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Journal Articles: 937 results
The Fuge Tube Diode Array Spectrophotometer  B. T. Arneson, S. R. Long, K. K. Stewart, and J. J. Lagowski
Presents details for adapting a diode array UVvis spectrophotometer to incorporate the use of polypropylene microcentrifuge tubesfuge tubesas cuvettes. The fuge tubes also can serve as reaction vessels, which permits the ready study of chemical systems involving heterogeneous phases by eliminating the need for tedious separations.
Arneson, B. T.; Long, S. R.; Stewart, K. K.; Lagowski, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1663.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solutions / Solvents |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Investigating the Stability of Benzoyl Peroxide in Over-the-Counter Acne Medications  Marina Canepa Kittredge, Kevin W. Kittredge, Melissa S. Sokol, Arlyne M. Sarquis, and Laura M. Sennet
Students use peroxide strips to investigate the stability of the benzoyl peroxide found in an over-the-counter acne medication when added to various solutions of water, ethanol, polyethylene glycol, and isopropyl myristate.
Canepa Kittredge, Marina; Kittredge, Kevin W.; Sokol, Melissa S.; Sarquis, Arlyne M.; Sennet, Laura M. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1655.
Consumer Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Nonmajor Courses |
Solutions / Solvents
Ionic Blocks  Richard S. Sevcik, Rex Gamble, Elizabet Martinez, Linda D. Schultz, and Susan V. Alexander
"Ionic Blocks" is a teaching tool designed to help middle school students visualize the concepts of ions, ionic compounds, and stoichiometry. It can also assist high school students in reviewing their subject mastery.
Sevcik, Richard S.; Gamble, Rex; Martinez, Elizabet; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1631.
Ionic Bonding |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmajor Courses |
Stoichiometry
J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1578–1583  John Andraos
Corrections to the article A Streamlined Approach to Solving Simple and Complex Kinetic Systems Analytically.
Andraos, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1624.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Theoretical Chemistry
Elemental Chem Lab  Antonio Joaquín Franco Mariscal
Three puzzles use the symbols of 45 elements to spell the names of 32 types of laboratory equipment usually found in chemical labs.
Franco Mariscal, Antonio Joaquín. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1370.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Data Pooling in a Chemical Kinetics Experiment: The Aquation of a Series of Cobalt(III) Complexes  Richard S. Herrick, Kenneth V. Mills, and Lisa P. Nestor
Describes an experiment that introduces students to integrated rate laws, the search for a mechanism that is consistent with chemical and kinetic data, and the concept of activation barriers and their measurement in a curriculum whose pedagogical philosophy makes the laboratory the center of learning for undergraduates in their first two years of instruction.
Herrick, Richard S.; Mills, Kenneth V.; Nestor, Lisa P. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1120.
Coordination Compounds |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Rate Law |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Make a Match  Erika K. Jacobsen
Suggests using this month's JCE Classroom Activity in conjunction with the laboratory exercise that follows it.
Jacobsen, Erica K. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1090.
Calibration |
Carbohydrates |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Quantitative Analysis
Measuring the Density of a Sugar Solution  Karen I. Peterson
This experiment addresses the concept of equipment calibration for reducing systematic error. Students prepare and measure the densities of sucrose solutions with simple glassware that has been calibrated using the density of water. By careful work, students can determine the density to within 0.5%. allowing accuracy to be a major component of the final grade.
Peterson, Karen I. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1089.
Calibration |
Carbohydrates |
Physical Properties |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents
[#97] The Sweeter Side of Density  Michael Davis and Charles Henry
Students determine the density of different sugar solutions and then devise a method for layering them in a graduated cylinder. Dyeing the solutions with food coloring results in a rainbow-colored, heterogeneous mixture.
Davis, Michael; Henry, Charles. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1088A.
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Student-Centered Learning
Using Molecular Dynamics Simulation To Reinforce Student Understanding of Intermolecular Forces  Phillip R. Burkholder, Gordon H. Purser, and Renee S. Cole
This article presents a series of experiments incorporating molecular dynamics simulations which predict the motion of chemical species based on the application of empirical rules and a physical analysis of the forces that act between the species. These motions can then be shown in vivid graphical form.
Burkholder, Phillip R.; Purser, Gordon H.; Cole, Renee S. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1071.
Computational Chemistry |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
A Hand-Held Ammonia Fountain  Nicholas C. Thomas and Stephen Faulk
A plastic juice bottle, filled with ammonia gas generated by combining aqueous ammonia and sodium hydroxide, provides a convenient demonstration of the ammonia fountain and gas solubility.
Thomas, Nicholas C.; Faulk, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1063.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents
Colorful Chemical Fountains  Nicholas C. Thomas and Stephen Faulk
A chemical fountain, constructed from several vertically stacked plastic champagne cups, is used to demonstrate acidbase and chemiluminescence reactions.
Thomas, Nicholas C.; Faulk, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1061.
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments |
Physical Properties |
Reactions
Resolving Spectral Lines with a Periscope-Type DVD Spectroscope  Fumitaka Wakabayashi
Describes the periscope-type of DVD spectroscope and demonstrates the numerical analysis of its emission and absorption spectra. This improved design allows one to observe and photograph visible spectra more easily and clearly than earlier models; it thus has the potential to be a cost-effective, powerful, and versatile tool for science education.
Wakabayashi, Fumitaka. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 849.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Solutions / Solvents |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
A Simple Laboratory Experiment To Determine the Kinetics of Mutarotation of D-Glucose Using a Blood Glucose Meter  Carlos E. Perles and Pedro L. O. Volpe
A simple commercial blood glucose meter is used to follow the kinetics of mutarotation of D-glucose in aqueous solution. The results may be compared with those obtained using an automatic polarimeter.
Perles, Carlos E.; Volpe, Pedro L. O. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 686.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Bioanalytical Chemistry |
Carbohydrates |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Solutions / Solvents |
Stereochemistry
Using Hydrogen Balloons To Display Metal Ion Spectra  James H. Maynard
Describes a procedure for igniting hydrogen-filled balloons containing metal salts to obtain the brightest possible flash while minimizing the quantity of airborne combustion products.
Maynard, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 519.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Gases |
Metals |
Solutions / Solvents
Netorials  Rebecca Ottosen, John Todd, Rachel Bain, Mike Miller, Liana Lamont, Mithra Biekmohamadi, and David B. Shaw
Netorials is a collection of about 30 online tutorials on general chemistry topics designed as a supplement for high school or college introductory courses. Each Netorial contains several pages of interactive instruction that includes animated mouse-overs, questions for students to answer, and manipulable molecular structures.
Ottosen, Rebecca; Todd, John; Bain, Rachel; Miller, Mike; Lamont. Liana; Biekmohamadi, Mithra; Shaw, David B. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 463.
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Reactions |
VSEPR Theory |
Stoichiometry
Pennies and Eggs: Initiation into Inquiry Learning for Preservice Elementary Education Teachers  Donald J. Wink and Jeong Hye Hwang-Choe
Describes two labs incorporating the Science Writing Heuristic in a course for preservice students in elementary education. The first lab is a discovery activity involving the change in composition and mass of pennies in 1982; the second uses flotation methods to separate hard-boiled and uncooked eggs.
Wink, Donald J.; Hwang-Choe, Jeong Hye. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 396.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Materials Science |
Solutions / Solvents |
Physical Properties
Dynamic Reaction Figures: An Integrative Vehicle for Understanding Chemical Reactions  Emeric Schultz
Describes the dynamic reaction figure, a flexible learning tool that can be used to balance chemical equations, predict the results of potential reactions, present the underlying mechanism of reactions, and solve quantitative problems in a number of areas.
Schultz, Emeric. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 386.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Nonmajor Courses
Investigating Students' Ability To Transfer Ideas Learned from Molecular Animations of the Dissolution Process  Resa M. Kelly and Loretta L. Jones
This study examines what features of the particulate nature of matter learned from viewing two animations of sodium chloride dissolution students would transfer to their descriptions of the participation of aqueous sodium chloride in a chemical reaction.
Kelly, Resa M.; Jones, Loretta L. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 303.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Constructivism
A Simple Experiment in the Separation of a Solid-Phase Mixture and Infrared Spectroscopy for Introductory Chemistry  Paul S. Szalay
In this guided-inquiry experiment, a two-component solid mixture of caffeine and ibuprofen is separated through a series of solution extractions and precipitations. The components are then analyzed using IR spectrophotometry to determine how effectively they were separated.
Szalay, Paul S. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 285.
Acids / Bases |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
IR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents
Connecting Solubility, Equilibrium, and Periodicity in a Green, Inquiry Experiment for the General Chemistry Laboratory  Kristen L. Cacciatore, Jose Amado, Jason J. Evans, and Hannah Sevian
Presents a novel first-year chemistry experiment that asks students to replicate procedures described in sample lab reports that lack essential information. This structure is designed to promote students' experimental design and data analysis skills as well as their understanding of the importance and essential qualities of written and verbal communication between scientists.
Cacciatore, Kristen L.; Amado, Jose; Evans, Jason J.; Sevian, Hannah. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 251.
Equilibrium |
Green Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Solutions / Solvents |
Stoichiometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
The Glyoxal Clock Reaction  Julie B. Ealy, Alexandra Rodriguez Negron, Jessica Stephens, Rebecca Stauffer, and Stanley D. Furrow
The glyoxal clock reaction has been adapted to a general chemistry kinetics lab to determine the order of the reacting species using a Calculator Based Laboratory or LabPro equipment.
Ealy, Julie B.; Negron, Alexandra Rodriguez; Stephens, Jessica; Stauffer, Rebecca; Furrow, Stanley D. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1965.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Dyes / Pigments |
Kinetics |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Rate Law |
Reactions
New Analytical Method for the Determination of Detergent Concentration in Water by Fabric Dyeing  Set Seng, Masakazu Kita, and Reiko Sugihara
This article describes a high school classroom activity in which an acrylic fabric is used as the extraction medium in the analysis of detergent concentration rather than more harmful organic solvents. An handmade reflection photometer, assembled with inexpensive materials such as LED, PVC tube, and CdS sensor, is used to determine the detergent concentration.
Seng, Set; Kita, Masakazu; Sugihara, Reiko. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1803.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Water / Water Chemistry
Hydration of Acetylene: A 125th Anniversary  Dmitry A. Ponomarev and Sergey M. Shevchenko
The discovery the hydration of alkynes catalyzed by mercury ions by Mikhail Kucherov made possible industrial production of acetaldehyde from acetylene and had a profound effect on the development of industrial chemistry in the 1920th centuries.
Ponomarev, Dmitry A.; Shevchenko, Sergey M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1725.
Addition Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkynes |
Catalysis |
Industrial Chemistry |
Reactions
Freezing Point of Milk: A Natural Way To Understand Colligative Properties  Mercedes Novo, Belén Reija, and Wajih Al-Soufi
Presents a laboratory experiment that illustrates the use of freezing point measurements to control milk quality and determine molecular weight.
Novo, Mercedes; Reija, Belén; Al-Soufi, Wajih. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1673.
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
Natural Products |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents
Carbon Dioxide Fountain  Seong-Joo Kang and Eun-Hee Ryu
This article presents the development of a carbon dioxide fountain that, unlike the traditional ammonia fountain, is odorless and uses consumer chemicals. This experiment also allows students to see evidence of a gaseous reagent being consumed when a pressure sensor is available.
Kang, Seong-Joo; Ryu, Eun-Hee. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1671.
Acids / Bases |
Consumer Chemistry |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Reactions
Incomplete Combustion of Hydrogen: Trapping a Reaction Intermediate  Bruce Mattson and Trisha Hoette
In this demonstration, a hydrogen flame is played across the face of an ice cube and the combustion is quenched in an incomplete state. The resulting solution contains a stable side-product, hydrogen peroxide, whose presence can be verified with two simple chemical tests.
Mattson, Bruce; Hoette, Trisha. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1668.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Free Radicals |
Gases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Reactions |
Reactive Intermediates
The Chemical Composition of Maple Syrup  David W. Ball
Explores the complex chemical composition of maple syrup.
Ball, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1647.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Food Science |
Plant Chemistry |
Natural Products |
Solutions / Solvents
The Chemical Composition of Honey  David W. Ball
Explores the complex chemical composition of honey.
Ball, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1643.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Food Science |
Natural Products |
Solutions / Solvents
The A1c Blood Test: An Illustration of Principles from General and Organic Chemistry  Robert C. Kerber
The glycated hemoglobin blood test is a key measure of the effectiveness of glucose control in diabetics. The chemistry of glucose in the bloodstream, which underlies the test and its impact, provides an illustration of the importance of chemical equilibrium and kinetics to a major health problem.
Kerber, Robert C. . J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1541.
Applications of Chemistry |
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Carbohydrates |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Proteins / Peptides |
Bioorganic Chemistry
The Aromaticity of Pericyclic Reaction Transition States  Henry S. Rzepa
Presents an approach that combines two fundamental concepts in organic chemistry, chirality and aromaticity, into a simple rule for stating selection rules for pericyclic reactions in terms of achiral Hckel-aromatic and chiral Mbius-aromatic transition states.
Rzepa, Henry S. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1535.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stereochemistry
The Penny Experiment Revisited: An Illustration of Significant Figures, Accuracy, Precision, and Data Analysis  Joseph Bularzik
In this general chemistry laboratory the densities of pennies are measured by weighing them and using two different methods to measure their volumes. The average and standard deviation calculated for the resulting densities demonstrate that one measurement method is more accurate while the other is more precise.
Bularzik, Joseph. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1456.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmajor Courses |
Physical Properties
A Student Laboratory Experiment Based on the Vitamin C Clock Reaction  Ed Vitz
Describes an adaptation of the vitamin C clock reaction to a student laboratory experiment in which the orders with respect to peroxide and iodide, the rate constant, and the activation energy are determined by the method of initial rates.
Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1156.
Consumer Chemistry |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Rate Law
Determining the Pressure inside an Unopened Carbonated Beverage  Hans de Grys
Determining the pressure of carbon dioxide inside a sealed soft drink can represents a challenging student exercise. Several methods are discussed for solving the problem, including applying the ideal gas law, gas collection via water displacement, and Henry's law.
de Grys, Hans. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1117.
Applications of Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Student-Centered Learning
The Origin of the Names Malic, Maleic, and Malonic Acid  William B. Jensen
Explores the origins of the terms malic, maleic, and malonic acid.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 924.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Teaching Mathematics to Chemistry Students with Symbolic Computation  J. F. Ogilvie and M. B. Monagan
The authors explain how the use of mathematical software improves the teaching and understanding of mathematics to and by chemistry students while greatly expanding their abilities to solve realistic chemical problems.
Ogilvie, J. F.; Monagan, M. B. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 889.
Chemometrics |
Computational Chemistry |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The Physical Meaning of the Mathematical Formalism Present in Limiting Chemical Equations; Or, How Dilute Is Dilute?  C. Contreras-Ortega, N. Bustamante, J. L. Guevara, C. Portillo, and V. Kesternich
Proposes general mathematical formulations to offer students a better understanding of the real scope of scientific expressions dealing with limiting physical conditions, such as those concerning dilute and concentrated solutions and low and high temperatures and pressures.
Contreras-Ortega, C.; Bustamante, N.; Guevara, J. L.; Portillo, C.; Kesternich, V. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 788.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents
Primo Levi and The Periodic Table: Teaching Chemistry Using a Literary Text  Viktoria Klara Lakatos Osorio, Peter Wilhelm Tiedemann, and Paulo Alves Porto
Describes the use of a problem-solving activity with first-year undergraduate students based on an excerpt from Primo Levi's book The Periodic Table.
Osorio, Viktoria Klara Lakatos; Tiedemann, Peter Wilhelm; Porto, Paulo Alves. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 775.
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Reactions |
Student-Centered Learning
Sudoku Puzzles for First-Year Organic Chemistry Students  Alice L. Perez and G. Lamoureux
Sudoku puzzles are used to help the students learn the correspondence between the names of amino acids, their abbreviations, and codes; and the correspondence between the names of functional groups, their structures, and abbreviations.
Perez, Alice L.; Lamoureux, G. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 614.
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkylation |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Amino Acids |
MO Theory |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Student-Centered Learning |
Alkynes |
Amides
Sudoku Puzzles as Chemistry Learning Tools  Thomas D. Crute and Stephanie A. Myers
Sudoku puzzles that use a mixture of chemical terms and symbols serve as a tool to encourage the necessary repetition and attention to detail desired for mastering chemistry. The classroom-ready examples provided use polyatomic ions, organic functional groups, and strong nucleophiles. Guidelines for developing additional puzzles are described.
Crute, Thomas D.; Myers, Stephanie A. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 612.
Learning Theories |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Student-Centered Learning
Hydrophilic Inorganic Macro-Ions in Solution: Unprecedented Self-Assembly Emerging from Historical "Blue Waters"  Tianbo Liu, Ekkehard Diemann, and Achim Müller
The behavior of supramolecular structures in solution is different from that of simple ions, polymers, surfactant micelles, and colloids. New research involving polyoxometalates, which are fully hydrophilic but tend to self-associate into macro-ionic structures, may change our understanding of inorganic ionic solutions.
Liu, Tianbo; Diemann, Ekkehard; Müller, Achim. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 526.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Colloids |
Materials Science |
Nanotechnology |
Solutions / Solvents |
Spectroscopy |
Lasers |
Physical Properties
Using Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures To Determine the Vapor Pressure of a Volatile Liquid  Fred R. Hilgeman, Gary Bertrand, and Brent Wilson
This experiment, designed for a general chemistry laboratory, illustrates the use of Dalton's law of partial pressures to determine the vapor pressure of a volatile liquid.
Hilgeman, Fred R.; Bertrand, Gary; Wilson, Brent. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 469.
Gases |
Liquids |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
Flame Emission Spectrometry in General Chemistry Labs: Solubility Product (Ksp) of Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate  Frazier W. Nyasulu, William Cusworth III, David Lindquist, and John Mackin
In this general chemistry laboratory, flame emission spectrometry is used to determine the potassium ion concentration in saturated solutions of potassium hydrogen phthalate. From these data the solubility products, the Gibbs free energies of solution, the standard enthalpy of solution, and the standard entropy of solution are calculated.
Nyasulu, Frazier W.; Cusworth, William, III; Lindquist, David; Mackin, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 456.
Acids / Bases |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy |
Equilibrium |
Quantitative Analysis |
Thermodynamics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Applications of Reaction Rate  Kevin Cunningham
This article presents an assignment in which students are to research and report on a chemical reaction whose increased or decreased rate is of practical importance. The assignment is designed to develop and assess a number of valuable skills and understandings, including the ability to write effectively.
Cunningham, Kevin. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 430.
Catalysis |
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Reactions |
Applications of Chemistry
More Thoughts on the Narra Tree Fluorescence  A. Ulises Acuña
The source of L. nephriticum and the substance responsible for the intense blue fluorescence in an earlier published demonstration may require further consideration.
Acuña, A. Ulises. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 231.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Natural Products |
Plant Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Acids / Bases
Effectiveness of a MORE Laboratory Module in Prompting Students To Revise Their Molecular-Level Ideas about Solutions  Lydia T. Tien, Melonie A. Teichert, and Dawn Rickey
This study investigates the effectiveness of a ModelObserveReflectExplain (MORE) laboratory module in prompting three different populations of general chemistry students to revise their molecular-level ideas regarding chemical compounds dissolved in water.
Tien, Lydia T.; Teichert, Melonie A.; Rickey, Dawn. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 175.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Conductivity |
Ionic Bonding |
Solutions / Solvents
pHantastic Fluorescence  Mark Muyskens
Students easily extract a fluorescent substance from shavings of a wood called narra. The fluorescence is dramatically pH dependent and can be turned on and off repeatedly using commonly available acid and base solutions.
Muyskens, Mark. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 768A.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Natural Products |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
pH |
Solutions / Solvents |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Popcorn—What's in the Bag?  Marissa B. Sherman and Thomas A. Evans
Three independent activities explore microwave popcorn, the nature of the packaging, and the popcorn produced.
Sherman, Marissa B.; Evans, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 416A.
Carbohydrates |
Nutrition |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Water / Water Chemistry
A Kool Reaction from the Fine Print  Susan A. S. Hershberger and Arlyne M. Sarquis
Students investigate the reduction of artificial food dyes by citric acid-promoted oxidation of a metal in the form of fine or coarse steel wool. The artificial red and yellow food dyes present in drink mixes contain azo linkages (nitrogennitrogen double bonds) that are readily reduced to colorless products under mild reducing conditions.
Hershberger, Susan A. S.; Sarquis, Arlyne M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1792A.
Acids / Bases |
Consumer Chemistry |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Food Science |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Let Us Give Lewis Acid–Base Theory the Priority It Deserves  Alan A. Shaffer
The Lewis concept is simple yet powerful in its scope, and can be used to help beginning students understand reaction mechanisms more fully. However, traditional approaches to acid-base reactions at the introductory level ignores Lewis acid-base theory completely, focusing instead on proton transfer described by the Br?nsted-Lowry concept.
Shaffer, Alan A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1746.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Lewis Structures |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory |
Covalent Bonding |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Predicting Inorganic Reaction Products: A Critical Thinking Exercise in General Chemistry  David G. DeWit
Describes a course module designed to afford practice in applying the principles encountered throughout the general chemistry sequence to understanding and predicting chemical reactivity and the products of simple inorganic reactions.
DeWit, David G. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1625.
Acids / Bases |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Learning Theories |
Metals |
Nonmetals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Reactions
The Use of Dots in Chemical Formulas  William B. Jensen
Traces the origins and uses of dots in chemical formulas.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1590.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Introduction of Differential Scanning Calorimetry in a General Chemistry Laboratory Course: Determination of Molar Mass by Freezing Point Depression  Ronald P. D'Amelia, Thomas Franks, and William F. Nirode
The work described herein uses differential scanning calorimetry to determine the molar mass of three unknowns (nonvolatile organic hydrocarbons) by freezing point depression.
D'Amelia, Ronald P.; Franks, Thomas; Nirode, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1537.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Thermal Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents
Concentration Scales for Sugar Solutions  David W. Ball
Examines several special scales used to indicate the concentration of sugar solutions and their application to industry.
Ball, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1489.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Food Science |
Solutions / Solvents
Chemical Composition of a Fountain Pen Ink   J. Martín-Gil, M. C. Ramos-Sánchez, F. J. Martín-Gil, and M. José-Yacamán
Black ink (Parker Quink) widely used in 19501980 is characterized and compared with other traditional inks. There is agreement that the main cause of ink decay is the iron(II) sulfate content, whose effect is stronger than the destructive action of acids.
Martín-Gil, J.; Ramos-Sánchez, M. C.; Martín-Gil, F. J.; José-Yacamán, M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1476.
Applications of Chemistry |
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Free Radicals |
Reactions
Using Balloons for a Dramatic Presentation of the Acid–Bicarbonate Reaction  Miroslav Proka and Anna Tóthová
Describes the use of balloons in demonstrating the reaction between sodium hydrogen carbonate and acid.
Proka, Miroslav; Tóthová, Anna. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1471.
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments |
Reactions
Chemistry Comes Alive!, Volume 8. Abstract of Special Issue 34  Rachel Bain, Jerrold J. Jacobsen, James H. Maynard, John W. Moore, and C. Jonathan Mitschele
Chemistry Comes Alive! Volume 8 can help move students understanding of waves from mechanical models to the chemical phenomena those models explain.
Bain, Rachel; Jacobsen, Jerrold J.; Maynard, James H.; Moore, John W.; Mitschele, C. Jonathan. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1406.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions
Classifying Matter: A Physical Model Using Paper Clips  Bob Blake, Lynn Hogue, and Jerry L. Sarquis
By using colored paper clips, students can represent pure substances, mixtures, elements, and compounds and then discuss their similarities and differences. This model is advantageous for the beginning student who would not know enough about the detailed composition of simple materials like milk, brass, sand, and air to classify them properly.
Blake, Bob; Hogue, Lynn; Sarquis, Jerry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1317.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solids |
Student-Centered Learning
More on the Nature of Resonance  Robert C. Kerber
The author continues to find the use of delocalization preferable to resonance.
Kerber, Robert C. . J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1291.
Aromatic Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Resonance Theory |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
More on the Nature of Resonance  William B. Jensen
Supplements a recent article on the interpretation of resonance theory with three additional observationsone historical and two conceptual.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1290.
Aromatic Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Resonance Theory
Endothermic Chemical and Physical Changes: An Introductory Chemistry Experiment  Margaret J. Steffel
Each of eleven unidentified compounds is heated in a test tube to determine whether the endothermic change each undergoes is a chemical or a physical change.
Steffel, Margaret J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1185.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Physical Properties |
Reactions |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Two "Gas-in-a-Bag" Reactions To Show the Predictive Power of the Relative AcidBase Strength Chart  Brett Criswell
Describes a demonstration in which two different pairs of solid chemicals mixed in two different Ziploc bags in the presence of a small quantities of water react to produce gases. Students are informed that the reactions are BrnstedLowry acidbase type reactions and must determine which member in each pair will act as the acid and which as the base.
Criswell, Brett. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1167.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Gases |
Reactions |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Was Markovnikov's Rule an Inspired Guess?  Peter Hughes
A study of 19th century literature shows that neither Markovnikov nor any of his contemporaries carried out the reactions often attributed to himthe addition of hydrogen bromide or hydrogen chloride to propene. Since there is little evidence for Markovnikov's rule in his 1870 article, it is likely that it was more of an inspired guess than a rational conclusion.
Hughes, Peter. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1152.
Addition Reactions |
Alkenes |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The Synthesis of Copper(II) Carboxylates Revisited  Kevin Kushner, Robert E. Spangler, Ralph A. Salazar, Jr., and J. J. Lagowski
Describes an electrochemical synthesis of copper(II) carboxylates for use in the general chemistry laboratory course for chemistry majors.
Kushner, Kevin; Spangler, Robert E.; Salazar, Ralph A., Jr.; Lagowski, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1042.
Carboxylic Acids |
Coordination Compounds |
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Solutions / Solvents |
Transition Elements |
Undergraduate Research |
Synthesis
Molecular Handshake: Recognition through Weak Noncovalent Interactions  Parvathi S. Murthy
This article traces the development of our thinking about molecular recognition through noncovalent interactions, highlights their salient features, and suggests ways for comprehensive education on this important concept.
Murthy, Parvathi S. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1010.
Applications of Chemistry |
Biosignaling |
Membranes |
Molecular Recognition |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Chromatography |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Polymerization |
Reactions
Acid–Base Chemistry According to Robert Boyle: Chemical Reactions in Words as well as Symbols  David E. Goodney
Examples of acidbase reactions from Robert Boyle's The Sceptical Chemist are used to illustrate the rich information content of chemical equations. Boyle required lengthy passages of florid language to describe what can be done quite simply with a chemical equation.
Goodney, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1001.
Acids / Bases |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Nonmajor Courses |
Reactions |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Octachem Model: Organic Chemistry Nomenclature Companion  Joaquin Palacios
The Octachem model is an educational physical model designed to guide students in the identification, classification, and naming of the chemical structures of organic compounds. In this article the basic concepts of Octachem model are presented, and the physical model and contents are described.
Palacios, Joaquin. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 890.
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Esters |
Ethers |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Valence, Oxidation Number, and Formal Charge: Three Related but Fundamentally Different Concepts  Gerard Parkin
The purpose of this article is to clarify the terms valence, oxidation number, coordination number, formal charge, and number of bonds and illustrate how the valence of an atom in a molecule provides a much more meaningful criterion for establishing the chemical reasonableness of a molecule than does the oxidation number.
Parkin, Gerard. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 791.
Coordination Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Lewis Structures |
Oxidation State |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The Fluorescence of Lignum nephriticum: A Flash Back to the Past and a Simple Demonstration of Natural Substance Fluorescence  Mark Muyskens
This article describes a simple but visually striking demonstration of fluorescence from the aqueous extract of the tropical hardwood Pterocarpus indicus.
Muyskens, Mark. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 765.
Acids / Bases |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Natural Products |
pH |
Solutions / Solvents |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Taming the Barking Dog  Ché Royce Seabourne, George Maxwell, and James Wallace
This demonstration brings Liebig's famous 19th-century demonstration headlong into the 21st century, using digital video footage and other novel media.
Seabourne, Ché Royce; Maxwell, George; Wallace, James. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 751.
Gases |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions
Interactive Demonstrations for Mole Ratios and Limiting Reagents  Crystal Wood and Bryan Breyfogle
The objective of this study was to develop interactive lecture demonstrations based on conceptual-change learning theory. Experimental instruction was designed for an introductory chemistry course for nonmajors to address misconceptions related to mole ratios and limiting reagents
Wood, Crystal; Breyfogle, Bryan. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 741.
Learning Theories |
Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Student-Centered Learning
The Rainbow Wheel and Rainbow Matrix: Two Effective Tools for Learning Ionic Nomenclature  Joseph S. Chimeno, Gary P Wulfsberg, Michael J. Sanger, and Tammy J. Melton
This study compared the learning of ionic nomenclature by three different methods, one traditional and the other two using game formats. The game formats were found to be more effective in helping students develop a working knowledge of chemical nomenclature.
Chimeno, Joseph S.; Wulfsberg, Gary P.; Sanger, Michael J.; Melton, Tammy J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 651.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmajor Courses
Demonstration of Absorbance Using Digital Color Image Analysis and Colored Solutions  Shane K. Kohl, James D. Landmark, and Douglas F. Stickle
This article describes a simple experiment in which the principle of absorbance may be demonstrated using digital color image analysis.
Kohl, Shane K.; Landmark, James D.; Stickle, Douglas F. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 644.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Incorporation of Microwave Synthesis into the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory  Alan R. Katritzky, Chunming Cai, Meghan D. Collins, Eric F. V. Scriven, Sandeep K. Singh, and E. Keller Barnhardt
Describes a simple way to effectively implement microwave synthesis into the undergraduate organic laboratory curriculum.
Katritzky, Alan R.; Cai, Chunming; Collins, Meghan D.; Scriven, Eric F. V.;Singh, Sandeep K.; Barnhardt, E. Keller. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 634.
Aromatic Compounds |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Reactions |
Synthesis
Microwave-Assisted Heterocyclic Chemistry for Undergraduate Organic Laboratory  Robert Musiol, Bozena Tyman-Szram, and Jaroslaw Polanski
Microwave-assisted techniques are used to design new environmentally benign syntheses of heterocycles for the undergraduate organic laboratory.
Musiol, Robert; Tyman-Szram, Bozena; Polanski, Jaroslaw. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 632.
Green Chemistry |
Heterocycles |
Reactions |
Synthesis
What Happens When Chemical Compounds Are Added to Water? An Introduction to the Model–Observe–Reflect–Explain (MORE) Thinking Frame  Adam C. Mattox, Barbara A. Reisner, and Dawn Rickey
This article describes a laboratory designed to help students understand how different compounds behave when dissolved in water, and introduces the modelobservereflectexplain (MORE) thinking frame, an instructional tool that encourages students to connect macroscopic observations with their understanding of the behavior of particles at the molecular level.
Mattox, Adam C.; Reisner, Barbara A.; Rickey, Dawn. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 622.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Conductivity |
Ionic Bonding |
Solutions / Solvents |
Stoichiometry
Revisiting Molar Mass, Atomic Mass, and Mass Number: Organizing, Integrating, and Sequencing Fundamental Chemical Concepts  Stephen DeMeo
It is often confusing for introductory chemistry students to differentiate between molar mass, atomic mass, and mass number as well as to conceptually understand these ideas beyond a surface level. One way to improve understanding is to integrate the concepts, articulate their relationships, and present them in a meaningful sequence.
DeMeo, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 617.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Physical Properties
Nomenclature Made Practical: Student Discovery of the Nomenclature Rules  Michael C. Wirtz, Joan Kaufmann, and Gary Hawley
Presents a method to teach chemical nomenclature to students in an introductory chemistry course that utilizes the discovery-learning model. Inorganic compounds are grouped into four categories and introduced through separate activities interspersed throughout the first semester to provide context and avoid confronting the student with all of the nomenclature rules at once.
Wirtz, Michael C.; Kaufmann, Joan; Hawley, Gary. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 595.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmetals |
Student-Centered Learning
Acrostic Puzzles in the Classroom  Dorothy Swain
Acrostic puzzles are an effective vehicle to expose students to the history and philosophy of science without lecturing.
Swain, Dorothy. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 589.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmajor Courses |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The Ultrasonic Soda Fountain: A Dramatic Demonstration of Gas Solubility in Aqueous Solutions  John E. Baur and Melinda B. Baur
An ultrasonic bath is used to accelerate the rate at which carbonated beverages equilibrate with the atmosphere. The resulting fountain, which can reach heights in excess of 3 meters, is a dramatic demonstration of the solubility of gases in liquids.
