 18  Kieffer, William F.

Kieffer, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 588.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry
Molecular models featuring molecular orbitals  Brumlik, George C.
Molecular models have been constructed that attempt to represent atomic and molecular orbitals as accurately as the current theories of valence and pertinent experimental evidence permit.
Brumlik, George C. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 502.
Molecular Modeling |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
MO Theory
Paddle-wheel Crookes tube  Campbell, J. A.
The effect in the Crookes paddle-wheel tube is the same as in the light radiometer and should be interpreted in the same way.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 480.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Principles of chemical bonding  Sanderson, R. T.
Develops, through 25 statements, the basic principles of chemical bonding.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 382.
Covalent Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Editorially Speaking  Kieffer, William K.
The editor addresses questions regarding the sizes of subatomic particles.
Kieffer, William K. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 105.
Atomic Properties / Structure
There are electrons in atoms!  Sementsov, A.
The author suggests a demonstration of the Zeeman effect to give students real and convincing proof that atoms contain electrons.
Sementsov, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 22.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The shape of the 2p and related orbitals  Cohen, Irwin
Some texts mistake graphs of the angular variation of the 2p and related wave functions for actual geometric descriptions of these orbitals.
Cohen, Irwin J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 20.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The structure of the nucleus  Flowers, B. H.
Describes the liquid drop, shell, and optical models of the atomic nucleus.
Flowers, B. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 610.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Letters (the author replies)  Thompson, H. Bradford
The author acknowledges minor errors in an earlier published article.
Thompson, H. Bradford J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 438.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Letters  Cohen, Irwin
Points out minor errors in an earlier published article.
Cohen, Irwin J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 438.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Atomic models in teaching chemistry  Sanderson, R. T.
Contains directions for constructing and using atomic models for instructional purposes.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 307.
Atomic Properties / Structure
An aid to teaching electronic configurations of atoms  Sanderson, R. T.
This simple shelving device uses styrofoam balls to represent electrons and effectively illustrates electron configurations.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 262.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Valence: A laboratory exercise for general chemistry  Sanderson, R. T.
In this exercise, each student carefully examines each of a set of thirteen different atomic models with different valence configurations, writing down certain pertinent observations and independently-reasoned conclusions about them.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 261.
Atomic Properties / Structure
A complete table of electronegativities  Little, Elbert J., Jr.; Jones, Mark M.
Provides a complete periodic table of electronegativity values.
Little, Elbert J., Jr.; Jones, Mark M. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 231.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Dynamic projector display for atomic orbitals and the covalent bond  Thompson, H. Bradford
An overhead projector is used to display the combination of simple atomic orbitals to form hybrid and molecular orbitals.
Thompson, H. Bradford J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 118.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Philosophical antecedents of the modern atom  Gorman, Mel
The purpose of this paper is to present a brief survey of Greek atomism, its rise, recession, and revival.
Gorman, Mel J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 100.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Models for demonstrating electronegativity and "partial charge"  Sanderson, R. T.
Describes a three-dimensional set of atomic models arranged periodically to illustrate trend in electronegativity and the use of molecular models to illustrate important concepts in general chemistry.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 507.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Nonmetals
The atomic form periodic table  Strong, Frederick C.
Presents an "atomic form" of the periodic table, which offers some advantages to the standard organization.
Strong, Frederick C. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 344.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Graphical representation of electron configurations  Eichinger, Jack W., Jr.
Describes a simple symbolism for electron configurations using circles for orbitals and arrows for electrons.
Eichinger, Jack W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 299.
Atomic Properties / Structure
A demonstration model illustrating the aufbau principle  Everett, D. H.
Describes the construction of a physical device capable of illustrating the relationship between the relative energies of electron orbitals in many-electron atoms, the electronic structure of atoms, and the periodic table.
Everett, D. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 298.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Faint (heart, mind) ne'er won fair chemistry student  Olsen, Ralph
A humorous application of molar calculations and other basic concepts in the form of a short chemistry quiz.
