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Journal Articles: 51 results
A Simple Penny Analysis  Nicholas C. Thomas and Stephen Faulk
Describes a simple procedure for determining the zinc composition of U.S. pennies in which the penny zinc core is dissolved in acid and the evolved hydrogen gas is collected by water displacement.
Thomas, Nicholas C.; Faulk, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 817.
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Metals |
Stoichiometry
Interactive Demonstrations for Mole Ratios and Limiting Reagents  Crystal Wood and Bryan Breyfogle
The objective of this study was to develop interactive lecture demonstrations based on conceptual-change learning theory. Experimental instruction was designed for an introductory chemistry course for nonmajors to address misconceptions related to mole ratios and limiting reagents
Wood, Crystal; Breyfogle, Bryan. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 741.
Learning Theories |
Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Student-Centered Learning
Assessing the Effect of Web-Based Learning Tools on Student Understanding of Stoichiometry Using Knowledge Space Theory  Ramesh D. Arasasingham, Mare Taagepera, Frank Potter, Ingrid Martorell, and Stacy Lonjers
This paper reports a comparative study using knowledge space theory (KST) to assess the impact of a Web-based instructional software program on students' understanding of the concept of stoichiometry. The software program called Mastering Chemistry Web (MCWeb) allows students to practice problems that emphasize the development of molecular-level conceptualization and visualization, analytical reasoning, and proportional reasoning, as well as learning to recognize and relate different representations in chemistry. The experimental design compared students in two sections taught by the same instructor. One section used the MCWeb instructional software as homework (MCWeb group) while the other section used text-based homework (non-MCWeb group, control).
Arasasingham, Ramesh D.; Taagepera, Mare; Potter, Frank; Martorell, Ingrid; Lonjers, Stacy. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1251.
Stoichiometry |
Student-Centered Learning
Mass Relationships in a Chemical Reaction: Incorporating Additional Graphing Exercises into the Introductory Chemistry Laboratory  Stephen DeMeo
The purpose of this article is to increase student involvement with graph construction specifically in the context of introductory laboratory activities that involve mass relationships between reacting substances and products. In this regard, five massĀmass plots derived from a synthesis of a binary compound from its elements are presented as well as a set of questions to focus learners on the significance of each plot. The benefit of providing learners with these types of graphing activities include the use of higher-order cognitive processes as well as the elucidation of fundamental chemical knowledge such as the law of the conservation of mass, the law of constant composition, limiting and excess reactants, and empirical formula.
DeMeo, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1219.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Quantitative Analysis
Evaluating Students' Conceptual Understanding of Balanced Equations and Stoichiometric Ratios Using a Particulate Drawing  Michael J. Sanger
A total of 156 students were asked to provide free-response balanced chemical equations for a classic multiple-choice particulate-drawing question first used by Nurrenbern and Pickering. The balanced equations and the number of students providing each equation are reported in this study. The most common student errors included a confusion between the concepts of subscripts and coefficients and including unreacted chemical species in the equation.
Sanger, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 131.
Stoichiometry |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
Using Knowledge Space Theory To Assess Student Understanding of Stoichiometry  Ramesh D. Arasasingham, Mare Taagepera, Frank Potter, and Stacy Lonjers
Using the concept of stoichiometry we examined the ability of beginning college chemistry students to make connections among the molecular, symbolic, and graphical representations of chemical phenomena, as well as to conceptualize, visualize, and solve numerical problems. Students took a test designed to follow conceptual development; we then analyzed student responses and the connectivities of their responses, or the cognitive organization of the material or thinking patterns, applying knowledge space theory (KST). The results reveal that the students' logical frameworks of conceptual understanding were very weak and lacked an integrated understanding of some of the fundamental aspects of chemical reactivity.
Arasasingham, Ramesh D.; Taagepera, Mare; Potter, Frank; Lonjers, Stacy. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1517.
Learning Theories |
Stoichiometry |
Constructivism
Learning Stoichiometry with Hamburger Sandwiches  Liliana Haim, Eduardo Cortón, Santiago Kocmur, and Lydia Galagovsky
Simple and understandable activities involving the manufacturing of hamburgers can be used as an analogy for stoichiometric concepts and calculations.
Haim, Liliana; Cortón, Eduardo; Kocmur, Santiago; Galagovsky, Lydia. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1021.