Baur, John E.; Baur, Melinda B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 577.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Kinetics |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
Synthesis of Unsymmetrical Alkynes via the Alkylation of Sodium Acetylides. An Introduction to Synthetic Design for Organic Chemistry Students  Jennifer N. Shepherd and Jason R. Stenzel
Teams of students design a microscale synthesis of an unsymmetrical alkyne using commercially available terminal alkynes and alkyl halides and characterize the resulting products using TLC, IR, and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Depending on the chosen reactants, students observe both substitution and elimination products, or in some cases, no reaction at all.
Shepherd, Jennifer N.; Stenzel, Jason R. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 425.
Alkylation |
Alkynes |
Elimination Reactions |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Synthesis
Mechanisms That Interchange Axial and Equatorial Atoms in Fluxional Processes: Illustration of the Berry Pseudorotation, the Turnstile, and the Lever Mechanisms via Animation of Transition State Normal Vibrational Modes  Marion E. Cass, King Kuok Hii, and Henry S. Rzepa
Teaching the Berry pseudorotation mechanism presents particular pedagogic problems due to both its dynamic and three dimensional character. The approach described here illustrates these processes using interactive animations embedded in a Web page.
Cass, Marion E.; Hii, King Kuok; Rzepa, Henry S. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 336.
Computational Chemistry |
Enantiomers |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Nonmetals
Using Jmol To Help Students Better Understand Fluxional Processes   William F. Coleman and Edward W. Fedosky
This new WebWare neatly combines instructional text and Jmol interactive, animated illustrations to teach mechanisms that need to be clearly visualized in order to be well understood.
Coleman, William F.; Fedosky, Edward W. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 336.
Computational Chemistry |
Enantiomers |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Nonmetals
4-Dimethylaminopyridine or Acid-Catalyzed Syntheses of Esters: A Comparison  Annemieke W. C. van den Berg and Ulf Hanefeld
Students compare acid-catalyzed ester synthesis and the 4-dimethylaminopyridine-catalyzed reaction. Based on the outcome of the experiments, students discuss the different reaction mechanisms and reason why different products are formed.
van den Berg, Annemieke W. C.; Hanefeld, Ulf. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 292.
Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Chromatography |
Esters |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
If It's Resonance, What Is Resonating?  Robert C. Kerber
This article reviews the origin of the terminology associated with the use of more than one Lewis-type structure to describe delocalized bonding in molecules and how the original usage has evolved to reduce confusion
Kerber, Robert C. . J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 223.
Aromatic Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Resonance Theory
Computer Simulations of Salt Solubility  Victor M. S. Gil and João C. M. Paiva
Computer Simulations of Salt Solubility provides an animated, visual interpretation of the different solubilities of related salts based on simple entropy changes associated with dissolution: configurational disorder and thermal disorder.
Gil, Victor M. S.; Paiva, João C. M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 173.
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Computational Chemistry
A New Java Animation in Peer-Reviewed JCE WebWare  William F. Coleman and Edward W. Fedosky
Just added to JCE WebWare, Computer Simulations of Salt Solubility uses a Java applet and Web browser to present an animated illustration of differences in the solubility of salts due to differences in the entropy of solvation.
Coleman, William F.; Fedosky, Edward W. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 173.
Computational Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
Using Computer Simulations To Teach Salt Solubility. The Role of Entropy in Solubility Equilibrium  Victor M. S. Gil and João C. M. Paiva
Pairs of salts are discussed to illustrate the interpretation of their different behavior in water in terms of the fundamental concept of entropy. The ability of computer simulations to help improve students' understanding of these chemistry concepts is also examined.
Gil, Victor M. S.; Paiva, João C. M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 170.
Computational Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
Derivatization of Fullerenes: An Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Charles T. Cox Jr. and Melanie M. Cooper
Presents two undergraduate organic chemistry laboratories detailing the synthesis of fullerene derivatives, using the Bingel (carbene insertion) and Prato (1,3-dipolar addition) protocols.
Cox, Charles T., Jr.; Cooper, Melanie M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 99.
Acids / Bases |
Addition Reactions |
Chromatography |
Heterocycles |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Authors: Know the Hazards, Please!  Anne K. Bentley, Mohammed Farhoud, Arthur B. Ellis, George C. Lisensky, Anne-Marie L. Nickel, and Wendy C. Crone
The MSDS for commercial Ni plating solution states that the product is regulated as toxic and contains ingredients that are known to cause cancer.
Bentley, Anne K.; Farhoud, Mohammed; Ellis, Arthur B.; Lisensky, George C.; Nickel, Anne-Marie L.; Crone, Wendy C. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1775.
Solutions / Solvents |
Toxicology |
Nanotechnology |
Magnetic Properties
Authors: Know the Hazards, Please!  Jay A. Young
The article Template Synthesis and Magnetic Manipulation of Nickel Nanowires does not identify all of the important potential hazards involved; nickel compounds are known to be human carcinogens, and nickel and its compounds are mutagenic.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1775.
Solutions / Solvents |
Toxicology |
Nanotechnology |
Magnetic Properties
Authors: Know the Hazards, Please!  Jay A. Young
The article Template Synthesis and Magnetic Manipulation of Nickel Nanowires does not identify all of the important potential hazards involved; nickel compounds are known to be human carcinogens, and nickel and its compounds are mutagenic.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1775.
Solutions / Solvents |
Toxicology |
Nanotechnology |
Magnetic Properties
Are Some Elements More Equal Than Others?  Ronald L. Rich
Presents a new periodic chart with 18 columns but no interruptions of atomic numbers at Lanthanum or Actinum, and no de-emphasis of elements 57-71 or 89-103 by seeming to make footnotes of them. It shows some elements more than once in order to illuminate multiple relationships in chemical behavior.
Rich, Ronald L. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1761.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Inner Transition Elements |
Main-Group Elements |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Oxidation State |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements
The Virtual ChemLab Project: A Realistic and Sophisticated Simulation of Organic Synthesis and Organic Qualitative Analysis  Brian F. Woodfield, Merritt B. Andrus, Gregory L. Waddoups, Melissa S. Moore, Richard Swan, Rob Allen, Greg Bodily, Tricia Andersen, Jordan Miller, Bryon Simmons, and Richard Stanger
Describes a set of sophisticated and realistic laboratory simulations for use in freshman- and sophomore-level chemistry classes and laboratories called Virtual ChemLab. The purpose of these simulations is to reinforce concepts taught in the classroom, provide an environment for creative learning, and emphasize the thinking behind instructional laboratory experiments.
Woodfield, Brian F.; Andrus, Merritt B.; Waddoups, Gregory L.; Moore, Melissa S.; Swan, Richard; Allen, Rob; Bodily, Greg; Andersen, Tricia; Miller, Jordan; Simmons, Bryon; Stanger, Richard. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1728.
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Synthesis |
Reactions |
Thin Layer Chromatography
A Simple and Easy-To-Learn Chart of the Main Classes of Inorganic Compounds and Their Acid–Base Reactions  Grigoriy Sereda
Presents a two-dimensional chart for the classification of the main classes of inorganic compounds with respect to their acidic and basic properties that makes it possible to predict reaction products and determine the coefficients in chemical equations of acidbase reactions.
Sereda, Grigoriy. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1645.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions |
Stoichiometry
Laboratory Experiments on the Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 7: Microscale Production of Ozone  Jorge G. Ibanez, Rodrigo Mayen-Mondragon, M. T. Moran-Moran, Alejandro Alatorre-Ordaz, Bruce Mattson, and Scot Eskestrand
Ozone, a powerful oxidizing and disinfecting agent, is produced electrochemically in the undergraduate laboratory with simple equipment and under very mild conditions. Tests are given to characterize it, to observe its action in simulated environmental applications, and to measure its rate of production.
Ibanez, Jorge G.; Mayen-Mondragon, Rodrigo; Moran-Moran, M. T.; Alatorre-Ordaz, Alejandro; Mattson, Bruce; Eskestrand, Scot. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1546.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Sherlock Holmes and the Case of the Raven and the Ambassador's Wife: An Inquiry-Based Murder Mystery  Nathaniel Grove and Stacey Lowery Bretz
In the accompanying investigation, students help Sherlock Holmes solve the poisoning death of Holly Bernard-Schneider, the wife of the German ambassador to England. Hints are placed throughout the story to help students in their choice of experiments. These experiments include flame tests, qualitative analysis, molar mass determination using freezing point depression, and identification of crystal shapes. Though intended for use as a culminating activity, the unit can be easily modified to be used as separate modules throughout the course of the year.
Grove, Nathaniel; Bretz, Stacey Lowery. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1532.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Qualitative Analysis |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Student-Centered Learning
Toys in the Classroom  Jerry L. Sarquis and Arlyne. M. (Mickey) Sarquis
The chemical principles behind Shrinky Dinks, Happy Birds, and Hand Boilers are described and suggestions for hands-on activities for students are given.
Sarquis, Jerry L.; Sarquis, Arlyne. M. (Mickey). J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1450.
Solutions / Solvents
Improving Conceptions in Analytical Chemistry: ci Vi = cf Vf  Margarita Rodríguez-López and Arnaldo Carrasquillo Jr.
A common misconception related to analytical chemistry, which may be generalized as the failure to recognize and to account analytically for changes in substance density, is discussed. A cautionary example is made through the use of mass-based units of composition during volumetric dilution. The correct application of the volumetric dilution equation ci Vi = cf Vf is discussed. A quantitative description of the systematic error introduced by incorrect use of the volumetric dilution equation is also specified.
Rodríguez-López, Margarita; Carrasquillo, Arnaldo, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1327.
Industrial Chemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents
Mass Relationships in a Chemical Reaction: Incorporating Additional Graphing Exercises into the Introductory Chemistry Laboratory  Stephen DeMeo
The purpose of this article is to increase student involvement with graph construction specifically in the context of introductory laboratory activities that involve mass relationships between reacting substances and products. In this regard, five massmass plots derived from a synthesis of a binary compound from its elements are presented as well as a set of questions to focus learners on the significance of each plot. The benefit of providing learners with these types of graphing activities include the use of higher-order cognitive processes as well as the elucidation of fundamental chemical knowledge such as the law of the conservation of mass, the law of constant composition, limiting and excess reactants, and empirical formula.
DeMeo, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1219.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Quantitative Analysis
Chemistry Comes Alive!, Volume 7 Abstract of Special Issue 32, a CD-ROM of Flames and Explosions   Rachel Bain, Jerrold J. Jacobsen, James H. Maynard, and John W. Moore
A visual library containing more than 230 QuickTime movies and more than 6700 still images, Chemistry Comes Alive! Volume 7: Flames and Explosions features the kind of chemistry that is sure to spark an interest. Organized using both the periodic table and type of reaction, CCA! 7 makes it easy for you to find the movie or image you seek to add that spark of interest to your presentation. CCA! 7 covers a broad range of spectacular chemical reactions while also offering a depth of coverage that encourages discussions that compare and contrast particular reactions.
Bain, Rachel; Jacobsen, Jerrold J.; Maynard, James H.; Moore, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1102.
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Kinetics of Alcohol Dehydrogenase-Catalyzed Oxidation of Ethanol Followed by Visible Spectroscopy  Kestutis Bendinskas, Christopher DiJiacomo, Allison Krill, and Ed Vitz
A two-week biochemistry experiment was introduced in the second-semester general chemistry laboratory to study the oxidation of ethanol in vitro in the presence of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). This reaction should pique student interest because the same reaction also occurs in human bodies when alcoholic drinks are consumed. Procedures were developed to follow the biochemical reaction by visible spectroscopy and to avoid specialized equipment. The effect of substrate concentration on the rate of this enzymatic reaction was investigated during the first week. The effects of temperature, pH, the specificity of the enzyme to several substrates, and the enzyme's inhibition by heavy metals were explored during the second week.
Bendinskas, Kestutis; DiJiacomo, Christopher; Krill, Allison; Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1068.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Biophysical Chemistry |
Food Science
The Addition of Bromine to 1,2-Diphenylethene   Judith C. Amburgey-Peters and LeRoy W. Haynes
We investigated the reaction of (Z)-1,2-diphenylethene (cis-stilbene) with various brominating reagents and solvents following directions in standard organic chemistry manuals. We were particularly interested in learning which combination of brominating reagent and solvent gave the best yield of (d,l)-1,2-dibromo-1,2-diphenylethane without the formation of significant amounts of meso-1,2-dibromo-1,2-diphenylethane, which is essentially the sole product from the reaction of bromine with (E)-1,2-diphenylethene (trans-stilbene). Based on the results from the standard preparatory methods, some permutations of solvent and brominating reagent were tried.
Amburgey-Peters, Judith C.; Haynes, LeRoy W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1051.
Addition Reactions |
Alkenes |
Carbocations |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stereochemistry
Conceptual Considerations in Molecular Science  Donald T. Sawyer
The undergraduate curriculum and associated textbooks include several significant misconceptions.
Sawyer, Donald T. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 985.
Catalysis |
Covalent Bonding |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Reactive Intermediates |
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry
Procedure for Decomposing a Redox Reaction into Half-Reactions  Ilie Fishtik and Ladislav H. Berka
The principle of stoichiometric uniqueness provides a simple algorithm to check whether a simple redox reaction may be uniquely decomposed into half-reactions in a single way. For complex redox reactions the approach permits a complete enumeration of a finite and unique number of ways a redox reaction may be decomposed into half-reactions. Several examples are given.
Fishtik, Ilie; Berka, Ladislav H. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 553.
Stoichiometry |
Equilibrium |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Thermodynamics
An Interactive Classroom Activity Demonstrating Reaction Mechanisms and Rate-Determining Steps  Laura D. Jennings and Steven W. Keller
An interactive classroom activity is described that allows visualization of microscopic reaction mechanisms via the macroscopic process of unwrapping and eating chocolate candies.
Jennings, Laura D.; Keller, Steven W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 549.
Reactions |
Rate Law |
Kinetics
The Determination of the Percent of Oxygen in Air Using a Gas Pressure Sensor  James Gordon and Katherine Chancey
A new detection method is applied to a classic experiment in which gaseous atmospheric oxygen in a test tube is reacted with the iron in steel wool to produce rust. A gas pressure sensor interfaced to a calculator-based data collection system was used to measure the percent of oxygen in the air as the reaction proceeded. The results from the calculator-based experiment were compared to the results from a more traditional water-measurement experiment. The average percent of oxygen obtained using the calculator system was 19.4  0.4%.
Gordon, James; Chancey, Katherine. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 286.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
A Methane Balloon Inflation Chamber  Curtis J. Czerwinski and Tanya J. Cordes
While several lecture demonstrations are possible using methane-filled balloons, it is often inconvenient to prepare these balloons since the pressure from standard laboratory and lecture hall gas nozzles is too low. As a solution to this problem, a methane balloon inflation chamber, prepared from a translucent 3.5-gallon pail and an aspirator or house-vacuum, provides an inexpensive and convenient method for inflating balloons in laboratories or lecture halls. Prepared in this way, methane-filled balloons can be used to demonstrate the effects of vacuum, the lifting power of low-density gases, and the explosive combustion of methane.
Czerwinski, Curtis J.; Cordes, Tanya J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 248.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Reaction to "The Concept of Ionic Strength Eighty Years after Its Introduction in Chemistry"  Leslie Glasser
Sastre de Vicente has recently published an excellent paper on the concept of ionic strength, detailing its empirical origin, its independent appearance in the theories of Debye and Hckel, its applications in solution chemistry and, most importantly, its interpretation as reflecting the extent to which a potential difference induces a charge density difference.
Glasser, Leslie. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 212.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A Substitute for “Bromine in Carbon Tetrachloride”  Joshua M. Daley and Robert G. Landolt
Benzotrifluoride (BTF) is a suitable solvent substitute for carbon tetrachloride in experiments requiring application of bromine (Br2) in free radical or addition reactions with organic substrates. A 1 M solution of Br2 in BTF may be used to distinguish hydrocarbons based on the ease of abstraction of hydrogen atoms in thermally or light-induced free radical substitutions. Efficacy of minimization of solvent use, by aliquot addition to neat samples, has been established.
Daley, Joshua M.; Landolt, Robert G. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 120.
Alkenes |
Free Radicals |
Green Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Reactions
A Greener Approach for Measuring Colligative Properties  Sean M. McCarthy and Scott W. Gordon-Wylie
As a first step towards the greening of instructional laboratories, we present a new greener version of a laboratory procedure designed to measure colligative properties. The greener procedure substitutes the nontoxic, noncarcinogenic compounds stearic, myristic, lauric, and palmitic acids for the less benign aromatic compounds p-dichlorobenzene, benzil, biphenyl, naphthalene, and nitrotoluene. Achieving educational goals without the concomitant generation of chlorinated and aromatic wastes is shown here to be both possible and practical.
McCarthy, Sean M.; Gordon-Wylie, Scott W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 116.
Green Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Fatty Acids
Empirical Formulas and the Solid State: A Proposal  William B. Jensen
This brief article calls attention to the failure of most introductory textbooks to point out explicitly the fact that nonmolecular solids do not have molecular formulas and suggests some practical remedies for improving textbook coverage of this subject. The inadequacies of the terms "empirical formula" and "molecular formula" are also discussed, and the terms "relative compositional formula" and "absolute compositional formula" are proposed as more appropriate alternatives.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1772.
Solid State Chemistry |
Solids |
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The Effect of Ionic Strength on the Solubility of an Electrolyte  Joan D. Willey
The theory of activity versus concentration is important in industrial, environmental, and biochemistry. The increase in solubility of an electrolyte in a solution of a second electrolyte with no common ions compared with pure water is not an easy concept to grasp because it seems to be counterintuitive. The simple experiment described here illustrates this principle visually and dramatically. Students attempt to dissolve CaSO42H2O (gypsum) in pure water and in 0.25 M NaCl.
Willey, Joan D. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1644.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Old Nassau Demonstration with Wilkinson Modification  Lawrence E. Wilkinson
A modification of the Old Nassau Reaction demonstration is presented, wherein a 0.025 M silver nitrate solution is used in place of the mercury(II) chloride solution employed in the original demonstration.
Wilkinson, Lawrence E. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1474.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Etymology as an Aid to Understanding Chemistry Concepts  Nittala S. Sarma
Recognition of word roots and the pattern of evolution of scientific terms can be helpful in understanding chemistry concepts (gaining knowledge of new concepts represented by related terms). The meaning and significance of various etymological roots, occurring as prefixes and suffixes in technical terms particularly of organic chemistry, are explained in a unified manner in order to show the connection of various concepts vis  vis the terms in currency. The meanings of some special words and many examples are provided.
Sarma, Nittala S. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1437.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The Origin of the Mole Concept  William B. Jensen
In response to a reader query, the column traces the origins of the mole concept in chemistry.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1409.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
SI for Chemists: A Modification  Robert D. Freeman
To correct my original blunder, I recommend that the name "amount of substance" be replaced by "quant" (rather than posos). The word "quant" is in standard dictionaries and has a single meaning related to boating.
Freeman, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 802.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
SI for Chemists: Another Position  Tomislav Cvitas
I must say that I agree neither with what was said in the original commentary by R. D. Freeman, nor with the letter by P. Karol.
Cvitas, Tomislav. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 801.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
SI for Chemists: Persistent Problems, Solid Solutions; SI Basic Units: The Kilogram and the Mole  Robert D. Freeman
Karols letter is a prime example of the type of article about which he complains in his first paragraph. There are four major flaws in Karols suggestions.
Freeman, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 800.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
SI for Chemists: Persistent Problems, Solid Solutions. SI Basic Units: The Kilogram and the Mole  Paul J. Karol
The persistent perceived problem with the base units kilogram and mole addressed in those journal articles is resolvable once it is finally recognized that we have been using a double standard: the international platinumiridium kilogram prototype and 12C.
Karol, Paul J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 800.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Quantitative Analysis |
Stoichiometry
SI for Chemists: Persistent Problems, Solid Solutions. SI Basic Units: The Kilogram and the Mole  Paul J. Karol
The persistent perceived problem with the base units kilogram and mole addressed in those journal articles is resolvable once it is finally recognized that we have been using a double standard: the international platinumiridium kilogram prototype and 12C.
Karol, Paul J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 800.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Quantitative Analysis |
Stoichiometry
Functional Group Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
This puzzle contains 24 names and terms from organic chemistry in a 12 ? 12 letter matrix. A descriptive narrative with underlined spaces to be filled gives clues to the terms students need to find.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 517.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Organic Chemistry Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
This puzzle contains 27 names and terms from organic chemistry in a 13 ? 13 letter matrix. A descriptive narrative with underlined spaces to be filled gives clues to the terms students need to find.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 515.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Caveman Chemistry: 28 Projects, from the Creation of Fire to the Production of Plastics (Kevin M. Dunn)  Michael S. Matthews
In Caveman Chemistry, Kevin Dunn presents a historically oriented hands-on introduction to chemistry and chemical technology that is tremendously entertaining.
Matthews, Michael S. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 490.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Natural Products |
Nonmajor Courses
A Reaction That Takes Place in Beakers but Not in Conical Flasks: A Catalysis-Related Demonstration  Colin White
A striking demonstration emphasizing that substances which promote reactions are not catalysts if they are consumed in the process. The demonstration is based on the iron(II) induced oxidation of iodide by chromium(VI).
White, Colin. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 364.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Well Wishes. A Case on Septic Systems and Well Water Requiring In-Depth Analysis and Including Optional Laboratory Experiments  Mary M. Walczak and Juliette M. Lantz
This paper describes the use of a case study to teach introductory chemistry students the chemical principles of solution concentration (especially ppm) and dilution, aqueous redox reactions, and stoichiometric conversions between different solution species.
Walczak, Mary M.; Lantz, Juliette M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 218.
Consumer Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry
Why Chemical Reactions Happen (James Keeler and Peter Wothers)  John Krenos
By concentrating on a limited number of model reactions, this book presents chemistry as a cohesive whole by tying together the fundamentals of thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, and quantum chemistry, mainly through the use of molecular orbital interpretations.
Krenos, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 201.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Quantum Chemistry |
MO Theory
Three-Dimensional Model for Water: Magnets as Dipoles  Samuel H. Yalkowsky and Jennifer L. H. Johnson
Reply to comments on original article.
Yalkowsky, Samuel H.; Johnson, Jennifer L. H. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 34.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Lipids |
Liquids |
Molecular Modeling |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents |
Water / Water Chemistry
Three-Dimensional Model for Water: Magnets as Chemical Bonds  Roy W. Clark
Concerns over students confusing electrical and magnetic fields.
Clark, Roy W. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 34.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Lipids |
Liquids |
Molecular Modeling |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents |
Water / Water Chemistry
Don't Be Tricked by Your Integrated Rate Plot  Edward Urbansky
Reply to comments on original article.
Urbansky, Edward. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 32.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Chemometrics
Don't Be Tricked by Your Integrated Rate Plot: Reaction order Ambiguity  Sue Le Vent
Integrated rate equations (for constant reaction volume) may be given in terms of relative reactant concentration, C (= concentration/initial concentration) and relative time, T (= time/half-life); in these forms, the equations are independent of rate constants and initial concentrations.
Le Vent, Sue. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 32.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Chemometrics
Don't Be Tricked by Your Integrated Rate Plot: Pitfalls of Using Integrated Rate Plots  Gabor Lente
Problems with linearizing the integrated rate law.
Lente, Gabor. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 32.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Chemometrics
Don't Be Tricked by Your Integrated Rate Plot: Pitfalls of Using Integrated Rate Plots  Gabor Lente
Problems with linearizing the integrated rate law.
Lente, Gabor. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 32.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Chemometrics
Students' Understanding of Solution Chemistry Concepts  Tacettin Pinarbasi and Nurtaç Canpolat
This study examines undergraduates' understanding of some concepts in solution chemistry such as unsaturated, saturated, and supersaturated solutions; physical properties of solutions; and gas solubility. We suggest that the results can be utilized in research that develops teaching strategies to overcome students' misunderstanding.
Pinarbasi, Tacettin; Canpolat, Nurtaç . J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1328.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
Reactions (→) vs Equations (=)  S. R. Logan
A recent chemical kinetics text uses an equals sign for an overall reaction, whereas an arrow is used in each of the reaction steps that are proposed to constitute the mechanism, and for any elementary process.
Logan, S. R. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1258.
Kinetics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Organic Nomenclature  David B. Shaw and Laura R. Yindra
Organic Nomenclature is a drill-and-practice exercise in naming organic compounds (using both common and IUPAC names) and identifying structural formulas. It consists of multiple-choice questions where a name or formula is given and the correct formula or name is chosen from a list of five possible answers.
Shaw, David B.; Yindra, Laura R. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1223.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Dynamic Visualization in Chemistry Abstract of Special Issue 31, a CD-ROM for Mac OS and Windows  James P. Birk, Debra E. Leedy, Rachel A. Morgan, Mark Drake, Fiona Lihs, Eleisha J. Nickoles, and Michael J. McKelvy
Each presentation is designed to help chemistry students acquire a dynamic, three-dimensional, atomic-level visualization of matter and to use this view to explain and ultimately predict the behavior of materials. It integrates video of experiments and animations of theoretical models. Students zoom in on physical and chemical processes at resolutions as high as the atomic level.
Birk, James P.; Leedy, Debra E.; Morgan, Rachel A.; Drake, Mark; Lihs, Fiona; Nickoles, Eleisha J.; McKelvy, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1095.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Solid State Chemistry
Diffusion of Water through a Differentially Permeable Membrane  Maria Guadalupe Bertoluzzo, Fabio E. Quattrin, Stella Maris Bertoluzzo, and Ruben Rigatuso
Students investigate the process of osmosis through the differentially-permeable membrane formed by copper(II) hexacyanoferrate(II), a colloidal precipitate.
Bertoluzzo, Maria Guadalupe; Quattrin, Fabio E.; Bertoluzzo, Stella Maris; Rigatuso, Ruben. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1032A.
Transport Properties |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Purple or Colorless—Which Way Up? An Entertaining Solubility Demonstration  Trevor M. Kitson
Discrepant demonstration involving immiscible mixture of water colored with potassium permanganate and hexane.
Kitson, Trevor M. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 892.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
Inorganic Nomenclature   David Shaw
Drill-and-practice exercises in naming and writing formulas for ionic and covalent inorganic compounds.
Shaw, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 711.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Applying the Reaction Table Method for Chemical Reaction Problems (Stoichiometry and Equilibrium)  Steven F. Watkins
A systematic approach to chemical reaction calculations (stoichiometry calculations) - the "Reaction Table Method" (similar to the equilibrium table method).
Watkins, Steven F. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 658.
Equilibrium |
Stoichiometry |
Reactions |
Kinetics
A Simple Method for Determination of Solubility in the First-Year Laboratory  Heather D. Harle, Julia A. Ingram, Phyllis A. Leber, Kenneth R. Hess, and Claude H. Yoder
Efficient means of determining the solubility of a solute using a Buchner-type funnel for filtration and an analytical balance to measure mass changes.
Harle, Heather D.; Ingram, Julia A.; Leber, Phyllis A.; Hess, Kenneth R.; Yoder, Claude H. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 560.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Laboratory Management |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Gravimetric Analysis
Chemical Equilibria Involving Copper(II) Ethylenediamine Complexes  Roberto Zingales
Demonstration illustrating the formation of two different complexes when copper(II) ions react with ethylenediamine.
Zingales, Roberto. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 535.
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Reactions |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Precipitation / Solubility
Chemical Equilibria Involving Reactions of Silver(I) Ions  Roberto Zingales
Demonstrating a series of reactions involving silver(I) ions.
Zingales, Roberto. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 534.
Equilibrium |
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals |
Precipitation / Solubility
Solvent Extraction Using Safe and Commonly Available Materials To Demonstrate the Difference in Solubility of Two Mixed Solutes  Dante Gilbert L. de Leon and Armando M. Guidote Jr.
Solvent extraction using safe and commonly available materials to demonstrate the difference in solubility of two mixed solutes.
de Leon, Dante Gilbert L.; Guidote, Armando M., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 436.
Solutions / Solvents |
Separation Science
Organic Functional Group Playing Card Deck  Michael J. Welsh
Organic functional group playing card deck used for review of the name and structure of organic functional groups that can be used to play any game that a normal deck of cards is used for.
Welsh, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 426.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmajor Courses |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Amides |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters |
Ethers |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis
The Name Game: Learning the Connectivity between the Concepts  Marina C. Koether
Game in which students review words (names of elements and compounds, instrumentation, types of reactions) using an ice-breaker-type activity; each student given a word that they can't see but everyone else can; must learn their name by asking as few yes-no questions as possible.
Koether, Marina C. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 421.
Instrumental Methods |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Terminology: Four Puzzles from One Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Tips for constructing multiple wordsearch puzzles; example of a lab safety wordsearch provided.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 414.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Learning Theories |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Find the Symbols of Elements Using a Letter Matrix Puzzle  V. D. Kelkar
Letter matrix puzzle using chemical symbols.
Kelkar, V. D. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 411.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Main-Group Elements |
Transition Elements |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Stoichiometry of the Reaction of Magnesium with Hydrochloric Acid  Venkat Chebolu and Barbara C. Storandt
Using a pressure sensor to measure the production of hydrogen by a reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid.
Chebolu, Venkat; Storandt, Barbara C. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 305.
Stoichiometry |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Reactions
Incomplete Combustion with Candle Flames: A Guided-Inquiry Experiment in the First-Year Chemistry Lab  Joseph MacNeil and Lisa Volaric
Investigating a burning candle as an introduction to incomplete combustion, thermodynamics, kinetics, and gas chromatography.
MacNeil, Joseph; Volaric, Lisa. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 302.
Chromatography |
Gases |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Gas Chromatography
Teaching Chemistry Using From the Earth to the Moon  James G. Goll and Stacie L. Mundinger
Teaching chemistry using From the Earth to the Moon (an HBO original movie series).
Goll, James G.; Mundinger, Stacie L. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 292.
Electrochemistry |
Chemometrics |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Applications of Chemistry
Mole, Mole per Liter, and Molar: A Primer on SI and Related Units for Chemistry Students  George Gorin
A brief historical overview of the SI system, the concept of the mole and the definition of mole unit, the status of the liter in the metric and SI systems, and the meaning of molar and molarity.
Gorin, George. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 103.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Periodic Table Live! 3rd Edition: Abstract of Special Issue 17  Nicholas B. Adelman, Jon L. Holmes, Jerrold J. Jacobsen, John W. Moore, Paul F. Schatz, Jaclyn Tweedale, Alton J. Banks, John C. Kotz, William R. Robinson, and Susan Young
CD-ROM containing an interactive journey through the periodic table; includes information about each element, biographies of discoverers, videos of reactions, sources and uses, macro and atomic properties, and crystalline structures.
Adelman, Nicholas B.; Holmes, Jon L.; Jacobsen, Jerrold J.; Moore, John W.; Schatz, Paul F.; Tweedale, Jaclyn; Banks, Alton J.; Kotz, John C.; Robinson, William R.; Young, Susan. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1487.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Solid State Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Reactions |
Crystals / Crystallography
Principal Species and pH in Acid–Base Solutions  Robert M. Hanson
Web page that allows one to determine the concentrations of principal species in a variety of solutions or mixtures of solutions; also allows a virtual titration.
Hanson, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1486.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Enrichment / Review Materials
What's in a Name?   Robert M. Hanson
Quiz that asks questions that are helpful in determining what is happening in an aqueous solution.
Hanson, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1380.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The Chemical Name Game  Robert M. Hanson
Provides practice in learning about names and properties of chemical species.
Hanson, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1380.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Physical Properties
An Interactive Graphical Approach to Temperature Conversions  Jonathan Mitschele
Activity to demonstrate the relationship between the Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature scales by graphing measurements of English- and metric-unit thermometers.
Mitschele, Jonathan. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1235.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
A Three-Dimensional Model for Water  J. L. H. Johnson and S. H. Yalkowsky
Using Molymod spheres and magnets to simulate the structure and properties of water and aqueous systems.
Johnson, J. L. H.; Yalkowsky, S. H. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1088.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Lipids |
Liquids |
Solutions / Solvents |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Chemistry Formatter Add-ins for Microsoft Word and Excel  Christopher King
MS Word and Excel add-ins that automatically convert chemistry symbols and notations.
King, Christopher. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 896.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A Copper-Sulfate-Based Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory for First-Year University Students That Teaches Basic Operations and Concepts  Emilio Rodríguez and Miguel Angel Vicente
A 10-hour integrated experiment that covers all the inorganic chemistry topics in first-year chemistry and chemical engineering courses.
Rodríguez, Emilio; Vicente, Miguel Angel. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 486.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solutions / Solvents
Tick Tock, a Vitamin C Clock  Stephen W. Wright
Uses supermarket chemicals to perform a clock reaction; students vary the concentration of reactants and observe the effect on the time required for the reaction to reach its endpoint.
Wright, Stephen W. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 40A.
Consumer Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Vitamins |
Equilibrium |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Redox Redux: Recommendations for Improving Textbook and IUPAC Definitions  Ed Vitz
Defining oxidation / reduction reactions as those in which oxidation states of the reactant(s) change.
Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 397.
Electrochemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Magnetic Stirring with the Stirring Bar Length Exceeding the Vessel Diameter  Kirk W. Payne, James M. Lucas, and Edmund J. Eisenbraun
Suggestions for effectively using magnetic stirring bars in test tubes.
Payne, Kirk W.; Lucas, James M.; Eisenbraun, Edmund J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 217.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Magnetic Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
Correctly Expressing Atomic Weights (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1438)  Moreno Paolini, Giovanni Cercignani, and Carlo Bauer
Alternative units in which to express atomic weight.
Paolini, Moreno; Cercignani, Giovanni; Bauer, Carlo. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 163.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Learning Theories
Correctly Expressing Atomic Weights (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1438)  George Gorin
Alternative units in which to express atomic weight.
Gorin, George. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 163.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Learning Theories
Using Computer-Based Visualization Strategies to Improve Students' Understanding of Molecular Polarity and Miscibility  Michael J. Sanger and Steven M. Badger II
Study of how the use of visualization strategies associated with dynamic computer animations and electron density plots affect students' conceptual understanding of molecular polarity and miscibility.
Sanger, Michael J.; Badger, Steven M., II. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1412.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Solutions / Solvents |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics
The Purification of Water by Freeze-Thaw or Zone Melting  James Oughton, Silas Xu, and Rubin Battino
Quantitative investigation of the purification of slat water solutions through the process of partial freezing.
Oughton, James; Xu, Silas; Battino, Rubin. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1373.
Conductivity |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
On the Importance of Ideality  Rubin Battino, Scott E. Wood, and Arthur G. Williamson
Analysis of the utility of ideality in gaseous phenomena, solutions, and the thermodynamic concept of reversibility.
Battino, Rubin; Wood, Scott E.; Williamson, Arthur G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1364.
Thermodynamics |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents
Learning the Functional Groups: Keys to Success  Shannon Byrd and David P. Hildreth
Classification activity and scheme for learning functional groups.
Byrd, Shannon; Hildreth, David P. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1355.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Melting Point, Density, and Reactivity of Metals  Michael Laing
Using melting points and densities to the predict the relative reactivities of metals.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1054.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Physical Properties |
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Electrochemistry
Don't Be Tricked by Your Integrated Rate Plot!  Edward T. Urbansky
Using integrated rate plots to determine reaction order.
Urbansky, Edward T. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 921.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Learning Theories |
Chemometrics |
Rate Law
Floating Plastics: An Initial Chemistry Laboratory Experience  Enrique A. Hughes, Helena M. Ceretti, and Anita Zalts
Students prepare a series of solutions with gradually increasing densities. Then they are given plastic samples of known and unknown composition and they estimate the densities of the samples by observing in which solutions they float and in which they sink; these densities are used to identify the plastics.
Hughes, Enrique A.; Ceretti, Helena M.; Zalts, Anita. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 522.
Nonmajor Courses |
Solutions / Solvents |
Physical Properties
Krebs Cycle Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Puzzle with 46 names, terms, prefixes, and acronyms that describe the citric acid (Krebs) cycle.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 515.
Metabolism |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Glycolysis Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Puzzle with 30 names, terms, prefixes, and acronyms that describe glycolysis and fermentation.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 503.
Metabolism |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Carbohydrates
b-Oxidation Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Puzzle with 36 names, terms, prefixes, and acronyms that describe lipid metabolism.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 483.
Metabolism |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Lipids
Protein Structure Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Puzzle with 37 names, terms, prefixes, and acronyms that describe protein structure.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 474.
Proteins / Peptides |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Are Fizzing Drinks Boiling? A Chemical Insight from Chemical Education Research  Alan Goodwin
The suggestion that fizzing drinks are examples of liquids boiling at room temperature has proved to be controversial among both chemists and chemical educators. This paper presents a case for believing this everyday system to be a good example of a boiling solution and the consequent separation of carbon dioxide from the solution to exemplify fractional distillation.
Goodwin, Alan. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 385.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Teaching about Flame Retardants. A Joint Israeli-Dutch Project  Miri Kesner and Wobbe de Vos
Flame retardants make interesting chemistry and moreover, the chemistry is highly relevant from an everyday life point of view. This article reports on a joint Israeli-Dutch project aimed at teaching the production, properties, and applications of some bromine-containing flame retardants, including their environmental aspects, in secondary education.
Kesner, Miri; de Vos, Wobbe. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 41.
Industrial Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Applications of Chemistry
A Simple Method for Demonstrating Enzyme Kinetics Using Catalase from Beef Liver Extract  Kristin A. Johnson
A simple visual method of demonstrating enzyme kinetics using beef liver catalase. Filter paper is saturated with beef liver extract and placed into a solution of hydrogen peroxide. The catalase in the extract decomposes the hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen. Oxygen forms on the filter paper, and the filter paper rises to the top of the beaker. Catalase activity is measured by timing the rise of the enzyme-soaked filter paper to the top of beakers containing different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide.
Johnson, A. Kristin. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1451.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Proteins / Peptides |
Reactions
Combustion Demonstration Using Updated Flame Tornado  Edward G. Senkbeil
This demonstration uses the combustion of different forms of cellulose and an updated version of the "flame tornado" as an ignition source to illustrate the factors affecting the combustion process. The objectives of the experiment are to illustrate the factors affecting the rate of a combustion reaction and to demonstrate the factors affecting the production of a flame by using the flame tornado.
Senkbeil, Edward G. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1449.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Rate Law
Crystallization from a Supersaturated Solution of Sodium Acetate  Jamil Ahmad
An overhead projector demonstration is described, in which sodium acetate trihydrate crystallizes out from a supersaturated solution that has been poured on a transparency. When seeded with a crystal of the salt, crystallization starts, and its progress can be followed on the screen.
Ahmad, Jamil. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1446.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solutions / Solvents
Correctly Expressing Atomic Weights   Moreno Paolini, Giovanni Cercignani, and Carlo Bauer
Proposal on the basis of clear-cut formulas that, contrary to customary statements, atomic and molecular weights should be expressed as dimensional quantities (masses) in which the Dalton (= 1.663 x 10-24 g) is taken as the unit.
Paolini, Moreno; Cercignani, Giovanni; Bauer, Carlo. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1438.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Learning Theories
SolEq: Solution Equilibria, Principles and Applications, Release 1
by SolEq Project Team: L. D. Pettit, K. J. Powell, and R. W. Ramette

  Marina C. Koether
29 tutorials with simulation, calculations, and graphs, on solution equilibria.
Koether, Marina C. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1414.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis

Are We Taking Symbolic Language for Granted?   Paul Marais and Faan Jordaan
This study formed part of a broader investigation into the role of language in teaching and learning chemical equilibrium. Students were tested for their understanding of 25 words and five symbols commonly used in connection with chemical equilibrium. This test showed that most of the students had an inadequate grasp of the meaning of all five symbols. It also showed that, on the average, their understanding of symbols was more problematic than their understanding of words.
Marais, Paul; Jordaan, Faan. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1355.
Equilibrium |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Everyday Chemical Reactions: A Writing Assignment to Promote Synthesis of Concepts and Relevance in Chemistry  Abby L. Parrill
Capturing the interest of students in required chemistry courses is a problem for which many solutions have been proposed and described. The solution proposed here is the use of a writing assignment on everyday chemical reactions. Students select their own organic reaction and apply concepts learned throughout the semester to understanding it.
Parrill, Abby L. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1303.
Nonmajor Courses |
Reactions
Turbulent Motion in Ethyl Acetate-Water System  Jamil Ahmad
4 mL of ethyl acetate is added to 10 mL of water in a Petri dish. Within a minute or so, an image of turbulent motion appears on the screen, at first at a few centers that eventually organize themselves in a line. The image of the line of turbulence is quite striking and resembles a moving front of dancing flames.
Ahmad, Jamil. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1182.
Liquids |
Solutions / Solvents |
Surface Science
When A + B  Is Not Equal To B + A  Erling Antony, Lindsay Mitchell, and Lauren Nettenstrom
Many acid-base chemistry demonstrations and laboratory manuals include the "baking soda volcano". Others use the formation of calcium carbonate from calcium hydroxide and carbon dioxide in human breath. This demonstration uses principles from both as well as stoichiometry to answer the question "Does the order of mixing of reagents make a difference?"
Antony, Erling; Mitchell, Lindsay; Nettenstrom, Lauren. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1180.
Acids / Bases |
Stoichiometry |
Reactions
Simulating Dynamic Equilibria: A Class Experiment  John A. Harrison and Paul D. Buckley
A first-order reversible reaction is simulated on an overhead projector using small coins or discs. Results illustrate how dynamic equilibria are established and allow the introduction of the concept of an equilibrium constant. Le Chtelier's principle is illustrated by further simulations.
Harrison, John A.; Buckley, Paul D. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1013.
Equilibrium |
Rate Law |
Reactions
News from Online: Learning Communities  Carolyn Sweeney Judd
Summary of a variety of online, chemistry resources.
Judd, Carolyn Sweeney. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 808.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Classroom Nomenclature Games--BINGO  Thomas D. Crute
The use of games in the chemistry classroom can provide instruction, feedback, practice, and fun. A modification of a BINGO game to chemical nomenclature and a specific application to alkanes are described. Tips on preparation of materials, and suggested variations including inorganic nomenclature are presented.
Crute, Thomas D. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 481.
Learning Theories |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmajor Courses
Sugar Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Wordsearch puzzle containing 29 names, terms, prefixes and acronyms that describe sugars and their polymers.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 480.
Carbohydrates |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Lipid Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Wordsearch puzzle containing 37 names, terms, prefixes and acronyms that describe lipids.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 479.
Lipids |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Experimentation and Group Discussion as a Means of Determining Solubility Rules  Karen E. Stevens
An experimental method is presented that leads to the development of solubility rules. A set of experiments is performed as a class demonstration and then discussed in groups. As a result, a classification of all the ionic species present can be made in terms of their solubility.
Stevens, Karen E. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 327.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
An Introductory Laboratory Exercise on Solution Preparation: A Rewarding Experience  M. Rachel Wang
This exercise provides beginning students a firsthand experience in solution preparation. The format of the student handout promotes active learning in the laboratory by having text and questions interspersed among laboratory procedures. Students are motivated to prepare solutions for the fascinating Briggs-Rauscher oscillation reaction and the exercise involves a variety of situations commonly encountered in solution preparation.
Wang, M. Rachel. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 249.
Solutions / Solvents
Catalytic Oxidation of Ammonia: A Sparkling Experiment  Vladimir A. Volkovich and Trevor R. Griffiths
A lecture demonstration experiment on the catalytic oxidation of ammonia using chromium(III) oxide as a catalyst is described.
Volkovich, Vladimir A.; Griffiths, Trevor R. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 177.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
How to Make Learning Chemical Nomenclature Fun, Exciting, and Palatable  Joseph Chimeno
One great challenge that introductory chemistry students have is learning the names of various chemical compounds. To make chemical nomenclature fun, exciting, and palatable, the "Rainbow Wheel" was developed at North Iowa Area Community College.
Chimeno, Joseph. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 144.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The Use of Extent of Reaction in Introductory Courses  Sebastian G. Canagaratna
This article discusses the use of the extent of reaction as an alternative to the traditional approach to stoichiometry in first-year chemistry. The method focuses attention on the reaction as a whole rather than on pairs of reagents as in the traditional approach. The balanced equation is used as the unit of change.
Canagaratna, Sebastian G. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 52.
Stoichiometry |
Thermodynamics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Amino Acids, Aromatic Compounds, and Carboxylic Acids: How Did They Get Their Common Names?  Sam H. Leung
This article provides a brief survey of the origins of the common names of some amino acids, aromatic compounds, and carboxylic acids.
Leung, Sam H. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 48.
Amino Acids |
Aromatic Compounds |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Carboxylic Acids
Viscosity Measurement: A Virtual Experiment: Abstract of Issue 9907  N. Papadopoulos, A. T. Pitta, N. Markopoulos, M. Limniou, M. A. N. D. A. Lemos, F. Lemos, and F. G. Freire
Viscosity Measurement includes three virtual experiments: an Ostwald viscometer simulator, a falling-ball viscometer simulator, and a balance simulator for a simple determination of the density of a liquid. Each virtual experiment includes a corresponding theoretical section. Support from the program is sufficient to enable the students to carry out a virtual experiment sensibly and on their own.
Papadopoulos, Nikos; Pitta, A. T.; Markopoulos, N.; Limniou, M.; Lemos, M. A. N. D. A.; Lemos, F. M.; Freire, F. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1600.
Solutions / Solvents |
Physical Properties
The Solubility of Ionic Solids and Molecular Liquids  C. Baer and Sheila M. Adamus
The solubilities of three ionic salts (NaCl, PbCl2, and KAl(SO4)2.12H2O) in water are measured at four temperatures. The concept of recrystallization is introduced as students cool a high-temperature solution and observe crystal formation. Spreadsheet calculations are performed with the group data, which are then graphed, and students observe the wide variance in solubility behavior for the three salts.
Baer, Carl; Adamus, Sheila M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1540.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Liquids |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Solutions / Solvents
The Blue Bottle Reaction as a General Chemistry Experiment on Reaction Mechanisms  Steven C. Engerer and A. Gilbert Cook
Using the scientific method (observe, question, hypothesize, experiment, repeat) students propose and test possible reaction mechanisms for the methylene blue-catalyzed oxidation of dextrose with its dramatic color change. Students are led to discover the three-step mechanism through a series of questions.
Engerer, Steven C.; Cook, A. Gilbert. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1519.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Phosphate Buffers and Telephone Poles - A Useful Analogy with Limitations  Edwin S. Gould
A visual aid is presented to help general chemistry students establish the major phosphorus species in buffer solutions made from partial neutralizations of phosphoric acid and to estimate concentrations.
Gould, Edwin S. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1511.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases
Henry's Law and Noisy Knuckles  Doris R. Kimbrough
Presented here is the application of Henry's law to the noise associated with "cracking" knuckles. Gases dissolved in the synovial fluid in joints rapidly come out of solution as the joint is stretched and pressure is decreased. This "cavitation" produces a characteristic noise.
Kimbrough, Doris R. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1509.
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Applications of Chemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry
More on Double Replacement  Kauffman, G. B.
Reference to directions for writing double replacement reactions.
Kauffman, G. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1340.
Reactions |
Stoichiometry
Authentic Research within the Grasp of High School Students  Annis Hapkiewicz
There are research questions to be explored that are within the experience of students. The research problem that is described arose when a colleague posed a question: "Will an ice cube melt faster in salt water or tap water?" The learning process describe could be duplicated in any chemistry classroom, and it can also serve as a framework for exploring other problems as they arise from everyday observations.
Hapkiewicz, Annis. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1212.
Solutions / Solvents
Ammonia Can Crush  Ed Vitz
When a 12-oz aluminum soft drink can filled with ammonia or hydrogen chloride gas is inverted and dipped into water, the rapidly dissolving gas evacuates the can and the can is crushed before water can be drawn into it. This demonstrates, among other things, the remarkable strength of hydrogen bonds.
Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 932.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Hydrogen Bonding
The Persistence of the Candle-and-Cylinder Misconception  James P. Birk and Anton E. Lawson
There is a persistent misconception that when a lighted candle is supported in a container of water and a closed cylinder is lowered over the candle, the candle is extinguished after a time by complete consumption of the oxygen in the cylinder, with a volume change corresponding to the amount of oxygen in the air. This misconception has appeared in the literature periodically for many years. Here, we present a number of experiments that refute this misconception.
Birk, James P.; Lawson, Anton E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 914.
Gases |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Reactions
The Evolution of the Celsius and Kelvin Temperature Scales and the State of the Art  Julio Pellicer, M. Amparo Gilabert, and Ernesto Lopez-Baeza
A physical analysis is given of the evolution undergone by the Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales, from their definition to the present day.
Pellicer, Julio; Gilabert, M. Amparo; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 911.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Thermodynamics |
Learning Theories
Letters  
Extending the rule for rounding significant figures of products and quotients.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 897.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The Methane Balloon  Walter H. Corkern and Elvin Hughes Jr.
The objectives are (i) to describe a novel method of inflating a balloon with methane, (ii) to show that methane is lighter than air, and (iii) to demonstrate the flammability of methane.
Corkern, Walter H.; Hughes, Elvin, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 794.
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Calculating Units with the HP 48G Calculator  Matthew E. Morgan
The HP 48G's units function can make simple calculations, such as converting grams to moles, or more complex unit analysis, such as gas law calculations. Examples and calculator keystrokes for both of these examples are included in this article.
Morgan, Matthew E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 631.
Learning Theories |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Solution Conductivity Apparatus  Daniel T. Haworth, Mark R. Bartelt, and Michael J. Kenney
A solution conductivity apparatus is described that can be used to measure the relative conductivity of various solutions. The apparatus can be used as either a hand-held model employing a 10-element LED display or a lecture-hall demonstration model employing a 10-incandescent-lamp array.
Haworth, Daniel T.; Bartelt, Mark R.; Kenney, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 625.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Conductivity |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Using Large Glass Cylinders To Demonstrate Chemical Reactions  Wobbe de Vos
This article describes a simple laboratory experiment that aims at pedagogic as well as aesthetic aspects of chemical reactions. Experiments of this type have a high educational potential as students have the opportunity to observe the actual formation of a precipitate instead of just being able to see the result. The experiment is also suitable for demonstrating some of the fascinating beauty of chemical reactions to the general public.
de Vos, Wobbe. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 528.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Reactions
Teaching Chemistry Using the Movie Apollo 13  James G. Goll and B. J. Woods
The use of this popular movie has helped generate interest in chemistry courses.
Goll, James G.; Woods, B. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 506.
Undergraduate Research |
Learning Theories |
Reactions |
Applications of Chemistry
Periodic Puns for the Classroom  Paul E. Vorndam
Some puns on the names of the elements are presented.
Vorndam, Paul E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 492.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Learning Theories
Using Games To Teach Chemistry. 2. CHeMoVEr Board Game  Jeanne V. Russell
A board game similar to Sorry or Parcheesi was developed. Students must answer chemistry questions correctly to move their game piece around the board. Card decks contain questions on balancing equations, identifying the types of equations, and predicting products from given reactants.
Russell, Jeanne V. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 487.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Using Games to Teach Chemistry. 1. The Old Prof Card Game  Philip L. Granath and Jeanne V. Russell
A card game has been developed and used to teach nomenclature of the elements and their symbols in the first laboratory session of General Chemistry. The game both helps the students learn or review the symbols of the elements and is a good "icebreaker" where students learn the names of other students.
Granath, Philip L.; Russell, Jeanne V. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 485.
Learning Theories |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Photon-Initiated Hydrogen-Chlorine Reaction  Schwenz, Richard; Geiger, Lynn
Incorrect termination step for the H2 + Cl2 reaction mechanism.
Schwenz, Richard; Geiger, Lynn J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 470.
Mechanisms of Reactions
The Ammonia Smoke Fountain: An Interesting Thermodynamic Adventure  M. Dale Alexander
The ammonia smoke fountain demonstration utilizes a modification of the apparatus used in the standard ammonia fountain. The modification allows for the introduction of hydrogen chloride gas into a flask of ammonia rather than water. The flow rate of hydrogen chloride gas into the flask in the smoke fountain is not constant, but periodic; that is, the smoke puffs from the end of the tube. This unexpected behavior elicits an interesting thermodynamic explanation.
Alexander, M. Dale. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 210.
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Precipitation / Solubility
Replace Double Replacement  R. Bruce Martin
Reactions described as double replacements in high school texts are poorly described by this designation. The driving force for such reactions is precipitation of a solid derived from ions in solution or the production of water in acid-base reactions.
Martin, R. Bruce. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 133.
Stoichiometry |
Reactions |
Precipitation / Solubility
The Design and Synthesis of a Large Interactive Classroom  Laurel L. Clouston and Mark H. Kleinman
The use of group learning techniques in large classes has been used to effectively convey the central concepts of SN1 and SN2 reactions in an introductory organic chemistry class. The activities described are best used as an introduction to these mechanisms.
Clouston, Laurel L.; Kleinman, Mark H. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 60.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Learning Theories
CHEMiCALC (4000161) and CHEMiCALC Personal Tutor (4001108), Version 4.0 (by O. Bertrand Ramsay)  Scott White and George Bodner
CHEMiCALC is a thoughtfully designed software package developed for use by high school and general chemistry students, who will benefit from the personal tutor mode that helps to guide them through unit conversion, empirical formula, molecular weight, reaction stoichiometry, and solution stoichiometry calculations.
White, Scott; Bodner, George M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 34.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
Temperature Scale Conversion as a Linear Equation: True Unit Conversion vs Zero-Offset Correction  Reuben Rudman
The equation used for the interconversion between the Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature scales is in reality the general case of the straight-line equation (y = ax + b). This equation is the paradigm for many of the calculations taught in introductory chemistry.
Rudman, Reuben. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1646.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Microscale Thermite Reactions  Francisco J. Arnáiz, Rafael Aguado, and Susana Arnáiz
The reaction of aluminum with the oxides of a variety of elements illustrates exothermic reactions that require a high activation energy. It is also an appropriate experiment with regard to the discussion of Ellingham diagrams. When drama is not the main objective, conducting these reactions at microscale level offers numerous advantages over the usual scale.
Arnáiz, Francisco J.; Aguado, Rafael; Arnáiz, Susana. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1630.
Microscale Lab |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
The Effects of Salts and Nonelectrolytes on the Solubility of Potassium Bitartrate: An Introductory Chemistry Discovery Experiment  Charles J. Marzzacco
An introductory chemistry discovery experiment on the effect of the presence of various solutes on the solubility of potassium bitartrate (KHT) is presented. Aqueous solutions of KCl, NaCl, MgSO4 and glucose with concentrations ranging from 0.0 to 0.10 M are saturated with KHT. The solubility of the KHT in these various solutions is determined by titration with standardized NaOH solution.
Marzzacco, Charles J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1628.
Solutions / Solvents |
Equilibrium |
Quantitative Analysis
A Cyclist's Guide to Ionic Concentration  Arthur M. Last
A simple analogy to help students understand ionic concentration is presented.
Last, Arthur M. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1433.
Solutions / Solvents |
Stoichiometry
Synthesis of Aspirin: A General Chemistry Experiment  John A. Olmsted III
An experiment is described that is suitable for the early portion of the laboratory in a general chemistry course and integrates organic examples. It is the two-step synthesis of aspirin starting from oil of wintergreen. The mechanism for this synthesis provides examples of three major classes of chemical reactions: hydrolysis, condensation, and proton transfer.
Olmsted, John A., III. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1261.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids |
Aldehydes / Ketones
What Should We Teach Beginners about Solubility and Solubility Products?  Stephen J. Hawkes
Solubility equilibria are best taught qualitatively in introductory chemistry, leaving the calculations to higher level courses.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1179.
Solutions / Solvents |
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility
Integrating Computers into the First-Year Chemistry Laboratory: Application of Raoult's Law to a Two-Component System  R. Viswanathan and G. Horowitz
First-year chemistry students are introduced to a spreadsheet program to calculate the boiling points of a two-component solution containing a volatile solute. The boiling points are predicted by combining the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and Raoult's law. A simple experimental setup is used to measure the boiling points of solutions of varying compositions.
Viswanathan, Raji; Horowitz, Gail. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1124.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Oxygen vs Dioxygen: Diatomic/Monatomic Usage  Sharon, Jared B.
Using the name dioxygen for O2.
Sharon, Jared B. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1089.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Vapor Pressure Lowering by Nonvolatile Solutes  Gavin D. Peckham
This short article highlights a fundamental error that is entrenched in introductory chemistry textbooks. It is true that the addition of a nonvolatile solute causes a lowering in the vapor pressure of a solution. The error lies in attributing this vapor pressure lowering to the "blocking" of surface sites by nonvolatile particles. This is a totally fallacious argument for a number of reasons and the true explanation is to be found in the entropy changes that occur as a nonvolatile solute is added to a solution.
Peckham, Gavin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 787.
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics
Slide Projector Corrosion Cell  Silvia Tejada, Estela Guevara, and Esperanza Olivares
The process of corrosion can be demonstrated in a slide projector, since the cell is in the shape of a slide, or on the stage of an overhead projector by setting up a simple galvanic cell. Corrosion occurs as the result of a galvanic cell reaction, in which the corroding metal acts as the anode. Several simple demonstrations relating to corrosion are described here.
Tejada, Silvia; Guevara, Estela; Olivares, Esperanza. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 747.
Electrochemistry |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Applications of Chemistry
Audience-Appropriate Analogies: Collision Theory  Kent W. Piepgrass
This article presents two new analogies for collision theory based on arcade games and on the interactions between salesclerks and customers in a store. The uses, limitations, and possible extensions of the analogies are discussed.
Piepgrass, Kent W. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 724.
Learning Theories |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics
Chemical Domino Demonstration  M. Dale Alexander
The Chemical Domino Demonstration is both educational and entertaining. It provides an excellent means for a review of chemical concepts at the conclusion of a general chemistry course. This demonstration consists of a number of different chemical reactions occurring in sequence in a Rube Goldberg-type apparatus.
M. Dale Alexander. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 490.
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction
Mechanism Templates: Lecture Aids for Effective Presentation of Mechanism in Introductory Organic Chemistry  Brian J. McNelis
To promote active student learning of mechanism in introductory organic chemistry, hand-outs have been developed with incomplete structures for reaction processes depicted, which are called mechanism templates. The key to these lecture aids is to provide only enough detail in the diagram to facilitate notetaking, ensuring that these templates are dynamic learning tools that must be utilized by an engaged and alert student.
Brian J. McNelis. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 479.
Learning Theories |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions |
Addition Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Nucleophilic Substitution
A Closer Look at the Addition of Equations and Reactions  Damon Diemente
Chemists occasionally find it convenient or even necessary to express an overall reaction as the sum of two or more component reactions. A close examination, however, reveals that the resemblance between chemical algebraic equations is entirely superficial, and that the real meaning of addition in chemical equations is subtle and varies from case to case. In high-school courses, students are likely to encounter the addition of equations in thermochemistry, in electrochemistry, and in kinetics.
Diemente, Damon. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 319.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Reactions
The Real Reason Why Oil and Water Don't Mix  Todd P. Silverstein
Authors should remove from their textbooks the incorrect enthalpic/hydrogen-bond explanation for the hydrophobic effect. Because aspects of the correct entropic/clathrate "cage" explanation lie beyond the scope of introductory or organic chemistry courses, it may be wisest to omit any detailed physical explanation of the "like dissolves like" phenomenon.
Silverstein, Todd P. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 116.
Theoretical Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
A Kinetics Experiment To Demonstrate the Role of a Catalyst in a Chemical Reaction: A Versatile Exercise for General or Physical Chemistry Students  Christine L. Copper and Edward Koubek
By modifying the iodine clock reaction, students can use the initial rate method to observe the role of a catalyst in a chemical reaction via activation energy calculations and evaluate a proposed mechanism. They can also determine the order with respect to each reactant and the rate constants of the noncatalyzed and catalyzed reactions.
Copper, Christine L.; Koubek, Edward. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 87.
Catalysis |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The Source of the Cloud Produced upon Adding Dry Ice to Water  Manu Kohli, Rudy L. Luck, and Veka Ohtamaa
Explains why a cloud is produced by adding dry ice to water.
Kohli, Manu; Luck, Rudy L.; Ohtamaa, Veka. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 60.
Solutions / Solvents |
Water / Water Chemistry
A Modified Hydrogen/Oxygen Balloon Demonstration  Ian J. McNaught
Using a ratio of 1:2 volumes of hydrogen and oxygen for balloons as instead of a 2:1 ratio for safety.
McNaught, Ian J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 52.
Gases |
Reactions
Demonstrating Heat Changes on the Overhead Projector with a Projecting Thermometer  Chinhyu Hur, Sally Solomon, and Christy Wetzel
Heat changes can be observed by using a culture dish and a thermometer that is projected onto a screen using an overhead projector.
Hur, Chinhyu; Solomon, Sally; Wetzel, Christy. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 51.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The Disappearing Liquid  H. D. Gesser and Ian Ward
Mixing ethanol and water in a volumetric flask results in a noticeable reduction in the volume of the mixture.
Gesser, H. D.; Ward, Ian. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1357.
Liquids |
Solutions / Solvents |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Letter to the Editor about Letter to the Editor "Redox Challenges" from David M. Hart and Response from Roland Stout (J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A226-7)  Andrzej Sobkowiak
Examples of a variety of redox equations.
Sobkowiak, Andrzej. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1256.
Stoichiometry |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Celsius to Fahrenheit and Vice Versa - Quick, Exact, and Neat  S. C. Dutta Roy
A quick, exact, and neat method is given for conversion of Celsius to Fahrenheit temperatures and vice versa.
Roy, S. C. Dutta. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1199.
Learning Theories |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The reply: Ionization Constants  S. Roo, L. Vermeire, and C. Gorller-Walrand
Error regarding the first ionization constant of carbonic acid.
Roo, S.; Vermeire, L.; Gorller-Walrand, C. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1160.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
Ionization Constants  Morris Bader
Error regarding the first ionization constant of carbonic acid.
Bader, Morris. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1160.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
A Note on the Term "Chalcogen"  William B. Jensen
It is argued that the best translation of the term "chalcogen" is "ore former." It is further suggested that the term chalcogenide should be replaced with the term chalcide in order to maintain a parallelism with the terms halogen and halide.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1063.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Descriptive Chemistry
Ionization or Dissociation?  Emeric Schultz
The use of the terms Dissociation and Ionization in the teaching of chemistry is discussed. It is suggested that the term dissociation, and what it suggests in terms of ordinary language, is inappropriate when used in certain contexts. Since an alternate and more physically correct term, specifically ionization, is available for these contexts, it is argued that this term be used consistently in these contexts.
Schultz, Emeric. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 868.
Equilibrium |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Removing Silicone Grease from Glassware  Thomas H. Lowry
A recent note described the use of 5% aqueous hydrofluoric acid for removing silicone grease residues from round-bottom flasks. A safer and more convenient alternative is a saturated solution of sodium hydroxide in ethanol.
Lowry, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 841.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solutions / Solvents |
Laboratory Management
Stable Solutions for the Iodine Clock Reaction  George B. Kauffman and Charles R. Hall
Advanced preparation of solutions for the iodine clock reaction.
Kauffman, George B.; Hall, Charles R. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 616.
Reactions |
Solutions / Solvents
A Quantitative Conductance Apparatus  Danny Burns and Don Lewis
Circuitry, electrode configuration and calibration procedures are described for a conductance device. An alternative construction of the circuit is given allowing computer capture of the instrument response.
Burns, Danny; Lewis, Don. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 570.
Instrumental Methods |
Conductivity |
Liquids |
Solutions / Solvents |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The Coupling of Related Demonstrations to Illustrate Principles in Chemical Kinetics and Equilibrium  Richard A. Pacer
Two very simple lecture demonstrations, both involving the reaction of magnesium with one or more dilute acids, are linked together to illustrate principles in chemical kinetics and equilibrium.
Pacer, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 543.
Learning Theories |
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Reactions
An Apparatus for Fast Dilution  V. P. Boiko
An apparatus for fast dilution permitting unlimited dilution of the solution in the same vessel is described. This was achieved by using a siphon to remove part of the solution from the dilution vessel.
Boiko, V. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 439.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solutions / Solvents
Three Programs for DOS: Abstract of Volume 10B, Number 1 2. Periodic Table Games  John S. Martin
The Periodic Table Games are intended to expose students to the vocabulary of chemistry: formulas, combination rules, and descriptive chemistry. They may be played by an individual against the computer, or by several competing players.
Martin, John S. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 346.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The Safe and Efficient Evaporation of a Solvent from Solution  Andrew R. Mahon
By inverting an ordinary 200-mL vacuum flask and pulling a steady current of air from the vacuum apparatus through it, any type of small container can be placed under it, allowing the solvent to be evaporated in a steady, mistake-free manner .
Mahon, Andrew R. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 246.
Solutions / Solvents |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Exponential Notation  Gavin D Peckham
Suggestion for streamlined typing of exponential notation.
Peckham, Gavin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 64.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Interfacing "8088" Computers in the Chemistry Laboratory  James Goodrich and Bill Durham
The goal of using such puzzles is to provide a bit of variety to beginning chemistry students and reduce the tedium of memorizing chemical names.
Goodrich, James; Durham, Bill. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A130.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Displaying Chemical Formulas in Microsoft Excel  E. Joseph Billo
An Excel macro which automates the entry of subscripts in Excel spreadsheets is described. The macro is assigned to a custom button on Excel's standard toolbar, so that, after typing a text label containing a chemical formula, clicking the button automatically formats the text as a chemical formula.
Billo, E. Joseph. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A40.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Effects of Solution Physical Properties on Copper and Chromium Signals in Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry  Fàbio R. P. Rocha, Joaquim A. Nòbrega
Instrumental techniques, such as flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), are frequently used in chemical analysis. Independently of the technique used, the chemical principles must be considered to assure that the analytical results are correct.
Rocha, Fàbio R. P.; Nòbrega , Joaquim A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 982.
Physical Properties |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Instrumental Methods
Home-Study Microlabs  Dietmar Kennepohl
This article presents the use of microscaled chemistry experiments for individual home study and how it can be incorporated into a course with traditional laboratory work.
Kennepohl, Dietmar. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 938.
Microscale Lab |
Solutions / Solvents |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Precipitation / Solubility
Symmetry Elements and Operations  Albert W.M. Lee, K.M. Leung, W.J Daniel, C.L. Chan
Symmetry Elements and Operations is a multimedia presentation that illustrates the basics of symmetry with three dimensional molecular models and simple text explanations.
Lee, Albert W.M.; Leung, K.M.; Kwong, Daniel W.J.; Chan, C.L. . J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 924.
Molecular Modeling |
Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Quantum Chemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Simple and Attractive Demonstraction of the Reversibility of Chemical Reactions  Celestyn M. Brozek
The reversibility of chemical reactions is demonstrated by dehydration of CuSO4  5H2O and the subsequent hydration of CuSO4. The associated heat consumption and the subsequent heat production illustrate the concept of endothermic and exothermic reactions.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 837.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Reactions
Inorganic Nomenclature  ten Hoor, Marten J.
Inorganic naming schemes should be brought in line with IUPAC recommendations.
ten Hoor, Marten J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 825.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Low-Cost Lateral Displacement Refractometer for Liquids: A Take-Home Student Experiment   V. Anantha Narayanan and Radha Narayanan
This article describes an experiment that uses a low-cost lateral displacement refractometer. The refractometer can be used in the home or laboratory by science students.
Narayanan, V. Anantha; Narayanan, Radha. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 784.
Solutions / Solvents |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Teaching Dilutions  Lloyd J. McElroy
Teaching the concepts of dilutions is facilitated by using the graphic presentations depicted in this article along with the conventional formulas.
McElroy, Lloyd J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 765.
Solutions / Solvents
SIRS: Simulations and Interactive Resources, III  Martin, John S.
Simulations and Interactive Resources (SIRs) are designed to support interactive lectures in introductory chemistry. This third issue of SIRs includes five new SIRs as well as updated and final versions of all previously published SIRs.
Martin, John S. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 722.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Reactions |
Electrochemistry |
Kinetics
An Approach to Reaction Thermodynamics through Enthalpies, Entropies, and Free Energies of Atomization  James N. Spencer, Richard S. Moog, and Ronald J. Gillespie
An alternative to the conventional method of calculating enthalpies of reaction is presented, using enthalpies of atomization in place of enthalpies of formation. This allows the student to see directly that the reaction enthalpies are determined by the difference in bond strengths in the reactants and products.
James N. Spencer, Richard S. Moog, and Ronald J. Gillespie. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 631.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium |
Reactions |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Stoichiometry
Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in River and Bay Sediments: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment in Environmental Chemistry Using Capillary Gas Chromatography with Electron Capture Detection  Susan E. Kegley, Kristen J. Hansen, and Kevin L. Cunningham
This paper briefly discusses the history of PCB use and provides guidelines for finding and evaluating PCB-contaminated sites as a way to interest students by showing them an application of chemistry to the "real world."
Kegley, Susan E.; Hansen, Kristen J.; Cunningham, Kevin L. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 558.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Applications of Chemistry |
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents
All Positive Ions Give Acid Solutions in Water  Stephen J. Hawkes
The acidity of aqueous solutions of positive ions is never zero although many texts say incorrectly that most metals of Groups I and II and some others are not acidic.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 516.
Acids / Bases |
Metals |
Solutions / Solvents |
pH
Laser Pointer and the Tyndall Effect  Eugene Thomas
Laser pointers provide a convenient way to demonstrate the Tyndall effect to beginning students.
Thomas, Eugene. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 470.
Lasers |
Solutions / Solvents
An Excel 4.0 Add-in Function to Calculate Molecular Mass  Christian Hauck
185. In this paper, a Microsoft Excel 4.0 add-in function is presented, which consists of a parser to interpret molecular formulas and a database containing three values for the atomic masses for every element: the mass number of the most abundant isotope, the mass of the most abundant isotope, and the atomic weight.
Hauck, Christian. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 433.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The Teaching of Precipitation Equilibrium: A New Approach  Ana M. V. S. V. Cavaleiro
In this paper we present a simplified integrated approach to the calculation of the solubility in water of a salt, and the pH of the saturated solution, taking into account the acid-base reactions of the anion.
Cavaleiro, Ana M. V. S. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 423.
Precipitation / Solubility |
pH |
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases
Salts are Mostly Not Ionized  Stephen J. Hawkes
The popular assumption that all salts are totally ionized in aqueous solution is false. Moreover, it is approximated only by alkali metal salts and by salts of alkaline earth metals with high atomic numbers.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 421.
Ionic Bonding |
Metals |
Solutions / Solvents
A Novel Approach to Teaching Electrochemical Principles  Paul Krause and Jerry Manion
To demonstrate that work may be done by a chemical reaction, a reaction producing a gas is carried out in a large, closed syringe. As the gas is generated, the syringe plunger is forced out.
Krause, Paul; Manion, Jerry. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 354.
Reactions |
Gases |
Thermodynamics
Anthocyanins: Model Compounds for Learning about More than pH  Robert Curtright, James A. Rynearson, and John Markwell
In recent years it has become common to use anthocyanins as pH indicators. We believe that chemistry teachers can capitalize further on the natural interest of students in anthocyanin pigments to design meaningful lessons involving chromatography and hydrolysis. This article focuses on the use of anthocyanins in chromatography and hydrolysis.
Curtright, Robert; Rynearson, James A.; Markwell, John. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 306.
Natural Products |
Chromatography |
Reactions |
Food Science
Evaluating Student Understanding of Solution Chemistry through Microscopic Representations  Kimberly Jo Smith and Patricia A. Metz
Misconceptions regarding acids and bases, acid strength, dissociation, diatomic elements, bonding, and aqueous solutions can interfere with subsequent learning and can persist beyond the undergraduate level These chemical concepts readily lend themselves to microscopic representations. Teaching strategies using these visual aids could explain the concept before applying the mathematics.
Smith, Kimberly Jo; Metz, Patricia A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 233.
Solutions / Solvents |
Learning Theories
Using Quality Circles in General Chemistry  Kogut, Leonard S.
A second semester class in General Chemistry used a student Quality Circle to suggest methods to improve instruction in chemical equilibrium in solution.
Kogut, Leonard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 146.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents
Small-Scale Experiments Involving Gas Evolution  Brouwer, H.
Apparatus for measuring very small volume changes of gases and several experimental procedures involving the evolution of gases.
Brouwer, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A100.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Stoichiometry |
Acids / Bases |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab
Quick Method for Making Colored-Flame Flash Paper  Sally Solomon, Chinhyu Hur, Alan Lee, and Kurt Smith
Procedure for making for making colored-flame (and multicolored) flash paper.
Solomon, Sally; Hur, Chinhyu; Lee, Alan; Smith, Kurt. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1133.
Reactions |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Entertaining Chemistry  John F. Elsworth
"A Volcanic Serpent" (ammonium dichromate), "A Homemade Hydrogen Rocket", and "Johnny's Saga in Chemistry" (sulfuric acid + calcium carbonate) demonstrations.
Elsworth, John F. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1128.
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Gases
Redox Challenges: Good Times for Puzzle Fanatics  Roland Stout
Three difficult to balance redox equations.
Stout, Roland. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1125.
Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Photosynthesis: Why Does It Occur?  J. J. MacDonald
Explanation of why photosynthesis occurs; stating that it is merely the reverse of respiration is misleading.
MacDonald, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1113.
Plant Chemistry |
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Photochemistry |
Electrochemistry
Fe(s) + Cu(II)(aq) ----> Fe(II)(aq) + Cu(s): Fifteen Centuries of Search  Vladimir Karpenko
Historical development of understanding of the title reaction, particularly erroneous alchemical beliefs.
Karpenko, Vladimir. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1095.
Metals |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Dimensional Analysis: An Analogy to Help Students Relate the Concept to Problem Solving  James R. McClure
Using dominoes to help students understand the conversion factor method of dimensional analysis.
McClure, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1093.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Crystallization of Supersaturated Sodium Acetate and the Temperature Dependence of the Autoionization Constant of Water  Joseph A. Pergler, Ronald O. Ragsdale, and Thomas G. Richmond
A procedure to qualitatively demonstrate the variation of the autoionization constant of water with temperature.
Pergler, Joseph A.; Ragsdale, Ronald O.; Richmond, Thomas G. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1027.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Water / Water Chemistry
Celsius to Fahrenheit--Quick and Dirty  Colin Hester
Simple algorithm for converting Celsius temperature to Fahrenheit temperature.
Hester, Colin. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1026.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
What Does It Mean?: Reflections on Concentration, Activity, and Electrode Potential  Pietro Lanza
Explanation of electrode potential and the mechanism of the electrode process for determining concentration.
Lanza, Pietro. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1009.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Electrochemistry
What's Present? Qualitative Analysis Problems in General Chemistry  Sidney Toby
Open-book, research-oriented, sample questions regarding qualitative analysis.
Toby, Sidney. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1008.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Descriptive Chemistry
Ammonia Fountain and Density Gradient Column   Miroslav Proksa
Demonstration combining the ammonia fountain with an acid-base indicator density column.
Proksa, Miroslav. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 931.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Physical Properties |
Gases |
Acids / Bases
Carbohydrate Dehydration Demonstrations  David A. Dolson, Rubin Battino, Trevor M. Letcher, K. H. Pegel, and N. Revaprasadu
Study of the dehydration of a carbohydrate by sulfuric acid and variables that influence the reaction (including type of sugar, sugar granule size, and amount of water added to sugar).
Dolson, David A.; Battino, Rubin; Letcher, Trevor M.; Pegel, K. H.; Revprasadu, N. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 927.
Carbohydrates |
Reactions
The Use of Erythrosin B in Undergraduate Spectrophotometry Experiments   L. James Stock III
Substitution of a nontoxic food color for an originally used toxic chromium(VI) salt in a general chemistry, spectrophotometry experiment.
Stock, L. James, III. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 926.
Toxicology |
Solutions / Solvents |
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Management
Those Baffling Subscripts  Arthur W. Friedel and David P. Maloney
Study of the difficulties students have in interpreting subscripts correctly and distinguishing atoms from molecules when answering questions and solving problems.
Friedel, Arthur W.; Maloney, David P. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 899.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Synthesis and Decomposition of Zinc Iodide: Model Reactions for Investigating Chemical Change in the Introductory Laboratory  Stephen DeMeo
Procedure for synthesizing and then decomposing zinc iodide in introductory chemistry that offers advantages over traditional synthesis/decomposition species (e.g. copper sulfide and magnesium oxide).
DeMeo, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 836.
Synthesis |
Thermodynamics |
Reactions
Multiple Burning Heaps of Color-- An Elegant Variation of a Flame Test  Eugene T. Smith
Making the ammonia fountain demonstration faster and more reliable using a common syringe.
Smith, Eugene T. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 828.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
More Chemistry in a Soda Bottle: A Conservation of Mass Activity  Daniel Q. Duffy, Stephanie A. Shaw, William O. Bare, and Kenneth A. Goldsby
Conservation of mass activity using vinegar and baking soda in a 2-L soda bottle.
Duffy, Daniel Q.; Shaw, Stephanie A.; Bare, William D.; Goldsby, Kenneth A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 734.
Reactions |
Gases |
Acids / Bases
Methanol Cannon Demonstrations Revisited  David A. Dolson, Michael E. Dolson, Michael R. Hall, Rubin Battino, Lisa S. Jutte
Demonstrations involving methanol cannons and chain reactions.
Dolson, David A.; Dolson, Michael E.; Hall, Michael R.; Battino, Rubin; Jutte, Lisa S. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 732.
Free Radicals |
Reactions |
Alcohols
Demonstrating a Lack of Reactivity Using a Teflon-Coated Pan  Thomas G. Richmond
Demonstration to illustrate a lack of chemical activity using a Teflon-coated pan.
Richmond, Thomas G.; Krause, Paul F. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 731.
Reactions |
Covalent Bonding
Osmotic Pressure and Electrochemical Potential--A Parallel   Rainer Bausch
Comparison of osmotic pressure and electrochemical potential.
Bausch, Rainer. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 713.
Electrochemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Membranes |
Transport Properties
Stoichiometry and Chemical Reactions (the author replies)  Filgueiras, Carlos A.
The mere writing of balanced equations may be unrelated to the actual reaction that takes place.
Filgueiras, Carlos A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 668.
Reactions |
Stoichiometry
Stoichiometry and Chemical Reactions  Radhakrishnamurty, P.
Can there exist different ways of balancing a chemical reaction?
Radhakrishnamurty, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 668.
Reactions |
Stoichiometry
Making Sparklers: An Introductory Laboratory Experiment   Allen Keeney, Christina Walters, and Richard D. Cornelius
Method for producing sparklers to illustrate redox reactions.
Keeney, Allen; Walters, Christina; Cornelius, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 652.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Metals
Small Scale One-Pot Reactions of Copper, Iron, and Silver  Epp, Dianne N.
Investigation of a series of reactions involving copper, iron, and silver, all conducted with very small quantities in a single well.
Epp, Dianne N. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 545.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility
Resistance Measurement as a Tool for Corrosion Studies  Singh, N. P.; Gupta, S. C.; Sood, B. R.
Procedure for determining the rate of corrosion by measuring changes in the resistance of a thin wire or strip of metal; sample data and analysis included.
Singh, N. P.; Gupta, S. C.; Sood, B. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 465.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Rate Law |
Reactions |
Electrochemistry
Rapid Calculation for Preparing Solutions  Calero, Diego Lozano
Streamlined method for dilution calculations.
Calero, Diego Lozano J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 424.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics
The Periodic Table CD  Banks, Alton J; Holmes, Jon L.
Description of the Periodic Table CD, containing a database of still images and motion sequences of reactions and uses/applications of each chemical element.
Banks, Alton J; Holmes, Jon L. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 409.
Main-Group Elements |
Transition Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Reactions
A Concrete Analogy for Combustion Analysis Problems  Reingold, I. David
Exercise for helping students understand stoichiometry by considering a Sherlock Holmes case.
Reingold, I. David J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 222.
Reactions |
Stoichiometry
Modified Hydrogen Balloon Explosion  Lawrence, Stephen S.
Detonating a water filled, hydrogen/oxygen balloon.
Lawrence, Stephen S. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 177.
Reactions
Put a Little Kaboom in Your Classroom  Barondeau, Mike
Instructions for constructing a calcium carbide/acetylene cannon from PVC pipe.
Barondeau, Mike J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 176.
Reactions |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Measuring with a Purpose: Involving Students in the Learning Process  Metz, Patricia A.; Pribyl, Jeffrey R.
Constructivist learning activities for helping students to understand measurement, significant figures, uncertainty, scientific notation, and unit conversions.
Metz, Patricia A.; Pribyl, Jeffrey R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 130.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics |
Constructivism
A Microscale Rotary Evaporator  Maynard, David F.
A simple roto-vap-type apparatus was developed for rapid removal of excess solvent in the microscale laboratory.
Maynard, David F. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A272.
Microscale Lab |
Solutions / Solvents |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Metric for Me! A Layperson's Guide to the Metric System for Everyday Use with Exercises, Problems, and Estimations (Schoemaker, Robert W.)  
Title of interest.
J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A23.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A Mini-Qualitative Organic Analysis Session  Labuschagne, A. Johan H.; Malherbe, Johannes S.; Meyer, Cornelius J.
The article describes a tested mini-scheme that works for selected unknowns and allows an instructor to introduce non-major students to a variety of functional group tests in a single laboratory session.
Labuschagne, A. Johan H.; Malherbe, Johannes S.; Meyer, Cornelius J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1088.
Qualitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Nonmajor Courses
Learning Name Reactions and Name Apparatuses Through Crossword Puzzles  Lee, Albert W. M.; Tse, C. L.
These computer generated crossword puzzles consist of 38 organic name reactions and 13 name apparatuses frequently encountered at the undergraduate level.
Lee, Albert W. M.; Tse, C. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1071.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Reactions
The Chemical Adventures of Sherlock Holmes: The Hound of Henry Armitage  Waddell, Thomas G.; Rybolt, Thomas R.
A chemical mystery featuring Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson with an emphasis on physical properties and balancing reaction equations.
Waddell, Thomas G.; Rybolt, Thomas R. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1049.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Physical Properties |
Reactions
Chart for Deciding Mechanism for Reaction of Alkyl Halide with Nucleophile/Base  McClelland, Bruce W.
The decision chart offered here is based upon the well-known and accepted characteristics of the reaction system mechanisms described in typical introductory organic chemistry textbooks.
McClelland, Bruce W. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1047.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Nucleophilic Substitution
Chemistry Navigator  Kotz, John C.; Young, Susan
Chemistry Navigator is a hyperbook-database of information in the form of descriptive text, numerical values of properties, full color photos of chemicals and reactions, three dimensional molecular structures, QuickTime animations of structural features, and graphs showing periodic trends, relative elemental abundances, and other properties.
Kotz, John C.; Young, Susan J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 941.
Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Soda Water, Supercooling or Freezing Point Depression?  Brooker, Murray H.
Composition, preparation, properties, and behavior of soda water.
Brooker, Murray H. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 903.
Gases |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Consumer Chemistry
Pictorial Analogies XIII: Kinetics and Mechanism  Fortman, John J.
Pictorial analogies for first order kinetics, the effect of concentration and temperature on reaction rate, and the requirement for proper molecular orientation for reaction.
Fortman, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 848.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Rate Law |
Reactions
ChemDemos  Moore, John W.; Jacobsen, Jerrold; Hunsberger, Lynn R.; Gammon, Steven D.; Zimmerman, John
A video laserdisc that includes 30 demonstrations suitable for introductory chemistry.
Moore, John W.; Jacobsen, Jerrold; Hunsberger, Lynn R.; Gammon, Steven D.; Zimmerman, John J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 779.
Reactions
Computers and Practical Chemistry  Gipps, John
164. Particularly appropriate examples for the computer interfacing of laboratory experiments.
Gipps, John J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 671.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Reactions
Candy Sprinkles To Illustrate One Part Per Million  Meloan, Clifton E.; Meloan, Mindy L.; Meloan, John M.
1,000,000 colored candy sprinkles (5,246 g) with a single black one placed in a clear, spherical fish tank.
Meloan, Clifton E.; Meloan, Mindy L.; Meloan, John M. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 658.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Kinetics of Chemical Reactions: A Low-Cost and Simple Appartus  Papageorgiou, G.; Ouzounis, K.; Xenos, J.
Description, applications, and experiments for a simple and inexpensive apparatus to help students understand kinetics.
Papageorgiou, G.; Ouzounis, K.; Xenos, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 647.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Reactions |
Kinetics
Experiments for Modern Introductory Chemistry: Intermolecular Forces and Raoult's Law  Berka, Ladislav H.; Kildahl, Nicholas
Procedure that illustrates the liquid-vapor phase equilibrium of ideal and nonideal solutions.
Berka, Ladislav H.; Kildahl, Nicholas J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 613.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Gas Chromatography |
Gases |
Liquids |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents
The Sol-Gel Preparation of Silica Gels  Buckley, A. M.; Greenblatt, M.
Background and procedure for the sol-gel preparation of silica from molecular precursors.
Buckley, A. M.; Greenblatt, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 599.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Colloids
Symbolic Algebra and Stoichiometry  DeToma, Robert P.
Applying symbolic algebra (instead of the factor-label method) to stoichiometry calculations.
DeToma, Robert P. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 568.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Visual Demonstration of Solvent Polarities  Johnson, Dawn A.; Shaw, Roosevelt; Silversmith, Ernest F.
A solution that shows visible color differences as the solvent polarity is changed.
Johnson, Dawn A.; Shaw, Roosevelt; Silversmith, Ernest F. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 517.
Solutions / Solvents
Use of Multimedia in an Introductory Chemistry Course for Student Analysis of Real-Life Situations  Joesten, Melvin D.
Award in the Course and Curriculum Development (CCD) program for FY1994.
Joesten, Melvin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 508.
Addition Reactions
Hydrogen Peroxide Demo Curing the Brown Bottle-with-Black Cap Syndrome  Sae, Andy
Comparing the reactivity of 3%, 12%, and 27% H2O2 solution.
Sae, Andy J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 433.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Pictorial Analogies XI: Concentrations and Acidity of Solutions  Fortman, John J.
Visual analogies of the concentration of a solution, strength of a solution, super saturated solution, conjugate acid-base pairs, and inverse relationship between pH and [H+] and pOH and [OH-].
Fortman, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 430.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
pH
Basic Principles of Scale Reading  Peckham, Gavin D.
Steps and basic principles of reading the scales of laboratory instruments.
Peckham, Gavin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 423.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Organic Nomenclature  Shaw, David B.
Drill-and-practice exercise in naming organic compounds and identifying structural formulas.
Shaw, David B. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 421.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Avoiding the Downstream Hazard in an Ionic Solubility Study  McSwiney, H. D.
Using potassium chlorate rather than potassium dichromate in an ionic solubility experiment for improved waste disposal.
McSwiney, H. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 329.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Laboratory Management
An Oscillating Reaction as a Demonstration of Principles Applied in Chemistry and Chemical Engineering  Weimer, Jeffrey J.
Platinum catalyzed decomposition of methanol.
Weimer, Jeffrey J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 325.
Thermodynamics |
Catalysis |
Transport Properties |
Kinetics |
Reactions
A WARNING: Explosion Hazards of Reacting Magnesium and Aluminum with Powdered Silver Nitrate  Laing, Michael
Danger of reacting Mg and AgNO3, Al and AgNO3.
Laing, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 270.
Metals |
Reactions
A Safe and Easy Classroom Demonstration of the Generation of Acetylene Gas  Cox, Marilyn Blagg
Reacting calcium carbide with water to generate ethyne.
Cox, Marilyn Blagg J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 253.
Alkynes |
Reactions
Pyrotechnic Reactions Without Oxygen  Wright, Stephen W.
Reaction of K3FeF6 with Al and poly(tetrafluoroethylene) with Mg.
Wright, Stephen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 251.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
KineticsLab: The Crystal Violet/Sodium Hydroxide Reaction  Cannon, John F.; Gammon, Steven D.; Hunsberger, Lynn R.
A computer-assisted experiment to collect and analyze data for a kinetic study of the decolorization of crystal violet in basic solution.
Cannon, John F.; Gammon, Steven D.; Hunsberger, Lynn R. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 238.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Reactions
An Analogy To Illustrate Miscibility of Liquids  Thornton, Barry K.
Using inter-school rivalries to illustrate the concept of "like dissolves like".
Thornton, Barry K. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 156.
Solutions / Solvents
Mole and Chemical Amount: A Discussion of the Fundamental Measurements of Chemistry  Gorin, George
Demonstrates that the mole is little different from other units of measurement.
Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 114.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Bean counter's caution   Schwartz, Leslie J.
The article "The "Bean Lab' is useful only for elementary mechanisms.
Schwartz, Leslie J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 1042.
Equilibrium |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The activation energy of a slap bracelet   Kramer, F. Axtell.
This accessory/toy can be used to help students understand activation energy.
Kramer, F. Axtell. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 1002.
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Heat of solution of hydrogen chloride: A laboratory experiment  Harms, Gregory S.; Lehman, Thomas A.
A simple technique for measuring the heat of solution of HCl in water.
Harms, Gregory S.; Lehman, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 955.
Acids / Bases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Determination of sugars in food products: Using HPLC and electrochemical detection at a Cu electrode  Luo, Peifang; Luo, Matthew Z.; Baldwin, Richard P.
This lab activity takes advantage of the fact that students' interest in a lab is increased when common life experiences are drawn upon.
Luo, Peifang; Luo, Matthew Z.; Baldwin, Richard P. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 679.
Chromatography |
Applications of Chemistry |
Food Science |
Instrumental Methods |
Solutions / Solvents
Introducing probabilistic concepts in chemistry: The preparation of 10-24 M solution as a limiting case  de Vicente, M. Sastre
A straightforward dilution experiment that can be used as the starting point for establishing a link between chemistry and concepts of probability theory.
de Vicente, M. Sastre J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 674.
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics
The electrician's multimeter in the chemistry teaching laboratory: Part 2: Potentiometry and conductimetry  Sevilla, Fortunato, III; Alfonso, Rafael L.; Andres, Roberto T.
Further applications of the multimeter in chemistry laboratories are discussed in this paper: potentiometry, reduction potentials and cell EMF, the Nerst equations, pH measurements, titration, conductimetry, and conduction of solutions.
Sevilla, Fortunato, III; Alfonso, Rafael L.; Andres, Roberto T. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 580.
Acids / Bases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Potentiometry
General chemistry lab time to learn solutions   Marino, Francis.
Concern over the number of upper-division students who come to lab unable to prepare solutions.
Marino, Francis. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 407.
Solutions / Solvents
Polarity, miscibility, and surface tension of liquids   Silverstein, Todd P.
A very simple overhead projector demonstration using water and ethanol to give a dramatic visual illustration of cohesive and adhesive forces.
Silverstein, Todd P. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 253.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Demonstration of the Common Ion Effect  Koubek, E.
KCl and HCl are used in this demonstration to describe the common ion effect and to show the difference between values Q and K.
Koubek, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 155.
Solutions / Solvents |
Equilibrium
Bleaching with Chlorine: Another Tomato Juice Demonstration   Nemetz, Thomas M.; Ball, David W.
Bubbling chlorine gas through tomato juice produces dramatic color changes. This paper provides safe instructions for the demonstration.
Nemetz, Thomas M.; Ball, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 154.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Reactions
A Short Cut Specific to the Preparation of 1 M Sodium Hydroxide  Ruekberg, Ben
In general chemistry, 1M of NaOH needs to be prepared often and without great concern for high purity of solution. The author provides a procedure.
Ruekberg, Ben J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 72.
Laboratory Management |
Solutions / Solvents
Is This Reaction a Substitution, Oxidation-Reduction, or Transfer?  Imyanitov, Naum S.
Author argues that separation of chemical reaction types based on convention do not always follow objective and consistent rules. This leads to confusion among students and artificial borders within the various sub-disciplines in chemistry.
Imyanitov, Naum S. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 14.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Chemical Demonstrations: A Handbook for Teachers of Chemistry, Volume 4 (Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.)  Kauffman, George B.
78 procedures grouped into two chapters, one on clock reactions, the other on electrochemistry, batteries, electrolytic cells, and plating.
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A187.
Reactions |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
The synthesis of urea: An undergraduate laboratory experiment   Tanski, Stephanie; Petro, Janeen; Ball, David W.
This paper presents a laboratory experiment for the production of urea from silver cyanate and ammonium chloride.
Tanski, Stephanie; Petro, Janeen; Ball, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A128.
Synthesis |
Reactions
Ammonia balloon  Mattson, Bruce
Demonstrating ammonia's aqueous solubility using a container whose volume changes.
Mattson, Bruce J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1029.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A simple and colorful demonstration of light-catalyzed bromination of an alkane  Stevens, Malcolm P.
Light-catalyzed bromination of an alkane.
Stevens, Malcolm P. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1028.
Catalysis |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Photochemistry |
Reactions
A spontaneous exothermic reaction between two solids: A safe demonstration  Scott, Earle S.
Reaction between equal masses of hydroxylamine hydrochloride and sodium nitrite.
Scott, Earle S. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1028.
Solids |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Reactions
Gas reactions in plastic bags: Relating laboratory observations to the atomic-molecular model  Robinson, Maurice; Barrow, Gordon M.
Carrying out chemical reactions in Ziplock bags to investigate a variety of chemical concepts.
Robinson, Maurice; Barrow, Gordon M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1026.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Photochemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Physical Properties
Kinetic art through chemistry  Corkern, Walter H.; Holmes, L. H., Jr.; Higginbotham, N. A.
Ethanol / water solution + one drop of heptanol with dissolved dye produces fractal-like patterns.
Corkern, Walter H.; Holmes, L. H., Jr.; Higginbotham, N. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1025.
Solutions / Solvents |
Dyes / Pigments |
Alcohols
Molecular dynamics of the F + H2 chemical reaction  Kutz, H. Douglas; Copeland, Jonathan H.; Mathai, George T.
Software that presents the F + H2 reaction in terms of the potential energy surface and associated reaction dynamics.
Kutz, H. Douglas; Copeland, Jonathan H.; Mathai, George T. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1011.
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Reactions
Reaction dynamics  Lacks, Daniel
Software that simulates collisions of an atom with a diatomic molecule, allowing students to set the initial conditions and the type of atom or molecule involved.
Lacks, Daniel J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1010.
Reactions |
Rate Law
Replacement reactions using a dissecting microscope  Lam-Erwin, Chuk-Yin; Sprague, Joseph
Performing drop-size experiments under dissecting microscopes, including examining the reactivity of metals and double replacement reactions.
Lam-Erwin, Chuk-Yin; Sprague, Joseph J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 855.
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals |
Microscale Lab |
Reactions |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Acids / Bases
Simple, inexpensive apparatus for sample concentration  Bruno, Thomas J.
An alternative to disadvantageous, commercial concentration apparatuses.
Bruno, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 837.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solutions / Solvents
The metric system  Mason, Lynn M.
Metric conversions commonly encountered in chemistry and biology, with tests over each lesson.
Mason, Lynn M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 818.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Chemometrics
Viscosity of polymer solutions  Bertrand, Gary L.
This program contains three components: "Density of Liquids", "Viscosity of Liquids", and "Viscosity of Polymer Solutions".
Bertrand, Gary L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 818.
Solutions / Solvents |
Physical Properties |
Liquids
Misusing "molecular"  Goldberg, David E.
In discussing net ionic equations, the authors of many general chemistry textbooks call the overall equation a "molecular equation", which is misleading at best and incorrect at worst.
Goldberg, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 776.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Ammonia fountain improvements  Steadman, Ned
Suggestions to eliminate the excessive preparation time and questionable reliability of the classic ammonia fountain demonstration.
Steadman, Ned J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 764.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Free-radical polymerization of acrylamide  Silversmith, Ernest F.
A rapid and foolproof thermal polymerization.
Silversmith, Ernest F. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 763.
Free Radicals |
Polymerization |
Reactions
The Beer-Lambert law revisited: A development without calculus  Lykos, Peter
Development of the Beer-Lambert law without the use of calculus.
Lykos, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 730.
Solutions / Solvents
Imprecise numbers and incautious safety procedure mar experiment.  Nelson, Robert N.
Problems with significant figures and safety concerns regarding two published experiments.
Nelson, Robert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 688.
Reactions |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The anode and the sunrise.  Mierzecki, Roman.
Etymology of the terms anode and cathode.
Mierzecki, Roman. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 657.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Like dissolves like: Dry gas  Greenberg, Fred H.
A demonstration of solubility by comparing gasoline additives containing methanol and isopropyl alcohol.
Greenberg, Fred H. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 654.
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents
Teaching inorganic nomenclature: A systematic approach.  Lind, Gerhard.
Convenient flow charts for naming inorganic compounds.
Lind, Gerhard. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 613.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Simple soda bottle solubility and equilibria  Snyder, Cheryl A.; Snyder, Dudley C.
Using a bottle of selzter water and bromocresol green to demonstrate gas-liquid solubility (carbon dioxide in water).
Snyder, Cheryl A.; Snyder, Dudley C. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 573.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Liquids |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry
The extent of acid-base reactions (the author replies).  Thompson, Ralph J.
A poor example for calculating the extent of reaction between hydronium ion and aniline was chosen.
Thompson, Ralph J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 516.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions
The extent of acid-base reactions.  Tapparo, Andrea.
Several misleading statements can be found in the original article.
Tapparo, Andrea. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 515.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions
Significant figures: A classroom demonstration  Kirksey, H. Graden.
Demonstration to show students the function and importance of significant figures in a measurement.
Kirksey, H. Graden. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 497.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A mole of salt crystals-Or how big is the Avogadro number?  Hoyt, William.
Calculations designed to help students put the size of Avogadro's number into perspective.
Hoyt, William. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 496.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Views of nursing professionals on chemistry course content for nursing education  Walhout, Justine S.; Heinschel, Judie.
Analysis of survey conducted of deans of schools of nursing, chairs of nursing departments, and registered nurses regarding courses required of nursing students and the importance of different units of measure and 39 chemistry topics to the nursing profession.
Walhout, Justine S.; Heinschel, Judie. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 483.
Medicinal Chemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Helping students to improve their approach to predicting the products of chemical reactions  Ragsdale, Ronald O.; Zipp, Arden P.
One task that seems to baffle many of today's beginning chemistry students is predicting the products of chemical reactions and writing net ionic equations to represent them.
Ragsdale, Ronald O.; Zipp, Arden P. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 390.
Reactions
Refrigerated dropping funnel and reflux condenser  Cagle, M. D.; Denton, T.; Eisenbraun, E. J.
This one-piece apparatus has proved useful in controlling the temperature of a reagent during addition to a refluxing reaction mixture.
Cagle, M. D.; Denton, T.; Eisenbraun, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 331.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Reactions
Solutions, anyone?  McCullough, Bro. Thomas
A simple, quick, and economical experiment which gives the student intimate hands-on contact with most quantitative measurements of solutions is described.
McCullough, Bro. Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 293.
Solutions / Solvents |
Quantitative Analysis |
Stoichiometry
An Ace reducing adapter for screw vials.  Canela, Ramon; Balcells, Merce.
Using this device, solvents contained in vials can be evaporated quickly without problems.
Canela, Ramon; Balcells, Merce. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 244.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solutions / Solvents |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Do "likes dissolve likes"? An illustration of polar and nonpolar solvents   Bergquist, Wilbur
Here is a simple and colorful demonstration to help illustrate the nature of polar and nonpolar solvents.
Bergquist, Wilbur J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 158.
Solutions / Solvents
Enzyme activity: The ping-pong ball torture analogy  Helser, Terry L.
The author uses this analogy to help students visualize and understand the effect of reaction conditions on the initial rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 137.
Enzymes |
Reactions
The conversion of chemical energy: Part 1. Technological examples  Wink, Donald J.
When a chemical reaction occurs, the energy of the chemical species may change and energy can be released or absorbed from the surroundings. This can involve the exchange of chemical energy with another kind of energy or with another chemical system.
Wink, Donald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 108.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Electrochemistry |
Photosynthesis
Principle of extraction of solute by solvent  Guha, Prabir Kr.; Guha, Ratna
Among the applications of Nernst's distribution law, the most important and interesting one is the extraction of a substance dissolved in one solvent by another solvent, the two solvents being partially miscible or immiscible.
Guha, Prabir Kr.; Guha, Ratna J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 73.
Solutions / Solvents |
Separation Science
The bird-scarer (combustion) demo   Battino, Rubin; Arehart, James D.; Foot, Neville W.; Stott, James B.
This is a demonstration version of a device used to scare birds with loud noises occurring at regular intervals.
Battino, Rubin; Arehart, James D.; Foot, Neville W.; Stott, James B. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 64.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
The effect of temperature on the solubility of gases in liquids  Alger, Donald B.
Of 13 current-edition general chemistry texts, 11 made errors regarding the topic of the solubility of gases in liquids.
Alger, Donald B. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 62.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
Use of liquid oxygen to support combustion   Sullivan, Dan M.
Production, procedure, and safety of demonstrations involving liquid nitrogen in order to demonstrate: Charles' Law, production and properties of liquid oxygen, effects of concentration on reactions and reaction rates, liquefaction and boiling of oxygen kindling temperature, reactions between substances in two different states of matter, and comparison of partial and complete combustion.
Sullivan, Dan M. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1036.
Physical Properties |
Gases |
Reactions |
Equilibrium
Spontaneous detonation of a mixture of two odd electron gases   Briggs, Thomas S.
Instructions for safe detonation of ClO2 and NO (the fastest known reaction between two stable molecules at room temperature).
Briggs, Thomas S. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 938.
Reactions |
Resonance Theory
Recovery of silver from and some uses for waste silver chloride  Murphy, J. A.; Ackerman, A. H.; Heeren, J. K.
Procedures for conversion to silver nitrate, using waste AgCl as an oxidizing agent, and electrodepositon experiments.
Murphy, J. A.; Ackerman, A. H.; Heeren, J. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 602.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Demonstrations of interfacial phenomena   Prall, Bruce R.
Overhead projector demonstrations that illustrate the interfacial interactions of the following systems: 1) water and carbon tetrachloride, 2) copper wire and water, 3) 1-Octanol and water.
Prall, Bruce R. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 592.
Surface Science |
Liquids |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
A call for simplification   Peterson, Donald
Does "An Instructive Gibbs-Function Problem" unnecessarily confuse even the most capable students? An exchange of letters.
Peterson, Donald J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 443.
Thermodynamics |
Reactions
Ammonia bottle  Sheets, Michael
A suggested variation to this impressive demonstration.
Sheets, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 247.
Reactions
Using a motor to demonstrate conductivity   Solomon, Sally; Fulep-Poszmik, Annamaria
The turning of a propeller identifies solutions of strong electrolytes.
Solomon, Sally; Fulep-Poszmik, Annamaria J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 160.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Conductivity
In praise of copper  Tykodi, R. J.
The reactions of copper make impressive lecture demonstrations and worthwhile laboratory activities.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 106.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Reactivity of nickel  Birk, James P.; Ronan, Martha; Bennett, Imogene; Kinney, Cheri
A series of experiments which lead to observations about the reactivity of nickel. [Debut]
Birk, James P.; Ronan, Martha; Bennett, Imogene; Kinney, Cheri J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 48.
Reactions |
Quantitative Analysis |
Coordination Compounds |
Oxidation State |
Electrochemistry
Organic Nomenclature (Lampman, Gary)  Damey, Richard F.
An interactive tutorial / drill for naming organic compounds.
Damey, Richard F. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A220.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Ethers |
Alcohols |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Phenols
Density of antifreeze-water mixtures: A general chemistry experiment in compositional analysis  Flowers, Paul A.
Determining the composition of an antifreeze/water solution through density measurements.
Flowers, Paul A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1068.
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Quantitative Analysis
Picture biochemistry: A puzzle  Helser, Terry L.
A rebus puzzle of three biochemical equations.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1062.
Reactions
Electrochemical conventions: Responses to a provocative opinion (6)  Martin-Sanchez, M.; Martin-Sanchez, MaT
The solution may be to use the etymological meaning of anode and cathode.
Martin-Sanchez, M.; Martin-Sanchez, MaT J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 992.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Electrochemical conventions: Responses to a provocative opinion (5)  Sweeting, Linda M.
The chemical potential of the electrons, not their "richness" determines direction of flow.
Sweeting, Linda M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 992.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Electrochemical conventions: Responses to a provocative opinion (4)  Fochi, Giovanni
It is sufficient to show what part of the circuit is the electric generator.
Fochi, Giovanni J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 992.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Electrochemical conventions: Responses to a provocative opinion (3)  Woolf, A. A.
There are no shortcuts in teaching the electrochemistry of galvanic cells; the process in each cell must be treated holistically.
Woolf, A. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 992.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Electrochemical conventions: Responses to a provocative opinion (2)  Castellan, Gilbert W.
The difficulty is not so much confusion over conventions as the actual wrong use of terminology.
Castellan, Gilbert W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 991.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Electrochemical conventions: Responses to a provocative opinion (1)  Freeman, Robert D.
There is no convincing evidence of confusion regarding electrochemical conventions and the author's proposed solutions are unacceptable.
Freeman, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 990.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Reaction of bromine with hydrocarbons on the overhead, real or simulated  Solomon, Sally; Gregory, Michael; Padmanabhan, Sandeep; Smith, Kurt
A simulation that looks like the addition of bromine to hydrocarbons but is not (the bromine is simulated using a mixture of food colorings).
Solomon, Sally; Gregory, Michael; Padmanabhan, Sandeep; Smith, Kurt J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 961.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Addition Reactions
The H2 + Cl2 explosion as a chemical analogue of the photoelectric effect: A true quantum mechanical demonstration  Knox, Kerro
The photochemical hydrogen-chlorine reaction affords a good example of the quantum aspect of light and its interaction with matter.
Knox, Kerro J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 897.
Reactions |
Quantum Chemistry |
Photochemistry
Avogadro's number, moles, and molecules  McCullough, Thomas, CSC
A simple diagram that relates Avogadro's number, moles, and number of atoms / molecules.
McCullough, Thomas, CSC J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 783.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
Pop-up units converter  Filby, Gordon; Klusmann, Martin
Program that provides conversion factors and calculations among a variety of units.
Filby, Gordon; Klusmann, Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 770.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Teaching freezing point lowering  Ball, Jenelle; Cooke, Ron C.; Willis, Grover
Using Le Chatelier's principle, the van't Hoff equation, and the empirical equation to explain the lowering of the freezing point caused by dissolving antifreeze in water.
Ball, Jenelle; Cooke, Ron C.; Willis, Grover J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 676.
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A Governor's School course emphasizing chemical reactions  Deavor, James P.
Format, lecture content, and laboratory program for a course that emphasizes chemical reactions and the relevancy of chemistry to our lives.
Deavor, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 669.
Reactions
A catalog of reactions for general chemistry  Tykodi, R. J.
A catalog of chemical reactions intended to help students understand what kinds of chemical reactions commonly occur and why.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 665.
Reactions |
Descriptive Chemistry
Avoid misleading the students  Rich, Ronald L.
Chemists have a long-standing habit, misleading at least to students, of saying that strong bases produce acids in various reactions.
Rich, Ronald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 629.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions
Name for the basic physical quantity n, symbol for relative mass  Nelson, P. G.
Recommendations for naming the basic physical quantity n, symbol for relative mass.
Nelson, P. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 628.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
A bromate clock reaction: The formation of purple tris(diphosphato)manganate(III)  Rich, Ronald L.; Noyes, Richard M.
Bromate is used to oxidize nearly colorless Mn(II) to a deep purple complex of Mn(III).
Rich, Ronald L.; Noyes, Richard M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 606.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Kinetics
A significant example: How many days in a century?  Lisensky, George
Calculating the number of days in a century can help clarify the subject of significant figures.
Lisensky, George J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 562.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
A convenient method to recover the solvent from halogen-CCl4 mixtures  Sabol, Joseph E.; Kurtz, David W.
An alternative to disposal and distillation which is easy to perform, allowing the solvent to be recovered and stored within one hour after the completion of the experiment is presented here.
Sabol, Joseph E.; Kurtz, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 532.
Solutions / Solvents |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Management
The cadmium-sodium nitrate reaction  Hill, William D., Jr.
A reaction involving lead and sodium nitrate prompted the idea to try reacting cadmium and sodium nitrate with the anticipation of producing cadmium oxide.
Hill, William D., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 529.
Quantitative Analysis |
Reactions
A simple apparatus for stirring solutions contained in submerged, sealed vessels  Grinstead, John H., Jr.; Sullivan, Jack M.
The authors designed an apparatus which can simultaneously stir the contents of several submerged flasks from readily available materials.
Grinstead, John H., Jr.; Sullivan, Jack M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 521.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solutions / Solvents
Heat of solution and colligative properties: An illustration of enthalpy and entropy   Mundell, Donald W.
This demonstration provides a means for challenging the students to interpret some examples where both enthalpy and entropy are possible.
Mundell, Donald W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 426.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents
The growth of large single crystals  Baer, Carl D.
It is possible to obtain a wide range of nicely formed crystals utilizing solution methods and commonly available materials and apparatus.
Baer, Carl D. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 410.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solutions / Solvents
A small scale equilibrium experiment   Flash, Patrick
An alternative method for the experiment in which the equilibrium constant for the iron-thiocyanate complex is determined.
Flash, Patrick J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 341.
Equilibrium |
Reactions
The pitfalls of precipitation reactions   Slade, Peter W.; Rayner-Canham, Geoffrey W.
This is an overview of specific equilibria problems in precipitation reactions.
Slade, Peter W.; Rayner-Canham, Geoffrey W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 316.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Reactions
Please, no angstrometer!  Gorin, George
Instead of urging the adoption of more prefixes, there is good reason to propose that some of them be eliminated.
Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 277.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The hydrolysis of salts derived from a weak monoprotic acid and a weak monoprotic base  Cardinali, Mario Emilio; Giomini, Claudio; Marrosu, Giancarlo
The limitations as well as the conditions under which this simplified approach to the hydrolysis of salts from a weak acid and a weak base can yield almost exact results are discussed.
Cardinali, Mario Emilio; Giomini, Claudio; Marrosu, Giancarlo J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 221.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions
The extent of acid-base reactions  Thompson, Ralph J.
How to calculate the equilibrium constant of an acid-base reaction.
Thompson, Ralph J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 220.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions |
Equilibrium
Quantities, Units, and Symbols in Physical Chemistry (Mills, Ian; Cvitas, Tomislav; Homann, Klaus; Kallay, Nikola; Kuchitsu, Kozo)  Freeman, Robert D.
Everything you ever wanted to know about physical quantities, symbols, and units.
Freeman, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A188.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Chemical Reactions, Reactions in Aqueous Solution, and Oxidation Reduction Reactions, Review II (Weyh, J. A.; Crook, J. R.; Hauge, L. N.)  Coleman, William F.
Programs intended to provide students with drill and practice in equation writing (including formula writing), equation balancing, and reaction predicting.
Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A172.
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Chemical Reactions, Reactions in Aqueous Solution, and Oxidation Reduction Reactions, Review I (Weyh, J. A.; Crook, J. R.; Hauge, L. N.)  Balahura, Robert J.
Programs intended to provide students with drill and practice in equation writing (including formula writing), equation balancing, and reaction predicting.
Balahura, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A172.
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Chemical Nomenclature and Balancing Equations (Bergwall Educational Software)  Kling, Timothy A.
These computer programs deal exclusively with the subjects of inorganic nomenclature and balancing simple equations.
Kling, Timothy A. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A41.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Exception to solving chem problems without the factor-label approach (the author replies)  Cardulla, Frank
There are other ways to teach problem solving, and they can produce competent, successful, and enthusiastic students.
Cardulla, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1066.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Exception to solving chem problems without the factor-label approach  Gillette, Marcia L.
The classroom analogy Cardulla uses could be made much more meaningful if it were used to demonstrate the relation between what is obvious and what is not.
Gillette, Marcia L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1065.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Amending the IUPAC Green Book  Tykodi, R. J.
Suggested amendments to the IUPAC Green Book regarding standardized chemical terminology and units of measure.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1064.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Elementary my dear Watson  Helser, Terry L.
A puzzle using the names and symbols of the elements.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 980.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Fundamental concepts in the teaching of chemistry: Part 1. The two worlds of the chemist make nomenclature manageable  Loeffler, Paul A.
A proposal to precisely define and consistently employ the terms chemical substance and chemical species; the article uses the classification of matter and nomenclature as examples of the scheme's application.
Loeffler, Paul A. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 928.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Learning Theories
The iodine clock reaction: A surprising variant  Autuori, Marcos Alberto; Brolo, Alexandre Guimaraes; Mateus, Alfredo Luis M. L.
Substituting malonic acid for sulfuric acid.
Autuori, Marcos Alberto; Brolo, Alexandre Guimaraes; Mateus, Alfredo Luis M. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 852.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Atlantic-Pacific sig figs  Stone, Helen M.
Examples of applications of significant figures in calculations.
Stone, Helen M. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 829.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
How to visualize Avogadro's number  van Lubeck, Henk
Three examples to help students visualize the size of a mole.
van Lubeck, Henk J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 762.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
The bismuth-sodium nitrate reaction  Hill, William D., Jr.
Reaction for preparing bismuth(III) oxide and determining its percentage yield.
Hill, William D., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 709.
Reactions |
Synthesis
Early exposure to chemical reactions in general chemistry  Richardson, W. S.; Teggins, J. E.
An experiment that introduces general chemistry students to a variety of chemical reactions at the beginning of the course.
Richardson, W. S.; Teggins, J. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 644.
Reactions |
Qualitative Analysis
An experiment on the molar solubility and solubility product of barium nitrate  Wruck, Betty; Reinstein, Jesse
A direct gravimetric method for determining a Ksp value.
Wruck, Betty; Reinstein, Jesse J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 515.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Gravimetric Analysis
On a Reaction Involving Oxygen and Metal Sulfides  Hill, William D., Jr.
The role of iron(III) oxide as a catalyst in the production of oxygen by the thermal decomposition of potassium chlorate promoted the idea to use this oxide to repeat the reactions involving oxygen and the metal sulfides described in an earlier article.
Hill, William D., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 448.
Catalysis |
Reactions
The formaldehyde-sulfite clock reaction revisited  Warneck, Peter
The purpose of this present note is to discuss the mechanism and the change of pH during the reaction.
Warneck, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 334.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
pH |
Rate Law
Different Choices (author response)  Kemp, H.R.
Ronald Rich discusses the use of descriptive units in the problem of calculating the concentration of a 96% sulfuric acid solution of a known density.
Kemp, H.R. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 271.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Physical Properties
Different Choices  Rich, Ronald L.
Kemp wisely advocates that the values of physical quantities be treated as independent of the units used.
Rich, Ronald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 271.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Physical Properties
Concerning Units (author response)  Wadlinger, Robert
Strobel's additional comments are most welcome, especially his electron-volt argument.
Wadlinger, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 271.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Concerning Units  Strobel, Pierre
Wadlinger rightly pointed out a number of traps and misunderstandings resulting from an omission of such descriptive units as atom or wave. Here are some more examples, which any chemist dealing with some physics is likely to encounter.
Strobel, Pierre J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 270.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
In pursuit of chemical literacy: A place for chemical reactions  Bond, Douglas
The author has described one method of implementing a course for nonscience majors in which an early and repeated exposure to chemical reactions in tandem with a set of scientific values is the key to approaching scientific literacy.
Bond, Douglas J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 157.
Nonmajor Courses |
Reactions
Searching Chemical Abstracts Online in undergraduate chemistry: Part 2. Registry (structure) File: molecular formulas, names, and name fragments  Krumpolc, Miroslav; Trimakas, Diana; Miller, Connie
This data base, essentially a subject index, consists of substance names, their Registry Numbers and characteristics, and actual structural representations.
Krumpolc, Miroslav; Trimakas, Diana; Miller, Connie J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 26.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Chemical principles for the introductory laboratory, CHM 384 (Johnson, James F.)  Wegner, Carol
A comprehensive review of the title program which overviews basic techniques and concepts presented in introductory laboratory courses. Topics include: titration, equilibrium, Ksp, solubility, Beer's law, coordination complexes and first-order rates of reaction.
Wegner, Carol J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A47.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Coordination Compounds |
Kinetics
The determination of the concentrations of sugar solutions by laser refractometry  Hughes, Elvin, Jr.; Jelks, Vaughn; Hughes, Diane Landry
The purpose of this article is to describe a simple, semi-quantitative, analytical method for determining the approximate concentrations of sucrose solutions.
Hughes, Elvin, Jr.; Jelks, Vaughn; Hughes, Diane Landry J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1007.
Lasers |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents
Oscillating reactions   Kolb, Doris.
A demonstration done on the overhead that oscillates.
Kolb, Doris. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1004.
Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics
The effect of polarity on solubility   Cliche, Jean-Marie; Labbe, Benoit
A procedure for a demonstration of the effect of polarity on solubility and some follow-up questions for students.
Cliche, Jean-Marie; Labbe, Benoit J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 813.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The study of a simple redox reaction as an experimental approach to chemical kinetics  Elias, Horst; Zipp, Arden P.
The authors present a kinetics experiment based on the oxidation of iodide ions that, like the iodine clock, is quick and easy to perform but has the advantage of being followed directly rather than indirectly.
Elias, Horst; Zipp, Arden P. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 737.
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Rate Law
An interesting student chemistry project: Investigating Liesegang rings  Schibeci, Renato A.; Carlsen, Connie
This lab allows students not only exposure to content, but also an appreciation of the way in which scientists build their knowledge.
Schibeci, Renato A.; Carlsen, Connie J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 365.
Solutions / Solvents |
Geochemistry |
Metals
Demonstration of chemical inhibition  Cooke, David O.
This demonstration convincingly shows shows the effect of an inhibitor on a chemical system.
Cooke, David O. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 68.
Catalysis |
Reactions
Mnemonic for Z and E nomenclature  Thomas, C. W.
A visual reminder that makes it unnecessary to memorize the German terms.
Thomas, C. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 44.
Diastereomers |
Alkenes |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Computer-Assisted Blackboard (Soltzberg, L. J.)  Kruger, J. D.
8-disk set of programs (Apple II) designed to help a lecturer illustrate gas laws, the Rutherford atomic model, quantization in a Bohr atom, wave-functions and orbitals, heat and changes in state, kinetics and simple reaction mechanisms, equilibrium, acid-base reactions, and titrations.
Kruger, J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A135.
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Writing Chemical Formulas, Review I (Ross, Don)  Sweeney-Hammond, Kathleen
Program to give students practice in writing chemical formulas and to facilitate the understanding of balancing positive and negative charges in a chemical formula.
Sweeney-Hammond, Kathleen J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A90.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Writing Chemical Formulas, Review I (Ross, Don)  Pavlovich, Joseph M.
Program to give students practice in writing chemical formulas and to facilitate the understanding of balancing positive and negative charges in a chemical formula.
Pavlovich, Joseph M. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A88.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials
When oil and water do not mix  Trammell, Gary L.
An introduction to the physics and chemistry of interfaces and lipids, and reactions in micelles.
Trammell, Gary L. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1022.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Micelles |
Lipids
A new road to reactions. Part 5. The elements and their atoms  de Vos, Wobbe; Verdonk, Adri H.
It is worthwhile considering introductory students' concepts of chemical reactions and the significance of these concepts for a strategy for teaching the conservation of elements.
de Vos, Wobbe; Verdonk, Adri H. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1010.
Reactions |
Learning Theories
A general approach for teaching hydrolysis of salts  Aquirre-Ode, Fernando
Proposes a general, rigorous, and relatively simple approach for the hydrolysis of 1-1 electrolytes.
Aquirre-Ode, Fernando J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 957.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Modifications of some traditional demonstrations with liquids  Stedjee, Brian
Immiscible liquid pairs with similar indexes of refraction.
Stedjee, Brian J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 894.
Liquids |
Solutions / Solvents |
Physical Properties
Outmoded terminology: The normal hydrogen electrode  Ramette, R. W.
As educators, we should not confuse the "normal hydrogen electrode" with the "standard hydrogen electrode".
Ramette, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 885.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Preparation of lead compounds: An exercise in applied chemistry  Laing, Michael; Williams-Wynn, David; Suhramoney, Saroj
Uses and synthesis of Pb(NO3)2, PbO2, PbCrO4, PbS, PbO, lead carbonate, lead acetate, and lead metal itself.
Laing, Michael; Williams-Wynn, David; Suhramoney, Saroj J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 811.
Synthesis |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State |
Reactions |
Descriptive Chemistry
The many chemical names for H2O  Treptow, Richard S.
"Inventing" names for water to illustrate the limitations of any naming system.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 697.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A spectacular demonstration: 2H2 + O2 -> 2H2O  Skinner, James F.
Detonating hydrogen in a copper combustion chamber.
Skinner, James F. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 545.
Reactions |
Free Radicals
Another auto analogy: Rate-determining steps  Ball, David W.
An analogy to describe the physical meaning of a rate-determining step.
Ball, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 486.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
A simple, safe, and inexpensive laboratory exercise in the guided inquiry format  de Moura, John M.; Marcello, Joseph A.
Introductory laboratory exercise that illustrates stoichiometry, limiting reagents, and proportionality by reacting calcium chloride and sodium hydroxide.
de Moura, John M.; Marcello, Joseph A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 452.
Stoichiometry |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Reactions
The cola clock: A new flavor to an old classic  Russell, Richard A.; Switzer, Robert W.
The classic iodine clock reaction with Vitex replacing starch as the indicator.
Russell, Richard A.; Switzer, Robert W. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 445.
Kinetics |
Reactions
Making sense of the nomenclature of the oxyacids and their salts  Rodgers, Glen E.; State, Harold M.; Bivens, L.
An overall scheme or "roadmap" for naming oxyacids and their salts.
Rodgers, Glen E.; State, Harold M.; Bivens, L. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 409.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases
Ksp determination of calcium sulfate  Masterman, David
A procedure to obtain the Ksp of a saturated solution of calcium sulfate in 10-20 minutes.
Masterman, David J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 408.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Allotropes and polymorphs  Sharma, B. D.
Definitions and examples of allotropes and polymorphs.
Sharma, B. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 404.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Introduction to overhead projector demonstrations  Kolb, Doris
General suggestions for using the overhead projector and 21 demonstrations. [Debut]
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 348.
Rate Law |
Reactions |
Catalysis |
Equilibrium |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases
Kinetics and mechanism of the iodine azide reaction: A videotaped experiment  Haight, Gilbert P.; Jones, Loretta L.
A clock reaction suitable for videotaping and presenting to a large lecture class of general chemistry for analysis.
Haight, Gilbert P.; Jones, Loretta L. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 271.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Rate Law
Simple determination of Henry's law constant for carbon dioxide  Levy, Jack B.; Hornack, Fred M.; Levy, Matthew A.
With the aid of inexpensive pressure gauges available from automotive supply stores, the solubility of carbon dioxide in carbonated beverages or other solutions can be studied.
Levy, Jack B.; Hornack, Fred M.; Levy, Matthew A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 260.
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents
The arsenic(III) sulfide clock reaction  Watkins, Kenneth W.
Two colorless solutions, one containing sodium arsenite and acetic acid and the other containing sodium thiosulfate are mixed in a beaker; after about 20 seconds, the mixture turns a brilliant yellow color. This clock reaction is well suited for determining the order of reaction and the activation energy.
Watkins, Kenneth W. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 255.
Reactions
A new method to balance chemical equations  Garcia, Arcesio
A simple method, applicable to any kind of reaction, that does not require the knowledge of oxidation numbers.
Garcia, Arcesio J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 247.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation State |
Reactions
Molar and equivalent amounts and concentrations  Kohman, Truman P.
What are the quantities of which molar and normal are units?
Kohman, Truman P. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 246.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Annotating reaction equations  Tykodi, R. J.
Annotating aqueous solution reactions fosters recognition of the fundamental reaction categories; ready recognition of a reaction type is the first step toward understanding the "whys and wherefores" inherent in the reaction.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 243.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Oxidation / Reduction
The disappearing act: Teaching students to expect the unexpected  Kilner, Cary
A demonstration of Ksp in which a precipitate is formed and then disappears.
Kilner, Cary J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 155.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
An analogy for soluble and insoluble mixtures: Sand and magnetic iron filings  Garde, Ira Batra
Using mixtures of sand and iron filings as analogies for a soluble mixture of nonpolar substances, a soluble mixture of polar substances, and an insoluble mixture of a nonpolar and a polar substance.
Garde, Ira Batra J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 154.
Solutions / Solvents
A nuts and bolts approach to explain limiting reagents  Blankenship, Craig
Using nuts and bolts to simulate the stoichiometry of a chemical reaction and the concept of limiting and excess reactants.
Blankenship, Craig J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 134.
Stoichiometry |
Reactions
A new road to reactions: Part III. Teaching the heat effect of reactions  de Vos, Wobbe; Verdonk, Adri H.
This series of work summarizes the authors' work on the concept of chemical reactions as a teaching and learning problem.
de Vos, Wobbe; Verdonk, Adri H. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 972.
Thermodynamics |
Reactions |
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases
The coming renaissance of descriptive chemistry  Zuckerman, J. J.
Inorganic chemistry is facing an identity crises.
Zuckerman, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 829.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Reactions |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
SI and non-SI units of concentration: A truce?  Rich, Ronald L.
These authors examine whether a truce could be promoted by filling a chemical gap in the System Internationale with special attention on concentration.
Rich, Ronald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 784.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Find-the-pairs  Ryan, Jack
73. Bits and pieces, 29. A computer game that can help students avoid the drudgery of memorizing such essential items as elemental names and symbols or conversion factors.
Ryan, Jack J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 626.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A flowchart for dimensional analysis  Graham, D. M.
A flowchart to help students organize their thoughts when solving conversion problems.
Graham, D. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 527.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
Where did that number come from?   DeLorenzo, Ronald
With more careful labeling and handling of numbers, instructors can reduce the confusion students sometimes feel when watching problems being solved by the instructor on the board.
DeLorenzo, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 514.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A multipurpose, dramatic combustion effect  Fenster, Ariel E.; Harpp, David N.; Dore, Marcel; Schwarcz, Joseph A.
A powerful demonstration on combustion that has been used in and out of the classroom is described in this note.
Fenster, Ariel E.; Harpp, David N.; Dore, Marcel; Schwarcz, Joseph A. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 349.
Reactions
Dangerous demos  Nagel, Miriam C.
The author questions the pedagogical value of demonstrations that pose great danger, such as reacting sodium and water.
Nagel, Miriam C. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 81.
Reactions
Molecular size and Raoult's Law  Kovac, Jeffrey
An additional cause for deviations from Raoult's Law that is rarely, if ever, mentioned in freshman chemistry texts.
Kovac, Jeffrey J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1090.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Gases
Doing the dishes: An analogy for use in teaching reaction kinetics  Last, Arthur M.
An analogy between doing dishes and a two-step reaction.
Last, Arthur M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1015.
Kinetics |
Reactions
The catalytic function of enzymes  Splittgerber, Allan G.
Review of the structure, function, and factors that influence the action of enzymes.
Splittgerber, Allan G. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1008.
Catalysis |
Enzymes |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Mathematics in the chemistry classroom. Part 1. The special nature of quantity equations  Dierks, Werner; Weninger, Johann; Herron, J. Dudley
Differences between operation on quantities and operation on numbers and how chemical quantities should be described mathematically.
Dierks, Werner; Weninger, Johann; Herron, J. Dudley J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 839.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Interstellar chemistry  Carbo, R.; Ginebreda, A.
Surveys some of the features that characterize interstellar chemistry, particularly the composition of the interstellar medium and the nature of the changes that occur there.
Carbo, R.; Ginebreda, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 832.
Astrochemistry |
Gases |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Elemental etymology: What's in a name?  Ball, David W.
Summarizes patterns to be found among the origins of the names of the elements.
Ball, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 787.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
New stoichiometry for copper dissolution in nitric acid  El-Cheikh, F. M.; Khalil, S. A.; El-Manguch, M. A.; Omar, Hadi A.
NO2 does not appear to be a primary product in the oxidation of copper metal by nitric acid.
El-Cheikh, F. M.; Khalil, S. A.; El-Manguch, M. A.; Omar, Hadi A. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 761.
Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction
The definition and symbols for the quantity called "molarity" or "concentration" and for the SI units of this quantity  Gorin, George
An alternative formulation for concentration and the SI units for this quantity.
Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 741.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents
Conversion of standard thermodynamic data to the new standard state pressure  Freeman, Robert D.
Analyzes the changes that will be required to convert standard thermodynamic data from units of atmospheres to the bar.
Freeman, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 681.
Thermodynamics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A new road to reactions. Part 2  de Vos, Wobbe; Verdonk, Adri H.
Helping introductory students understand the nature of chemical reactions.
de Vos, Wobbe; Verdonk, Adri H. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 648.
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
A different look at the solubility-product principle  Hugus, Z Z., Jr.; Hentz, F. C., Jr.
The progressive addition of Cl- to Ag+ yields an ion-product equal to Ksp at two different points.
Hugus, Z Z., Jr.; Hentz, F. C., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 645.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics
A pictorial framework to aid conceptualization of reaction stoichiometry  Cameron, David L.
Approach to teaching stoichiometry that promotes students' understanding of a reaction as a coherent process.
Cameron, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 510.
Stoichiometry |
Reactions
Chain reaction wheel: An approach to free radical reactions  Monroe, Manus; Abrams, Karl
Using a "chain reaction wheel" to help students understand the mechanism of free radical reactions.
Monroe, Manus; Abrams, Karl J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 467.
Free Radicals |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Simple limewater maker  Prochaska, James F.
Uses gravity to separate the insoluble precipitate when preparing limewater.
Prochaska, James F. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 437.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
Working backwards is a forward step in the solution of problems by dimensional analysis  Drake, Robert F.
Solving chemistry calculations by determining the units of the desired answer and then working backwards using dimensional analysis.
Drake, Robert F. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 414.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Nuclear synthesis and identification of new elements  Seaborg, Glenn T.
Review of descriptive terms, nuclear reactions, radioactive decay modes, and experimental methods in nuclear chemistry.
Seaborg, Glenn T. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 392.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Isotopes
Organic chemistry for health-science students   Schumm, Margot K.
It is important to teach health-science students reaction mechanisms when teaching them organic and biochemistry.
Schumm, Margot K. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 272.
Medicinal Chemistry |
Nonmajor Courses |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The origin and adoption of the Stock system  Kauffman, George B.; Jrgensen, Christian Klixbll
The history and development of the Stock system of inorganic nomenclature.
Kauffman, George B.; Jrgensen, Christian Klixbll J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 243.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Toward a more rational terminology  Tykodi, R. J.
Recommended changes in the terms atomic weight, molecular weight, gram atomic / molecular / formula weights, gram equivalent weight, specific heat / volume / density, and chemical equation.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 241.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A new road to reactions. Part 1  de Vos, Wobbe; Verdonk, Adri H.
Suggestions on how to carry out discovery learning as a teaching method in chemistry; recommends several specific reactions for use in activities.
de Vos, Wobbe; Verdonk, Adri H. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 238.
Reactions |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
Using a dissecting microscope in teaching introductory chemistry  Winokur, Robert; Monroe, Manus
Using microscopes to observe the physical characteristics and chemical reactions of several substances.
Winokur, Robert; Monroe, Manus J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 157.
Reactions |
Physical Properties
Change in concentration with time  Umland, Jean B.
Shows how the rate of a reaction is fast at first and then gradually decreases to zero when one reactant has been used up.
Umland, Jean B. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 153.
Solutions / Solvents |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Aqueous hydrogen peroxide: Its household uses and concentration units  Webb, Michael J.
Includes some simple weight / volume calculations and their answers.
Webb, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 152.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents
Five Avogadro's number problems  Todd, David
Five problems involving Avogadro's number.
Todd, David J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 76.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
The mole: Questioning format can make a difference  Lazonby, John N.; Morris, Jane E.; Waddington, David J.
Study of 2,695 high school students that found that it is the piecing together of the individual steps involved in mole calculations that presents the main difficulty for students.
Lazonby, John N.; Morris, Jane E.; Waddington, David J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 60.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
A LAP on moles: Teaching an important concept  Ihde, John
The objective of the Learning Activity Packet on moles include understanding the basic concept of the mole as a chemical unit, knowing the relationships between the mole and the atomic weights in the periodic table, and being able to solve basic conversion problems involving grams, moles, atoms, and molecules. [Debut]
Ihde, John J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 58.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
An alternative method for the determination of pKa  Castillo S., Carlos; Micolta S., Germania; Grajales T., Mario
Determining pKa from the titration curve of a weak acid or base.
Castillo S., Carlos; Micolta S., Germania; Grajales T., Mario J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1067.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
A new meaning of the terms acid and base hydrolysis  Milic, Nikola B.
Suggestions for distinguishing between solvation, hydration, and solvolysis, and hydrolysis reactions that produce hydroxo and protonated complexes.
Milic, Nikola B. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1066.
Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
The unit gram/mole and its use in the description of molar mass  Gorin, G.
How is molar mass related to the quantity called "molecular (or atomic) weight"?
Gorin, G. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1045.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
Kinetics and mechanism-a games approach  Harsch, Gunther
Using statistical games to simulate and illustrate a variety of chemical kinetics.
Harsch, Gunther J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1039.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Catalysis |
Rate Law
Iodine clock reaction mechanisms  Lambert, Jack L.; Fina, Gary T.
Outlines the mechanism for the simple iodine clock reaction and the "Old Nassau" modification.
Lambert, Jack L.; Fina, Gary T. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1037.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction
The insolubility of "soluble" barium nitrate  Reinstein, Jesse
The unexpected formation of a precipitate of barium nitrate when barium carbonate or barium phosphate is treated with dilute nitric acid.
Reinstein, Jesse J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1009.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
The effect of polarity on solubility  Nordstrom, Brian H.
Students observe that iodine dissolves readily in 1,1,1-trichloroethane but not water.
Nordstrom, Brian H. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1009.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Water / Water Chemistry
The deceptive difficulty of descriptive chemistry and the chemistry curriculum  Bent, Henry A.
Considers the unique challenges of teaching and understanding descriptive and provides 12 descriptive, chemical equation puzzles.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 985.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Reactions
Modeling hypersaline lake "turn-over"  Sprague, Gary
Modeling saline lake inversions with a saturated salt solution in a beaker.
Sprague, Gary J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 956.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
The emergence of stochastic theories: What are they and why are they special?  Freeman, Gordon R.
Examines the word stochastic and its opposite, deterministic, and points out why stochastic models are receiving new emphasis of late.
Freeman, Gordon R. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 944.
Kinetics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
How to get the most from the dichromate volcano demonstration: Aluminothermy  Trogler, William C.
Reducing the green ash produced by the dichromate volcano (Cr2O3) with aluminum in a thermite-like display.
Trogler, William C. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 908.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
A perspective on solubility rules  Monroe, Manus; Abrams, Karl
Four solubility rule generalizations useful for introducing solubility.
Monroe, Manus; Abrams, Karl J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 885.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
The nine-bottle experiment revisited  Finholt, James E.
Students are challenged to design solutions appropriate for the "nine-bottle" experiment.
Finholt, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 849.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
The goals of teaching solution equilibrium  Ruda, Paul T.
Using and making relevant the concepts of solution equilibrium.
Ruda, Paul T. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 784.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents
Why teach solution equilibrium?  Butler, James N.
What are the most important aspects of solution equilibrium to teach at the elementary level?
Butler, James N. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 784.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases |
pH
An analogy for solubility: Marbles and magnets  Kjonaas, Richard A.
Using marbles and magnets to illustrate solubility and insolubility.
Kjonaas, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 765.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents
The thermite reaction: A chemical ground breaking  Eastland, George W., Jr.
Technique for initiating the thermite reaction at a safe distance.
Eastland, George W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 723.
Reactions
Photon-initiated hydrogen-chloride reaction: Improvements on a lecture demonstration  Ramette, R. W.
Improvements to the photon-initiated reaction between hydrogen and chlorine gas - the gas mixture is generated by the electrolysis of 8 M HCl.
Ramette, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 722.
Photochemistry |
Reactions
Natural sources of ionizing radiation  Bodner, George M.; Rhea, Tony A.
Units of radiation measurement, calculations of radiation dose equivalent, sources of ionizing radiation and its biological effects.
Bodner, George M.; Rhea, Tony A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 687.
Natural Products |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Start the term with a bang  Clare, Sheldon I.
The reaction of sodium in water is used to ignite a piece of filter paper.
Clare, Sheldon I. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 635.
Reactions
Solubility of mercury  Sisler, Harry H.
The statement "mercury is soluble in both polar and non-polar liquids" is misleading.
Sisler, Harry H. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 566.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
Teaching of chemical reactions and syntheses  Basolo, Fred
We are obliged to teach students some fundamental reactions that all chemists should know.
Basolo, Fred J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 520.
Reactions |
Synthesis
The solubility of NiSO46H2O  Pacer, Richard A.
Approaches the position of equilibrium from both unsaturated and supersaturated solutions.
Pacer, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 467.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Equilibrium |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
The murky pool  Perkins, Robert
Using the reaction of aqueous silver nitrate with aqueous sodium sulfide to illustrate how one can correlate the terms soluble and insoluble with solubility product constants.
Perkins, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 383.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The useless tea kettle  Perkins, Robert
If a 2.5 L kettle contains 125 g of calcium carbonate (boiler scale), how many times would the kettle have to be filled with distilled water to remove all of the deposits given the Ksp of calcium carbonate?
Perkins, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 383.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Chemical storage of solar energy using an old color change demonstration  Spears, L. Gene, Jr.; Spears, Larry G.
The results of a student research project that could be used as an experiment to illustrate the potential of hydrates salts for solar energy storage.
Spears, L. Gene, Jr.; Spears, Larry G. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 252.
Photochemistry |
Coordination Compounds |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
An analogy for the leveling effect  Macomber, Roger S.
Analogy to help students understand the leveling effect of certain solvents.
Macomber, Roger S. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 128.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Teaching factor-label method without sleight of hand  Garrett, James M.
As an aid in teaching the factor-label method, the author has developed a rather simple card game involving the matching of symbols and colors.
Garrett, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 962.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Determination of ammonia in household cleaners: an instrumental analysis experiment  Graham, Richard C.; DePew, Steven
This popular experiment describes a procedure that is easily modified to determine quantitatively such analytes as ammonia in solution.
Graham, Richard C.; DePew, Steven J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 765.
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Consumer Chemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Solutions / Solvents
Hazardous chemical storage  Williamson, J. R.
Some tips on safe chemical storage: maximum separation of reactive chemicals equals minimum risk; do not store in alphabetical order; don't store water sensitive chemicals in a water sprinkled storage area; don't store solvents in anything but vented cabinets; don't store incompatible chemicals together; don't store oxidizers and fuels together; do store non-reactive chemicals together, and do store chemicals by reactivity class or by compatibility.
Williamson, J. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 668.
Reactions |
Laboratory Management
Indigo  Fernelius, W. Conard; Renfrew, Edgar E.
A brief history of the uses and origins of indigo as well as a look at the molecular structure of this molecule.
Fernelius, W. Conard; Renfrew, Edgar E. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 633.
Dyes / Pigments |
Heterocycles |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Influence of temperature and catalyst on the decomposition of potassium chlorate in a simple DTA apparatus  Wiederholt, Erwin
The authors describe the use of a simple DTA-apparatus in demonstrating the catalytic effects of MnO2 and Al2O3 on the decomposition temperature of KClO3.
Wiederholt, Erwin J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 431.
Kinetics |
Instrumental Methods |
Catalysis |
Reactions |
Rate Law
Association of ions and fractional crystallization: a general chemistry experiment  Scaife, Charles W. J.; Dubs, Richard L.
The experiment in this article has been used in laboratories for non science majors and for inorganic chemistry. In both cases students attain a good understanding of what it taking place, how the various procedures affect actual concentrations of ions present, and why particular salts crystallize under certain conditions whereas others do not.
Scaife, Charles W. J.; Dubs, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 418.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solutions / Solvents
Solubility and Ksp of calcium sulfate: a general chemistry laboratory experiment  Sawyer, Albert K.
The experiment shared in this note can be used to accompany lectures on solubility or chemical equilibrium.
Sawyer, Albert K. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 416.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium
A safe and simple demonstration of the effect of temperature on reaction rate  Boring, Wayne C.; McMillan, Ernest T.
The demonstration described here utilizes a safe and familiar reaction to illustrate the concept of reaction rate to students.
Boring, Wayne C.; McMillan, Ernest T. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 414.
Kinetics |
Reactions
Estimating energy outputs of fuels  Baird, N. Colin
Which is the best fuel in terms of heat energy output: coal, natural gas, fuel oil, hydrogen, or alcohol? It is possible to obtain a semi quantitative estimate of the heat generated by combustion of a fuel from the balanced chemical equation alone.
Baird, N. Colin J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 356.
Reactions |
Green Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Alcohols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Geochemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Quantitative Analysis
The spilled can of paint   Perkins, Robert
The writer describes a problem for students to work out in order to better understand units of conversion.
Perkins, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 343.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Treat 'em to Tchaikovsky  Whitman, Mark
The author shares a demonstration that attracts great student attention. Students are highly successful when answering questions about the phenomenon in this demonstration on ensuing exams.
Whitman, Mark J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 229.
Reactions |
Rate Law
A novel classification of concentration units  MacCarthy, Patrick
Concentration units can be a source of confusion for students. This article presents a treatment on this topic that may help students understand the differences between these units.
MacCarthy, Patrick J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 187.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A practical application of molality  Penrose, John F.
The stoichiometry problem related in this note captures student interest.
Penrose, John F. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 63.
Solutions / Solvents |
Stoichiometry
Does the N-solution problem measure student proficiency?  Monts, David L.; Pickering, Miles
An investigation to determine if the commonly used, N-solution, qualitative identification laboratory assessment problem assesses students' knowledge of descriptive chemistry.
Monts, David L.; Pickering, Miles J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 1032.
Solutions / Solvents |
Qualitative Analysis
Partition coefficients - A lecture demonstration  Newton, Thomas A.
The extraction of aqueous solutions of indophenol and its sodium salt with carbon tetrachloride and chloroform.
Newton, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 973.
Separation Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Numbers in chemical names  Fernelius, W. Conard
Discusses the various ways that numbers are used in the formulas and names of chemical compounds.
Fernelius, W. Conard J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 964.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Oxidation State
Spontaneous combustion of familiar substances in chlorine  Briggs, Thomas S.
Reacting chlorine generated from liquid bleach with red phosphorus (from a match book) and iron from steel wool.
Briggs, Thomas S. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 788.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
On the use of intravenous solutions to teach some principles of solution chemistry  Shapiro, Irwin L.
A series of laboratory periods are devoted to the chemistry of intravenous solution in a one-semeter course for nursing students.
Shapiro, Irwin L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 725.
Solutions / Solvents |
Nonmajor Courses |
Medicinal Chemistry
The underprepared student, scientific literacy and Piaget: Reflections on the role of measurement in scientific discussion  Kurland, Daniel J.
The need for an explicit instructional component that stresses the notion of measurement as a means of physical description.
Kurland, Daniel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 574.
Learning Theories |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A unified approach to the study of chemical reactions in freshman chemistry  Cassen, T.; DuBois, Thomas D.
An approach that aims to provide students with the background that will enable them to make reasonable predictions as to the likely products of a chemical reaction.
Cassen, T.; DuBois, Thomas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 377.
Reactions |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Group IA elements: Chemical properties (a); Group IA elements: Chemical properties (b)  Dombrink, Kathleen J.
Film loop that demonstrates reactions between alkali metals and halogens.
Dombrink, Kathleen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 260.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Reactions |
Metals
Notes from physics journals  Smith, Douglas D.
Solution with an index of refraction that matches that of Pyrex glass and a reverse cartesion diver.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 243.
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents
Powers of ten  Herman Miller, Inc.
New version of the 1968 original.
Herman Miller, Inc. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 166.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A demonstration model for immiscibility  Hoffman, A. B.
Uses Magic Sand to demonstrate various solubility principles.
Hoffman, A. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 155.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
A simple, effective introduction to the Beer-Lambert relationships  Bowman, Leo H.
Demonstrates the realities of light absorbing phenomenon.
Bowman, Leo H. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 155.
Spectroscopy |
Solutions / Solvents
How much cholesterol is in your body?  Chamizo G., Jose Antonio
Calculations involving the size and proportion of the body consisting of cholesterol.
Chamizo G., Jose Antonio J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 151.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Lipids
An improved copper cycle experiment  Umans, Ton; de Vos, Wobbe
This simple lab demonstrates chemical transformations in and the conservation of copper.
Umans, Ton; de Vos, Wobbe J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 52.
Reactions
The extinction coefficient: S.I. and the dilemma of its units-six options  Wigfield, Donald C.
Six options for dealing with units in regards to the extinction coefficient.
Wigfield, Donald C. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 27.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
More "quickies"  Rosenberg, Milton H.
Some quick, challenging questions that cover various areas of chemistry.
Rosenberg, Milton H. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 994.
X-ray Crystallography |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Small things and large numbers   Rosenberg, Milton H.
Some challenging solubility problems are featured in this note.
Rosenberg, Milton H. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 962.
Solutions / Solvents |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Ksp made simple  Buss, Donald E.
Students often have a hard time understanding solubility products conceptually. The author provides appropriate questions that can better scaffold understanding.
Buss, Donald E. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 958.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents
Be a millionaire - Get with the action!  White, Alvan D.
When talking about the distribution of molecular velocities, we can use money as an analogy.
White, Alvan D. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 645.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics
How big is Avogadro's number (or how small are atoms, molecules and ions)  Fulkrod, John E.
Calculating the volume occupied by Avogadro's number of drops of water helps students understand the magnitude of this quantity while giving them practice at using scientific notation and the metric system.
Fulkrod, John E. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 508.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
Dramatic demonstrations for a large audience: The formation of hydroxyl ions in the reaction of sodium with water   Hutton, Alan T.
This procedure allows the popular sodium-reacting-with-water reaction to be observable in large lecture theaters.
Hutton, Alan T. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 506.
Reactions |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Dramatic demonstrations for a large audience: The formation of hydroxyl ions in the reaction of sodium with water   Hutton, Alan T.
This procedure allows the popular sodium-reacting-with-water reaction to be observable in large lecture theaters.
Hutton, Alan T. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 506.
Reactions |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Notation for order of addition  Niewahner, J. H.
The notation described here will enable a student to include in the chemical equation an implied statement regarding the order of addition.
Niewahner, J. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 461.
Reactions |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Introduction to chemical nomenclature  Friedstein, Harriet

Friedstein, Harriet J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 414.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Temperature effect on reaction rates   Eliason, Robert; McMahon, Terence
A demonstration has been developed which nicely illustrates the temperature effect on reaction rates and the general rule relating temperature increases with rate increases.
Eliason, Robert; McMahon, Terence J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 354.
Kinetics |
Reactions
An experimental introduction to stoichiometry   Webb, Michael J.
A procedure for an experiment with the purpose: To show via experiment that the quantities of materials used in chemical reactions are related to balanced chemical equations.
Webb, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 192.
Stoichiometry |
Reactions
Maxwell's demon  Schmuckler, Joseph S.

Schmuckler, Joseph S. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 183.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Maxwell's demon  Schmuckler, Joseph S.

Schmuckler, Joseph S. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 183.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
What is the rate-limiting step of a multistep reaction?  Murdoch, Joseph R.
The purpose of this paper is to point out the circumstances where analogies can be used successfully and to develop a generalization which can be used for all reactions, including those with polymolecular steps.
Murdoch, Joseph R. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 32.
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Rate Law
Solubility and complex ion equilibria of silver(I) species in aqueous solution  Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.; Dirreen, Glen E.; Juergens, Fred
The sequential formation of precipitates and complex ions is used to demonstrate how the solubility of silver(I) compounds is related to Ksp values.
Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.; Dirreen, Glen E.; Juergens, Fred J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 813.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents
An acid or a base?  Uriarte, Richard J.
Does a diluted acid remain acidic?
Uriarte, Richard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 806.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
C6H22O11 + H2SO4 = CO + ?  Smith, Douglas D.
Explaining the dehydration of sucrose by sulfuric acid.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 805.
Reactions
Groups and subgroups in the periodic table of the elements: A proposal of modification in the nomenclature  Araneo, Antonio
A proposal to eliminate the "A" and "B" designations of subgroups and replace them with letters referring directly to the electronic structures of atoms.
Araneo, Antonio J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 784.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Synthesis and decomposition of ZnI2  Walker, Noojin
Illustrates direct combination, decomposition, the effect of a catalyst, recrystallization of sublimed I2, and electrolysis.
Walker, Noojin J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 738.
Synthesis |
Reactions |
Catalysis |
Electrochemistry
Mole fraction analogies  DeLorenzo, Ron
An analogy to help students solve concentration problems.
DeLorenzo, Ron J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 733.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics |
Solutions / Solvents
Carbon tetrachloride substitute  Wynn, Charles M.
Substitution of n-hexane for carbon tetrachloride.
Wynn, Charles M. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 728.
Toxicology |
Laboratory Management |
Solutions / Solvents
An applied exam in coordination chemistry  Pantaleo, Daniel C.
Students draw from a pool of stock chemicals and answer questions based on its formula and observed properties.
Pantaleo, Daniel C. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 669.
Coordination Compounds |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Experiments for display (Corridor demonstration)  Letcher, T. M.; Orchard, S. W.
The effect of heat on the color of cobalt(II) chloride water-alcohol solution. Refluxing solutions of different compositions.
Letcher, T. M.; Orchard, S. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 667.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Chemical Kinetics: Reaction Rates  Mickey, Charles D.
Reviews the chemistry behind factors that influence the rates of chemical reactions.
Mickey, Charles D. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 659.
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Catalysis
A "road map" problem for freshman chemistry students  Burness, James H.
Question suitable for a take-home type of exam.
Burness, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 647.
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Apple dunking  O'Connor, Rod
Question regarding the ratio between ions of p-nitrophenylhydrazone in reducing the pH of basic effluent.
O'Connor, Rod J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 598.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
pH |
Industrial Chemistry
Compact comments  Rhodes, Gale; Goodmanson, David
A clear derivation of a temperature scale interconversion equation can be carried out by plotting temperatures of one scale against corresponding temperatures of the other.
Rhodes, Gale; Goodmanson, David J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 506.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Chem-deck: How to learn to write the formulas of chemical compounds (or lose your shirt)  Sherman, Alan; Sherman, Sharon J.
A game that helps students learn to name compounds and write chemical formulas.
Sherman, Alan; Sherman, Sharon J. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 503.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Cobalt complexes in equilibrium  Ophardt, Charles E.
This equilibrium illustrates the application of LeChatelier's principle to concentration effects.
Ophardt, Charles E. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 453.
Equilibrium |
Coordination Compounds |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Correlating Celsius and Fahrenheit temperatures by the "unit calculus"  Gorin, George
Deriving the mathematical relationship between Celsius and Fahrenheit temperatures.
Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 350.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Photochemical reactions of tris(oxalato)iron (III): A first year chemistry experiment  Baker, A. D.; Casadevell, A.; Gafney, H. D.; Gellender, M.
An experiment based on the photoreduction of potassium ferrioxalate.
Baker, A. D.; Casadevell, A.; Gafney, H. D.; Gellender, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 314.
Photochemistry |
Kinetics |
Reactions
Illustrating chemical concepts through food systems: Introductory chemistry experiments  Chamber, IV, E.; Setser, C. S.
Illustrating the vaporization of liquids, reaction rates, adsorption, properties of solutions, colloidal dispersions, suspensions, and hydrogen ion concentration using foods.
Chamber, IV, E.; Setser, C. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 312.
Food Science |
Applications of Chemistry |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents |
Colloids |
Acids / Bases
Adopting SI units in introductory chemistry  Davies, William G.; Moore, John W.
Conventions associated with SI units, conversion relationships commonly used in chemistry, and a roadmap method for solving stoichiometry problems.
Davies, William G.; Moore, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 303.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Qualitative analysis, without sulfide ion, of selected cations  Rathnamma, Dasara V.
Qualitative analysis of selected 11 cations can be accomplished without the use of sulfide.
Rathnamma, Dasara V. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 287.
Qualitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Artifacts and the Electromotive Series  Mickey, Charles D.
The chemistry of metals and its application to archeology.
Mickey, Charles D. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 275.
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Applications of Chemistry |
Metallurgy |
Reactions
An introductory level kinetics investigation  McGarvey, J. E. B.; Knipe, A. C.
A kinetic study of the hydrolysis of 3-bromo-3-phenylpropanoic acid.
McGarvey, J. E. B.; Knipe, A. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 155.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Appetizing colloids  Riley, John T.
Two examples of colloidal dispersions: the formation of foam upon mixing a solution of aluminum sulfate with a solution of egg albumin and sodium bicarbonate, and the formation of a gel upon mixing ethanol with a saturated solution of calcium acetate.
Riley, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 153.
Colloids |
Solutions / Solvents
Crystallization of sodium acetate  Hiegel, Gene A.
Procedure for preparing a supersaturated solution of sodium acetate and crystallizing it.
Hiegel, Gene A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 152.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
Rossini, William Tell and the iodine clock reaction: A lecture demonstration  Brice, L. K.
The iodine clock reaction is timed to coincide with three portions of the William Tell Overture.
Brice, L. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 152.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
"To sink or swim"  O'Connor, Rod
A problem regarding the maximum water hardness that can be permitted in a swimming pool if it is desired to avoid calcite formation given the carbonate ion concentration. [Debut]
O'Connor, Rod J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 151.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents
On the misuse of Le Châtelier's principle for the prediction of the temperature dependence of the solubility of salts  Bodner, George M.
Explores why Le Châtelier's principle often fails to predict the temperature dependence of the solubility of salts.
Bodner, George M. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 117.
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Travelling Waves of Chemical Activity in the Zaikin-Zhabotinskii-Winfree Reagent  Field, Richard J; Winfree, Arthur T.
An overhead projector demonstration.
Field, Richard J; Winfree, Arthur T. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 754.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
Bent thermometer  Smith, Douglas D.
Reducing the breakage of thermometers, using CO2 as an insecticide, and improving the demonstration of the reaction between sodium and water.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 742.
Laboratory Management |
Applications of Chemistry |
Metals |
Reactions
Electronegativity, bond energy, and chemical reactivity  Myers, R. Thomas
The Pauling electronegativity concept can be used to help rationalize several kinds of chemical reactions.
Myers, R. Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 711.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Reactions
The thermite lecture demonstration  Bozzelli, Joseph W.; Barat, Robert B.
Glycerine plus KMnO4 are used to ignite the thermite in a clay flower pot.
Bozzelli, Joseph W.; Barat, Robert B. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 675.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Response to Comments on "SI Units? A Camel is a Camel"  Adamson, Arthur W.
Comments on an earlier article regarding SI units.
Adamson, Arthur W. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 665.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters on SI Units  Dingledy, David
Comments on an earlier article regarding SI units.
Dingledy, David J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 665.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters on SI Units  Heslop, R. B.
Comments on an earlier article regarding SI units.
Heslop, R. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 665.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
An apologia for accepting at least an approximation to SI  Wright, P. G.
Comments on earlier articles regarding SI units.
Wright, P. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 663.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
On finding a middle ground for SI  Nelson, Robert A.
Comments on an earlier article regarding SI units.
Nelson, Robert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 661.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Empirical formulas  Ryan, Dennis P.
This question forces one to duplicate the line of reasoning used by Dalton in his initial formulation of atomic weights; it tests for the ability to deduce atomic sizes and to calculate empirical formulas.
Ryan, Dennis P. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 528.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The precipitation of ferrous hydroxide: A lecture demonstration  Lau, O. W.
This demonstration can illustrate such topics as the solubility of ionic compounds, electrode potentials of transition elements and their modification by formation of either an insoluble compound of a complex ion, and mixed valence compounds.
Lau, O. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 474.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Determination of solution enthalpy: An easy and simple method  Karunakaran, K.
A method that does not involve the preparation and analysis of saturated solutions at different temperatures.
Karunakaran, K. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 389.
Solutions / Solvents |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Management
Hey, watch your language!  Herron, J. Dudley
If we do not use our words with care, we introduce and reinforce confusion.
Herron, J. Dudley J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 330.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The ambit of chemistry  Vitz, Edward W.
Proposal to revise the standard definition of chemistry to one that focusses on atoms and molecules rather than simply matter.
Vitz, Edward W. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 327.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Formation and dissolution of precipitates  Nogar, N. S.; Jalenak, W. A.
Using the scattering of a laser beam to detect the presence of particles suspended in solution.
Nogar, N. S.; Jalenak, W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 267.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Lasers
How many significant digits in 0.05C?  Power, James D.
Textbooks abound with erroneous examples, such as 33F = 0.56C.
Power, James D. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 239.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Acid-base half-reactions - A useful formalism for review lessons  Atkinson, G. F.
An effective way to draw analogies between acid-base and redox effects while reviewing both.
Atkinson, G. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 238.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Thermodynamics and solubilities of salts of dipositive ions  Riley, Gary F.; Eberhardt, William H.
Used to illustrate the application of the principle that a decrease in free energy is a criterion for the spontaneity of a chemical reaction.
Riley, Gary F.; Eberhardt, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 206.
Thermodynamics |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Physical Properties |
Reactions
A few chemical magic tricks based on the clock reaction  Shigematsu, Euchi
Three tricks based on the clock reaction involving KIO3 and NaHSO3.
Shigematsu, Euchi J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 184.
Reactions |
Kinetics
Chemistry concatenated  Beaumont, R. C.
A series of chemical reactions featuring reversible equilibria and nine major color changes.
Beaumont, R. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 37.
Reactions |
Equilibrium
Colorimetric analysis for salicylate in urine: An experiment for nursing chemistry  Cavanaugh, Margaret A.; Bambenek, Mark A.
The iron-salicylate system provides a chemistry experiment is described here and is suitable for students majoring in nursing.
Cavanaugh, Margaret A.; Bambenek, Mark A. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 464.
Nonmajor Courses |
Bioanalytical Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Quantitative Analysis |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
A Demonstration of burning magnesium and dry ice  Driscoll, Jerry A.
This demonstration is a new, exciting approach to an older demonstration.
Driscoll, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 450.
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Reactions
The Landolt, "Old Nassau", and variant reactions   Moss, Arthur
Instructions for a modification to the classic "iodine clock" reaction.
Moss, Arthur J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 244.
Kinetics |
Reactions
The chemical equation. Part I: Simple reactions  Kolb, Doris
A chemical equation is often misunderstood by students as an "equation" that is used in chemistry. However, a more accurate description is that it is a concise statement describing a chemical reaction expressed in chemical symbolism.
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 184.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Reactions
Teaching about "why do chemical reactions occur": Gibbs free energy  Vamvakis, Steven N.; Schmuckler, Joseph S.
Approaching the topic of Gibbs free energy from the student's prior experience in algebra and geometry, it is possible to construct a proof that should enable students to explain the derivation of G = H - TS.
Vamvakis, Steven N.; Schmuckler, Joseph S. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 757.
Thermodynamics |
Reactions
Case of the unlabeled bottles  Smith, Douglas D.
Students are to determine the contents of a series of unlabelled bottles.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 701.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
What is an element?  Kolb, Doris
Reviews the history of the discovery, naming, and representation of the elements; the development of the spectroscope and the periodic table; radioactive elements and isotopes; allotropes; and the synthesis of future elements.
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 696.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Isotopes
Pharmacological projects/case studies for teaching molecular structure and reactivity  Webb, John; Rasmussen, Malcolm
Using pharmacological agents to provide projects that develop and illustrate concepts of molecular stereochemistry, functional groups, and types of reactions and reactivity.
Webb, John; Rasmussen, Malcolm J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 677.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Stereochemistry |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Another look at our teaching methods. Pros and cons of the silent demonstration  Woodburn, John H.
Analysis of a "silent demonstration" involving the formation of a precipitate and why the demonstration may or may not have been effective in helping students understand the intended concept.
Woodburn, John H. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 627.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
The burning sugar cube  Smith, Douglas D.
A wide range of powdered solids can be used to produce a burning sugar cube.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 552.
Carbohydrates |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Catalysis
Equations of electromagnetism from CGS to SI  Cvitas, T.; Kallay, N.
A general procedure for changing any CGS formula into SI.
Cvitas, T.; Kallay, N. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 530.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The relationship of lead and sulfur in a chemical reaction  Chapman, V. L.
Investigating the stoichiometric synthesis of lead and sulfur to form lead sulfide.
Chapman, V. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 436.
Reactions |
Stoichiometry
The Preparation of polyurethane foam: A lecture demonstration  Dirreen, Glen E.; Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.
A polyurethane foam is produced by forming a polyurethane polymer concurrently with a gas evolution process.
Dirreen, Glen E.; Shakhashiri, Bassam Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 431.
Reactions |
Polymerization
Silver ion in water purification: A follow-up  Quane, Denis
Applying a previous idea on the possible use of silver ion in water purification to teaching the concept of Ksp.
Quane, Denis J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 381.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents
A convenient notation for powers of ten and logarithms  Oesterreicher, H.
A convenient notation for powers of ten and logarithms that does not require superscripts.
Oesterreicher, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 367.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Hydrogen bonding and heat of solution  Friedman, Norman
An experiment that clearly illustrates the role of hydrogen bond formation and its effect on the heat of solution.
Friedman, Norman J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 248.
Hydrogen Bonding |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Chemical oscillations as an undergraduate experiment  Deb, B. M.
Hitherto unreported observations regarding the Briggs-Rauscher oscillating system.
Deb, B. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 236.
Reactions |
Kinetics
Selective solubility: "Like dissolves like"  Smith, Wayne L.
Azobenzene is a better analog of DDT than iodine in demonstrating the pesticide's solubility in fatty tissue.
Smith, Wayne L. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 228.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Lipids
Simple practical lab test for freshman students  Jones, Mark M.
Uses the preparation of a solution of designated molarity as a test of student competence; the solution is evaluated using its optical density.
Jones, Mark M. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 178.
Solutions / Solvents
The Old Nassau reaction  Alyea, Hubert N.
A description of the chemistry and history of the Old Nassau reactions.
Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 167.
Kinetics |
Reactions
On mole fractions in equilibrium constants  Delaney, C. M.; Nash, Leonard K.
Proposes a hybrid equilibrium constant for use in introductory chemistry courses.
Delaney, C. M.; Nash, Leonard K. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 151.
Equilibrium |
Stoichiometry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Lap-dissolve slides. Multiple-use formats for pre-laboratory instruction  Fine, Leonard W.; Harpp, David N.; Krakower, Earl; Snyder, James P.
Describes and provides examples of the lap-dissolve effect, a technique that uses two 35mm slide projectors to convey changing images in a large lecture setting.
Fine, Leonard W.; Harpp, David N.; Krakower, Earl; Snyder, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 72.
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Vitalizing the lecture. Lap-dissolve projection  Harpp, David N.; Snyder, James P.
Describes and provides examples of the lap-dissolve effect, a technique that uses two 35mm slide projectors to convey changing images in a large lecture setting.
Harpp, David N.; Snyder, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 68.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Lower valent oxo acids of phosphorus and sulfur  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy
Reviews current practice and some of the problems with partial solutions.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 30.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Chemical equilibrium  Burke, Barbara A.
Demonstrates the equilibrium between blue CuSO4 and green K2(CuBr4) on an overhead projector.
Burke, Barbara A. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 29.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Flashy solutions  Riley, John T.
Demonstrations using universal indicator.
Riley, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 29.
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments
Understanding chemistry by developing body chemistry awareness  Barelski, Paul M.
The activities outlined in this note were conducted during the author's lectures as an attempt to involve students actively and personally in observing and experiencing chemistry.
Barelski, Paul M. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 450.
Physical Properties |
Reactions
Singlet oxygen in aqueous solution: A lecture demonstration   Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.; Williams, Lloyd G.
Lecture demonstrations involving chemiluminescence are useful for the purpose both of displaying chemical phenomena and of illustrating specific principles.
Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.; Williams, Lloyd G. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 358.
Photochemistry |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Spectroscopy
The solubility of CaSO4: An ion exchange-complexometric titration experiment for the freshman laboratory  Koubek, Edward
This lab may be used to introduce the student to two important areas of chemistry with the added advantage that one method serves as a direct check on the other.
Koubek, Edward J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 254.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Ion Exchange
Antichap lipstick and nonbonded interactions. A nonscience majors laboratory experience  Most, Clark, Jr.
A laboratory with real life applications helps nonscience majors learn about solubility.
Most, Clark, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 194.
Solutions / Solvents |
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Nonmajor Courses
The chemistry involved in the preparation of a paint pigment. An experiment for the freshman laboratory  Daines, Terri L.; Morse, Karen W.
This experiment allows for students to see a demonstration of a variety of chemical principles and reactions.
Daines, Terri L.; Morse, Karen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 117.
Reactions |
Dyes / Pigments |
Applications of Chemistry
Chromatography on chalk  Wollrab, Adalbert
Describes how a variety of mixtures can be separated using a piece of chalk.
Wollrab, Adalbert J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 809.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments |
Solutions / Solvents
A simple general chemistry kinetics experiment  Gellender, Martin
The oxidation of iodide ion by persulfate provides a gradual and clearly distinguishable appearance of color as the reaction proceeds.
Gellender, Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 806.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
The chemistry of color photography  Guida, Wayne C.; Raber, Douglas J.
Provides a brief introduction to the chemical reaction involved in color photography and the physical principles that permit those reactions to reproduce colored images.
Guida, Wayne C.; Raber, Douglas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 622.
Photochemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Reactions
Near 100% student yields with the "cycle of copper reactions" experiment  Condike, George F.
Improvements to the "cycle of copper reactions" experiment to improve yields.
Condike, George F. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 615.
Reactions
Conversion of black and white prints to color in daylight. A demonstration lecture for general and organic courses  Wheeler, Thomas N.
A black and white print is converted to a full color print with the lights on; includes a detailed discussion of the chemical processes involved in the demonstration.
Wheeler, Thomas N. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 607.
Photochemistry |
Reactions |
Consumer Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Oxidation / Reduction
Names for elements  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
System for naming new, heavy elements.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 583.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Ksp experiment: The solubility product for barium hydroxide  Reynolds, John P.
Two procedures for determining the solubility product of barium hydroxide and the effect of temperature on Ksp.
Reynolds, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 521.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Compact compacts  Bier, C. J.; Schiller, Joseph E.; Hengeveld, Frank W.; Smith, Herbert L.; Karnes, John P.
Exercises in distillation and the law of multiple proportions; the "Men and Molecules" radio program; and assessing solution concentrations.
Bier, C. J.; Schiller, Joseph E.; Hengeveld, Frank W.; Smith, Herbert L.; Karnes, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 519.
Solutions / Solvents
The reactions of ferroin complexes. A color-to-colorless freshman kinetic experiment  Edwards, John O.; Edwards, Kathleen; Palma, Jorge
A group of related reactions that can be easily followed with a colorimeter which show that the mechanism by which a reaction takes place may not be at all obvious from the stoichiometry.
Edwards, John O.; Edwards, Kathleen; Palma, Jorge J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 408.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Coordination Compounds |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Stoichiometry |
Mechanisms of Reactions
An alternative to AgNO3: Interaction of metallic zinc with aqueous lead acetate  Williams, Helen L.
The reaction between zinc and aqueous lead acetate is selected as being the best for replacing the copper-silver nitrate reaction (due to the high cost of silver nitrate).
Williams, Helen L. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 391.
Laboratory Management |
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A general chemistry experiment on the identification of reaction products  Preer, James R.
Reaction products are identified by comparison of directly observable properties with those of known substances; the student writes reactants and products and proceeds to balance the equation.
Preer, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 389.
Reactions |
Quantitative Analysis
An experiment for introductory college chemistry. How to establish a chemistry equation  Masaguer, J. R.; Coto, M. Victoria; Casas, J. S.
The stoichiometry of the reaction between potassium chromate and barium chloride in an aqueous state is determined by using the height of of the precipitate formed when different amounts of both solutions are mixed in a graduated cylinder.
Masaguer, J. R.; Coto, M. Victoria; Casas, J. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 387.
Stoichiometry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Molar solubility calculations and the control equilibrium  Chaston, S. H. H.
The Control-Equilibrium method uses as its starting point a precise procedure for obtaining the equilibrium that accounts for the bulk of the decomposition of starting materials.
Chaston, S. H. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 206.
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics |
Equilibrium
What is oxidation?  Herron, J. Dudley
Why do most teachers continue to define oxidation and reduction in terms of a gain and loss of electrons rather than in terms of a change in oxidation number? [Debut]
Herron, J. Dudley J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 51.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Reactions
Properties of air-A freshman chemistry lecture demonstration  Schultz, C. W.
A simple yet dramatic lecture demonstration can help tie together concepts of oxygen chemistry, combustion, gas properties and rates of reactions.
Schultz, C. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 751.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Gases
A spectrophotometric determination of fluoride adapted for the freshman laboratory  Daines, Terri L.; Morse, Karen W.
In this experiment the student determines the fluoride ion concentration of a sodium fluoride solution, which they can do with high precision and accuracy.
Daines, Terri L.; Morse, Karen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 680.
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Spectroscopy
The octane cannon experiment updated for television  Richtol, H. H.; Nelson, D. L.; Reeves, R. R.
Video recording the detonation of octane in a clear tube for frame-by-frame analysis of a rapid reaction.
Richtol, H. H.; Nelson, D. L.; Reeves, R. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 856.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Some reactions of tungsten: A lecture demonstration  Nelson, D. L.; Reeves, R. R.; Richtol, H. H.
Several demonstrations involving reactions of tungsten.
Nelson, D. L.; Reeves, R. R.; Richtol, H. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 810.
Metals |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Demonstration of solubility of "immiscible" fluids  Koob, R. D.; Tallman, D. E.
Demonstrating that hexane is miscible in water.
Koob, R. D.; Tallman, D. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 724.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
The reduction of CuO with burner gas and without a fume hood. A high school chemistry experiment  Zidick, Clem; Weismann, Thomas
This experiment is a modification of the classic reduction of CuO with hydrogen gas, except natural gas is used as the reducing agent, eliminating the danger of working with hydrogen.
Zidick, Clem; Weismann, Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 717.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Stoichiometry
Computer program for identifying alkane structures  Davidson, Scott
A Fortran IV computer program to identify and name alkane structure having C1-C16 main chains and C1-C4 side chains is available.
Davidson, Scott J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 707.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A simplified undergraduate calorimetry experiment  Bartle, K. D.; Osborn, P. M.
A glass calorimeter for determining ?H for the neutralization of a strong acid with a strong base.
Bartle, K. D.; Osborn, P. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 637.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An oscillating iodine clock  Briggs, Thomas S.; Rauscher, Warren C.
An oscillating iodine clock reaction that gives striking cyclic changes from colorless to gold to blue using simple reagents.
Briggs, Thomas S.; Rauscher, Warren C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 496.
Reactions |
Kinetics
Electron affinity. The zeroth ionization potential  Brooks, David W.; Meyers, Edward A.; Sicilio, Fred; Nearing, James C.
It is the purpose of this article to present the merits of adopting the terminology zeroth ionization potential to describe the energy change that occurs when a gaseous anion loses an electron.
Brooks, David W.; Meyers, Edward A.; Sicilio, Fred; Nearing, James C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 487.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The equilibrium between a solid solution and an aqueous solution of its ions  Berndt, Alan F.; Stearns, Robert I.
It is the purpose of this paper to present the equations that describe the equilibrium between solid solutions and their ions and to outline methods for their derivation.
Berndt, Alan F.; Stearns, Robert I. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 415.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Derivatives of oxo acids. IUPAC Publications on Nomenclature. Other International Reports. SI Units  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Summarizes the nomenclature of oxo acid derivatives.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 341.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases
Selected properties of selected solvents  Nilles, George P.; Schuetz, Robert D.
Selected properties of fifty common solvents.
Nilles, George P.; Schuetz, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 267.
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
Syphon and the potential energy diagrams  Sarbolouki, M. N.
An analogy between the operation of a syphon and potential energy diagrams.
Sarbolouki, M. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 245.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics
Dissolved oxygen determination  Berger, Toby E.
Details regarding the cited procedure.
Berger, Toby E. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 160.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Notes on determination of dissolved oxygen  Sommers, Raymond A.
Simplifications in the referenced procedure that make it more suitable for the introductory laboratory.
Sommers, Raymond A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 160.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
A socially relevant problem in unit and dimension conversions  Bernstein, Stanley
An activity in which students determine the cheapest source of nutritional iron by considering a variety of food products.
Bernstein, Stanley J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 65.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nutrition |
Food Science |
Consumer Chemistry
Two lecture experiments demonstrating limiting quantities  Dillard, Clyde R.
Uses reactions between HCl and magnesium and HCl and calcium to demonstrate the concept of limiting reactants.
Dillard, Clyde R. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A694.
Stoichiometry |
Reactions
Effect of temperature on reaction rate  Simon, J.
The reaction of aluminum in HCl.
Simon, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A85.
Rate Law |
Reactions
The reducing property of ammonia  Long, Robert H.
Heating black copper (II) oxide with ammonium carbonate yields metallic copper, red copper (I) oxide, and water.
Long, Robert H. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A85.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Positive ions and binary compounds  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Guidelines for the names of positive ions and binary compounds; also errata from past articles in this series.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 844.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The phenomenon of synergism in the field of chemistry  Sunier, Arthur A.
Presents examples of synergism in chemistry and examines its underlying causes.
Sunier, Arthur A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 805.
Reactions
A computer program for balancing chemical equations  Brown, John P.; Brown, L. Pearl; Redd, Robert M.
Availability of a Fortran IV program that uses the matrix method for balancing chemical equations.
Brown, John P.; Brown, L. Pearl; Redd, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 754.
Stoichiometry |
Reactions
Significant digits in logarithm-antilogarithm interconversions  Jones, Donald E.
Most textbooks are in error in the proper use of significant digits when interconverting logarithms and antilogarithms.
Jones, Donald E. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 753.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Pseudo first-order kinetics  Corbett, John F.
A kinetic study of second-order reactions under first-order conditions can yield accurate second-order rate constants provided an empirical allowance is made for the depletion of the reactant in excess.
Corbett, John F. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 663.
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Rate Law
Definition of standard states  Lukens, David C.
A suggested sequence of definitions for the standard state.
Lukens, David C. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 654.
Thermodynamics |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Gimmicks for mid-year motivation  Adams, Richard C.
Suggestions include directions for making peanut brittle, examining common, antiquated names for chemical compounds, and periodic puns.
Adams, Richard C. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 536.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Consumer Chemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Passage of fruit flies through a hole. A model for a reversible chemical reaction  Runquist, Elizabeth A.; Runquist, Olaf
The passage of fruit flies through a single orifice provides an excellent model for illustrating the principles of equilibrium and chemical dynamics; the results are found to be temperature dependent and reproducible.
Runquist, Elizabeth A.; Runquist, Olaf J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 534.
Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Dissolved oxygen. A relevant experiment for the introductory laboratory  Stagg, William R.
Students measure the dissolved oxygen content of water from several natural sources as well as the change in solubility with temperature.
Stagg, William R. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 427.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Gases
A visual demonstration of preferential absorption  Folster, Harry G.
The preferential absorption of one solute from a mixture of solutes can be demonstrated by a simple and inexpensive technique in which the separation is visually evident.
Folster, Harry G. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 322.
Transport Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
The color blind traffic light. An undergraduate kinetics experiment using an oscillating reaction  Lefelhocz, John F.
This kinetics experiment involves the student with a qualitative study of the influence of chemical and physical variables on the rate of a specific reaction.
Lefelhocz, John F. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 312.
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Rate Law
Solubility of lead bromide in nitrate media. A study of ionic interactions  Cooper, J. N.
Students are asked to determine, as a class, the solubility of lead bromide at a fixed temperature in solutions covering a range of known sodium nitrate concentrations.
Cooper, J. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 282.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Density gradients in chemistry teaching  Miller, P. J.
Outlines experiments in which a density gradient may be used to advantage, including the analysis of organic compounds, aqueous solutions, binary mixtures of organic compounds, solids, and solvent extractions.
Miller, P. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 278.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solids |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
Precipitation of lead chromate from homogeneous solution. A lecture demonstration or laboratory experiment  Ramette, Richard W.
Both the "conventional precipitation" and the precipitation from homogeneous solution are done simultaneously so that the striking differences in chemistry, appearance, and precipitate produced can be compared.
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 270.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents
The chemistry of winemaking. An unique lecture demonstration  Church, L. B.
This paper shows that a very complex series of reactions present in the preparation of wine can be used as the focal point to illustrate many other general classes of chemical reactions and physical processes.
Church, L. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 174.
Alcohols |
Consumer Chemistry |
Reactions
The hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenol phosphate. A freshman class investigation  Hopkins, Harry P., Jr.; Mather, Jane H.
A study of the hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenol phosphate is made the basis of a biochemistry-oriented quarter in freshman chemistry; after completing the simple hydrolysis studies, the student proceeds to investigate the enzymatic hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenol phosphate.
Hopkins, Harry P., Jr.; Mather, Jane H. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 126.
Reactions |
pH |
Esters |
Enzymes |
Catalysis
Using alligation alternate to solve composition problems  Mancott, Anatol
Problems involving the composition of mixtures may be solved by using the relatively obscure method of "alligation alternate" in lieu of the standard algebraic procedure with no loss in accuracy; includes five examples.
Mancott, Anatol J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 57.
Chemometrics |
Solutions / Solvents |
Isotopes
Numbers in nomenclature  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Examines how multiplying affixes are used, particularly in inorganic nomenclature.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 49.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Computer program for the treatment of data for a kinetic study of the persulfate-iodide clock reaction  Lyndrup, Mark L.
Notes the availability of a BASIC program designed to aid students in the treatment of data collected for a kinetic study of the clock reaction between the persulfate and iodide ions.
Lyndrup, Mark L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 30.
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Rate Law
The effervescence of ocean surf  Plumb, Robert C.; Blanchard, Duncan C.; Bilofsky, Howard S.; Bridgman, Wilbur B.
A pure liquid will not foam, but all true solutions will, as dictated by the fundamental concepts of surface thermodynamics enunciated by Gibbs.
Plumb, Robert C.; Blanchard, Duncan C.; Bilofsky, Howard S.; Bridgman, Wilbur B. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 29.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics
When your car rusts out  Knockemus, Ward
Explains the rusting of a car by considering electrochemical corrosion and the Nernst equation.
Knockemus, Ward J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 29.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry |
Reactions
Gas Laws, Equilibrium, and the Commercial Synthesis of Nitric acid. A Simple Demonstration  Alexander, M. Dale
This demonstration of the commercial production of nitric acid uses a simple apparatus to illustrate a number of basic chemical concepts, including Le Chatelier's principle.
Alexander, M. Dale J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 838.
Synthesis |
Industrial Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Equilibrium |
Reactions |
Stoichiometry
Entropy Makes Water Run Uphill - in Trees  Stevenson, Philip E.
Explains how Sequoias over 300 feet tall can draw water up to their topmost leaves.
Stevenson, Philip E. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 837.
Applications of Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Plant Chemistry |
Membranes |
Transport Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
Miscellanea No. 6  Eberhardt, W. H.
A collection of clarified, underemphasized, and misunderstood topics, including cell electromotive force and disproportionate reactions; partially miscible liquids and upper consolute temperatures; enthalpy and free energy of formation; and magnetic moment.
Eberhardt, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 829.
Electrochemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics |
Magnetic Properties
SI units in physico-chemical calculations  Norris, A. C.
This article demonstrates how the adoption of SI units affects some of the more important physico-chemical calculations found at the undergraduate level.
Norris, A. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 797.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Size of a molecule. Or what's in a shape?  Demchik, Michael J.; Demchik, Virginia C.
The authors describe an experiment which helps students understand why oleic acid is essentially insoluble in water.
Demchik, Michael J.; Demchik, Virginia C. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 770.
Lipids |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Fatty Acids
Polywater. A lesson and opportunity in science  Christian, P. A.; Berka, L. H.
The authors present an intriguing observation and offer outlines of some possible studies that can be undertaken in any adequately equipped high school or college chemistry laboratory.
Christian, P. A.; Berka, L. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 667.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Beginning chemistry can be relevant  Corwin, James F.
The continuing criticism offered by students of the science that the present day courses are not relevant to contemporary problems. This can be answered in part by a laboratory program based on environmental problems.
Corwin, James F. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 522.
Acids / Bases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Student-Centered Learning
Illustrating the laws of chemistry without chemicals  Schlegel, James M.; Chin, Anna
The authors share an experiment designed to stress by analogy the observations which led to an understanding of the law of chemical combinations.
Schlegel, James M.; Chin, Anna J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 334.
Reactions
A study of the physical and chemical rates of CaCO3 dissolution in HCl  Bassow, Herbert; Hamilton, Doug; Schneeberg, Ben; Stad, Ben
The authors describe the experimental procedure and a discussion of results for a study of the physical and chemical rates of CaCO3 dissolution in HCl.
Bassow, Herbert; Hamilton, Doug; Schneeberg, Ben; Stad, Ben J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 327.
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Rate Law
A color indicating time reaction  Chen, Philip S.
Combining solutions of sodium thoisulfate and ferric chloride produces a dramatic color change.
Chen, Philip S. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A784.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Demonstration notes: Spontaneous combustion  Johnson, Joseph E.
Modifications or additions to previously published demonstration.
Johnson, Joseph E. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A439.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Gases |
Transport Properties |
Coordination Compounds
Miscellaneous  Alyea, Hubert N.
These twelve overhead projection demonstrations include rates of reactions, clock reactions, the effect of temperature and the presence of a catalyst on the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, the relationship between viscosity and temperature, equilibria, solubility product, and the common ion effect.
Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A437.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility
Miscellaneous  Alyea, Hubert N.
13 demonstrations, including electrophoresis, electrolysis, corrosion inhibition, endothermic and exothermic reactions, crystals and crystallization, reactions with sodium, and the kinetics of H2O2 decomposition.
Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A387.
Electrophoresis |
Dyes / Pigments |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Reactions |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Kinetics
Catalysis demonstrations with Cr2O3  Briggs, Thomas S.
Cr2O3 is used as a catalyst in the oxidation of nonflammable substances such as glycerine and glacial acetic acid.
Briggs, Thomas S. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A206.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Catalysis
A classroom demonstration of exothermicity  Boschmann, Erwin
The heat generated by dissolving NaOH in water causes iodine crystals to sublime.
Boschmann, Erwin J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A206.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Hydrolysis of the carbonate ion  Walker, Noojin; Mintz, James
Predicting and testing the product of the reaction between aqueous Cu(NO3)2 and Na2CO3.
Walker, Noojin; Mintz, James J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A119.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Hydrolysis of the carbonate ion  Walker, Noojin; Mintz, James
Predicting and testing the product of the reaction between aqueous Cu(NO3)2 and Na2CO3.
Walker, Noojin; Mintz, James J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A119.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Autoxidation of benzoin  Chen, Philip S.
Benzoin in its enediol form undergoes autoxidation in alkaline solution in the presence of air.
Chen, Philip S. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A67.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Computer evaluation of rates experiment  Krieger, Albert G.
Notes the availability of a Fortran IV computer program for the numerical evaluation of the "Oxidation of Iodide Ion by Persulfate Ion."
Krieger, Albert G. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 839.
Reactions |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Oxidation / Reduction
Simple method for demonstrating an enzymatic reaction  Tang, Chung-Shih
Uses taste sensations of papaya seeds under varying conditions to demonstrate an enzymatic reaction.
Tang, Chung-Shih J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 692.
Enzymes |
Proteins / Peptides |
Food Science |
Reactions |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Demonstrating the relation between rate constants and the equilibrium constant  Meyer, Edwin F.; Glass, Edward
Presents an approach used with an apparatus to demonstrate quantitatively the relationship between rate constants and the equilibrium constant for simple reversible reactions.
Meyer, Edwin F.; Glass, Edward J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 646.
Rate Law |
Equilibrium |
Reactions
Some "real life" applications of solubility: Iron, iron everywhere but not a drop to drink  Brasted, Robert C.
Although Hawaiian pineapples grow in red soils whose iron composition may exceed 20%, they starve for iron because it is in an insoluble form; also considers applications of the insolubility of other transition metals.
Brasted, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 634.
Applications of Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Plant Chemistry |
Agricultural Chemistry |
Metals |
Transition Elements |
Oxidation State
Some "real life" applications of solubility: Iron, iron everywhere but not a drop to drink  Brasted, Robert C.
Although Hawaiian pineapples grow in red soils whose iron composition may exceed 20%, they starve for iron because it is in an insoluble form; also considers applications of the insolubility of other transition metals.
Brasted, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 634.
Applications of Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Plant Chemistry |
Agricultural Chemistry |
Metals |
Transition Elements |
Oxidation State
Instant first aid  Kaufman, James A.
Explains how instant ice and hot packs work.
Kaufman, James A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 518.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Reactions |
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry
Interpretation of oxidation-reduction  Goodstein, Madeline P.
Presents an interpretation of the oxidation number system based upon the electronegativity principle, thus removing the adjective "arbitrary" frequently found in the descriptions of oxidation number.
Goodstein, Madeline P. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 452.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Reactions
Understanding a culprit before eliminating it. An application of Lewis acid-base principles to atmospheric SO2 as a pollutant  Brasted, Robert C.
The SO2 molecule offers ample opportunities for teaching practical chemistry. [Debut of first run. This feature reappeared in 1986.]
Brasted, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 447.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions |
Applications of Chemistry |
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The mole again!  Haack, N. H.
Discusses the definition of the mole.
Haack, N. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 324.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Demonstration of photochemistry and the dimerization and trapping of free radicals  Silversmith, Ernest F.
This demonstration uses simple equipment and involves a rapid, readily noticeable color change and also illustrates dimerization and the trapping of free radicals.
Silversmith, Ernest F. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 315.
Photochemistry |
Free Radicals |
Reactions
A demonstration experiment on partial molar volumes  Coch, Juan A.; Lopez, Valentin
The partial molar volume of trichloroacetic acid can be determined by measuring the increase in volume when TCA is dissolved in water at constant temperature and pressure.
Coch, Juan A.; Lopez, Valentin J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 270.
Solutions / Solvents |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stoichiometry
Definition of reaction rate and the steady state assumption  Rasiel, Yecheskel; Freeman, Wade A.
Clarifies the definition of reaction rate and the steady state assumption.
Rasiel, Yecheskel; Freeman, Wade A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 159.
Rate Law |
Reactions
Intensive and extensive properties  Redlich, Otto
Defines and discusses the differences between intensive and extensive properties.
Redlich, Otto J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 154.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Physical versus chemical change  Gensler, Walter J.
Defines and discusses the differences between physical and chemical changes.
Gensler, Walter J. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 154.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Intensive and extensive properties  Redlich, Otto
Defines and discusses the differences between intensive and extensive properties.
Redlich, Otto J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 154.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Energy of activation  Idoux, John P.
Spinning a half sphere until it comes to a rest on its flat side serves as an analogy to a system of molecules that must acquire a certain amount of energy until they become products.
Idoux, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A547.
Reactions
Oxidizing action of sulfur dioxide  Lauren, Paul M.
A burning ribbon of magnesium is dropped into a flask of sulfur dioxide produces elemental sulfur.
Lauren, Paul M. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A55.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
A spontaneous endothermic reaction  Hambly, Arthur N.
Barium hydroxide and ammonium thiocyanate react in a flask, causing the water beneath it to freeze.
Hambly, Arthur N. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A55.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Reactions
The oxidation of hydrazine by basic iodine solutions: A stoichiometric study  Cooper, J. N.; Ramette, R. W.
This experiment relies on an oxidation-reduction reaction for which a variety of products is energetically possible.
Cooper, J. N.; Ramette, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 872.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Potentiometric determination of solubility product constants: A laboratory experiment  Tackett, Stanford L.
This paper describes an experiment in which measured potentials and calculated activity coefficients are used to obtain the solubility product constants of silver halides.
Tackett, Stanford L. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 857.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Diffusion of potassium permanganate as a lecture demonstration  Conard, C. R.; Bent, H. E.
Dropping crystals of potassium permanganate into a tall column of water leads to the slow dissolution and diffusion of the potassium permanganate throughout the column over a semester's time.
Conard, C. R.; Bent, H. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 758.
Transport Properties |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Solutions / Solvents |
Liquids
An improved equivalent weight apparatus  Brown, Oliver L.
Presents an improved apparatus for the reaction of weighed samples of metals with hydrochloric acid and the measurement of the volume of hydrogen evolved.
Brown, Oliver L. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 617.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Metals |
Laboratory Management |
Reactions |
Gases |
Stoichiometry
Fuel conversion in transport phenomena  Gerlach, E. R.
Calculations comparing the fuel efficiency of a hummingbird with that of a Volkswagen.
Gerlach, E. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 455.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Haight, Gilbert P., Jr.; Rechnitz, Garry A.
(1) Suggestions for presenting the relationship between the Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature scales. (2) Why are 4s rather than 3d electrons involved in the first and second ionizations of the first row transition elements? - answer by Haight. (3) The basis for the mnemonic ordering of atomic orbitals. (4) What is a liquid-liquid membrane electrode? Is it the same as an ion-selective electrode? - answer by Rechnitz.
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Haight, Gilbert P., Jr.; Rechnitz, Garry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 444.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Transition Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Electrochemistry |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Membranes
Thermochemistry of hypochlorite oxidations  Bigelow, M. Jerome
Students mix various proportions of aqueous sodium hypochlorite and sodium sulfite and plot the change in temperature to determine the stoichiometry of the reaction.
Bigelow, M. Jerome J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 378.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Thermodynamics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Group VI. The Sulfur Family D. Sulfur Dioxide  Alyea, Hubert N.
Seven demonstrations involving sulfur dioxide.
Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A977.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Reactions |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Oxidation / Reduction
Reactions of metals and sulfur  Walker, Noojin
An iron nail reacts with sulfur to produce iron(II) sulfide.
Walker, Noojin J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A901.
Metals |
Reactions
A transparent dust explosion apparatus  Haight, G. P., Jr.; Duvall, Robert.; Phillips, Stanley
Design for a transparent dust explosion apparatus
Haight, G. P., Jr.; Duvall, Robert.; Phillips, Stanley J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A833.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
The languages of chemistry. Reading, writing, and understanding equations (Walker, Ruth A.; Johnston, Helen)  Fiekers, Bernard A.

Fiekers, Bernard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A620.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Nitrogen chemistry. C. Fixation of nitrogen  Mancuso, Carl J.
Demonstrations include air + Al-amalgam; the arc process for NO2; and the Ostwald process: NH3 + O2 and NO to HNO3.
Mancuso, Carl J. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A567.
Agricultural Chemistry |
Reactions
Nitrogen chemistry. A. Nitrogen. B. Ammonia  Mancuso, Carl J.; Alyea, Hubert N.
Demonstration include an ammonia generator; ammonia diffusion throughout a rubber balloon; ammonium chloride smoke; and secret writing using HgNH2Cl + Hg.
Mancuso, Carl J.; Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A567.
Reactions
Le Chtelier's principle  Melott, Adrian L.
Adding a strong base to aqueous ammonia causes gaseous ammonia to be released.
Melott, Adrian L. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A519.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Spontaneous combustion  Geoghegan, John T.; Sheers, Edward H.
Linseed oil is observed to char cotton over a period of time.
Geoghegan, John T.; Sheers, Edward H. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A429.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Bolte, John
(1) Is the mole a number or a weight? (2) Is there an easy way to locate a compound by volume and page in Beilstein? (3) What are the stages evident in a gas discharge tube as the pressure of the gas and the voltage are changed? - answer by Bolte
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Bolte, John J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 718.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Gases
Mole fraction versus molality  Creak, G. Alan
Mole fractions are not always unambiguous when used in the context of ionic solutions.
Creak, G. Alan J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 622.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Le Chtelier and ionic equilibria  Ringbom, Anders
When s solution contains several weak acids, the squares of the separately calculated hydrogen ion concentrations of all weak acids in the solution are additive.
Ringbom, Anders J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 442.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents
Why does methane burn?  Sanderson, R. T.
A thermodynamic explanation for why methane burns.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 423.
Thermodynamics |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
Bimolecular nucleophilic displacement reactions  Edwards, John O.
The bimolecular nucleophilic displacement reaction is important and should be included in any detailed discussion of kinetics and mechanism at an early undergraduate level.
Edwards, John O. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 386.
Reactions |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
From stoichiometry and rate law to mechanism  Edwards, John O.; Greene, Edward F.; Ross, John
Examines the rules used by chemists as guidelines in developing mechanisms from stoichiometric and rate law observations.
Edwards, John O.; Greene, Edward F.; Ross, John J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 381.
Stoichiometry |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Reactive Intermediates
The revolution in elementary kinetics and freshman chemistry  Wolfgang, Richard
New developments in kinetics so fundamentally affect our most elementary conception of chemical change that they must inevitably be reflected in beginning courses in chemistry; includes an outline for freshmen on elementary chemical dynamics.
Wolfgang, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 359.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Chemical dynamics for college freshmen  Hammond, George S.; Gray, Harry B.
Suggestions for topics regarding chemical dynamics to be considered in freshman chemistry.
Hammond, George S.; Gray, Harry B. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 354.
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Rate Law
Silver tree  Smith, Donald Z.
A suggestion for improving the silver:copper ratio in the silver tree experiment.
Smith, Donald Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 275.
Stoichiometry |
Reactions
Normality and molality: The expendables  Sacks, L. J.
Discusses objections against normality and molality.
Sacks, L. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 183.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Group 1. The Alkali Metals. The Copper Group   Mancuso, Carl J.; Alyea, Hubert N.
Demonstrations include the density and melting point of copper versus sodium, the conductivity of sodium, the reactivity with water of groups IA vs IB, and the stability of CO3--, HCO3-, and hydroxides of groups IA vs IB.
Mancuso, Carl J.; Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A919.
Metals |
Reactions |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Physical Properties
Burning without access to air  Alfthan, Voldemar
Permanganate in the presence of sulfuric acid furnishes the oxygen needed for rapid combustion.
Alfthan, Voldemar J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A465.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Reaction Rates and Equilibria A. Rate of Reaction 1. Effect of concentration  Cooper, Edwin H., Alyea, Hubert N.
Demonstrations of the effect of concentration on the rate of a reaction include H2O2+Cu(NH3)4++, Zn+acid, and the "long delay" iodine clock reaction.
Cooper, Edwin H., Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A274.
Reactions |
Rate Law |
Kinetics
Group 1. The Alkali Metals C. The Copper Group  Alyea, Hubert N.; Mancuso, Carl J.; Bernard, Robert
Demonstrations include electroplating copper, Fehling's test, the silver mirror (Ag+ + tartrate), insoluble silver salts, photo-film + hypo, hypo fixer + silver coin, and a solution of gold in aqua-regia.
Alyea, Hubert N.; Mancuso, Carl J.; Bernard, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A1005.
Electrochemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Metals
Energy C. Electrical Energy  Soule, Dean; Hornbeck, Leroy G.; Jackson, Kenneth V.; Barnard, Robert; Noerdin, Isjrin
Demonstrations include aluminum flashed in oxygen; photo-bromination of cinnamic acid, hexane, tartaric acid, toluene; photochemical H2+Cl2 explosion and the slow photochemical H2+Cl2 into 2HCl.
Soule, Dean; Hornbeck, Leroy G.; Jackson, Kenneth V.; Barnard, Robert; Noerdin, Isjrin J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A83.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Photochemistry
Letter to the editor  Brescia, Frank
Calls on instructors not to confuse students with inappropriate definitions of work.
Brescia, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 771.
Thermodynamics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Dissociation of weak acids and bases at infinite dilution  Stock, D. Irwin
It is all too easy to forget that in a solution of infinite dilution the solvent itself is ionized to an extent governed by its ionization constant, and that the concentration of its ions will appear in the expression for the dissociation constant of the solute.
Stock, D. Irwin J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 764.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Significant figures and correlation of parameters  DeTar, DeLos F.
Examines the two quite different meanings for the term significant figures as applied to the parameters of an equation.
DeTar, DeLos F. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 759.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The stoichiometry of an oxidation-reduction reaction  Latimer, George W., Jr.
A short note on the titration of hydrazine sulfate with standard bromate in the presence of sodium molybdate that requires students to identify the products through the use of some elementary qualitative analysis.
Latimer, George W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 537.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis
A study of the silver tree experiment  Carmody, Walter R.; Wiersma, Jack
Examines the errors associated with and efforts to improve the results of the silver tree experiment.
Carmody, Walter R.; Wiersma, Jack J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 417.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Reactions
Determination of the combining weight of tin: A new look at an old experiment  Carmody, Walter R.
Describes efforts to improve the determination of the combining weight of tin
Carmody, Walter R. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 416.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Synthesis
VII - Combustion and flame  Anderson, Robbin C.
Presents and describes an extensive bibliography on the study of combustion and flames.
Anderson, Robbin C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 248.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Gases
The significance of significant figures  Pinkerton, Richard C.; Gleit, Chester E.
This paper is an attempt to clarify some of our ideas about numerical data, measurements, mathematical operations, and significant figures.
Pinkerton, Richard C.; Gleit, Chester E. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 232.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
The stoichiometry of an oxidation-reduction reaction: An elementary chemistry experiment  Child, W. C., Jr.; Ramette, R. W.
Students are asked to decide which of a number of nitrogen containing species is a reasonable product of the reaction between the hydroxylammonium ion and iron (III) on the basis of the experimentally determined stoichiometry of the reaction.
Child, W. C., Jr.; Ramette, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 109.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Textbooks errors. Miscellanea no. 5  Mysels, Karol J.
Considers inconsistencies in the units involved in thermodynamic expressions, incorrect units given for equivalent conductivity, oscillations in polargraphic measurements, and inconsistencies in dealing with catalysis.
Mysels, Karol J. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 44.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Thermodynamics |
Catalysis
Energy B. Heat energy   Klug, Evangeline B.; Hornbeck, Leroy G.; Alyea, Hubert N.
Demonstrations of the heat of crystallization (sodium acetate and Na2S2O3[5H2O]), heat of formation (ZnCl2), heat of hydration (CaO and CuSO4), heat of neutralization, heat of solvation (alcohols), evaporation of ether and methyl chloride, and heat of solution (NH4NO3).
Klug, Evangeline B.; Hornbeck, Leroy G.; Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A1079.
Reactions |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Precipitation / Solubility
Are solubilities and solubility products related?  Meites, Louis; Prode, J. S. F.; Thomas, Henry C.
The relation between solubilities and solubility products is far less intimate than is stated or implied by introductory texts and the ideas and calculations involved are too complex for presentation on the elementary level.
Meites, Louis; Prode, J. S. F.; Thomas, Henry C. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 667.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
Acetamide as a solvent for freezing point depression and solubility experiments  Davis, Jeff C., Jr.
Suggests acetamide as a solvent for freezing point depression and solubility experiments.
Davis, Jeff C., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 611.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
The dissolution of tin in solutions of iodine  Davies, J. F.; Trotman-Dickenson, A. F.
The progress of this reaction can be followed by the loss of weight of a tin disc.
Davies, J. F.; Trotman-Dickenson, A. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 483.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Kinetics |
Gravimetric Analysis
Demonstrations of spontaneous endothermic reactions  Matthews, G. W. J.
The reaction between hydrated metal chlorides and thionyl chloride provides a series of valuable experiments that can be used to demonstrate spontaneous endothermic reactions.
Matthews, G. W. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 476.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Manometric apparatus for vapor and solution studies  Taha, Ahmed A.; Grigsby, Ronald D.; Johnson, James R.; Christian, Sherril D.; Affsprung, Harold E.
Presents a device that can be sued to obtain vapor density and PVT measurements, vapor pressures of solutions and liquids, dew-point pressures and compositions, solubilities of gases in liquids, solubilities of slightly-miscible liquids, equilibrium constants for association reactions in solutions, interactions of vapors and gases with solids, and gas and vapor viscosities.
Taha, Ahmed A.; Grigsby, Ronald D.; Johnson, James R.; Christian, Sherril D.; Affsprung, Harold E. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 432.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Gases |
Liquids |
Solids
Fusion reactions under the microscope  Benedetti-Pichler, A. A.; Vikin, Joe
An electrically heated wire is used to identify a variety of cations and anions according to colors observed under a microscope.
Benedetti-Pichler, A. A.; Vikin, Joe J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 421.
Reactions |
Qualitative Analysis |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The MKS temperature scale  Georgian, John C.
A temperature scale to fit into the MKS system of units is proposed.
Georgian, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 414.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Discarded "IV" bottles are useful  Ostrander, Charles
Discarded "IV" bottles are useful for dispensing solutions and reduce the chances of contamination.
Ostrander, Charles J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 379.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solutions / Solvents
Demonstration of chemical reaction via aerosol spray reagents  Stedman, Earl D.
Demonstrations of chemical reactions via aerosol spray reagents may include acid-base indicators and precipitation reactions.
Stedman, Earl D. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 377.
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Reactions
Letter to the editor  Onwood, D. P.
Discusses variations in the usage of the terms "acid" and "base," including Lowry-Bronsted and Lewis systems.
Onwood, D. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 335.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Molecules versus moles  Guggenheim, E. A.
Now that the mass of molecules is known with great accuracy, there is nothing to be gained in continuing to use moles.
Guggenheim, E. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 250.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Simple two-dimensional magnetic disc models of ionic liquids  Angell, C. A.; Gruen, D. M.
Modeling ionic liquids using magnetic, elastomer-bonded materials capable of floating on water.
Angell, C. A.; Gruen, D. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 194.
Molecular Modeling |
Liquids |
Solutions / Solvents
Acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of sucrose: A student study of a reaction mechanism  Dawber, J. G.; Brown, D. R.; Reed, R. A.
By extending the experimental work in a kinetic study of the hydrolysis of sucrose, the beginning student in chemistry can gather some insight into the mechanism of the reaction.
Dawber, J. G.; Brown, D. R.; Reed, R. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 34.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions |
Carbohydrates
Potential hazards involved in using dimethyl sulfoxide  Buckley, Alan
Solutions of compounds in DMSO can present particular hazards.
Buckley, Alan J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 674.
Solutions / Solvents
Combustion versus biological oxidation  Asenjo, Conrado F.
Describes a simple toy that can be used to illustrate the difference between combustion and biological oxidation.
Asenjo, Conrado F. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 558.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Notes on experiments for introductory college chemistry  
A brief set of notes regarding the complex salt [Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2, the Guoy balance, Avogadro's number, and the stoichiometry of a mixture.
J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 495.
Coordination Compounds |
Magnetic Properties |
Stoichiometry |
Solutions / Solvents
Solvent effect on the keto-enol equilibrium of acetoacetic ester  Lockwood, Karl L.
The purpose of the investigation is to introduce students to some of the factors that influence an equilibrium constant.
Lockwood, Karl L. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 481.
Solutions / Solvents |
Equilibrium
Relationship of enthalpy of solution, solvation energy, and crystal energy  Neidig, H. A., Yingling, R. T.
The primary objectives of this investigation are to relate enthalpy of solution, solvation energy, and crystal energy using Hess' Law and to acquaint students with Born-Haber type energy cycles.
Neidig, H. A., Yingling, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 473.
Thermodynamics |
Solutions / Solvents |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Units of measurement: An early application of Avogadro's number  Brasted, Robert C.
A comparison is made between the measured volume of a regular metallic solid and its theoretical volume as calculated using Avogadro's number.
Brasted, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 472.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Metals |
Physical Properties
Experimental approach to stoichiometry. In first-year chemistry at Northwestern  King, L. Carroll; Cooper, Milton
Presents five experiments in which students are given a minimal set of directions and a simply stated objective.
King, L. Carroll; Cooper, Milton J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 464.
Stoichiometry |
Coordination Compounds |
Undergraduate Research |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Detection of chloride ion in the presence of bromide, iodide, and thiocyanate ions  Paul, Armine D.; Gibson, John A., Jr.
Summarizes and evaluates several published methods for detecting chloride ions in the presence of bromide, iodide, and thiocyanate ions.
Paul, Armine D.; Gibson, John A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 440.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
Teaching principles of quantitative analysis with "qual" reactions  O'Donnell, T. A.
A series of test-tube reactions using semi-micro techniques has been devised to precede each section of the course in quantitative analysis designed to illustrate qualitatively or semi-qualitatively the chemical reactions or principles that are the basis of each quantitative exercise.
O'Donnell, T. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 434.
Quantitative Analysis |
Reactions
Preparation of chromic acid cleaning solution  Krause, Richard E.
This short note describes a simple method for the preparation of chromic acid cleaning solution.
Krause, Richard E. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 426.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management |
Solutions / Solvents
A temperature-independent concentration unit  Blumberg, A. A.; Siska, P. E.; San Filippo, Joseph, Jr.
Describes a new system of concentration, termed molicity by the authors.
Blumberg, A. A.; Siska, P. E.; San Filippo, Joseph, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 420.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents
Simplified temperature conversion  Midgley, Calvin P.
This simple method for temperature conversion can be done without pencil and paper.
Midgley, Calvin P. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 322.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Derivation of equations for the interconversion of concentration units  Mills, Alfred P.
Presents the derivation of equations for the interconversion of concentration units.
Mills, Alfred P. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 314.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Modified exponential number notation  Frigerio, Norman A.
Suggests the notation 1P3 and 1N3 to represent 1000 and 0.001, respectively.
Frigerio, Norman A. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 213.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A simple model for the SN2 mechanism.  Nyquist, H. LeRoy
Presents a simple, physical model for the SN2 mechanism.
Nyquist, H. LeRoy J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 103.
Molecular Modeling |
Reactions |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The effect of structure on chemical and physical properties of polymers  Price, Charles C.
Suggests using polymers to teach the effect of changes in structure on chemical reactivity, the effect of structure on physical properties, the role of catalysts, and the basic principles of a chain reaction mechanism.
Price, Charles C. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 13.
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Polymerization |
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Catalysis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Continuous process for catalytic oxidation of ammonia  Olmsted, Michael P.
A heated platinum coil catalyzes the oxidation of ammonia.
Olmsted, Michael P. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A973.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Metallic reduction of aqueous hydrogen chloride  Walker, Noojin, Jr.
Calcium reacts with HCl to liberate hydrogen gas.
Walker, Noojin, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A477.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Electrochemistry
Concerning equilibrium, free energy changes, Le Chtelier's principle  Eberhardt, William H.
Aqueous KI is added to a solution of CuSO4 in a separatory funnel; adding more CuSO4 demonstrates an equilibrium sift.
Eberhardt, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A477.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics |
Reactions
A new clock reaction preparation of dicinnamalacetone  King, L. Carroll; Ostrum, G. Kenneth
Presents a new clock reaction preparation of dicinnamalacetone.
King, L. Carroll; Ostrum, G. Kenneth J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A139.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
An MKS system of units for chemists  Strong, Frederick C.
It would be worth investigating whether the MKS system would be useful in chemistry.
Strong, Frederick C. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 621.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Systematic names for the tartaric acids  Baxter, J. N.
Examines the use of the small capital letters D and L in naming tartaric acids.
Baxter, J. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 619.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases |
Carbohydrates |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers
Infrared spectrometry to study second order reaction kinetics  Gastambide, B.; Blanc, J.; Allamagny, Y.
The change studied is a synthesis reaction between menthol and phenyl isocyanate.
Gastambide, B.; Blanc, J.; Allamagny, Y. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 613.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Synthesis
The hydration of carbon dioxide: A double clock experiment  Jones, P.; Haggett, Max L.; Longridge, Jethro L.
This extension of the "Soda Water Clock" experiment provides a quantitative kinetics investigation.
Jones, P.; Haggett, Max L.; Longridge, Jethro L. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 610.
Reactions |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The oxidation of iodide ion by persulfate ion  Moews, P. C., Jr.; Petrucci, R. H.
Presents the oxidation of iodide ion by persulfate ion as an ideal reaction to study as part of an experiment on kinetics.
Moews, P. C., Jr.; Petrucci, R. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 549.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Lexicon of international and national units (Clason, W. E.)  Kieffer, William F.

Kieffer, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 519.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Colorimetric chemical kinetics experiment  Corsaro, Gerald
This article describes an experiment in which a photocolorimetric technique is employed to follow a bimolecular reaction rate; the reactants are crystal violet and the hydroxide ion.
Corsaro, Gerald J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 48.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Reactions
Homogeneous catalysis: A reexamination of definitions  Leisten, J. A.
Considers common questions regarding the action of catalysts by examining various typical examples.
Leisten, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 23.
Catalysis |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases
Principles of chemical reaction  Sanderson, R. T.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature of chemical change in the hope of recognizing and setting forth the basic principles that help us to understand why they occur.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 13.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics |
Synthesis |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
Float method for the analysis of solutions  Osburn, J. O.
Presents suggestions for investigations to accompany and earlier published article.
Osburn, J. O. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A538.
Solutions / Solvents
Solvay processes  Johns, Robert J.
A simple demonstration of the Solvay process.
Johns, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A535.
Reactions
PolystyreneA multistep synthesis  Wilen, S. H.
Suggestions for research to accompany a previously published article.
Wilen, S. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A463.
Undergraduate Research |
Reactions |
Polymerization |
Synthesis
A simple demonstration of some precipitation and solubility effects  Matijevic, E.
Provides suggestions for research to accompany earlier published articles.
Matijevic, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A386.
Undergraduate Research |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents
Precipitation from homogeneous solution  Gordon, L.; Salesin, E. D.
Suggests research questions based on an earlier published article.
Gordon, L.; Salesin, E. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A306.
Undergraduate Research |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
pH
Oxidation of bromide and iodide ions  Dutton, Frederic B.
Color changes are indicative of oxidation reactions of bromide and iodide ions.
Dutton, Frederic B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A241.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Electrochemistry
Oxidation of bromide and iodide ions  Dutton, Frederic B.
Color changes are indicative of oxidation reactions of bromide and iodide ions.
Dutton, Frederic B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A241.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Electrochemistry
The direct reactions of solids  Feigl, F.
Provides suggestions for student research based on an earlier article published in the Journal.
Feigl, F. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A135.
Undergraduate Research |
Reactions |
Solids
Variation in reactivityA demonstration  Bowen, D. M.
Provides suggestions for student research based on an earlier article published in the Journal.
Bowen, D. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A135.
Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A reaction tube for sodium and chlorine  Barnard, W. Robert
Describes reacting sodium and chlorine in Pyrex tubing.
Barnard, W. Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A49.
Reactions |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Alkali metal-water reactions  Markowitz, Meyer M.
The typical open-air demonstration of sodium reacting with water does not in reality represent the typical reaction of an alkali metal with liquid water; the article goes on to consider other factors that may influence these reactions.
Markowitz, Meyer M. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 633.
Reactions |
Metals |
Water / Water Chemistry
KineticsEarly and often  Campbell, J. A.
Describes an approach to investigating kinetics and its application to the "blue bottle" experiment.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 578.
Kinetics |
Equilibrium |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Letters to the editor  Linde, Charlotte
Suggests the term "ionocule" for the opposite of molecule.
Linde, Charlotte J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 270.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters to the editor  Jurale, Bernard
Compares the catalytic capability of reagent vs. technical grade manganese oxide in the decomposition of potassium chlorate.
Jurale, Bernard J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 94.
Reactions |
Catalysis
Letters to the editor  Meyer, E. Gerald; Weaver, Elbert C.
The authors encourage instructors of introductory chemistry not to distract students with side reactions.
Meyer, E. Gerald; Weaver, Elbert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 94.
Reactions
The formation of acetone from acetates  Young, Jay A.; Taylor, John K.
Suggests some research activities based on an article published previously in the Journal.
Young, Jay A.; Taylor, John K. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A962.
Undergraduate Research |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Reactions
The preparation of magnesium nitride  Young, Jay A.; Taylor, John K.
Suggests some research activities based on an article published previously in the Journal.
Young, Jay A.; Taylor, John K. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A960.
Synthesis |
Undergraduate Research |
Reactions
A compact light box  Barnard, Robert
Presents the design of a light box suitable for demonstrations involving solutions, precipitations, or any basic chemical reaction.
Barnard, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A953.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Reactions
Demonstration notes: Spontaneous combustion of H2S  Thomas, P. M.
Hydrogen sulfide passed over lead(IV) oxide bursts into flame.
Thomas, P. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A839.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Letters  Goldberg, David E.
The author suggests using the term "continuous chain" rather than "straight" chain so as to reduce confusion regarding the geometry of carbon chains.
Goldberg, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 319.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Hypodermic syringes in quantitative elementary chemistry experiments. Part 2. General chemistry experiments  Davenport, Derek A.; Saba, Afif N.
Presents a variety of experiments that make use of hypodermic syringes in quantitative elementary chemistry.
Davenport, Derek A.; Saba, Afif N. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 617.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Liquids |
Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Stoichiometry
Ultramacro and ultramicro science terms  de Ment, Jack
Proposes a convenient and consistent set of metric prefixes for very large and very small multiples and sub-multiples.
de Ment, Jack J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 587.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The thermal decomposition of KClO3  Bostrup, O.; Demandt, K.; Hansen, K. O.
It is not true that heated potassium chlorate will decompose to produce only KCl and oxygen.
Bostrup, O.; Demandt, K.; Hansen, K. O. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 573.
Reactions |
Catalysis
Electrolytic conductivity: A demonstration experiment  Thomas, William B.
Describes a simple method of measuring electrolytic conductivity based on Ohm's law.
Thomas, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 531.
Electrochemistry |
Conductivity |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Editorially Speaking  Kieffer, William F.
Discussion of the conventions, definitions, and symbols of thermodynamics.
Kieffer, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 489.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Thermodynamics
Some aspects of chemical kinetics for elementary chemistry  Benson, Sidney W.
The author suggests greater efforts to address the issue of kinetics and reaction mechanisms in introductory chemistry.
Benson, Sidney W. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 321.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Descriptive Chemistry
The carbon-12 scale of atomic masses  Labbauf, Abbas
Examines the concept of atomic weight and the rise and coexistence of the oxygen and carbon scales of atomic mass.
Labbauf, Abbas J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 282.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Physical Properties
Editorially speaking  Kieffer, William F.
Discusses differences between mass and weight.
Kieffer, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 275.
Physical Properties |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Chemical equilibrium: The hydrogenation of benzene  Kokes, R. J.; Dorfman, M. K.; Mathia, T.
This procedure examines the reversible reaction between benzene and hydrogen, forming cyclohexane, in the presence of a metal catalyst.
Kokes, R. J.; Dorfman, M. K.; Mathia, T. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 91.
Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds |
Equilibrium |
Catalysis
Letters  Crawford, Crayton M.
Comments on use of the term equivalent weights and the determination of equivalent mass.
Crawford, Crayton M. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 637.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
Float method for the analysis of solutions  Osburn, James O.; Choi, Il C.
Describes a simple procedure for making precise and reproducible concentration measurements through the thermal equilibrium float method.
Osburn, James O.; Choi, Il C. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 578.
Solutions / Solvents
Molecular weights by cryoscopy: A general chemistry laboratory experiment  Mikulak, Robert; Runquist, Olaf
Presents an experiment determining the cryoscopic constant of cyclohexanol.
Mikulak, Robert; Runquist, Olaf J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 557.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Moles and equivalents: Quantities of matter  Cohen, Irwin
Examines the various means of describing and measuring quantities of matter, including the mole and the equivalent.
Cohen, Irwin J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 555.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters  Foy, John R.
Suggests a modification to an earlier proposed definition for the term mole.
Foy, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 554.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters  Bieber, Theodore I.
Provides a concise definition for the mole.
Bieber, Theodore I. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 554.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters  Cohen, Irwin
Proposes use of the term cardinal weight.
Cohen, Irwin J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 554.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A redefinition of "mole"  Lee, Shiu
Proposes improvements to a set of terms related to gram formula weights.
Lee, Shiu J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 549.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Heat of reaction and H2SO4 concentration: A general chemistry experiment  Wolthuis, Enno; Leegwater, Arie; Ploeg, John Vander
This procedure measures the heat of reaction between water and sulfuric acid of various concentrations; this information is used to determine the concentration of an unknown acid sample.
Wolthuis, Enno; Leegwater, Arie; Ploeg, John Vander J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 472.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Letters  Laughton, P. M.
A short discussion on the meaning of empirical formula.
Laughton, P. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 378.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Is there an alternative to pH?  Crane, Francis E., Jr.
Provides some alternatives to the traditional definition of pH that introductory students may find more intuitive and less confusing.
Crane, Francis E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 365.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Oxidation-reduction mechanisms  Duke, F. R.
Summarizes various types of oxidation-reduction mechanisms.
Duke, F. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 161.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The mole and related quantities  Guggenheim, E. A.
Examines some of the terminology associated with the mole and expressing amounts of substances.
Guggenheim, E. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 86.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Determination of solubility: A laboratory experiment  Wolthuis, Enno; Pruiksma, Arthur B.; Heerema, Robert P.
Students are required to determine the solubility of common salts at various temperatures by finding the temperature at which a solution of known composition is saturated.
Wolthuis, Enno; Pruiksma, Arthur B.; Heerema, Robert P. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 137.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Quantitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
New Prefixes for Units  
Outlines new recommendations for standardized metric prefixes.
J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 85.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters to the editor  Hall, Arthur C.
The molality-molarity paradox presented in an earlier article is artificial rather than apparent.
Hall, Arthur C. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 584.
Stoichiometry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A molality-molarity paradox?  Toby, Sidney
The author points out that there seems no obvious reason why molality could not equal molarity in a solution whose density is less than unity.
Toby, Sidney J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 230.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The stability of solutions for the iodine clock reaction  Kauffman, George B.; Hall, Charles R.
The results of attempts to stabilize solutions needed for the iodine clock reaction to allow long-term storage.
Kauffman, George B.; Hall, Charles R. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 577.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The principle of minimum bending of orbitals  Stewart, George H.; Eyring, Henry
The authors present a theory of valency that accounts for a variety of organic and inorganic structures in a clear and easily understood manner.
Stewart, George H.; Eyring, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 550.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Elimination Reactions
Letters  Copley, G. N.
The author proposes terms and symbolism to represent different phase changes.
Copley, G. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 528.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Polymerization of ethylene at atmospheric pressure: A demonstration using a "Ziegler" type catalyst  Zilkha, Albert; Calderon, Nissim; Rabani, Joseph; Frankel, Max
A simple experiment on the polymerization of ethylene at atmospheric pressure is described using a "Ziegler" type catalyst prepared from amyl lithium and titanium tetrachloride.
Zilkha, Albert; Calderon, Nissim; Rabani, Joseph; Frankel, Max J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 344.
Polymerization |
Reactions |
Catalysis |
Alkenes
Letters  Fisher, D. Jerome
A spirited discussion regarding terminology for crystal classes.
Fisher, D. Jerome J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 214.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters  Donohue, Jerry
A spirited discussion regarding terminology for crystal classes.
Donohue, Jerry J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 214.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Nomenclature of phase transition  McDonald, James E.
Discusses the curious situation in which the terminology of chemistry and physics has only five words to describe the six possible transitions between three states of matter.
McDonald, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 205.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters  Pokras, Lewis
The author proposes the term "senacule" as analagous to molecule and to be used to refer to ionic species.
Pokras, Lewis J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 159.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Revised inorganic (Stock) nomenclature for the general chemistry student  Brasted, Robert C.
Examines the Stock System as applied to teaching general chemistry and naming binary compounds of nonmetals and metals, complex entities, and oxy-anions.
Brasted, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 136.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Chemistry in the manufacture of modern gasoline  Kimberlin, C. N., Jr.
This paper presents a brief review of the chemistry involved in the manufacture of gasoline, particularly catalytic cracking reactions.
Kimberlin, C. N., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 569.
Industrial Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Catalysis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
A suggested convention for the representation of ionic substances  Sunderwirth, Stanely G.
The author suggests conventions for the representation of ionic substances that may prove less confusing for introductory students.
Sunderwirth, Stanely G. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 520.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Recent developments concerning the signs of electrode potentials  Licht, Truman S.; deBethune, Andre J.
It is the purpose of this paper to review recent developments concerning the signs of electrode potentials, particularly with respect to single electrode potential, half-reaction potential, and half-cell electromotive force.
Licht, Truman S.; deBethune, Andre J. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 433.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Textbook errors: XIII. The nature of ionic and molecular species in sulfuric acid  Brubaker, Carl H., Jr.
Addresses misconceptions regarding the strength of sulfuric acid and the nature of ionic and molecular species present in solution.
Brubaker, Carl H., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 325.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Some aspects of organic molecules and their behavior. II. Bond energies  Reinmuth, Otto
Examines bond and dissociation energies, the "constancy" of C-H and C-C dissociation energies, and some common types of organochemical reactions.
Reinmuth, Otto J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 318.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Reactions
An efficient chemiluminescent system and a chemiluminescent clock reaction  White, Emil H.
Presents the investigation of two chemiluminescent systems - the first is particularly brilliant and the second acts as a clock reaction.
White, Emil H. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 275.
Photochemistry |
Reactions
Model of a potential energy surface  Dye, J. L.
Describes a physical, three-dimensional model of the potential energy surface for HBr.
Dye, J. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 215.
Kinetics |
Reactive Intermediates |
Reactions
A "clock reaction" for a beginning course in college chemistry  Black, Arthur H.; Dodson, Vance H.
The reduction of the cerium(IV) ion in aqueous sulfuric acid to the cerium(III) ion with oxalate ion can be followed visually and without special colorimetric devices.
Black, Arthur H.; Dodson, Vance H. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 562.
Reactions
Letters to the editor  Foster, Laurence S.
Thanks a reader for pointing out a misstatement in an earlier article involving atomic mass units and avograms.
Foster, Laurence S. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 477.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Letters to the editor  Mayper, Stuart A.
Points out a misstatement in an earlier article involving atomic mass units and avograms.
Mayper, Stuart A. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 477.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A device for demonstrating conductivity of solutions  Eiseman, Fred B., Jr.
An apparatus has been developed that makes it possible to demonstrate the conductivities of solutions without destroying, transferring, or contaminating them
Eiseman, Fred B., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 445.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Conductivity |
Solutions / Solvents
A phosphine fire flask  Dillard, Clyde R.
Presents a flask and demonstration that relies on the spontaneous combustion of phosphine gas.
Dillard, Clyde R. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 137.
Reactions
Simple generalized reaction schemes  Estok, George K.
In the early development of a student's background in chemistry it seems desirable to encourage an integrated understanding of the types of chemical particles and the formal ways in which they may react.
Estok, George K. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 115.
Reactions
Movable symbols and formulas as a teaching aid  Lippincott, W. T.; Wheaton, Roger
Movable magnetic squares with symbols and formulas printed on them are used as a visual teaching aid involving a variety of fundamental chemistry concepts.
Lippincott, W. T.; Wheaton, Roger J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 15.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Letters to the editor  Weiner, Samuel
Discusses some of the semantic confusions that plague teaching in chemistry.
Weiner, Samuel J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 646.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Effect of water on the interaction of aluminum and iodine  Azmatullah, Syed; Viswanathan, Argot
A drop of water added to powdered aluminum and iodine initiates a vigorous reaction.
Azmatullah, Syed; Viswanathan, Argot J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 447.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Reactions
Textbook errors: III. The solubility of gases in liquids  Mysels, Karol J.
Rising temperature is generally said to reduce the solubility of gases in liquids, yet the facts disagree with any such generalization.
Mysels, Karol J. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 399.
Gases |
Liquids |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents
Trends in chemical education  Currier, Arnold J.
Topics examined include chemical nomenclature, the organization of subject matter in chemistry, carbon chemistry versus qualitative analysis, the laboratory versus the textbook, and supplies in chemistry teachers.
Currier, Arnold J. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 286.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Qualitative Analysis
Lecture demonstrations of incendiaries. II  Antelman, Marvin
Demonstrations described involve gunpowder, the combustion of sulfur dioxide, zirconium, nitric acid, sodium peroxide, hot iron, ammonium nitrate, organic chlorates and nitrates, and zinc stearate.
Antelman, Marvin J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 273.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
The formaldehyde clock reaction  Barrett, Richard L.
The formaldehyde clock reaction has some advantages over the familiar iodine clock and deserves to be better known.
Barrett, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 78.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Gram equivalent weights  Meldrum, William B.
The purpose of this paper is to review briefly the subject of equivalent weights and the more directly applicable gram equivalents and to offer a general method by which they may be deduced from chemical equations.
Meldrum, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 48.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
Le Châtelier's principle and the equilibrium constant  Miller, Arild J.
Many students of chemistry have difficulty in understanding how the position of equilibrium in a gaseous reaction can change when the pressure is altered, in accordance with Le Châtelier's principle, without causing a corresponding variation in the equilibrium constant.
Miller, Arild J. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 455.
Equilibrium |
Reactions |
Gases
Crossword puzzle solution  Brown, Curtis L.
Solution to a crossword puzzle appearing earlier in this issue of the Journal.
Brown, Curtis L. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 330.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Crossword puzzle of chemical symbols  Brown, Curtis L.
A crossword puzzle of chemical symbols and molecular formulas.
Brown, Curtis L. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 298.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters to the editor  Steinhardt, Ralph G., Jr.
The author replies to a commentary on his earlier article regarding the definition of "spectrum."
Steinhardt, Ralph G., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 217.
Spectroscopy |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters to the editor  Rosenbaum, E. J.
Commentary on an earlier article regarding the definition of "spectrum."
Rosenbaum, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 216.
Spectroscopy |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters to the editor  Lash, M. E.
The author clarifies the definition of critical temperature, which is often stated uncritically in textbooks.
Lash, M. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 102.
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters to the editor  Weaver, Elbert C.
Acknowledges and corrects an error in the referenced article regarding an example of Pearson's square.
Weaver, Elbert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 102.
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics
Letters to the editor  Wescott, Emery N.
Points out an error in the referenced article regarding an example of Pearson's square.
Wescott, Emery N. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 101.
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics
Ammonia and "ammonium hydroxide"  Davis, John B.
One of several reactions that needs reevaluation in the light of the modern theory of valence is the reaction between ammonia and water and the fiction of the ammonium hydroxide molecule.
Davis, John B. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 511.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Reactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Letters  Miranda, Bienvenido T.
Commmentary on two earlier Journal articles.
Miranda, Bienvenido T. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 264.
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Letters  Azcuenaga-Chacon, J. V.
The author suggests that valence electrons be called "valentrons."
Azcuenaga-Chacon, J. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 155.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Silver trees  Gleim, David I.
Describes the classic silver tree and the examination of its crystals under the microscope.
Gleim, David I. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 151.
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Thermite ignition assured  Brockett, Clyde P.
Offers a suggestion for igniting course mixtures of commercial grade thermite.
Brockett, Clyde P. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 525.
Reactions
Qualitative adequacy of phlogiston  Scott, John Howe
The author illustrates the phlogiston theory and the reasoning of those who used it historically (particularly Scheele) by applying them to several simple chemical reactions.
Scott, John Howe J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 360.
Reactions
Letters  Brescia, Frank
The author calls for someone to invent another term for the word resonance as applied to the field of molecular structure.
Brescia, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 261.
Resonance Theory |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure
An ammonium dichromate "volcano"  Deloach, Will S.; McHugh, John W.; Black, Jerry
Describes a model volcano with a mechanism for igniting and disposing of ammonium dichromate.
Deloach, Will S.; McHugh, John W.; Black, Jerry J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 649.
Reactions
On accenting observations in chemistry  Campbell, J. A.
A chemical equations is, for many a student, such a complete abstraction that he would be hard put to describe the actual observations that would be made in a process for which he was supplied the complete equation.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 634.
Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Keeping properties of certain volumetric solutions  Durham, Barbee William
Presents a table listing the storage time and stability of various standard solutions.
Durham, Barbee William J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 387.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Laboratory Management
A clock reaction  Suryaraman, M. G.; Viswanathan, Arcot
Ferrous ions in an alkaline solution of a tartrate form of a soluble chelate complex that reacts sluggishly with iodine.
Suryaraman, M. G.; Viswanathan, Arcot J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 386.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Making water gas by cracking methanol  Viertel, William K.
Methanol vapor decomposes very readily at about 1000C into carbon monoxide and hydrogen; presents an apparatus for collecting the hydrogen gas generated through this process.
Viertel, William K. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 220.
Alcohols |
Reactions