Olsen, Ralph J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 285.
Stoichiometry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Letters to the editor  Kenney, Malcolm E.
Provides a photograph of a periodic table that displays periodic trends in electronegativity.
Kenney, Malcolm E. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 204.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
More mnemonics  Clark, Louis W.
Provides mnemonic devices for memorizing the transition elements in periods four, five, and six.
Clark, Louis W. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 57.
Transition Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The case of the eligible emers  Buhsmer, Charles P., Jr.
A fanciful short story regarding the absorption of photons by an ion (emers signifies electromagnetic radiation).
Buhsmer, Charles P., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 574.
Atomic Properties / Structure
An electron locator  Weis, Norman D.; Meek, John S.
Presents a circular device whose rotation indicates the configuration of electrons within the elements of the periodic table.
Weis, Norman D.; Meek, John S. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 570.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The principle of minimum bending of orbitals  Stewart, George H.; Eyring, Henry
The authors present a theory of valency that accounts for a variety of organic and inorganic structures in a clear and easily understood manner.
Stewart, George H.; Eyring, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 550.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Elimination Reactions
A schematic representation of valence  Sanderson, R. T.
This paper describes a new chart representing the valence structure of atoms; by studying this chart, with the help of a few simple rules, students of elementary chemistry can acquire a useful understanding of chemical combination.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 541.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Nonmetals
Teaching electron configurations  Eichinger, Jack W., Jr.
Time can be saved and confusion avoided by developing a systematic chart of the elements based on the energy levels of atomic orbitals very early in the general college chemistry course.
Eichinger, Jack W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 504.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A periodic table and new periodic functions  Szabo, Z. G.; Lakatos, B.
A theoretically correct yet simple periodic system may be obtained by rearranging the long periodic table in such a way that the inert gases are situated in the middle.
Szabo, Z. G.; Lakatos, B. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 429.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Some aspects of organic molecules and their behavior. I. Electronegativity  Reinmuth, Otto
Reviews the concept of electronegativity as a means of helping introductory students understand aspects of organic molecules and their behavior.
Reinmuth, Otto J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 272.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
An electronic distinction between metals and nonmetals  Sanderson, R. T.
Presents a simple empirical rule for the fundamental properties that determine whether an element is metallic, metalloid, or nonmetallic.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 229.
Metals |
Nonmetals |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Metalloids / Semimetals
Lone pair electrons  Fowles, Gerald W. A.
The lone pair electrons, whether in simple or hybrid orbitals, have profound effects on the properties of the molecule; these effects may be discussed as bond angles, dipole moments, bond energies and lengths, and coordination and hydrogen bonding.
Fowles, Gerald W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 187.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Coordination Compounds |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The electron chart  Eichinger, Jack W., Jr.
Presents a periodic wall chart organized according to the increasing energy of valence electrons.
Eichinger, Jack W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 70.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The fable of the atomic theater  Kerker, Milton
Organizes the elements in a periodic sequence resembling seats in a theater.
Kerker, Milton J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 32.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A periodic table: The "Aufbauprinzip" as a basis for classification of the elements  Longuet-Higgins, H. C.
This note recommends a presentation of the periodic table designed to show as directly as possible how the place of an element in the table is related to the electronic structure of the atom.
Longuet-Higgins, H. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 30.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
An adjustable periodic chart for lecture purposes  Estok, George K.
This periodic table can be converted from the short to the long and extra-long forms.
Estok, George K. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 618.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Atomic models for a beginning course in college chemistry  Dodson, Vance H.
Describes a simple, three-dimensional models illustrating the fundamental parts of the atom.
Dodson, Vance H. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 529.
Atomic Properties / Structure
A helical periodic table  Rice, William E.
A three-dimensional representation of the periodic table can provide an additional coordinate to represent the difference between subgroups without disrupting the vertical sequence of elements in a whole group.
Rice, William E. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 492.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Letters to the editor  Foster, Laurence S.
Thanks a reader for pointing out a misstatement in an earlier article involving atomic mass units and avograms.
Foster, Laurence S. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 477.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Letters to the editor  Mayper, Stuart A.
Points out a misstatement in an earlier article involving atomic mass units and avograms.
Mayper, Stuart A. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 477.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A new periodic chart with electronegativities  Sanderson, R. T.
This paper describes a new chart that has been designed to portray clearly and vividly patterns in relative atomic radius, electronic configuration, and electronegativity.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 443.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A new periodic table based on the energy sequence of atomic orbitals  Walker, W. R.; Curthoys, G. C.
Since the theory of atomic and molecular orbitals has proven to be of such value in interpreting the data of inorganic chemistry, it is hoped that a new periodic table based on the energy sequence of atomic orbitals will be an aid to the further systematizing of chemical knowledge.
Walker, W. R.; Curthoys, G. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 69.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Why is hydrofluoric acid a weak acid? An answer based on a correlation of free energies, with electronegativities  Pauling, Linus
The puzzling behavior of hydrofluoric acid is explained by considering the factors that determine the free energy of hydrogen halogenide molecules and hydrohalogenide ions.
Pauling, Linus J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 16.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A variable periodic system  Scheer, Roderich
This variable periodic system uses small cards to represent each elements and can be arranged to illustrate the short or long forms of the periodic table.
Scheer, Roderich J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 590.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A three-dimensional periodic chart  Sell, Octavia S.
Demonstrates the construction of a three-dimensional periodic table from a conventional Hubbard chart.
Sell, Octavia S. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 524.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Atomic-weight variations in nature  Boggs, James E.
Atoms of the same element may have different masses (due to isotopic differences) depending on their source.
Boggs, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 400.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Isotopes
Orbital models  Fowles, Gerald W. A.
Constructing models of atomic and molecular orbitals from papier-mache.
Fowles, Gerald W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 260.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
MO Theory
A jig for making atomic models  Decker, Beulah F.; Asp, E. T.
Presents a simple hand-operated instrument for boring holes in cork balls at positions of interatomic bonds and examples of models constructed using this device.
Decker, Beulah F.; Asp, E. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 75.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
The lecture demonstration of atomic spectra  Wendlandt, Wesley W.
Suggests the use of railway or highway flares of different colors to demonstrate the atomic spectra of strontium, barium, or sodium.
Wendlandt, Wesley W. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 9.
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Regularities among the representative elements: The "paired electron rule"  Condon, F. E.
If the oxidation states characteristic of various groups are correlated in terms of electron subshells, they become reasonable and logical rather than mere facts to be memorized.
Condon, F. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 651.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Oxidation State
A cut-out chart of the periodic system  Clauson, Jennie E.
Colored discs in a cylinder of transparent plastic represent the arrangement of elements in the periodic table. Also provides a chart that can be cut out and turned into a similar cylinder.
Clauson, Jennie E. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 550.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
One more periodic table  Sanderson, R. T.
This periodic table is constructed to highlight electronic differences.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 481.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A new space model of the periodic system of elements  Horie, S.
Describes a three-dimensional model of the periodic system of elements.
Horie, S. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 382.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Electronegativities in inorganic chemistry. III  Sanderson, R. T.
The purpose of this paper is to illustrate some of the practical applications of electronegativities and charge distribution.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 238.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Acids / Bases
BerzeliusPioneer atomic weight chemist  MacNevin, William Marshall
Examines the many methods employed by Berzelius in determining atomic weights.
MacNevin, William Marshall J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 207.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The periodic table of elements  Chaverri, Gil R.
Suggestion for improving the organization of the periodic table for pedagogical purposes.
Chaverri, Gil R. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 632.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Atomic structure and the photoelectric effect  Brockett, Clyde P.
The ubiquitous and inexpensive 110-volt, 2-watt neon glow lamp appears to have been overlooked as a device well suited to a brief but telling demonstration of a few key principles of atomic structure that underlie the study of electrovalence and comparative chemistry.
Brockett, Clyde P. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 498.
Atomic Properties / Structure
An introduction to the electron theory of metals  Lefever, Robert A.
This discussion is intended to provide a general background for the understanding of metal physics as well as a basis for more advanced study.
Lefever, Robert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 486.
Metals |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Letters  Bowden, S. T.
The author calls for the standardization of the periodic table.
Bowden, S. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 426.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Demonstration of the intermediate position of cobalt between iron and nickel  Goldstein, Ernst M.
The different oxidizability of ferrous, cobaltous, and nickelous hydroxides, together with increasing color deepness of the oxidation products, can be used to demonstrate that cobalt is intermediate in its properties between iron and nickel.
Goldstein, Ernst M. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 387.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Qualitative Analysis
Letters  Nair, C. N.
A mathematical derivation demonstrating that masses of different elements equal to their atomic weights must contain the same number of atoms.
Nair, C. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 155.
Stoichiometry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Letters  Azcuenaga-Chacon, J. V.
The author suggests that valence electrons be called "valentrons."
Azcuenaga-Chacon, J. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 155.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters  Hakala, Reino W.
The author points out a reference to a relationship between atomic weight and atomic number.
Hakala, Reino W. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 44.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A periodic table for the lecture room  Fornoff, Frank J.; Post, Glenn I.; Rhoda, Richard N.; Collier, Herman E., Jr.
Presents the design and construction of a periodic table for the lecture room that illustrates a number of periodic relationships.
Fornoff, Frank J.; Post, Glenn I.; Rhoda, Richard N.; Collier, Herman E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 626.
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Letters  Ferreira, Ricardo Carvalho
The author points out earlier work associated with a recent Journal article dealing with the periodic table and the transition elements.
Ferreira, Ricardo Carvalho J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 372.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Transition Elements
The long form of the periodic table  Glockler, George; Popov, A. I.
The authors comment on the independent publication of a periodic table similar to one they produced earlier.
Glockler, George; Popov, A. I. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 358.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A space model of the periodic system of elements  Clauson, Jennie E.
Illustrates a three-dimensional model of the periodic system of elements.
Clauson, Jennie E. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 250.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A periodic table showing the relative sizes of elements and their ions  Klingenberg, Joseph; Springman, Leroy
Describes a periodic chart representing the relative sizes of atoms and ions that was constructed by a senior undergraduate.
Klingenberg, Joseph; Springman, Leroy J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 81.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The periodic table: The 6d-5f mixed transition group  Coryell, Charles D.
With relatively few modifications, the Bohr-type periodic table presented by Glocker and Popov can be made to reflect more instructively the rather complex relationships obtained in the neighborhood of the 4f or gadolinium transition group and, more importantly, in the 6d-5f sequence extending from actinium through the region of uranium and the synthetic earths to element 103.
Coryell, Charles D. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 62.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements |
Atomic Properties / Structure
An atomic structure model  Herron, Fred Y.
Presents the design of a physical model intended to illustrate the manner in which the electronic configurations of the various elements may be produced by adding electrons to a hydrogen atom.
Herron, Fred Y. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 473.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Atomic structure models for clay minerals  Perkins, Alfred T.
Describes the use of ceramic clay to produce atomic structure models for clay minerals.
Perkins, Alfred T. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 388.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The lanthanide contraction as a teaching aid  Keller, R N.
This paper presents a modified form of the atomic volume curve that illustrates graphically the lanthanide contraction; a number of chemical consequences of this effect are also discussed.
Keller, R N. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 312.
Transition Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Valency and the periodic table  Glockler, George; Popov, Alexander I.
Presents a modification of the Bohr-Thomsen-Akhumov periodic table stressing patterns to found among the rare earth elements.
Glockler, George; Popov, Alexander I. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 212.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Oxidation State |
Transition Elements |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A lecture room periodic table  Dutton, Frederic B.
Describes a large periodic table capable of illuminating individual elements and displaying their electronic configurations.
Dutton, Frederic B. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 110.
Periodicity / Periodic Table