Stoichiometry |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Stoichiometry of the Reaction of Magnesium with Hydrochloric Acid  Venkat Chebolu and Barbara C. Storandt
Using a pressure sensor to measure the production of hydrogen by a reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid.
Chebolu, Venkat; Storandt, Barbara C. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 305.
Stoichiometry |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Reactions
Alka-Seltzer Fizzing—Determination of Percent by Mass of NaHCO3 in Alka-Seltzer Tablets. An Undergraduate General Chemistry Experiment  Yueh-Huey Chen and Jing-Fun Yaung
Lab activity that introduces the concept of a limiting reactant by incrementally increasing the amount of vinegar added to an Alka Seltzer tablet.
Chen, Yueh-Huey; Yaung, Jing-Fun. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 848.
Acids / Bases |
Quantitative Analysis |
Stoichiometry
Making Assumptions Explicit: How the Law of Conservation of Matter Can Explain Empirical Formula Problems  Stephen DeMeo
How the law of conservation of mass provides a theoretical foundation for empirical formula problems that introductory students encounter.
DeMeo, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1050.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Stoichiometry
The Use of Extent of Reaction in Introductory Courses  Sebastian G. Canagaratna
This article discusses the use of the extent of reaction as an alternative to the traditional approach to stoichiometry in first-year chemistry. The method focuses attention on the reaction as a whole rather than on pairs of reagents as in the traditional approach. The balanced equation is used as the unit of change.
Canagaratna, Sebastian G. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 52.
Stoichiometry |
Thermodynamics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A Closer Look at the Addition of Equations and Reactions  Damon Diemente
Chemists occasionally find it convenient or even necessary to express an overall reaction as the sum of two or more component reactions. A close examination, however, reveals that the resemblance between chemical algebraic equations is entirely superficial, and that the real meaning of addition in chemical equations is subtle and varies from case to case. In high-school courses, students are likely to encounter the addition of equations in thermochemistry, in electrochemistry, and in kinetics.
Diemente, Damon. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 319.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Reactions
Redox Balancing without Puzzling  Marten J. ten Hoor
Once it has been established by experiment that the given reactants can indeed be converted into the given products, chemistry has done its job. Balancing the equation of the reaction is a matter of mathematics only.
ten Hoor, Marten J. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1367.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction
A New and General Method for Balancing Chemical Equations by Inspections  Chunshi Guo
Any chemical equation, no matter how complicated, can be balanced by inspection. In fact, inspection is often the quickest and easiest way to balance complex equation. The method described here involves the use of "linked sets". It does not require the use of oxidation numbers of the splitting of equations into "half reactions". It can be used to balance all kinds of chemical equations, including ionic equations.
Guo, Chunshi. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1365.
Stoichiometry
On Balancing Chemical Equations: Past and Present  William C. Herndon
The main purposes of this paper are to give a listing of selected papers on balancing chemical equations that may be useful to chemistry teachers and potential authors as background material, and to provide some comparisons of methods. The selection criteria for the references were deliberately broad, in order to include a wide variety of topics and seminal historical citations, and the references are annotated to increase their usefulness.
Herndon, William C. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1359.
Stoichiometry
How Big Is the Balloon? Stoichiometry Using Baking Soda and Vinegar  
Students discover the concept of stoichiometry and limiting reactants in two ways: first by adding vinegar to a small quantity of baking soda until bubbles stop, and second by mixing a constant quantity of baking soda with increasing volumes of vinegar and collecting the carbon dioxide produced in balloons.
J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1328A.
Stoichiometry
CheMentor Software System by H. A. Peoples  reviewed by Brian P. Reid
CheMentor is a series of software packages for introductory-level chemistry, which includes Practice Items (I), Stoichiometry (I), Calculating Chemical Formulae, and the CheMentor Toolkit.
Reid, Brian P. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1047.
Stoichiometry
Stoogiometry: A Cognitive Approach to Teaching Stoichiometry  Carla R. Krieger
Moe's Mall is a locational device designed to be used by learners as a simple algorithm for solving mole-based exercises efficiently and accurately. The mall functions as a map for setting up solutions to mole-based exercises using dimensional analysis. It clears the cognitive decks of students' easily overburdened short-term memory space, allowing them to focus on the versatility of the mole, rather than stepwise solutions to meaningless exercises.
Krieger, Carla R. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 306.
Learning Theories |
Computational Chemistry |
Stoichiometry
The Relationship between the Number of Elements and the Number of Independent Equations of Elemental Balance in Inorganic Chemical Equations  R. Subramanian, N.K. Goh, and L. S. Chia
The criterion for determining whether a chemical equation can be balanced fully by the algebraic technique and its application.
Subramaniam, R.; Goh, N. K.; Chia, L. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 894.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Pictorial Analogies XII: Stoichiometric Calculations  Fortman, John J.
Pictorial analogies for comparing different amounts in terms of number, volume, and mass; excess reagents; and stoichiometric approximations.
Fortman, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 571.
Stoichiometry
Balancing a chemical equation: What does it mean?  Filgueiras, Carlos A
Students were puzzled by the idea that one chemical equation could be balanced in several different ways. This led to a fruitful discussion on how exact a science chemistry really is.
Filgueiras, Carlos A J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 276.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Chemical equations are actually matrix equations  Alberty, Robert A.
Chemists tend to think that chemical equations are unique to chemistry and they are not used to thinking of chemical equations as the mathematical equations they in fact are. The objective of this paper is to illustrate the mathematical significance of chemical equations.
Alberty, Robert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 984.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
A straightforward derivation of stoichiometric mass relationships  Gorin, George
An alternative to the factor label method for solving stoichiometric mass relationship problems.
Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 762.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Problem solving and requisite knowledge of chemistry  Lythcott, Jean
It is possible for students to produce right answers to chemistry problems without really understanding much of the chemistry involved.
Lythcott, Jean J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 248.
Stoichiometry |
Learning Theories
Overall chemical equations  Gil, Victor M. S.
An equation sum can be used safely by itself in stoichiometric and equilibrium calculations only if the intermediates produced in separate reactions are at low steady-state concentrations and if there are no other equilibria involving those species.
Gil, Victor M. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 324.
Stoichiometry |
Equilibrium
A question of basic chemical literacy?   Missen, Ronald W.; Smith, William R.
The ability to read and write clearly in chemical-equation terms is not as well developed as it should be. The purpose of this "Provocative Opinion" is to draw attention to this problem, and to suggest specific remedies for its solution.
Missen, Ronald W.; Smith, William R. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 217.
Stoichiometry
Chemistry according to ROF (Fee, Richard)  Radcliffe, George; Mackenzie, Norma N.
Two reviews on a software package that consists of 68 programs on 17 disks plus an administrative disk geared toward acquainting students with fundamental chemistry content. For instance, acids and bases, significant figures, electron configuration, chemical structures, bonding, phases, and more.
Radcliffe, George; Mackenzie, Norma N. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A239.
Chemometrics |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Equilibrium |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Stoichiometry |
Physical Properties |
Acids / Bases |
Covalent Bonding
A simple, safe, and inexpensive laboratory exercise in the guided inquiry format  de Moura, John M.; Marcello, Joseph A.
Introductory laboratory exercise that illustrates stoichiometry, limiting reagents, and proportionality by reacting calcium chloride and sodium hydroxide.
de Moura, John M.; Marcello, Joseph A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 452.
Stoichiometry |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Reactions
A nuts and bolts approach to explain limiting reagents  Blankenship, Craig
Using nuts and bolts to simulate the stoichiometry of a chemical reaction and the concept of limiting and excess reactants.
Blankenship, Craig J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 134.
Stoichiometry |
Reactions
A simpler method of chemical reaction balancing  Harjadi, W.
The author adds to some other approaches that appeared in this Journal that dealt with balancing a rather large chemical equation.
Harjadi, W. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 978.
Stoichiometry
Mathematics in the chemistry classroom. Part 2. Elementary entities play their part  Dierks, Werner; Weninger, Johann; Herron, J. Dudley
One of the problems that learners have to overcome when doing stoichiometry calculations is to learn how statements about elementary entities given by formulas and equations are related to statements about portions of substances as measured in the macroscopic world.
Dierks, Werner; Weninger, Johann; Herron, J. Dudley J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1021.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
New stoichiometry for copper dissolution in nitric acid  El-Cheikh, F. M.; Khalil, S. A.; El-Manguch, M. A.; Omar, Hadi A.
NO2 does not appear to be a primary product in the oxidation of copper metal by nitric acid.
El-Cheikh, F. M.; Khalil, S. A.; El-Manguch, M. A.; Omar, Hadi A. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 761.
Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Balancing complex chemical equations using a hand-held calculator   Alberty, Robert A.
37. Bits and pieces, 14. This article is primarily concerned the question: If certain specified chemical species are involved in a reaction, what are the stoichiometric coefficients?
Alberty, Robert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 102.
Stoichiometry
Chemical equation balancing: A general method which is quick, simple, and has unexpected applications  Blakley, G. R.
Using matrices to solve mathematical equations and balance chemical equations. From "The Goals of General Chemistry - A Symposium."
Blakley, G. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 728.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Pressure and the exploding beverage container   Perkins, Robert R.
The question in this article is an extension of exploding pop bottles to illustrate the balancing of a chemical equation, enthalpy, stoichiometry, and vapor pressure calculations, and the use of the Ideal Gas Equation. The question is aimed at the first-year level student.
Perkins, Robert R. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 363.
Stoichiometry |
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Chemometrics
An application of Gagne's principles of instructional design: Teaching the limiting-reactant problem  Ozsogomonyan, Ardas
The results of a study of the development and validation of effective individualized instructional materials to teach some major concepts of stoichiometry to underprepared students.
Ozsogomonyan, Ardas J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 799.
Stoichiometry
The chemical equation. Part I: Simple reactions  Kolb, Doris
A chemical equation is often misunderstood by students as an "equation" that is used in chemistry. However, a more accurate description is that it is a concise statement describing a chemical reaction expressed in chemical symbolism.
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 184.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Reactions
A computer program designed to balance inorganic chemical equations  Rosen, Allen I.
A BASIC program designed to check the correct balancing of chemical equations.
Rosen, Allen I. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 704.
Stoichiometry
On mole fractions in equilibrium constants  Delaney, C. M.; Nash, Leonard K.
Proposes a hybrid equilibrium constant for use in introductory chemistry courses.
Delaney, C. M.; Nash, Leonard K. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 151.
Equilibrium |
Stoichiometry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Writing chemical equations. An introductory experiment  LeMay, H. Eugene, Jr.; Kemp, Kenneth C.
An introductory experiment in which students deduce the products by comparing their observations to descriptions of possible substances and write balanced chemical equations to represent the reactions.
LeMay, H. Eugene, Jr.; Kemp, Kenneth C. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 121.
Stoichiometry |
Descriptive Chemistry
Two lecture experiments demonstrating limiting quantities  Dillard, Clyde R.
Uses reactions between HCl and magnesium and HCl and calcium to demonstrate the concept of limiting reactants.
Dillard, Clyde R. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A694.
Stoichiometry |
Reactions
Grading the copper sulfide experiment  Novick, Seymour
The author recommends a more liberal analysis in grading the copper sulfide experiment.
Novick, Seymour J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 785.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Balancing equations (the author responds)  Young, Jay A.
Recognizes the referenced letter.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 785.
Stoichiometry
Balancing equations  Missen, R. W.
The author provides an alternative answer to the question in the referenced article.
Missen, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 785.
Stoichiometry
Application of diophantine equations to problems in chemistry  Crocker, Roger
The mathematical method of diophantine equations is shown to apply to two problems in chemistry: the balancing of chemical equations, and determining the molecular formula of a compound.
Crocker, Roger J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 731.
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Stoichiometry
Letters to the editor  Swayze, Donald R.
Examines balancing chemical equations.
Swayze, Donald R. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 269.
Stoichiometry |
Industrial Chemistry
Balancing ionic equations by the method of undetermined coefficients  Haas, Rudy; Gayer, Karl H.
Describes a mathematical method for balancing chemical equations.
Haas, Rudy; Gayer, Karl H. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 537.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Writing a chemical equation from titration data: Experiment for general chemistry  State, Harold M.
Students titrate phosphoric acid with sodium hydroxide to determine the chemical formula of Na2HPO4.
State, Harold M. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 297.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Stoichiometry
Writing oxidation-reduction equations: A review of textbook materials  Yalman, Richard G.
The purpose of this paper is to review those parts of a number of textbooks containing aids or suggestions to help students balance oxidation-reduction reactions.
Yalman, Richard G. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 215.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Solution of problems in chemistry  Trousdale, Everett A.
Presents a method for analyzing and solving mole calculations.
Trousdale, Everett A. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 299.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
On accenting observations in chemistry  Campbell, J. A.
A chemical equations is, for many a student, such a complete abstraction that he would be hard put to describe the actual observations that would be made in a process for which he was supplied the complete equation.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 634.
Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols