TIGER

Journal Articles: 405 results
Synthesis of Albendazole Metabolite: Characterization and HPLC Determination  Graciela Mahler, Danilo Davyt, Sandra Gordon, Marcelo Incerti, Ivana Núñez, Horacio Pezaroglo, Laura Scarone, Gloria Serra, Mauricio Silvera, and Eduardo Manta
In this laboratory activity, students are introduced to the synthesis of an albendazole metabolite obtained by a sulfide oxidation reaction. Albendazole as well as its metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide, are used as anthelmintic drugs. The oxidation reagent is H2O2 in acetic acid. The reaction is environmental friendly, fast, and proceeds with high yield. The crude reaction is analyzed by HPLC chromatography to determine purity. The simplicity of the experiment allows students to study chiral concepts, physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of the compounds, and HPLC determinations.
Mahler, Graciela; Davyt, Danilo; Gordon, Sandra; Incerti, Marcelo; Núñez, Ivana; Pezaroglo, Horacio; Scarone, Laura; Serra, Gloria; Silvera, Mauricio; Manta, Eduardo. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1652.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
HPLC |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Organosulfur Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis
The Synthesis of a Cockroach Pheromone  Patty L. Feist
This paper describes the synthesis of gentisyl quinone isovalerate or blattellaquinone, a sex pheromone of the German cockroach and a compound with real-world applications. The experiment also affords students practice in extraction as well as IR and NMR spectroscopy.
Feist, Patty L. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1548.
Esters |
IR Spectroscopy |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis
Frank Westheimer's Early Demonstration of Enzymatic Specificity  Addison Ault
Reviews one of the most significant accomplishments of one of the most respected chemists of the 20th centurya series of stereospecific enzymatic oxidation and reduction experiments that led chemists to recognize enantiotopic and diastereotopic relationships of atoms, or groups of atoms, within molecules.
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1246.
Asymmetric Synthesis |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Catalysis |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers |
Enzymes |
Isotopes |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stereochemistry
Construction of a Polyaniline Nanofiber Gas Sensor  Shabnam Virji, Bruce H. Weiller, Jiaxing Huang, Richard Blair, Heather Shepherd, Tanya Faltens, Philip C. Haussmann, Richard B. Kaner, and Sarah H. Tolbert
The objectives of this lab are to synthesize different diameter polyaniline nanofibers and compare them as sensor materials. Its advantages include simplicity and low cost, making it suitable for both high school and college students, particularly in departments with modest means.
Virji, Shabnam; Weiller, Bruce H.; Huang, Jiaxing; Blair, Richard; Shepherd, Heather; Faltens, Tanya; Haussmann, Philip C.; Kaner, Richard B.; Tolbert, Sarah H. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1102.
Acids / Bases |
Aromatic Compounds |
Conductivity |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State |
pH |
Polymerization |
Synthesis
The Baeyer–Villiger Oxidation with Trifluoroacetic Acid and Household Sodium Percarbonate  Richard A. Kjonaas and Anthony E. Clemons
Reports a method for carrying out the BaeyerVilliger oxidation of cyclopentanone to d-valerolactone in a large-section introductory organic chemistry laboratory course.
Kjonaas, Richard A.; Clemons, Anthony E. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 827.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis
Easy-To-Make Cryophoruses  Rubin Battino and Trevor M. Letcher
This article describes some simple and easy-to-make cryophoruses, ideal for demonstrating evaporative cooling to students at all levels.
Battino, Rubin; Letcher, Trevor M. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 561.
Lipids |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics |
Liquids
The Role of Water Chemistry in Marine Aquarium Design: A Model System for a General Chemistry Class  Jeffrey J. Keaffaber, Ramiro Palma, and Kathryn R. Williams
Water chemistry is central to aquarium design, and it provides many potential applications for discussion in undergraduate chemistry and engineering courses. This article uses a hypothetical tank to house ocean sunfish as a model to show students the calculations and other considerations that are needed when designing a marine aquarium.
Keaffaber, Jeffrey J.; Palma, Ramiro; Williams, Kathryn R. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 225.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry |
Water / Water Chemistry
OMLeT—An Alternative Approach to Learning Metabolism: Glycolysis and the TCA Cycle as an Example  Charles M. Stevens, Dylan M. Silver, Brad Behm, Raymond J. Turner, and Michael G. Surette
Using PHP Hypertext Preprocessor scripting, the dynamic OMLeT (Online Metabolism Learning Tool) Web site is geared towards different learning styles and allows the student to process metabolic pathways (glycolysis and TCA cycle) via a user-defined approach.
Stevens, Charles M.; Silver, Dylan M.; Behm, Brad; Turner, Raymond J.; Surette, Michael G. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 2024.
Bioenergetics |
Enzymes |
Learning Theories |
Metabolism |
Proteins / Peptides
Using Ozone in Organic Chemistry Lab: The Ozonolysis of Eugenol  Bruce M. Branan, Joshua T. Butcher, and Lawrence R. Olsen
This organic laboratory involves the ozonolysis of eugenol (clove oil) followed by a reductive workup that generates an aldehyde easily identified by its NMR and IR spectra.
Branan, Bruce M.; Butcher, Joshua T.; Olsen, Lawrence R. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1979.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Gases |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Biochemical View: A Web Site Providing Material for Teaching Biochemistry Using Multiple Approaches  Fernanda C. Dórea, Higor S. Rodrigues, Oscar M. M. Lapouble, Márcio R. Pereira, Mariana S. Castro, and Wagner Fontes
Biochemical View is a free, full access Web site whose main goals are to complement existing biochemistry instruction and materials, provide material to teachers preparing conventional and online courses, and popularize the use of these resources in undergraduate courses.
Dórea, Fernanda C.; Rodrigues, Higor S.; Lapouble, Oscar M. M.; Pereira, Márcio R.; Castro, Mariana S.; Fontes, Wagner. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1866.
Amino Acids |
Bioenergetics |
Carbohydrates |
Enzymes |
Glycolysis |
Lipids |
Metabolism |
Fatty Acids
A Guided-Inquiry Approach to the Sodium Borohydride Reduction and Grignard Reaction of Carbonyl Compounds  Robert E. Rosenberg
Students teams identify unknowns and their reaction products and use their data to deduce that esters are less electrophilic than the other carbonyl compounds present, that Grignard reagents are more nucleophilic than sodium borohydride, and that carboxylic acid derivatives do not undergo the nucleophilic addition reactions that are characteristic of aldehydes and ketones.
Rosenberg, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1474.
Addition Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
Grignard Reagents |
IR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Student-Centered Learning
Mercury Beating Heart: Modifications to the Classical Demonstration  Metodija Najdoski, Valentin Mirceski, Vladimir M. Petruševski, and Sani Demiri
The classic mercury beating heart demonstration is modified with various electrolytes.
Najdoski, Metodija; Mirceski, Valentin; Petruševski, Vladimir M.; Demiri, Sani. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1292.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Surface Science
Demonstration of the Fenton Reaction  Dean C. Luehrs and Alex E. Roher
Presents a lecture demonstration of the Fenton reaction with applications to medicine and environmental engineering.
Luehrs, Dean C.; Roher, Alex E. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1290.
Applications of Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactive Intermediates
Reaction-Map of Organic Chemistry  Steven Murov
The Reaction-Map of Organic Chemistry has been designed to provide an overview of most of the reactions needed for the organic chemistry course and should help students develop synthetic routes from one functional group to another.
Murov, Steven. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1224.
Addition Reactions |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Elimination Reactions |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Reactions |
Synthesis |
Enrichment / Review Materials
A Bioanalytical Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduate Students: Biosensors Based on Metal Nanoparticles  John Njagi, John Warner, and Silvana Andreescu
Describes a laboratory experiment on the development of a biosensor in which students apply electrochemical methods to deposit gold nanoparticles onto electrode surfaces, immobilize an enzyme using glutaraldehyde chemistry, and perform quantitative analysis of phenol using a biosensor with amperometric detection.
Njagi, John; Warner, John; Andreescu, Silvana. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1180.
Bioanalytical Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Enzymes |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Phenols
Quantitative Measurement of Trans-Fats by Infrared Spectroscopy  Edward B. Walker, Don R. Davies, and Mike Campbell
FTIR-ATR spectroscopy provides an efficient analytical tool to measure the percentage of trans-fat in several commercially available lipids and the degree of alkene isomerization induced by brominationdebromination chemical reactions.
Walker, Edward B.; Davies, Don R.; Campbell, Mike. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1162.
Alkenes |
Calibration |
Food Science |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Lipids |
Quantitative Analysis |
Fatty Acids
Oxidation of Aromatic Aldehydes Using Oxone  Rajani Gandhari, Padma P. Maddukuri, and Thottumkara K. Vinod
Describes an eco-friendly procedure for the oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids in water or a water-ethanol mixture using Oxone as the oxidant. The use of eco-friendly solvents, a non-toxic reagent, and the elimination of extraction solvents in the procedure demonstrate important green chemistry themes to students.
Gandhari, Rajani; Maddukuri, Padma P.; Vinod, Thottumkara K. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 852.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Carboxylic Acids |
Green Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction
Enthalpy of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures: An Inexpensive Apparatus  Rubin Battino, David A. Dolson, Michael R. Hall, and Trevor M. Letcher
Describes an inexpensive apparatus for the determination of the vapor pressure of a liquid as a function of temperature for the purpose of calculating enthalpy changes of vaporization. Also described are a simple air thermostat and an inexpensive temperature controller based on an integrated temperature sensor.
Battino, Rubin; Dolson, David A.; Hall, Michael R.; Letcher, Trevor M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 822.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Lipids |
Phenols |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Exploring Faraday's Law of Electrolysis Using Zinc–Air Batteries with Current Regulative Diodes  Masahiro Kamata and Miei Paku
Describes a new educational experiment using low-cost zincair batteries and current regulative diode arrays to quickly confirm Faraday's law of electrolysis.
Kamata, Masahiro; Paku, Miei. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 674.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Pollutant Transformation Laboratory Exercise for Environmental Chemistry: The Reduction of Nitrobenzenes by Anaerobic Solutions of Humic Acid  Frank M. Dunnivant and Mark-Cody Reynolds
Presents a laboratory for advanced undergraduate- or graduate-level environmental chemistry in which students study the reduction of substituted nitrobenzenes by natural organic matter under anaerobic conditions. The exercise involves solution preparation, pH and EH buffers, organic reaction mechanisms, reaction kinetics, and instrumental analysis.
Dunnivant, Frank M.; Reynolds, Mark-Cody. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 315.
Instrumental Methods |
pH |
Solutions / Solvents |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction
Biodiesel Synthesis and Evaluation: An Organic Chemistry Experiment  Ehren C. Bucholtz
In this two week lab sequence students synthesize fatty acid methyl esters from simulated waste vegetable oil and determine whether the glycerol concentration of the resulting product is low enough to meet the specifications for marketable biodiesel.
Bucholtz, Ehren C. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 296.
Equilibrium |
Esters |
Industrial Chemistry |
Lipids |
Quantitative Analysis
Enantioselective Reduction by Crude Plant Parts: Reduction of Benzofuran-2-yl Methyl Ketone with Carrot (Daucus carota) Bits  Silvana Ravía, Daniela Gamenara, Valeria Schapiro, Ana Bellomo, Jorge Adum, Gustavo Seoane, and David Gonzalez
Presents the enantioselective reduction of a ketone by crude plant parts, using carrot (Daucus carota) as the reducing agent.
Ravía, Silvana; Gamenara, Daniela; Schapiro, Valeria; Bellomo, Ana; Adum, Jorge; Seoane, Gustavo; Gonzalez, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1049.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Biotechnology |
Catalysis |
Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stereochemistry |
Separation Science
Reductive Amination: A Remarkable Experiment for the Organic Laboratory  Kim M. Touchette
The synthesis of N-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)-N-p-tolylacetamide is a fast, simple three-step sequence that serves as a useful example of the reductive amination reaction for the organic chemistry laboratory.
Touchette, Kim M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 929.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Green Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solids
Ozonolysis Problems That Promote Student Reasoning  Ray A. Gross Jr.
The structural features inherent in acyclic monoterpenes that follow the isoprene rule often lead to unique sets of ozonolysis products from which their structures, excluding stereochemistry, can be determined from molecular formulas only. This article shows how students may elucidate the structures of these compounds by analysis of the oxidative and reductive workup products.
Gross, Ray A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 604.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Carboxylic Acids |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Student-Centered Learning
Synthesis of Methyl Diantilis, a Commercially Important Fragrance  William H. Miles and Katelyn B. Connell
Describes the synthesis of a family of fragrances, including the commercially important Methyl Diantilis, and provides an excellent introduction to intellectual property laws.
Miles, William H.; Connell, Katelyn B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 285.
Alcohols |
Food Science |
Catalysis |
Ethers |
Industrial Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis
Environmentally Responsible Redox Chemistry: An Example of Convenient Oxidation Methodology without Chromium Waste  Robyn L. Crumbie
This article describes a simple experiment that uses recyclable Magtrieve as the oxidant in a simple reaction sequence emphasizing the reciprocity of oxidation and reduction processes in organic synthesis.
Crumbie, Robyn L. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 268.
Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis
A Solvent-Free Baeyer–Villiger Lactonization for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory: Synthesis of γ-t-Butyl-ε-caprolactone  John J. Esteb, J. Nathan Hohman, Diana E. Schlamadinger, and Anne M. Wilson
The BaeyerVilliger reaction provides an efficient method to convert ketones to esters or lactones. In this experiment, m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid and 4-tert-butylcyclohexanone are mixed together for under solvent-free conditions to produce ?-t-butyl-e-caprolactone.
Esteb, John J.; Hohman, J. Nathan; Schlamadinger, Diana E.; Wilson, Anne M. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1837.
Green Chemistry |
Synthesis |
Esters |
Oxidation / Reduction
Cholesterol and Plants  E. J. Behrman and Venkat Gopalan
Current textbooks give an inaccurate picture of the occurrence of cholesterol in plants and the role of plant sterols in the mammalian uptake of cholesterol.
Behrman, E. J.; Gopalan, Venkat. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1791.
Metabolism |
Plant Chemistry |
Steroids
The Discovery-Oriented Approach to Organic Chemistry. 6. Selective Reduction in Organic Chemistry: Reduction of Aldehydes in the Presence of Esters Using Sodium Borohydride  Ashvin R. Baru and Ram S. Mohan
Describes two discovery oriented lab experiments involving the chemoselective reduction of vanillin acetate and methyl 4-formylbenzoate in the presence of esters using sodium borohydride, followed by product identification using 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy.
Baru, Ashvin R.; Mohan, Ram S. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1674.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Synthesis
Laboratory Experiments on the Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 8. Microscale Simultaneous Photocatalysis  Jorge G. Ibanez, Rodrigo Mena-Brito, and Arturo Fregoso-Infante
In this article we describe a microscale experiment in which the simultaneous oxidation of an organic compound (citric acid) and the reduction of a metal ion (Cu2+) are photocatalytically performed in an aqueous slurry containing TiO2 irradiated with UV light. This produces electrons (capable of reducing the metal ions) and holes (capable of oxidizing the organic molecule) that can be used for environmental clean up. The experiment allows students to have a better comprehension of the different phenomena involved in a typical photocatalytic process.
Ibanez, Jorge G.; Mena-Brito, Rodrigo; Fregoso-Infante, Arturo. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1549.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Photochemistry |
Semiconductors |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Laboratory Experiments on the Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 7: Microscale Production of Ozone  Jorge G. Ibanez, Rodrigo Mayen-Mondragon, M. T. Moran-Moran, Alejandro Alatorre-Ordaz, Bruce Mattson, and Scot Eskestrand
Ozone, a powerful oxidizing and disinfecting agent, is produced electrochemically in the undergraduate laboratory with simple equipment and under very mild conditions. Tests are given to characterize it, to observe its action in simulated environmental applications, and to measure its rate of production.
Ibanez, Jorge G.; Mayen-Mondragon, Rodrigo; Moran-Moran, M. T.; Alatorre-Ordaz, Alejandro; Mattson, Bruce; Eskestrand, Scot. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1546.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Making Usable, Quality Opaque or Transparent Soap  Suzanne T. Mabrouk
First-year and organic chemistry students will learn the chemistry of soap by making some of the eleven described formulations, which produce usable, quality bars of soap. Opaque and transparent soaps are made in two and three hours, respectively. With an introduction to formulation chemistry, organic chemistry students can devise a formulation to synthesize their own opaque soap. Many of the formulations use commonly-available fats and oils, while some formulations incorporate specialty fats and oils for therapeutic purposes, for example, to relieve dry skin or itching.
Mabrouk, Suzanne T. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1534.
Colloids |
Consumer Chemistry |
Lipids |
Nonmajor Courses |
Applications of Chemistry |
Esters
The Entrance and Exit Effects in Small Electrochemical Filter-Press Reactors Used in the Laboratory  Angel Frías-Ferrer, José González-García, Verónica Sáez, Eduardo Expósito, Carlos M. ánchez-Sánchez, Vicente Montiel, Antonio Aldaz, and Frank C. Walsh
An experiment has been designed to aid chemical engineering students in understanding the importance of size in small reactors in order to get suitable data for subsequent extrapolations to larger reactors and, therefore, for the scaleup of small systems. The experimental arrangement and procedures are described, and the theory needed to interpret the experimental results is discussed. Reactor geometry and size and experimental procedure are highlighted as key parameters in the study.
Frías-Ferrer, Angel; González-García, José; Sáez, Verónica; Expósito, Eduardo; ánchez-Sánchez, Carlos M.; Montiel, Vicente; Aldaz, Antonio; Walsh, Frank C. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1395.
Electrochemistry |
Industrial Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Transport Properties
A Microwave-Assisted Reduction of Cyclohexanone Using Solid-State-Supported Sodium Borohydride  Lori L. White and Kevin W. Kittredge
We report a microwave-assisted reduction of cyclohexanone by sodium borohydride that is supported on SiO2. The reaction was completed in less than 3 minutes. Workup and analysis by GCMS, IR, and 1H NMR was possible in a two and half-hour laboratory session. This reduction was used successfully in a second-year organic chemistry laboratory. Students were exposed to a green chemistry reaction using solid-state-supported reactants in the absence of solvent.
White, Lori L.; Kittredge, Kevin W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1055.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solid State Chemistry |
Green Chemistry |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Circular Dichroism Investigation of Dess–Martin Periodinane Oxidation in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Nicole A. Reed, Robert D. Rapp, Christian S. Hamann, and Pamela G. Artz
Using circular dichroism, organic laboratory students investigated the change in absolute stereochemistry upon oxidation of menthol to menthone. In the first laboratory period, the oxidation was performed with DessMartin periodinane, which is a facile and less toxic oxidizing agent. Half the laboratory group performed the oxidation with ()-menthol and the other half used (+)-menthol to produce ()-menthone and (+)-menthone, respectively. The products were analyzed in the second laboratory period using infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to determine the fraction of starting alcohol converted to ketone. Comparison was made between CD spectra both for the menthol reactant and menthone product and for the (+)- and ()-menthone enantiomers.
Reed, Nicole A.; Rapp, Robert D.; Hamann, Christian S.; Artz, Pamela G. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1053.
Instrumental Methods |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Enantiomers
Single-Molecule Electronic Measurements with Metal Electrodes  Stuart Lindsay
The process of transferring electrons from one metal electrode to another via an intervening molecule differs from electrochemically or optically-induced electron transfer in important ways. The simplest process of ballistic electron transport with no charge localization on the molecule (tunneling) should be easy to understand quantitatively, yet experimental reports and theoretical calculations can differ by orders of magnitude. Here, we show how many of the discrepancies are resolved with measurements carefully constructed to provide data on single molecules connected to electrodes in well-defined ways.
Lindsay, Stuart. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 727.
Electrochemistry |
Nanotechnology |
Oxidation / Reduction
Procedure for Decomposing a Redox Reaction into Half-Reactions  Ilie Fishtik and Ladislav H. Berka
The principle of stoichiometric uniqueness provides a simple algorithm to check whether a simple redox reaction may be uniquely decomposed into half-reactions in a single way. For complex redox reactions the approach permits a complete enumeration of a finite and unique number of ways a redox reaction may be decomposed into half-reactions. Several examples are given.
Fishtik, Ilie; Berka, Ladislav H. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 553.
Stoichiometry |
Equilibrium |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Thermodynamics
Analysis of Gold Ores by Fire Assay  Kristy M. Blyth, David N. Phillips, and Wilhelm van Bronswijk
This article describes a laboratory exercise for the analysis of gold using the fire-assay technique. This method of analysis not only provides students with an introduction to the technique of fire assay, but also covers some very interesting acidbase and redox chemistry. The gold is collected in a lead button while the remainder of the constituents find their way into a slag. The gold is recovered from the lead by absorption in a boneash cupel.
Blyth, Kristy M.; Phillips, David N.; van Bronswijk, Wilhelm. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1780.
Acids / Bases |
Industrial Chemistry |
Metals |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Volatile Organic Sulfur Compounds of Environmental Interest: Dimethyl Sulfide and Methanethiol. An Introductory Overview  Thomas G. Chasteen and Ronald Bentley
Volatile organic sulfur compounds and their degradation products play important environmental roles in global warming, acid precipitation, and cloud formation. Two important members of this group, dimethyl sulfide, DMS, and methanethiol, MT, are formed by living organisms as well as by abiotic processes. The chemical reactions responsible for the biosynthesis of DMS and MT are emphasized here, as well as means for their degradation. Since sulfur compounds are often ignored in normal course work, this article provides a basic foundation for an understanding of these interesting and environmentally significant compounds.
Chasteen, Thomas G.; Bentley, Ronald. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1524.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction
Studying Current–Potential Curves Using Bipotentiometric Iodometric Back-Titration for the Determination of Ascorbic Acid in Fruits and Vegetables  Roxana A. Verdini and Claudia M. Lagier
A method for the determination of the ascorbic acid content in fruits and vegetables was used to introduce the principles of voltammetry. The procedure combines an iodometric back-titration with voltammetric (bipotentiometric) end point detection, which minimizes the risk of ascorbic acid oxidation, allowing for a rapid and efficient quantification of vitamin C in fruits and vegetables. A better understanding of the titration curve is achieved by analyzing the schematic currentpotential curves of the anodic and cathodic half-cell reactions during the titration.
Verdini, Roxana A.; Lagier, Claudia M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1482.
Constitutional Isomers |
Electrochemistry |
Food Science |
Instrumental Methods |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Vitamins |
Consumer Chemistry
Catalytic Hydrogenation of Organic Compounds without H2 Supply: An Electrochemical System  Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz Navarro and Marcelo Navarro
A system for hydrogenation of organic compounds without a hydrogen gas supply is described. The process involves an electrochemical apparatus for the generation of hydrogen in situ. The simplicity of the experiment allows students to carry out easy experiments in the laboratory and the instructors to introduce the following concepts: electrochemical principles and catalytic and hydrogenation reactions. A sacrificial anode of nickel is used in the electrochemical system with a double function: to permit the use of an undivided cell and activate the cathode surface.
Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Navarro, Marcelo. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1350.
Catalysis |
Chromatography |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Simple Epoxide Formation for the Organic Laboratory Using Oxone  William C. Broshears, John J. Esteb, Jeremy Richter, and Anne M. Wilson
This experiment demonstrates a simple synthesis of an epoxide and formation of a secondary oxidizing agent.
Broshears, William C.; Esteb, John J.; Richter, Jeremy; Wilson, Anne M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1018.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis
A Reliable Homemade Electrode Based on Glassy Polymeric Carbon  André L. Santos, Regina M. Takeuchi, Herenilton P. Oliveira, Marcello G. Rodrigues, and Robert L. Zimmerman
The production of glassy polymeric carbon (GPC) through the thermal treatment of a phenolic resin is described.
Santos, André L.; Takeuchi, Regina M.; Oliveira, Herenilton P.; Rodrigues, Marcello G.; Zimmerman, Robert L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 842.
Electrochemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction
Chlor–Alkali Industry: A Laboratory Scale Approach  C. M. Sánchez-Sánchez, E. Expósito, A. Frías-Ferrer, J. González-García, V. Montiel, and A. Aldaz
An experiment is described that approximates the industrial chloralkali process using a membrane cell.
Sánchez-Sánchez, C. M.; Expósito, E.; Frías-Ferrer, A.; González-García, J.; Montiel, V.; Aldaz, A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 698.
Electrochemistry |
Industrial Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Variability of the Cell Potential of a Given Chemical Reaction  Ladislav H. Berka and Ilie Fishtik
It is demonstrated in this article that while the value of the free energy change for any chemical reaction is independent of path (a state function), the value of the standard cell potential of a reaction is dependent on the half-cell reactions used to carry out that reaction.
Berka, Ladislav H.; Fishtik, Ilie. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 584.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics |
Physical Properties |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Developing Investigation Skills in an Introductory Multistep Synthesis Using Fluorene Oxidation and Reduction  Mark G. Stocksdale, Steven E. S. Fletcher, Ian Henry, Paul J. Ogren, Michael A. G. Berg, Roy D. Pointer, and Barrett W. Benson
A two-step reaction sequence in the beginning organic laboratory provides a useful introduction to the importance of multistep synthesis. In addition to introducing several common synthetic methods and techniques, a two-step preparation can quickly establish the importance of testing alternative reactions in order to optimize intermediate yields.
Stocksdale, Mark G.; Fletcher, Steven E. S.; Henry, Ian; Ogren, Paul J.; Berg, Michael A. G.; Pointer, Roy D.; Benson, Barrett W. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 388.
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction
Laboratory Experiments on the Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 6: Microscale Production of Ferrate  Jorge G. Ibanez, Monica Tellez-Giron, Diana Alvarez, and Elizabeth Garcia-Pintor
Ferrate, a powerful oxidizing and disinfecting agent, is synthesized chemically and electrochemically in the undergraduate laboratory with simple equipment and under very mild conditions. Tests are given to characterize it and to observe its action in simulated environmental applications.
Ibanez, Jorge G.; Tellez-Giron, Monica; Alvarez, Diana; Garcia-Pintor, Elizabeth. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 251.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Green Chemistry |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction
Well Wishes. A Case on Septic Systems and Well Water Requiring In-Depth Analysis and Including Optional Laboratory Experiments  Mary M. Walczak and Juliette M. Lantz
This paper describes the use of a case study to teach introductory chemistry students the chemical principles of solution concentration (especially ppm) and dilution, aqueous redox reactions, and stoichiometric conversions between different solution species.
Walczak, Mary M.; Lantz, Juliette M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 218.
Consumer Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry
Comment on the Hazards of Peroxide Decomposition  J. C. Jones
The issue under discussionthe presence in ether of peroxides and their explosive decompositionis an important one, and the correspondence referred to is focused on laboratory safety. I believe however that an interesting point of pedagogic value can be gleaned from it.
Jones, J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 193.
Ethers |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Spectrophotometric Study of the Permanganate–Oxalate Reaction: An Analytical Laboratory Experiment  Gene E. Kalbus, Van T. Lieu, and Lee H. Kalbus
The experiment is divided into two parts. Part I involves the determination of an unknown oxalate. Part II of the experiment involves examination of the effect of sulfuric acid concentration and the effect of manganous ion concentration on the rate of and outcome of the permanganateoxalate reaction.
Kalbus, Gene E.; Lieu, Van T.; Kalbus, Lee H. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 100.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Food: The Chemistry of Its Components, 4th Edition (T. P. Coultrate)  Richard Pagni
The book begins with an extensive discussion of the major constituents of food: sugars and their polymers, lipids, and amino acids and their polymers. This is followed by fascinating chapters on colors and flavors, the ingredients that do so much to make food enjoyable.
Pagni, Richard. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 39.
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
Applications of Chemistry |
Carbohydrates |
Proteins / Peptides |
Lipids
Photogalvanic Cells for Classroom Investigations: A Contribution for Ongoing Curriculum Modernization  Claudia Bohrmann-Linde and Michael W. Tausch
Laboratory experiments examining the fundamental processes in the conversion of light into electrical energy using photogalvanic cells have been developed. These simple cells are suitable for classroom investigations examining the operating principles of photogalvanic cells and the influence of different parameters on their efficiency.
Bohrmann-Linde, Claudia; Tausch, Michael W. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1471.
Electrochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
The Relative Explosive Power of Some Explosives  Marten J. ten Hoor
The efficiency of an explosive is measured by its relative explosive power, REP. This quantity is defined as REP = QVg/m2, where Q is the energy released in the explosion, Vg is the total volume (at STP) of gas produced, and m is the mass of the explosive that has reacted. These three quantities can be determined from the explosion equation of the explosive.
ten Hoor, Marten J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1397.
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction
Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production by Direct Sunlight: A Laboratory Experiment  Atif Koca and Musa Sahin
The experiment can be used to introduce students to the concept of a renewable and sustainable hydrogen energy system of the future, as well as its production techniques, and to demonstrate the use of a CdS/ZnS photocatalyst system for photocatalytic hydrogen production from direct sunlight.
Koca, Atif; Sahin, Musa. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1314.
Catalysis |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Demonstrating Corrosion Using Galvanic Cells (J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 747-748)   Algirdas Sulcius
Comments on and suggestions for improving the original experimental procedure.
Sulcius, Algirdas. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1138.
Microscale Lab |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
A Graphical Presentation of the Born–Haber Cycle for Estimating the Electrode Potentials of Metals  Michael Laing
The traditional BornHaber cycle for estimating E for Mn+/M is represented visually by plotting step-by-step the values of ?Hat, IEi, and ?Hhyd for the metal.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1057.
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction
Reproportionation of Copper(I)  Jan Malyszko and Maria Kaczor
Cu(I) is an example of an intermediate oxidation state that can undergo disproportionation or reproportionation reactions depending on the solvent and background electrolyte. A simple experiment to demonstrate the reproportionation of copper(I) from the reaction between copper metal and copper(II) in acidic aqueous solution containing an excess of chlorides is presented.
Malyszko, Jan; Kaczor, Maria. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1048.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Quantitative Microscale Hydrogenation of Vegetable Oils  Daniel E. Blanchard
An organic lab that makes a connection between catalytic hydrogenation and issues of nutrition and health.
Blanchard, Daniel E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 544.
Food Science |
Lipids |
Microscale Lab |
Quantitative Analysis |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Classification of Vegetable Oils by Principal Component Analysis of FTIR Spectra  David A. Rusak, Leah M. Brown, and Scott D. Martin
Comparing unknown samples of vegetable oils to known samples using FTIR and principal component analysis (PCA) and nearest means classification (NMC).
Rusak, David A.; Brown, Leah M.; Martin, Scott D. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 541.
IR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Food Science |
Lipids |
Chemometrics |
Qualitative Analysis |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Electron Transport Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Wordsearch puzzle containing 30 words that describe electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 419.
Metabolism |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Environmental Redox Potential and Redox Capacity Concepts Using a Simple Polarographic Experiment  Alejandro Pidello
Laboratory designed to enable students to distinguish clearly between redox potential and redox capacity concepts through results obtained in a complex natural system (soil).
Pidello, Alejandro. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 68.
Agricultural Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Potentiometry
Microscale Quantitative Analysis of Hard Water Samples Using an Indirect Potassium Permanganate Redox Titration  John N. Richardson, Mark T. Stauffer, and Jennifer L. Henry
A procedure for a microscale quantitative analysis of hard water samples using an indirect potassium permanganate redox titration.
Richardson, John N.; Stauffer, Mark T.; Henry, Jennifer L. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 65.
Microscale Lab |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry
DeLorenzo's Four Interesting Mysteries Verified  Josefina Ma. Ferriols-Pavico
Results of experiments testing why women become intoxicated more easily than men, why alcohol consumption might enhance cigarettes' carcinogenic effects, why latex condoms with oil-based lubricants work better than latex condoms with water-based lubricants, and why red meat goes better with red wine and white meat with white wine?
Ferriols-Pavico, Josefina Ma. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1217.
Lipids |
Learning Theories |
Alcohols |
Applications of Chemistry
CLIP: Acetic Anhydride  Jay A. Young
Boric acid is a mild oxidizing agent.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1202.
Oxidation / Reduction
CLIP: Acetic Anhydride  Charlie A. Crutchfield
Boric acid is not an oxidizing agent.
Crutchfield, Charlie A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1202.
Oxidation / Reduction
CLIP: Acetic Anhydride  Charlie A. Crutchfield
Boric acid is not an oxidizing agent.
Crutchfield, Charlie A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1202.
Oxidation / Reduction
Determining Oxidation–Reduction on a Simple Number Line  Amy L. Cox and James R. Cox
Using a simple number line to analyze oxidation-reduction reactions encountered in introductory/general chemistry, organic chemistry, and biochemistry.
Cox, Amy L.; Cox, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 965.
Oxidation / Reduction
Chiral Compounds and Green Chemistry in Undergraduate Organic Laboratories: Reduction of a Ketone by Sodium Borohydride and Baker's Yeast  Nicola Pohl, Allen Clague, and Kimberly Schwarz
Students compare biological and chemical means of introducing chirality into a molecule by investigating the reduction of a ketoester with two different reducing agents.
Pohl, Nicola; Clague, Allen; Schwarz, Kimberly. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 727.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis |
Green Chemistry
A New Approach to Understanding Oxidation-Reduction of Compounds in Organic Chemistry  Abdullah Menzek
Teaching oxidation-reduction in introductory organic chemistry.
Menzek, Abdullah. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 700.
Aromatic Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Redox Redux: Recommendations for Improving Textbook and IUPAC Definitions  Ed Vitz
Defining oxidation / reduction reactions as those in which oxidation states of the reactant(s) change.
Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 397.
Electrochemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
A Simple Student Experiment for Teaching Surface Electrochemistry: Adsorption of Polyoxometalate on Graphite Electrodes  David Martel, Neso Sojic, and Alexander Kuhn
Experiment that illustrates the electrochemical behavior of a surface-adsorbed redox species through cyclic voltametry.
Martel, David; Sojic, Neso; Kuhn, Alexander. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 349.
Catalysis |
Electrochemistry |
Surface Science |
Oxidation / Reduction
Integrating HPLC and Electrochemistry: A LabVIEW-Based Pulsed Amperometric Detection System  Mark B. Jensen
Using the voltametry of glucose to develop a method for the pulsed amperometric detection of carbohydrates (glucose, fructose, and sucrose) following their separation by liquid chromatography.
Jensen, Mark B. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 345.
Chromatography |
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
HPLC |
Carbohydrates |
Separation Science |
Oxidation / Reduction
Microscale Determination of Vitamin C by Weight Titrimetry  Gaston A. East and Erica C. Nascimento
Electroanalytical method for the microscale determination of vitamin C using a nontraditional oxidimetric titrant.
East, Gaston A.; Nascimento, Erica C. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 100.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Microscale Lab |
Quantitative Analysis |
Vitamins |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
An Efficient Composition for Bengal Lights  M. Comet, L. Schreyeck, and H. Fuzellier
Producing bengal lights (colored flames) using different mixtures of colorants to introduce the solid-phase redox theory in inorganic chemistry.
Comet, M.; Schreyeck, L.; Fuzellier, H. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 70.
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solid State Chemistry
Determination of Free Lime in Clinker and Cement by Iodometry. An Undergraduate Experiment in Redox Titrimetry  Oi-Wah Lau, Shiu-Fai Luk, Nina L. N. Cheng, and Hoi-Yin Woo
Experiment to determine the free lime in cement and clinker through iodometry.
Lau, Oi-Wah; Luk, Shiu-Fai; Cheng, Nina L. N.; Woo, Hoi-Yin. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1671.
Acids / Bases |
Industrial Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Separation Science
Demonstrations with Nitrocellulose: Possible Further Pedagogic Value (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1449)  Edward G. Senkbeil
Characteristic of explosives to have fuel and oxidizer in the same structure.
Senkbeil, Edward G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1596.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Rate Law
Demonstrations with Nitrocellulose: Possible Further Pedagogic Value (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1449)  J. C. Jones
Characteristic of explosives to have fuel and oxidizer in the same structure.
Jones, J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1596.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Rate Law
Moisture Analysis in Lotion by Karl Fischer Coulometry. An Experiment for Introductory Analytical Chemistry  Patricia Ann Mabrouk and Kristine Castriotta
Measuring moisture content in hand and body lotions using Karl Fischer coulometry.
Mabrouk, Patricia Ann; Castriotta, Kristine. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1385.
Consumer Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
The Joy of Color in Ceramic Glazes with the Help of Redox Chemistry  Allen A. Denio
The chemistry of pottery, ceramic glazes, and the firing process.
Denio, Allen A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1298.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Geochemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Metals
Ethanol Metabolism and the Transition from Organic Chemistry to Biochemistry  Richard D. Feinman
Introducing alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase reactions in organic chemistry to ease transition to biochemistry.
Feinman, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1215.
Metabolism |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Alcohols |
Carbohydrates
Oxidation of Benzoin to Benzil Using Alumina-Supported Active MnO2  R. David Crouch, Michael S. Holden, and Jennifer S. Burger
Oxidation of benzoin to benzil using alumina-supported active MnO2; purification of the products using column chromatography.
Crouch, R. David; Holden, Michael S.; Burger, Jennifer S. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 951.
Chromatography |
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Combustion of White Phosphorus  Richard L. Keiter and Chaminda P. Gamage
The combustion of white phosphorus.
Keiter, Richard L.; Gamage, Chaminda P. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 908.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Photochemistry |
Main-Group Elements |
Oxidation / Reduction
Laboratory Experiments on Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 5: Indirect H2S Remediation  J. G. Ibanez
Experiment to introduce students in general chemistry, environmental chemistry, or electrochemistry to the concept of indirect electrolysis, its application in environmental remediation schemes, the role of a mediator, and the application of redox chemistry concepts.
Ibanez, J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 778.
Electrochemistry |
Gases |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry
The Oxidation of Alkylbenzenes: Using Data Pooling in the Organic Laboratory to Illustrate Research in Organic Chemistry  James C. Adrian Jr. and Leslie A. Hull
Student groups are assigned the task of oxidizing various substituted alkylbenzenes with potassium permanganate in basic solution; by pooling the results from all groups it is possible to illustrate how a research project in chemistry can be used to answer simple questions - What happens when your individual alkylbenzene is oxidized?
Adrian, James C., Jr.; Hull, Leslie A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 529.
Synthesis |
Chemometrics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds
Krebs Cycle Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Puzzle with 46 names, terms, prefixes, and acronyms that describe the citric acid (Krebs) cycle.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 515.
Metabolism |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The Household Chemistry of Cleaning Pennies  Laurence D. Rosenhein
Although it is well known that solutions of vinegar and table salt are effective in removing tarnish from pennies, chemical explanations of this behavior are not included in sources of this "household chemistry" and erroneous explanations have crept into popular literature on this subject; this article provides some relevant empirical information on the system.
Rosenhein, Laurence D. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 513.
Consumer Chemistry |
Coordination Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction
Glycolysis Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Puzzle with 30 names, terms, prefixes, and acronyms that describe glycolysis and fermentation.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 503.
Metabolism |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Carbohydrates
b-Oxidation Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Puzzle with 36 names, terms, prefixes, and acronyms that describe lipid metabolism.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 483.
Metabolism |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Lipids
Correction to "Drug Metabolism: The Body's Defense against Chemical Attack" (J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 349-353)  
Corrections to molecular structures.
J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 312.
Carbohydrates |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Enzymes |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Metabolism |
Synthesis
Organic-Solvent-Free Phase-Transfer Oxidation of Alcohols Using Hydrogen Peroxide  Martin Hulce and David W. Marks
Six representative alcohols are oxidized to the corresponding aldehyde or ketone, integrating the various techniques of extraction, drying, filtration, column chromatography, gas chromatography, NMR and IR spectroscopy, and reaction kinetics.
Hulce, Martin; Marks, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 66.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Phenols
A Microscale Oxidation Puzzle  Michael W. Pelter, Rebecca M. Macudzinski, and Mary Ellen Passarelli
We have adapted oxidation of an alcohol with sodium hypochlorite solution to a "puzzle" approach by using a diol as the substrate for oxidation. The diols under investigation have both a primary and a secondary hydroxyl group. The assignment is to perform the reaction and determine the structure of the product through interpretation of the IR spectrum.
Pelter, Michael W.; Macudzinski, Rebecca M.; Passarelli, Mary Ellen. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1481.
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
Alcohols |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Combustion Demonstration Using Updated Flame Tornado  Edward G. Senkbeil
This demonstration uses the combustion of different forms of cellulose and an updated version of the "flame tornado" as an ignition source to illustrate the factors affecting the combustion process. The objectives of the experiment are to illustrate the factors affecting the rate of a combustion reaction and to demonstrate the factors affecting the production of a flame by using the flame tornado.
Senkbeil, Edward G. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1449.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Rate Law
Kinetic Isotope Effect in the Chromic Acid Oxidation of Secondary Alcohols  Charles E. Harding, Christopher W. Mitchell, and Jozsef Devenyi
The kinetic isotope effect is an invaluable tool in studying certain organic reaction mechanisms. Two activities involving the technique that are suitable for introductory organic laboratory students are described. A simple competition experiment utilizing the benzhydrol?benzhydrol-d1 system and chromic acid oxidation is used to demonstrate qualitatively that there is a kinetic isotope effect involved in this process.
Harding, Charles E.; Mitchell, Christopher W.; Devenyi, Jozsef. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1042.
Isotopes |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Alcohols |
Oxidation / Reduction
Letters  
Points out that solid NaHSO3 does not exist.
Tudela, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 830.
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Carbohydrates
The Oxidation of Primary Alcohols to Esters: Three Related Investigative Experiments  Chriss E. McDonald

McDonald, Chriss E. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 750.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alcohols |
Esters |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The Thermodynamics and Kinetics of "HeaterMeals": An Exercise in Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry  William B. Jensen
The author traces his steps in unraveling the chemistry behind an innovative new commercial product called HeaterMeals, which makes use of an "inorganic oven" composed of magnesium metal, iron metal, and salt water as a way of heating prepackaged meals. The thermodynamic, kinetic, and structural roles played by each component are analyzed and correlated with various topics taught in a typical introductory inorganic course.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 713.
Electrochemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Applications of Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Comparative Study of Microscale and Standard Burets  Mono M. Singh, Cynthia B. McGowan, Zvi Szafran, and R. M. Pike
This paper describes a comparative study of the performance of microscale titrations using 2-mL microscale burets with those using Beral pipets and normal 50- and 10-mL burets. The usefulness of a microburet in general and analytical chemistry is demonstrated by presenting results from acid-base, oxidation-reduction, precipitation, complexometric, and pH titrations.
Singh, Mono M.; McGowan, Cynthia B.; Szafran, Zvi; Pike, Ronald M. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 625.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH |
Precipitation / Solubility
Lipid Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Wordsearch puzzle containing 37 names, terms, prefixes and acronyms that describe lipids.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 479.
Lipids |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Catalytic Oxidation of Ammonia: A Sparkling Experiment  Vladimir A. Volkovich and Trevor R. Griffiths
A lecture demonstration experiment on the catalytic oxidation of ammonia using chromium(III) oxide as a catalyst is described.
Volkovich, Vladimir A.; Griffiths, Trevor R. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 177.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
A Simple and Efficient Ozone Generator  Debra J. Sponholtz, Michael A. Walters, Jimmy Tung, and Joseph J. BelBruno
We report on the construction of an inexpensive, efficient, and compact ozonolysis apparatus, suitable for use in oxidation chemistry, which is a convenient alternative to the more expensive generators currently on the market. The details, operating parameters, and application of the ozone generator to the oxidation of methylallyl oxazolidione are also presented.
Sponholtz, Debra J.; Walters, Michael A.; Tung, Jimmy; BelBruno, Joseph J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1712.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Reactive Intermediates |
Synthesis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Citrate as a Flying Bird: Useful Mnemonics in Teaching the TCA Cycle  Evguenii I. Kozliak
A novel tip is recommended: to use the similarity of the citrate molecule to the schematic of a bird. The proposed mnemonics also enable students to draw the chemical structures of two more key TCA cycle intermediates, succinate and malate.
Kozliak, Evguenii I. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1656.
Nonmajor Courses |
Metabolism
Ascorbic Acid as a Standard for Iodometric Titrations: An Analytical Experiment for General Chemistry  Cesar R. Silva, Jose A. Simoni, Carol H. Collins, and Pedro L. O. Volpe
Ascorbic acid is suggested as the weighable compound for the standardization of iodine solutions in an analytical experiment in general chemistry. The experiment involves an iodometric titration in which iodine reacts with ascorbic acid, oxidizing it to dehydroascorbic acid.
Silva, Cesar R.; Simoni, Jose A.; Collins, Carol H.; Volpe, Pedro L. O. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1421.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases
Chemistry Comes Alive! Vol. 3: Abstract of Special Issue 23 on CD-ROM  Jerrold J. Jacobsen and John W. Moore
Volume 3 contains several related topics generally included in an introductory chemistry course. The general areas are Enthalpy and Thermodynamics, Oxidation-Reduction, and Electrochemistry.
Jacobsen, Jerrold J.; Moore, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1311.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Lemon Cells Revisited  Radhakrishnamurty, P.
Analysis of the reactions and nature of the electrodes in the lemon cell.
Radhakrishnamurty, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1190.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Oxidation / Reduction
The Discovery-Oriented Approach to Organic Chemistry 2. Selectivity in Alcohol Oxidation: An Exercise in 1H NMR Spectroscopy for Sophomore Organic Laboratories  Steven R. Shadwick and Ram S. Mohan
A simple oxidation experiment that presents the student with a puzzle and is a good exercise in 1H NMR spectroscopy. The experiment, which illustrates the important concept of selectivity in organic synthesis, involves selective oxidation of a mixture of 1-heptanol and 2-heptanol using commercial swimming pool chlorine.
Shadwick, Steven R.; Mohan, Ram S. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1121.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis
In Search of a Deep Understanding of Cu2+/0 and Zn2+/0 E° Values  Steven H. Strauss
This paper presents an example of an interesting way to introduce periodic trends in undergraduate inorganic chemistry courses. The student, guided by the instructor, "investigates" the significantly different M2+/0 E values for two adjacent period 4 elements, copper and zinc, as though the investigation were a research project.
Strauss, Steven H. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1095.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Spectrophotometric Method for Quantitative Determination of Bromine Using Tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine  Joan Han, Troy Story, and Grace Han
A simple spectrophotometric method for quantitative determination of bromine is described.
Han, Joan; Story, Troy; Han, Grace. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 976.
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
A Further Demonstration of Sulfite-Induced Redox Cycling of Metal Ions Initiated by Shaking  Horacio D. Moya, Eduardo Almeida Neves, and Nina Coichev
Details of a fascinating laboratory demonstration of the sulfite-induced redox cycling of Ni(II)/Ni(III), which is initiated by shaking the solution in the presence of air, are reported. The balance between the sulfite and oxygen concentration controls the direction of the overall reaction.
Moya, Horacio D.; Neves, Eduardo Almeida; Coichev, Nina. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 930.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Catalysis
An Analysis of College Chemistry Textbooks As Sources of Misconceptions and Errors in Electrochemistry  Michael J. Sanger and Thomas J. Greenbowe
The oxidation-reduction and electrochemistry chapters of 10 introductory college chemistry textbooks were reviewed for misleading or erroneous statements, using a list of student misconceptions. As a result of this analysis, we provide suggestions for chemistry instructors and textbook authors.
Sanger, Michael J.; Greenbowe, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 853.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Learning Theories
Redox Buffer Strength  Robert de Levie
The proper functioning of enzymes in bodily fluids requires that the pH be maintained within rather narrow limits. The first line of defense against large pH fluctuations in such fluids is the passive control provided by the presence of pH buffers. It is equally important for many enzymes that the redox potential is kept within a narrow range. In that case, stability of the potential is most readily achieved with a redox buffer. In this communication the redox buffer strength is defined by analogy with acid-base buffer strength.
de Levie, Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 574.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases |
Enzymes
A Simple, Safe Way To Prepare Halogens and Study Their Visual Properties at a Technical Secondary School  Domingo A. Liprandi, Orlando R. Reinheimer, José F. Paredes, and Pablo C. L'Argentière
In this paper we propose an easy-to-build apparatus to obtain chlorine, bromine, and iodine. The experiment was developed considering not only theoretical and safety conditions but simplicity and clarity as well.
Liprandi, Domingo A.; Reinheimer, Orlando R.; Paredes, José F.; L'Argentière, Pablo C. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 532.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Oxidation Numbers  Gion Calzaferri
Assigning oxidation numbers to organic compounds and Jrgensen's axioms.
Calzaferri, Gion. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 362.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Oxidation State
Is It Real Gold?  Harold H. Harris
The oxidation-reduction couples involved in the corrosion of gold alloys and the dissolution of "noble" metals are related to an inquiry to the newspaper columnist, Ann Landers. the origin of several contemporary phrases (touch stone, acid test, Hallmark) are found in the chemistry of gold.
Harris, Harold H. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 198.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Qualitative Analysis |
Applications of Chemistry
Lead Globules  Francisco J. Arnáiz and Maria R. Pedrosa
Reaction of plumbate solutions with aluminum. A variety of lead films can be formed depending on the conditions. The method we describe permits obtaining a large lead globule in less than 1 minute.
Arnáiz, Francisco J.; Pedrosa, Maria R. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1431.
Qualitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Simple, Transparent Fume Hood  John Fredericks
An inexpensive transparent fume hood can be constructed from a clear-plastic two-liter soft drink bottle that is cut just above the base. A length of vacuum tubing is secured to the opening of the bottle using black electrical tape. The tubing is then connected to a water aspirator.
Fredericks, John. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1299.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Laboratory Management
Let's Dot Our I's and Cross Our T's  Leenson, Ilya A.

Leenson, Ilya A. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1088.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Laboratory Experiments on Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 4: Color Removal of Simulated Wastewater by Electrocoagulation-Electroflotation  Jorge G. Ibanez, M. M. Singh, and Z. Szafran
Due to the large production of aqueous waste streams from textile mills and dye production plants, several processes have been under intense study. Electrochemical processes offer some distinctive advantages, including effects due to: 1) the production of electrolysis gases, and 2) the production of polyvalent cations from the oxidation of corrodible anodes (like Fe and Al).
Ibanez, Jorge G.; Singh, Mono M.; Szafran, Zvi. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1040.
Microscale Lab |
Electrochemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Microscale Lab
Balancing Organic Reactions  Woolf, A.A.
Assigning oxidation numbers to atoms that change in the redox process.
Woolf, A.A. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 938.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction
The Clemmensen Reduction  Palacios, Juan C.; Cintas, Pedro
Clemmensen reduction does not involve the formation of alcohols.
Palacios, Juan C.; Cintas, Pedro J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 938.
Oxidation / Reduction
Letters  
Clemmensen reduction does not involve the formation of alcohols.
J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 938.
Oxidation / Reduction
Slide Projector Corrosion Cell  Silvia Tejada, Estela Guevara, and Esperanza Olivares
The process of corrosion can be demonstrated in a slide projector, since the cell is in the shape of a slide, or on the stage of an overhead projector by setting up a simple galvanic cell. Corrosion occurs as the result of a galvanic cell reaction, in which the corroding metal acts as the anode. Several simple demonstrations relating to corrosion are described here.
Tejada, Silvia; Guevara, Estela; Olivares, Esperanza. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 747.
Electrochemistry |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Applications of Chemistry
The Chemical Adventures of Sherlock Holmes: The Baker Street Burning  Thomas G. Waddell and Thomas R. Rybolt
A chemical mystery featuring Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson.
Thomas G. Waddell and Thomas R. Rybolt. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 484.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Forensic Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alcohols |
Dyes / Pigments
Kinetics of p-Nitrophenol Degradation by Pseudomonas sp.: An Experiment Illustrating Bioremediation  Michelle H. Duong, Samuel L. Penrod, and Stanley B. Grant
This paper describes a simple experiment illustrating bioremediation which is well suited for undergraduate classes in environmental chemistry, microbiology, or engineering.
Duong, Michelle H.; Penrod, Samuel L.; Grant, Stanley B. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1451.
Biotechnology |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry
Laboratory Experiments on Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 2: Microscale Indirect Electrolytic Destruction of Organic Wastes  Jorge G. Ibanez, M. M. Singh, R. M. Pike, and Z. Szafran
The objective of this experiment is to destroy, at the microscale level, a sample of surrogate organic waste by generating a powerful oxidizer at the anode of an electrochemical cell. This generated species oxidizes the waste to harmless products. The oxidizer can then be regenerated and recycled.
Ibanez, Jorge G.; Singh M. M.; Pike, R. M.; Szafran, Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1449.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Microscale Lab |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Applications of Chemistry
Acid Rain Demonstration: The Formation of Nitrogen Oxides as a By-Product of High-Temperature Flames in Connection with Internal Combustion Engines  Jerry A. Driscoll
This demonstration illustrates the formation of nitrogen oxides resulting from a high temperature flame.
Driscoll, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1424.
Equilibrium |
Learning Theories |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Using Mathematica and Maple To Obtain Chemical Equations  William R. Smith and Ronald W. Missen
A straightforward stepwise procedure is described for each of Mathematica and Maple, applicable to systems of any complexity. The procedures are illustrated by two examples, one for a "difficult" redox system, and the other for a multi-equation inorganic system.
Smith, William R.; Missen, Ronald W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1369.
Stoichiometry |
Learning Theories |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
Redox Balancing without Puzzling  Marten J. ten Hoor
Once it has been established by experiment that the given reactants can indeed be converted into the given products, chemistry has done its job. Balancing the equation of the reaction is a matter of mathematics only.
ten Hoor, Marten J. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1367.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction
The Membrane Analogy for Surface Tension in Liquids  Francisco J. Arnaíz
Students frequently have trouble envisioning the surface of a liquid to be like a thin membrane. To reinforce the membrane analogy for surface tension two simple experiments, easily performed with kitchen products, are suggested.
Arnaiz, Francisco J. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1358.
Lipids |
Surface Science
Letter to the Editor about Letter to the Editor "Redox Challenges" from David M. Hart and Response from Roland Stout (J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A226-7)  Andrzej Sobkowiak
Examples of a variety of redox equations.
Sobkowiak, Andrzej. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1256.
Stoichiometry |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Free Radical Reactions in Aqueous Solutions: Examples from Advanced Oxidation Processes for Wastewater from the Chemistry in Airborne Water Droplets  N. Colin Baird
A common free radical reaction in aqueous solution is electron transfer, especially to the hydroxyl radical and to ozone. Hydrogen peroxide and free radicals related to it act as weak acids, so both their neutral and deprotonated forms must be considered in reactions. Free radical reactions also play an important role in the chemistry of water droplets suspended in air in clouds and fogs.
Baird, N. Colin. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 817.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Free Radicals |
Reactive Intermediates |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction
Double Redox Reactions
The authors reply:
  Claudio Giomini, Giancarlo Marrosu, and Mario E. Cardinali
Balancing redox equations.
Giomini, Claudio; Marrosu, Giancarlo; Cardinali, Mario E. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 744.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry
Double Redox Reactions  Zoltán Tóth
Balancing redox equations.
Tóth, Zoltán. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 744.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry
An Analysis of the Algebraic Method for Balancing Chemical Reactions  John A. Olson
A new aspect of this treatment is the mathematical formulation of a third condition involving a balance between oxidation and reduction. The treatment begins with the three general conditions that a balanced chemical reaction must satisfy. These conditions are then expressed in mathematical form that enables the stoichiometric coefficients to be determined.
Olson, John A. . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 538.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry
Valency  Peter G. Nelson
The concept of valency is refined and developed. Three types of valency are distinguished : primary or classical, coordinate, and nonclassical. The first relates to simple compounds and to the components of multiple ones, the second to coordination compounds, and the third to transition-metal carbonyls and similar species. Each type is defined, evaluated, and applied to the prediction of the atomic composition of compounds.
Nelson, Peter G. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 465.
Valence Bond Theory |
Coordination Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction
Microburger Biochemistry: Extraction and Spectral Characterization of Myoglyobin from Hamburger  Sheri A. Bylkas and Laura A. Andersson
The protocol combines protein extraction, oxidation and reduction, and simple spectroscopic analysis, as well as gel filtration chromatography and generation/analysis of spectral scans. Mammalian myoglobin (Mb) is easily extracted from steak, to illustrate and address why fresh meat is red and aged meat is brown; the protein has unique spectral properties that are diagnostic for characterization of sample identity.
Bylkas, Sheri A.; Andersson, Laura A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 426.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Proteins / Peptides |
Oxidation / Reduction |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Chromatography
Reduction of Carboxylic Acids with Sodium Borohydride and an Electrophile  Jan William Simek, Thad Tuck, and Kelly Courter Bush
Integration of new reduction conditions into a procedure applicable to the first-year organic chemistry laboratory, where reduction of the carboxylic acid group has remained an obstacle, notwithstanding the use of borane or LiAlH4 (2) on the microscale. The NaBH4 method with either electrophile can be modified to any scale; in our hands, the use of I2 as the electrophile performed better at the semimicro scale than the H2SO4 method.
Simek, Jan William; Tuck, Thad; Bush, Kelly Courter . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 107.
Carboxylic Acids |
Aromatic Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction
Understanding Oxidation - Reduction in Organic Chemistry  Jean-Pierre Anselme
Explanation of oxidation and reduction as applied to organic chemistry.
Anselme, Jean-Pierre. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 69.
Oxidation / Reduction
Following Microscale Organic Reactions Using FT-IR  Ems-Wilson, Janice
The progress of two microscale reactions, the reduction of cyclohexanone with sodium borohydride and the photochemical formation of benzopinacol, was monitored, qualitatively, using FT-IR.
Ems-Wilson, Janice J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A171.
Microscale Lab |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
IR Spectroscopy
A Student-Designed Potentiometric Titration: Quantitative Determination of Iron(II) by Caro's Acid Titration  Joyce R. Powell, Sheryl A. Tucker, William E. Acree Jr., Jennifer A. Sees, Lindsey H. Hall
A laboratory experiment involving the feasibility of using Caro's acid, H2SO5, as a titrant in the potentiometric determination of iron(II) is presented.
Powell, Joyce R.; Tucker, Sheryl A.; Acree Jr., William E.; Sees, Jennifer A.; Hall, Lindsey H. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 984.
Potentiometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis
A Simple Method for Determining the Temperature Coefficient of Voltaic Cell Voltage  Alfred E. Saieed, Keith M. Davies
This article describes a relatively simple method for preparing voltaic cells, and through their temperature coefficient, ?E/?T, it explores relationships between ?G, ?H,and ?S for the cell reactions involved.
Saieed, Alfred E.; Davies, Keith M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 959.
Electrochemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Oxidation / Reduction
The Well-Read Biochemist  Gale Rhodes
This article describes how I use a collection of poems, essays, and fiction to inspire my biochemistry students to make connections between the arcane world of cellular chemistry and the wider world of literature and the humanities.
Rhodes, Gale. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 732.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Metabolism |
Proteins / Peptides |
Membranes
Improved End Point Detection in the Redox Titration of Vitamin C in Green Peppers  S. Todd Deal and Sandi R. Pope
We have used E. R. Johnson's "infamous pepper lab" (titrimetric determination of vitamin C content in raw and cooked green peppers) in our introductory biochemistry course for years with varying success. Our solution to the problem discussed in this article has proven to be remarkably simple.
Deal, S. Todd; Pope, Sandi R. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 547.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Food Science
Bacterial Toxicity Assessment Using Resazurin Reduction Kinetics: An Undergraduate Toxicity Experiment for the Chemistry-Biology Major  S. Helliwell and T. J. Harden
An undergraduate toxicity experiment is described using the redox indicator resazurin as an indicator of dehydrogenase activity. Two types of bacteria are utilized, the Gram positive Streptococcus cremoris and a Gram negative bacterium, Escherichia coli, to demonstrate the potentially different toxicological responses to the same chemical.
Helliwell, S.; Harden, T. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 368.
Toxicology |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Kinetics
The Mechanism of NaBH4 Addition to Aldehydes: A Labeling Experiment  Rolland K. Robinson and Karl De Jesus
In order to determine the sources of hydrogens in NaBH4 reductions of aldehydes, a series of reductions were carried out using differentially deuterated reagents and solvents.
Robinson, Rolland K.; De Jesus, Karl. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 264.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction
Fundamental Issues of Thermodynamics Illuminated by Conspicuous Inorganic Chemistry: Oxidation of [Co(H2O)6]2+ to [Co(H2O)6]3+ by Hydrogen Peroxide: A Nonspontaneous Redox Reaction Made Feasible by Thermodynamic Coupling  Susan Cline Schäffer and Claus E. Schäffer
The thermodynamic properties of hydrogen peroxide as an oxidizing agent do not allow it to oxidize [Co(OH2)6]2+ to [Co(OH2)6]3+. However, if [Co(OH2)6]3+ is formed in two steps, hydrogen peroxide is able to do it.
Schäffer, Susan Cline; Schäffer, Claus E. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 180.
Thermodynamics |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Commercial Device Involving the Breathalyzer Test Reaction  Kathleen J. Dombrink
The breathalyzer test, formerly used by law-enforcement agencies to determine the percentage blood alcohol in suspected DUI cases, is still used in the device FINAL CALL, which is available commercially. The reaction involves the reduction of chromuim(VI) in the orange dichromate ion, Cr2O72- to the green chromium(III) ion, Cr3+ by ethyl alcohol.
Dombrink, Kathleen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 135.
Applications of Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Phase Transfer Catalysis Applied to Oxidation  Claude Amsterdamsky
Benzhydrol and cycloheptanol have been oxidized to ketones using commercial bleach as oxidizer and tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate as a phase transfer catalyst.
Amsterdamsky, Claude. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 92.
Alcohols |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Catalysis
Monitoring Oxidation of Bromocresol Green with a Diode Laser: A General Chemistry IBM Personal Science Laboratory (PSL) Experiment  Zimmer, John; Reeves, James; Jones, Rebecca; Cizerle, Kirk; Ward, Dick
Procedure for monitoring the oxidation of bromocresol green using a diode laser and a radiometric probe; includes data and analysis.
Zimmer, John; Reeves, James; Jones, Rebecca; Cizerle, Kirk; Ward, Dick J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A118.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Spectroscopy |
Kinetics |
Lasers
Baeyer-Villiger Oxidation of Indane-1-ones: Monitoring of the Reaction by VPC and IR Spectroscopy  Elie Stephan
Procedure for the Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of indane-1-ones.
Stephan, Elie. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1142.
IR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Phosphatidylcholine from "Healthful" Egg Yolk Varieties: An Organic Laboratory Experience  Linda C. Hodges
Using chromatography to isolate and analyze phosphatidylcholine from chickens raised on different diets.
Hodges, Linda C. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1140.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Lipids
Redox Challenges: Good Times for Puzzle Fanatics  Roland Stout
Three difficult to balance redox equations.
Stout, Roland. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1125.
Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Lip + Eye + D Chemist Tree  Terry L. Helser
Lipid rebus puzzle.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1098.
Lipids
Resistance Measurement as a Tool for Corrosion Studies  Singh, N. P.; Gupta, S. C.; Sood, B. R.
Procedure for determining the rate of corrosion by measuring changes in the resistance of a thin wire or strip of metal; sample data and analysis included.
Singh, N. P.; Gupta, S. C.; Sood, B. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 465.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Rate Law |
Reactions |
Electrochemistry
Corrosion Inhibitors for Aluminum: Student Experiments  Muller, Bodo
Investigation of the effect different chelating agents have on inhibiting the corrosion of aluminum flakes in paint (metallic basecoats).
Muller, Bodo J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 350.
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Industrial Chemistry |
Coordination Compounds
Examining Host-Guest Interactions with an Integrated Spreadsheet/Molecular-Modeling Program  Hanks, T. W.; Hallford, R.; Wright, G.
172. Synopsis of a combination molecular modeling/spreadsheet software used to investigate intermolecular interactions.
Hanks, T. W.; Hallford, R.; Wright, G. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 329.
Metabolism |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Molecular Modeling
Baker's Yeast Reduction of alpha-Diketones: A Four-Hour Experiment for Undergraduate Students  Besse, Pascale; Bolte, Jean; Veschambre, Henri
Procedure for quickly and efficiently reducing alpha-diketones using bakers' yeast.
Besse, Pascale; Bolte, Jean; Veschambre, Henri J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 277.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
A More Affordable Undergraduate Experiment on the Reduction of Acetophenone by Yeast  Lee, Moses; Huntington, Martha
Preparation of Mosher's esters through the reduction of acetophenone with baker's yeast.
Lee, Moses; Huntington, Martha J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A62.
Microscale Lab |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stereochemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Esters |
Synthesis
A Simple and Safe Catalytic Hydrogenation of 4-Vinylbenzoic Acid  De, Shantanu; Gambhir, Geetu; Krishnamurty, H. G.
An alternative procedure to catalytic hydrogenation is catalytic transfer hydrogenation. In this technique, the reduction of an organic compound is achieved with the aid of a donor substance in the presence of a catalyst.
De, Shantanu; Gambhir, Geetu; Krishnamurty, H. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 992.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes
A Fascinating Demonstration of Sulfite Induced Redox Cycling of Metal Ions Initiated by Shaking  Coichev, Nina; van Eldik, Rudi
A complete redox cycle with the net oxidation of sulfite and reduction of oxygen.
Coichev, Nina; van Eldik, Rudi J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 767.
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction
Vanadium Ions as Visible Electron Carriers in a Redox System  Bare, William D.; Resto, Wilfredo
Demonstration using a column to display the four, differently colored, oxidation states of vanadium simultaneously.
Bare, William D.; Resto, Wilfredo J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 692.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Oxidation State
Acid-Base Titration Curves in Disproportionating Redox Systems  Michalowski, Tadeusz; Lesiak, Andrzej
Titrations for disproportioning systems with two bromine compounds (Br2 and HBrO) and iodine (I2) as examples.
Michalowski, Tadeusz; Lesiak, Andrzej J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 632.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis
Photometric Determination of the Rate Expression for MnO4- Mediated Organic Oxidations  Crouch, R. David
Photometric procedure for studying the kinetics of the MnO4- mediated oxidation of mandelic acid in KOH.
Crouch, R. David J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 597.
Rate Law |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Photochemistry |
Kinetics
Calculation of pH and Potential E for Bromine Aqueous Solution  Michalowski, Tadeusz
The electron prebalance concept applied to the pH calculation of an aqueous solution of Br2 (bromine water) as an example.
Michalowski, Tadeusz J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 560.
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Warning for Frost Diagrams Users  Martinez de llarduya, Jesus M.; Villafane, Fernando
How the use of the correct diagram prevents wrong conclusions, and how some predictions depend on the use of each type of basic-solution diagram.
Martinez de llarduya, Jesus M.; Villafane, Fernando J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 480.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A Handy Reagent for Testing the Reducing Power of Sugars  Sandell, Arvid
Using the reduction of copper(II) as a semi-quantitative test for reducing sugars.
Sandell, Arvid J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 346.
Carbohydrates |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Coordination Compounds
Pyrotechnic Reactions Without Oxygen  Wright, Stephen W.
Reaction of K3FeF6 with Al and poly(tetrafluoroethylene) with Mg.
Wright, Stephen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 251.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
The Blue Bottle Experiment Revisited: How Blue? How Sweet?  Cook, A. Gilbert; Tolliver, Randi M.; Williams, Janelle E.
Determining whether other colors and carbohydrates are possible with the "Blue Bottle" reaction.
Cook, A. Gilbert; Tolliver, Randi M.; Williams, Janelle E. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 160.
Aromatic Compounds |
Reactions |
Rate Law |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Carbohydrates |
Oxidation / Reduction
Classroom Demonstration of Chromium(VI)/Chromium(III) in the Breathalyzer Test Reaction  Jones, Rebecca B.; Dreisbach, Joseph H.
Demonstrating the breathalyzer reaction.
Jones, Rebecca B.; Dreisbach, Joseph H. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 158.
Nonmajor Courses |
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction
Conversion Reactions in Inorganic Chemistry  Habashi, Fathi.
Liberation of metals from their sulfides through reaction with oxygen.
Habashi, Fathi. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 130.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Climbing a potential ladder to understanding concepts in electrochemistry  Runo, James R.; Peters, Dennis G.
An introduction of a unified approach that makes use of a potential latter in order to assist students in overcoming and clarifying the problems encountered when learning electrochemistry.
Runo, James R.; Peters, Dennis G. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 708.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Is This Reaction a Substitution, Oxidation-Reduction, or Transfer?  Imyanitov, Naum S.
Author argues that separation of chemical reaction types based on convention do not always follow objective and consistent rules. This leads to confusion among students and artificial borders within the various sub-disciplines in chemistry.
Imyanitov, Naum S. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 14.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Synthesis of a heteropolytungstate and its use in outer-sphere redox kinetics  Walmsley, Frank
An inorganic chemistry experiment has been developed combining two topics usually included in inorganic chemistry: heteropoly ions and mechanisms of oxidation-reduction reactions of transition metal ions.
Walmsley, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 936.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Kinetics |
Synthesis |
Coordination Compounds
A more environmentally acceptable determination of iron in an ore  Byars, Jeffrey; McCreary, Terry W.
The method for titrimetric determination of iron in which zinc is used as the reactant in situ rather that as a Jones reductor, has several advantages over conventional determination of iron.
Byars, Jeffrey; McCreary, Terry W. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 935.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis
Frost diagrams: A tool for predicting redox reactions.  Birk, James P.; Hocker, Heidi.
A HyperCard stack that provides an easily used format for making redox reaction predictions for one or two elements by comparing slopes of the lines connecting two oxidation states.
Birk, James P.; Hocker, Heidi. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 509.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Bioenergetics of glycolysis   Senkbeil, Edward
The following question involves the bioenergetic aspects of glycolysis. It is suitable for undergraduate biochemistry students, and it assumes that they have a copy of the pathway handy.
Senkbeil, Edward J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 412.
Bioenergetics |
Metabolism
The chemical logic of life and the earth's biosphere: A simple, one-diagram outline  Ochiai, Ei-Ichiro
This diagram is intended to give a compact overall picture of the chemical logic of life and of the earth's biosphere.
Ochiai, Ei-Ichiro J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 356.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction
The chemistry of olive oil  Quigley, Michael N.
A collection of organic chemistry experiments based on olive oil are described here.
Quigley, Michael N. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 332.
Food Science |
Lipids |
Fatty Acids
Algorithm for plotting titration curves (author response).  Rodrigues de Moura, Daniel.
Our model, contrary to Jackman's statement, can be applied to redox systems that are pH-dependant.
Rodrigues de Moura, Daniel. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 257.
pH |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Algorithm for plotting titration curves.  Jackman, Donald C.
de Moura's algorithm for plotting redox titration curves seems to be good for systems that are not dependent on pH or product concentration, but is not applicable to those situations that is student is more likely to encounter.
Jackman, Donald C. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 257.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH
Electrochemistry of proton-coupled redox reactions: Role of the electrode surface.  Thorp, H. Holden.
In this article examples of the effects of the surface properties on a working electrode are explored.
Thorp, H. Holden. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 250.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
pH
When the barking dog bites the hand that feeds it: A safety caution.  Worley, John D.
Plastic gloves should not be used at any point during the barking dog demonstration.
Worley, John D. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 241.
Oxidation / Reduction
A new method for the oxidation of 4-phenylurazole to 4-phenyltriazolinedione.  Mallakpour, Shadpour E.
The procedures describe the synthesis of 4-phenyl-urazole from ethyl carbazate and then the oxidation of the urazole with NO2-N2O4 to yield 4-phenyl-1,2,4-trizoline-3,5-dione.
Mallakpour, Shadpour E. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 238.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds
Redox equations with an infinite number of balanced solutions  Riley, Jeremy; Richmond, Thomas G. R.
Some mathematically minded students prefer to use various algebraic methods to solve oxidation/reduction problems instead of the half-reaction method. This can lead to redox reactions in which the reactants actually yield a family of balanced equations rather than a unique solution.
Riley, Jeremy; Richmond, Thomas G. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 114.
Oxidation / Reduction
The bird-scarer (combustion) demo   Battino, Rubin; Arehart, James D.; Foot, Neville W.; Stott, James B.
This is a demonstration version of a device used to scare birds with loud noises occurring at regular intervals.
Battino, Rubin; Arehart, James D.; Foot, Neville W.; Stott, James B. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 64.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Biological Membranes: Function and Assembly  Kohlwein, Sepp D.
In this review we intend to summarize some of the methodology involved in biological membrane research and some of the recent developments in our understanding of how biological membranes are assembled and how they function.
Kohlwein, Sepp D. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 3.
Lipids
A mild and convenient oxidation of alcohols: Benzoin to benzil and borneol to camphor  Straub, Thomas S.
A traditional organic chemistry laboratory poses threat to both student safety and the environment: this author provides an alternative procedure.
Straub, Thomas S. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1048.
Heterocycles |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alcohols
Hydroboration-oxidation of (1R)-(+)-alpha-pinene to isopinocampheol: A microscale experiment that displays regio- and stereochemistry using NMR spectroscopy and molecular mechanics calculations  Blankespoor, Ronald L.; Piers, Kenneth
The hydroboration-oxidation of alkenes is an important route to alcohols and therefore receives considerable treatment in standard organic textbooks. These authors present their findings of an example (an alkene that undergoes the hydroboration oxidation process) that displays both regiochemistry and stereochemistry.
Blankespoor, Ronald L.; Piers, Kenneth J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 693.
Alkenes |
Oxidation / Reduction |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols
Recovery of silver from and some uses for waste silver chloride  Murphy, J. A.; Ackerman, A. H.; Heeren, J. K.
Procedures for conversion to silver nitrate, using waste AgCl as an oxidizing agent, and electrodepositon experiments.
Murphy, J. A.; Ackerman, A. H.; Heeren, J. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 602.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Experimental demonstration of corrosion phenomena: Part II. corrosion phenomena of steel in aqueous media  Arce, Elsa M.; Ramirez, Roman; Cortes, Felipe; Ibanez, Jorge G.
A description of an experiment that uses a sample of carbon steel to show the effect of aggressive ions and inhibiting ions upon it corrosion behavior.
Arce, Elsa M.; Ramirez, Roman; Cortes, Felipe; Ibanez, Jorge G. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 351.
Metals |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Redox demonstrations and descriptive chemistry: Part 3. Copper (I)-copper(II) equilibria   Ophardt, Charles E.
The unusual redox properties of copper (I) and copper (II) ions explained and illustrated.
Ophardt, Charles E. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 248.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction
Superoxide dismutase and the Briggs-Rauscher reaction  Franz, David A.
Oxygen-derived species provide chemistry teachers with excellent examples for discussion of molecular-orbital theory, bond order and reactivity, redox potentials, radical reactivity, disproportionation, and enzyme activity.
Franz, David A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 57.
Enzymes |
Biophysical Chemistry |
MO Theory |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Covalent Bonding
Design of corrosion inhibitors: Use of the hard and soft acid-base (HSAB) theory  Walters, Frederick H.
Using hard and soft acid-base theory to understand corrosion.
Walters, Frederick H. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 29.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Electrochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A less hazardous chromic acid substitute for cleaning glassware  Manske, Paul M.; Stimpfel, Teresa M.; Gershey, Edward L.
Evaluation of several common cleaning solutions for their ability to remove known amounts of baked-on lipid or protein from glassware.
Manske, Paul M.; Stimpfel, Teresa M.; Gershey, Edward L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A280.
Laboratory Management |
Lipids |
Proteins / Peptides
Versed and reversed: A meter for mobile equilibrium  Vemulapalli, G. K.
The principle of mobile equilibrium in verse.
Vemulapalli, G. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1003.
Equilibrium |
Oxidation / Reduction
Redox ion exchanger fuel cell  Rawat, Jagdish Prasad; Ansari, Abdul Aziz
Study of the usefulness of a redox reaction between Fe 3+ and Zn on an ion-exchanger bed for the preparation of a fuel cell.
Rawat, Jagdish Prasad; Ansari, Abdul Aziz J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 808.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Ion Exchange |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
A bromate clock reaction: The formation of purple tris(diphosphato)manganate(III)  Rich, Ronald L.; Noyes, Richard M.
Bromate is used to oxidize nearly colorless Mn(II) to a deep purple complex of Mn(III).
Rich, Ronald L.; Noyes, Richard M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 606.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Kinetics
A syllabus for a two-semester chemistry course for health professions (author response)  Daly, John M.; Sarquis, Jerry L.
While oxidation-reduction is not given a major heading, it is included in several different places in the syllabus.
Daly, John M.; Sarquis, Jerry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 540.
Nonmajor Courses |
Oxidation / Reduction
A syllabus for a two-semester chemistry course for health professions   Bosch, E.; Prat, M. D.
The author believes that the main criticism of the proposed program is the lack of a redox section.
Bosch, E.; Prat, M. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 539.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Nonmajor Courses
Hydroboration for the large organic laboratory  Pickering, Miles
This paper reports an experiment in hydroboration without large hood space requirements, without special glassware requirements, and without inert atmospheric precautions.
Pickering, Miles J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 436.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alkenes |
Alcohols |
Qualitative Analysis
The palladium-catalyzed oxidation of 2-vinylnaphthalene: A microscale organic synthesis experiment   Byers, Jeffrey H.; Ashfaq, Aalla; Morse, Wendy R.
The Wacker oxidation experiment as described is cost-efficient due to the small scale employed, and is a valuable addition to the undergraduate organic curriculum.
Byers, Jeffrey H.; Ashfaq, Aalla; Morse, Wendy R. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 340.
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Alkynes |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction
The subjection of glutaraldehyde to the Tollens test  Hill, William D., Jr.
Redox equations have been established for the Tollens test with respect to compounds containing two aldehyde groups such as glutaraldehyde.
Hill, William D., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 329.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction
Oxidation of cysteine to cystine using hydrogen peroxide  Hill, John W.; Coy, Robert B.; Lewandowski, Peter E.
This synthesis has several advantages as an undergraduate laboratory exercise.
Hill, John W.; Coy, Robert B.; Lewandowski, Peter E. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 172.
Amino Acids |
Oxidation / Reduction
In praise of thiosulfate  Tykodi, R. J.
The reactions of thiosulfate make impressive lecture demonstrations and worthwhile laboratory experiments.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 146.
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Stoichiometry
Consequences of the lipid bilayer to membrane-associated reactions  Eze, Michael O.
The bilyaer is a very important component of the cell, and consequently fluidity changes within the liquid crystalline state, as well as changes from gel to liquid crystalline, must have profound effects on these membrane functions, and on functions that occur within the membrane.
Eze, Michael O. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 17.
Lipids |
Biological Cells |
Membranes
Chemical Reactions, Reactions in Aqueous Solution, and Oxidation Reduction Reactions, Review II (Weyh, J. A.; Crook, J. R.; Hauge, L. N.)  Coleman, William F.
Programs intended to provide students with drill and practice in equation writing (including formula writing), equation balancing, and reaction predicting.
Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A172.
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Chemical Reactions, Reactions in Aqueous Solution, and Oxidation Reduction Reactions, Review I (Weyh, J. A.; Crook, J. R.; Hauge, L. N.)  Balahura, Robert J.
Programs intended to provide students with drill and practice in equation writing (including formula writing), equation balancing, and reaction predicting.
Balahura, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A172.
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Oxidation of cyclohexanol - An amoebalike reaction  Kolb, Kenneth E.; Kolb, Doris
Cyclohexanol is oxidized to cyclohexanone.
Kolb, Kenneth E.; Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 955.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alcohols |
Reactions
The corrosion inhibition of a metal: Student corrosion experiment III  Onuchukwu, A. I.
Presents the principles and an investigation of the corrosion inhibition of a metal.
Onuchukwu, A. I. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 681.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals
Selective reductions in the teaching laboratory  Jones, Alan G.
Reductions of nitrophenylethanone, aminophenylethanone, and nitrophenylethanol.
Jones, Alan G. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 611.
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
IR Spectroscopy
A laboratory procedure for the reduction of chromium(VI) to chromium(III)  Lunn, George; Sansone, Eric B.
The authors describe work aimed at reducing the hazards associated with the disposal of Cr(VI) compounds.
Lunn, George; Sansone, Eric B. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 443.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Laboratory Management
Interaction between scientific research and chemical education: Development of a corrosion experiment  Higa, Claudio O.; da Costa, Sylvia L. F. A.; Agostinho, Silvia M. L.
This work presents the results of an investigation of the effect of the corrosion inhibitor benzotriazole on copper corrosion through weight-loss experiments.
Higa, Claudio O.; da Costa, Sylvia L. F. A.; Agostinho, Silvia M. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 441.
Oxidation / Reduction
General chemistry in the organic course   Svoronos, Parls
There are several problems that can combine the rationale of General and Organic chemistry. Here is a way to identify an organic compound using titrimetric methods.
Svoronos, Parls J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 429.
Lipids |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Reduction of Indigo: Sodium Hydrosulfite as a Reducing Agent  Williamson, Kenneth L.
The confusion between sodium hydrogen sulfite, sodium bisulfite, and sodium hydrosulfite is a common one.
Williamson, Kenneth L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 359.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Laboratory Management
Chemically induced pulsations of interfaces: The mercury beating heart  Avnir, David
When an iron needle just touches a mercury drop submerged in a pool of an acidic solution of an oxidizer, it pulsates rapidly in a mode that resembles a beating heart.
Avnir, David J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 211.
Oxidation / Reduction
Ion association, solubilities, and reduction potentials in aqueous solution  Russo, Steven O.; Hanania, George I. H.
It is the author's belief that a combined approach to ionic activity and ion association presents to the student a realistic and more quantitative view of electrolyte solutions than is otherwise possible.
Russo, Steven O.; Hanania, George I. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 148.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Ionic Bonding |
Oxidation / Reduction
The biochemistry of brewing   Bering, Charles L.
There are few topics that hold the attention of students as much as the one presented in this paper.
Bering, Charles L. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 519.
Biological Cells |
Carbohydrates |
Applications of Chemistry |
Alcohols |
Metabolism |
Enzymes |
Biotechnology |
Molecular Biology |
Consumer Chemistry
Oxidation numbers and their limitations  Woolf, A. A.
An in-depth look at oxidation numbers of various elements in a number of different compounds.
Woolf, A. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 45.
Organometallics |
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction
Stable organic oxidants: Paradox or possibility  Bretherick, Leslie
Thermal instability of organic oxidant salts and the possibility of producing safer analogs.
Bretherick, Leslie J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A43.
Oxidation / Reduction
The kinetic rate law for autocatalytic reactions  Mata-Perez, Fernando; Perez-Benito, Joaquin F.
A method for obtaining accurate rate constants for autocatalytic reactions.
Mata-Perez, Fernando; Perez-Benito, Joaquin F. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 925.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Preparation of lead compounds: An exercise in applied chemistry  Laing, Michael; Williams-Wynn, David; Suhramoney, Saroj
Uses and synthesis of Pb(NO3)2, PbO2, PbCrO4, PbS, PbO, lead carbonate, lead acetate, and lead metal itself.
Laing, Michael; Williams-Wynn, David; Suhramoney, Saroj J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 811.
Synthesis |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State |
Reactions |
Descriptive Chemistry
Redox demonstrations and descriptive chemistry: Part 2. Halogens  Ophardt, Charles E.
Oxidation states of bromine and iodine.
Ophardt, Charles E. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 807.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation State
The stepwise reduction of permanganate in alkaline conditions: A lecture demonstration  Ruoff, Peter
Demonstrates the +VII, +VI, +V, and +IV oxidation states of manganese and their characteristic colors.
Ruoff, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 624.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Recent advances in the concept of hard and soft acids and bases  Pearson, Ralph G.
The hard / soft acids / bases principle has been justifiably criticized because of the lack of a precise definition of hardness and the inability to quantify this property; recent developments have overcome these objections, however.
Pearson, Ralph G. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 561.
Acids / Bases |
Coordination Compounds |
MO Theory |
Oxidation / Reduction
Passivation of copper in acid medium  Alonso, C.; Ocon, P.
Determining and explaining the polarization curve of copper in a 70% solution of phosphoric acid.
Alonso, C.; Ocon, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 459.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
The induction by iron(II) of the oxidation of iodide by dichromate  Jolly, William L.
A surprising mechanism for an inorganic reaction in aqueous solution.
Jolly, William L. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 444.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Catalysis
The metabolism of xenobiotic chemicals  Cullen, John W.
Metabolic processes can produce compounds that are more toxic than that originally inhaled or ingested; considers Phase I and Phase II reactions and their major constituents.
Cullen, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 396.
Metabolism |
Toxicology |
Enzymes |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
Thioxanthone sulfone radical anion: A relatively stable ketyl  Castrillon, Jose
Thioxanthone sulfone is induced to produce a deep blue color upon standing that disappears on shaking.
Castrillon, Jose J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 352.
Free Radicals |
Oxidation / Reduction
Introduction to overhead projector demonstrations  Kolb, Doris
General suggestions for using the overhead projector and 21 demonstrations. [Debut]
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 348.
Rate Law |
Reactions |
Catalysis |
Equilibrium |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases
A cyclic voltammetry experiment using a mercury electrode  Brillas, Enrique; Garrido, Jose A.; Rodriquez, Rosa M.; Domenech, Javier
An easy and inexpensive experiment designed to illustrate cyclic voltammetry in the study of a simple reversible reaction.
Brillas, Enrique; Garrido, Jose A.; Rodriquez, Rosa M.; Domenech, Javier J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 189.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Metabolic questions  Akers, Hugh A.
Students are asked to construct a metabolic pathway from a description of a sequence of events and to identify (logical) cofactors that are anticipated to be utilized.
Akers, Hugh A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 159.
Metabolism |
Enzymes
Kinetics of oxidation of bromcresol green  Pickering, Miles; Heiler, David
Study of the bleaching of bromcresol green by hypochlorite.
Pickering, Miles; Heiler, David J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 81.
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Dyes / Pigments |
Acids / Bases |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Comparison of chemical oxidation of alkanes, alkenes, and alcohols on the overhead projector  Kolb, Kenneth E.
This overhead projector demonstration utilizes two classical oxidants, permanganates and dichromate, to distinguish between alkanes, alkenes, and primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols.
Kolb, Kenneth E. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 977.
Alcohols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Qualitative Analysis
Electrochemical cell conventions in general chemistry   West, Allen C.
This author argues that conventions make electrochemistry harder for students to learn and much harder to remember. For this reason, instructors must connect our presentation of galvanic cells more closely with the physical world of galvanic cells than "conventional" electrochemistry does.
West, Allen C. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 609.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Oxidation / Reduction
Determination of reaction stoichiometries by flow injection analysis: A laboratory exercise  Rios, Angel; Castro, Dolores Luqne de; Valcarcel, Miguel
These authors took advantage of the features of Flow Injection Analysis and developed an easy and simple photometric method intended for calculation of complex-formation and redox reaction stoichiometries.
Rios, Angel; Castro, Dolores Luqne de; Valcarcel, Miguel J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 552.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Instrumental Methods |
Photochemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Coordination Compounds
Selective oxidation in the presence of a heterocycle  Bowles, K. Dean; Quincy, David A.; McKenna, John I.; Natale, N. R.
The process of weighing the advantages and disadvantages of various oxidation methods are presented in this paper.
Bowles, K. Dean; Quincy, David A.; McKenna, John I.; Natale, N. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 358.
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Heterocycles |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Carboxylic Acids
Number of oxidations relative to methylene: A convenient method of recognizing and quantifying organic oxidation-reduction  Kjonaas, Richard A.
This paper describes the use of a type of molecular oxidation number called "Number of oxidations relative to methylene".
Kjonaas, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 311.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Qualitative Analysis |
Alkenes
Teaching biochemistry: A topical approach  Maier, Mary L.
Teacher of biochemistry should consider wrapping some of the metabolic pathways and other reputedly laborious topics in packages that relate to the interests of the students.
Maier, Mary L. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 239.
Metabolism |
Bioenergetics
Molten salt techniques for students: Attacking hematite with pyrosulfate  Atkinson, George F.
This experiment teaches students molten salt techniques.
Atkinson, George F. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 88.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Biochemistry off the shelf  Wilson, Jerry L.
Rather than using animal sources for biochemistry experiments, non-animal sources are inexpensive, readily available, and require no special storage.
Wilson, Jerry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 796.
Enzymes |
Carbohydrates |
Lipids |
Metabolism
New stoichiometry for copper dissolution in nitric acid  El-Cheikh, F. M.; Khalil, S. A.; El-Manguch, M. A.; Omar, Hadi A.
NO2 does not appear to be a primary product in the oxidation of copper metal by nitric acid.
El-Cheikh, F. M.; Khalil, S. A.; El-Manguch, M. A.; Omar, Hadi A. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 761.
Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Heat, work, and metabolism  Spencer, J. N.
Survey of metabolism,, including energy dissipation, metabolic rate, and basal metabolism.
Spencer, J. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 571.
Applications of Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Metabolism
The design of laboratory experiments in the 1980's: A case study on the oxidation of alcohols with household bleach  Mohrig, Jerry R.; Nienhuis, David M.; Linck, Catherine F.; Van Zoeren, Carol; Fox, Brian G.; Mahaffy, Peter G.
Improved safety by replacing chromium(VI) with bleach in the oxidation of an alcohol.
Mohrig, Jerry R.; Nienhuis, David M.; Linck, Catherine F.; Van Zoeren, Carol; Fox, Brian G.; Mahaffy, Peter G. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 519.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alcohols |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Gas chromatographic determination of fatty acid compositions  Heinzen, Horacio; Moyna, Patrick; Grompone, Antonia
An experiment that includes a derivatization step and uses readily available reagents.
Heinzen, Horacio; Moyna, Patrick; Grompone, Antonia J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 449.
Gas Chromatography |
Lipids |
Instrumental Methods |
Fatty Acids
Estimating the one electron reduction potential for vanadium (V) by chemical techniques: An experiment for general chemistry  Wentworth, R. A. D.
Procedure requires no electrochemical equipment because the method depends solely upon observations of the spontaneity of the reactions of V(V) with a series of potential reducing agents and V(IV) with a series of potential oxidizing agents.
Wentworth, R. A. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 440.
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Drug stabilization against oxidative degradation  Akers, Michael J.
Describes the process of oxidation and ways in which pharmaceutical preparations can be protected from oxidative degredation.
Akers, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 325.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Nonmajor Courses
Methemoglobinemia: An illness caused by the ferric state  Senozan, N. M.
Hemoglobin's ability to carry oxygen depends on the iron being in the +2 state; methemoglobinemia involves the oxidation of hemoglobin iron to the +3 state.
Senozan, N. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 181.
Proteins / Peptides |
Enzymes |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Oxidation of alcohols using calcium hypochlorite and solid/liquid phase-transfer catalysis  Hill, John W.; Jenson, Jeffrey A.; Henke, Charles F.; Yaritz, Joseph G.; Pedersen, Richard L.
Includes synthesis of an aldehyde from a primary alcohol as well as several ketones from secondary alcohols.
Hill, John W.; Jenson, Jeffrey A.; Henke, Charles F.; Yaritz, Joseph G.; Pedersen, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1118.
Alcohols |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Catalysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Synthesis
Preparation and analysis of potassium tris(oxalato)ferrate(III)trihydrate: A general chemistry experiment  Olmsted, John, III
The analysis of this compound combines gravimetric and titrimeric methods and includes a unique and colorful photoredox reaction.
Olmsted, John, III J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1098.
Synthesis |
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
The Fe(II)-Cr(VI) reaction without using mercury  Klett, Lee D.; Black, Arthur H.; Parker, Gordon A.
Procedure that employs titanium rather than mercury in the oxidation-reduction titration of iron(II) with chromium(VI).
Klett, Lee D.; Black, Arthur H.; Parker, Gordon A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1020.
Reactions |
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals
How to get the most from the dichromate volcano demonstration: Aluminothermy  Trogler, William C.
Reducing the green ash produced by the dichromate volcano (Cr2O3) with aluminum in a thermite-like display.
Trogler, William C. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 908.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Using concepts of exercise and weight control to illustrate biochemical principles  Zimmerman, S. Scott
Forms of stored energy in the body; caloric balance, exercise, and weight control; a recommended exercise program; the physiological effects of endurance training; and the biochemistry of running a marathon.
Zimmerman, S. Scott J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 882.
Metabolism |
Bioenergetics
The extraction of gold and its simulation with copper  Bradley, J. D.; Brand, M.; Louli, J. A. M.
The simulation of the extraction of gold by the use of its analog, copper, makes it possible to capitalize on the glamor of gold without sacrificing any chemical principles.
Bradley, J. D.; Brand, M.; Louli, J. A. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 634.
Separation Science |
Metallurgy |
Industrial Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals
Use of photocopying for non-destructive leaf area measurements.  Lyman, Marian L.; Campbell, Donald E.; Corse, J.
Using Diazo paper for non-destructive leaf area measurements.
Lyman, Marian L.; Campbell, Donald E.; Corse, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 42.
Plant Chemistry |
Metabolism
A phase transfer catalyzed permanganate oxidation: preparation of vanillin from isoeugenol acetate  Lampman, Gary M.; Sharpe, Steven D.
There are several attractive features in this reaction sequence for the undergraduate laboratory. These include (1) use of a protecting acetate group, (2) use of a familiar "textbook" oxidant, potassium permanganate, (3) use of phase transfer catalyst, (4) preparing of an aldehyde, (5) short reaction period, and (6) the laboratory has a pleasant aroma.
Lampman, Gary M.; Sharpe, Steven D. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 503.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Catalysis |
Natural Products |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols |
Aromatic Compounds
Electrochemistry of the Hall-Heroult process for aluminum smelting  Haupin, W. E.
A discussion of aluminum holds great pedagogical value on many fronts: discussion of the Bayer process, electrolysis of alumina, electrolyte chemistry, dissolution of alumina, electrode reactions, current efficiency, cell voltage, and other topics for advanced graduate study. From State-of-the-Art Symposium: Electrochemistry, ACS meeting, Kansas City, 1982.
Haupin, W. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 279.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Applications of Chemistry |
Industrial Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
On the Nernst equations of mercury-mercuric oxide half-cell electrodes  Kam, T. T.
The purpose of this paper is to present the derivation of the Nernst equation and the standard potential of the mercury-mercuric oxide electrodes, together with the comparison between the experimentally measured electrode potentials and the theoretical values obtained by the Nernst equations.
Kam, T. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 133.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Oxidation / Reduction
Oxidation by Mn207: An impressive demonstration of the powerful oxidizing property of dimanganeseheptoxide  Koch, Klaus R.
Demonstrates the formation of Mn2O7 and its powerful oxidation of simple alcohols.
Koch, Klaus R. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 973.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Reduction potentials and hydrogen overvoltage: An overhead projector demonstration  Ramette, Richard W.
Relates the scale of standard reduction potentials to the observed behavior of metals in their reactions with hydrogen ion to produce hydrogen gas.
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 866.
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction
How students reconcile discordant data: A study of lab report discussions  Pickering, Miles; Monts, David L.
A study conducted to determine how students deal with experimental results that seem to violate chemical laws.
Pickering, Miles; Monts, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 794.
Chemometrics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry
Spontaneous combustion of familiar substances in chlorine  Briggs, Thomas S.
Reacting chlorine generated from liquid bleach with red phosphorus (from a match book) and iron from steel wool.
Briggs, Thomas S. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 788.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Some tungsten oxidation-reduction chemistry: A paint pot titration  Pickering, Miles; Monts, David L.
Mild reducing agents reduce WO3 to a nonstoichiometric blue oxide, "mineral blue," whose approximate formula is WO2.2-3.0.
Pickering, Miles; Monts, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 693.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry
Demonstration of electrochemical cell properties by a simple, colorful oxidation-reduction experiment  Hendricks, Lloyd J.; Williams, John T.
The color of a solution close to an electrode is changed from that of the bulk solution to either of two contrasting colors, depending on whether the electrode reaction is a reduction or oxidation.
Hendricks, Lloyd J.; Williams, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 586.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
The direct electrochemical synthesis of [(C6H5)3Ph]2[CoCl4]: An example of the use of anodic oxidation in the preparation of metal ion complexes  Oldham, Colin; Tuck, Dennis G.
Uses a 6 V lantern battery and a simple voltmeter / ammeter.
Oldham, Colin; Tuck, Dennis G. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 420.
Electrochemistry |
Synthesis |
Coordination Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction
How much cholesterol is in your body?  Chamizo G., Jose Antonio
Calculations involving the size and proportion of the body consisting of cholesterol.
Chamizo G., Jose Antonio J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 151.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Lipids
Oxidation of cyclohexanol to cyclohexanone by sodium hypochlorite  Zuczek, Norbert M; Furth, Paul S.
A laboratory that was previously published is modified for a smaller scale in this note.
Zuczek, Norbert M; Furth, Paul S. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 824.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alcohols |
Aromatic Compounds
Conjugate and nonconjugate reduction with LiAlH4 and NaBH4  Meyer, G. Richard
Most organic textbooks present a limited consideration of the action of lithium aluminum hydride and sodium borohydride. This paper explores the topic in greater depth.
Meyer, G. Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 628.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Stoichiometry of redox reactions  Parker, Gordon A.
A question involving an amplification reaction sequence and the balancing of oxidation-reduction reactions.
Parker, Gordon A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 721.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Ion exchange separation of the oxidation states of vanadium  Cornelius, Richard
An experiment designed to emphasize the discrete nature of the different oxidation states of vanadium by giving students an opportunity to separate the four species by ion exchange chromatography.
Cornelius, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 316.
Ion Exchange |
Separation Science |
Oxidation State |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction
Steam distillation of essential oils - Anethole from anise followed by permanganate oxidation to anisic acid  Garin, David L.
Provides the procedure for the oxidation step to this experiment.
Garin, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 138.
Separation Science |
Oxidation / Reduction
Oxidation-reduction: An example of chemical sophistry  Sisler, Harry H.; VanderWerf, Calvin A.
Examines the common definition for oxidation - reduction found in most introductory textbooks and specific examples of oxidation - reduction reactions.
Sisler, Harry H.; VanderWerf, Calvin A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 42.
Oxidation / Reduction
A permanganate test for unsaturated fats using phase transfer catalysis  Hill, John W.; Boyd, Thomas C.
Phase transfer catalysis eliminates problems associated with the Baeyer test.
Hill, John W.; Boyd, Thomas C. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 824.
Lipids |
Catalysis |
Fatty Acids
The second year course in inorganic chemistry at the free university of Amsterdam  Bolster, M. W. G.
Includes an outline of the experiments used in the course.
Bolster, M. W. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 734.
Coordination Compounds |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
IR Spectroscopy |
Magnetic Properties |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Catalysis
The thermite lecture demonstration  Bozzelli, Joseph W.; Barat, Robert B.
Glycerine plus KMnO4 are used to ignite the thermite in a clay flower pot.
Bozzelli, Joseph W.; Barat, Robert B. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 675.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
An improved method in the redox titration of oxalic acid by permanganate  Datta, M.; Ameta, Suresh C.; Pande, P. N.; Gupta, H. L.; Bokadia, M. M.
To avoid heating, the authors have introduced this reaction with ascorbic acid.
Datta, M.; Ameta, Suresh C.; Pande, P. N.; Gupta, H. L.; Bokadia, M. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 659.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Stoichiometry
The metabolism of carbohydrates  
Traces the metabolism of carbohydrates and the flow of materials among the various resource pools in living systems.
J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 534.
Carbohydrates |
Metabolism |
Bioenergetics
The precipitation of ferrous hydroxide: A lecture demonstration  Lau, O. W.
This demonstration can illustrate such topics as the solubility of ionic compounds, electrode potentials of transition elements and their modification by formation of either an insoluble compound of a complex ion, and mixed valence compounds.
Lau, O. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 474.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Compact Compacts  Huebner, Jay S.; Shiflett, R. B.; Blanck, Harvey F.
A collection of three suggestions regarding demonstrating the oxidation of hydrocarbons and the primary, secondary, and tertiary structure of proteins and the first law of thermodynamics as applied to air conditioning.
Huebner, Jay S.; Shiflett, R. B.; Blanck, Harvey F. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 389.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Proteins / Peptides |
Thermodynamics
Chemical toxicology. Part I. Organic compounds  Carter, D. E.; Fernando, Quintus
General principles of toxicology, and particular consideration of aliphatics, aromatic, and halogenated hydrocarbons; alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ethers, and ketones; sulfides, mercaptans, and carbon disulfide; nitrogen-containing compounds; and carcinogens.
Carter, D. E.; Fernando, Quintus J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 284.
Toxicology |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
Ethers |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Lipids
Acid-base half-reactions - A useful formalism for review lessons  Atkinson, G. F.
An effective way to draw analogies between acid-base and redox effects while reviewing both.
Atkinson, G. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 238.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Aqueous chromic acid oxidation of secondary alcohols in diethyl ether: A convenient undergraduate organic chemistry experiment  Thompson, Kerry L.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Nylund, Thomas; Ravindranathan, M.
A two-phase procedure for the oxidation of secondary alcohols to ketones that is applicable to a wide variety of substrates.
Thompson, Kerry L.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Nylund, Thomas; Ravindranathan, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 203.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alcohols |
Ethers |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
A chemiluminescence demonstration - Oxalyl chloride oxidation  Bramwell, Fitzgerald B.; Goodman, Sidney; Chandross, Edwin A.; Kaplan, Martin
An effective chemiluminescence demonstration requiring minimal preparation based on the oxidation of oxalyl chloride by hydrogen peroxide.
Bramwell, Fitzgerald B.; Goodman, Sidney; Chandross, Edwin A.; Kaplan, Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 111.
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Double scales for equilibria  Chaston, S. H. H.
The acid / base, oxidant / reductant, and solid / solute scales described here can be used as visual representations of equilibria expressions.
Chaston, S. H. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 24.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solutions / Solvents |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Chemical modification of tung oil. A Diels-Alder experiment for undergraduates  Nitidandhaprabhas, Ovart
This article is a procedure for for an undergraduate experiment designed to illustrate both the Diels-Alder synthesis and the chemical modification of drying oils.
Nitidandhaprabhas, Ovart J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 544.
Lipids |
Synthesis |
Applications of Chemistry
Why green? More chemistry in the student synthesis of tris(ethylenediamine) cobalt(III) chloride  Krause, Ronald A.
What began as a "failure" in this laboratory exercise turned into a great opportunity for inquiry.
Krause, Ronald A. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 453.
Coordination Compounds |
Alcohols |
Equilibrium |
Oxidation / Reduction
Phase transfer catalysis. Part II: Synthetic applications  Gokel, George W.; Weber, William P.
In this month's continuation of an article, the authors have catalogued a number of illustrative examples so that the range of applicability of phase transfer catalysis will be.
Gokel, George W.; Weber, William P. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 429.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Catalysis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Organometallics |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Synthesis |
Esters |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alkylation
Oxidative coupling of phenols. A biomimetic undergraduate organic laboratory experiment  Hart, Harold; Reilly, James L.
It is the purpose of this paper to describe a laboratory experiment suitable for undergraduates which illustrates the oxidative coupling of phenols. To place the experiment in proper context, the authors briefly review general features of the reaction.
Hart, Harold; Reilly, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 120.
Phenols |
Oxidation / Reduction
Stoichiometric calculations   Parker, Gordon A.
The question presented here is designed for a sophomore or junior level quantitative analysis course, illustrates, calculations based upon oxidation-reduction reactions as applied to a common environmental problem and requires cognitive skill at the application level.
Parker, Gordon A. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 102.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis
Preparation of vanillin from eugenol and sawdust  Lampman, Gary M.; Andrews, Jennifer; Bratz, Wayne; Hanssen, Otto; Kelley, Kenneth; Perry, Dana; Ridgeway, Anthony
Two procedures are described for the conversion of eugenol to vanillin.
Lampman, Gary M.; Andrews, Jennifer; Bratz, Wayne; Hanssen, Otto; Kelley, Kenneth; Perry, Dana; Ridgeway, Anthony J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 776.
Synthesis |
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction
Industrial analytical procedure for undergraduate analytical chemistry  Hurtubise, Robert J.
A procedure for determining the amount of BHA in cooking oil.
Hurtubise, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 651.
Industrial Chemistry |
Food Science |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis
A teaching analogy to catalyze understanding of energy-rich organic phosphates  Kuttner, Robert E.
Using trinitroglycerine as an analog for a high energy compound formed during metabolism.
Kuttner, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 577.
Metabolism |
Bioenergetics
A demonstration in solid state chemistry: The nonstoichiometry of nickel oxide, NiO  Perrino, Charles T.; Johnson, Robert
A simple experiment to demonstrate the nonstoichiometric synthesis of nickel oxide.
Perrino, Charles T.; Johnson, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 367.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solid State Chemistry |
Metals
White to rose and return: A multipurpose demonstration  Olson, Edwin S.
This demonstration is useful for illustrations of reversible redox reactions and for relative reduction potentials.
Olson, Edwin S. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 366.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Dyes / Pigments
Polyunsaturation in margarines: An undergraduate student experiment  Flynn, John J.
Gas chromatographic analysis of the methyl esters of the fatty acids is used to determine the degree of saturation in various commercial margarines.
Flynn, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 322.
Lipids |
Food Science |
Consumer Chemistry |
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Fatty Acids
Lecture demonstration of the various oxidation states of manganese  Arora, C. L.
Showing the colors associated with seven different oxidation states of magnesium and methods for preparing each.
Arora, C. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 302.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State |
Transition Elements |
Metals
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
290-297. Eight questions regarding practical applications of chemistry, primarily in the medical field, and their answers.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 247.
Toxicology |
Equilibrium |
Metabolism |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Selective solubility: "Like dissolves like"  Smith, Wayne L.
Azobenzene is a better analog of DDT than iodine in demonstrating the pesticide's solubility in fatty tissue.
Smith, Wayne L. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 228.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Lipids
Molecular membrane model  Huebner, J. S.
Making a model of a lipid bilayer using polystyrene balls and pipe cleaners.
Huebner, J. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 171.
Membranes |
Lipids |
Molecular Modeling |
Proteins / Peptides |
Dyes / Pigments
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
216-219. Four questions applying chemistry and their solutions.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 807.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Enzymes |
Lipids |
Metabolism |
Fatty Acids
The hydroboration-oxidation of alkenes. A convenient anti-Markownikoff hydration experiment  Kabalka, George W.; Hedgecock, Herbert C., Jr.
A hydroboration-oxidation sequence that relies on the borane dimethylsulfide complex as the hydroborating agent and trimethylamine-N-oxide dihydrate as the oxidizing agent.
Kabalka, George W.; Hedgecock, Herbert C., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 745.
Alkenes |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Addition Reactions
Conversion of black and white prints to color in daylight. A demonstration lecture for general and organic courses  Wheeler, Thomas N.
A black and white print is converted to a full color print with the lights on; includes a detailed discussion of the chemical processes involved in the demonstration.
Wheeler, Thomas N. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 607.
Photochemistry |
Reactions |
Consumer Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Oxidation / Reduction
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
198-202. Five environmental and biochemical questions and their answers.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 520.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Lipids |
Geochemistry |
Bioenergetics |
Natural Products |
Fatty Acids
Microbial oxidation of alkenes. An integrated organic-biology experiment  Kumler, Philip L.; DeJong, Peter J.
The conversion of an appropriate terminal alkene to a 1,2-epoxyalkane by Pseudomonas oleovorans introduces students to the techniques used in carrying out chemical conversions employing microorganisms.
Kumler, Philip L.; DeJong, Peter J. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 475.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alkenes |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Biotechnology |
Natural Products
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
184-187. Four chemistry questions and their answers.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 327.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Metabolism |
Gases |
Amino Acids
A new chemistry program for nursing and allied health students  Stanitski, Conrad L.; Sears, Curtis T., Jr.
Outlines and discusses the topics considered in a chemistry program for nursing and allied health students.
Stanitski, Conrad L.; Sears, Curtis T., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 226.
Nonmajor Courses |
Applications of Chemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Catalysis |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Metabolism |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
Synthesis of sulfuric acid by the contact process. A student laboratory experiment  Martin, J. A.; Baudot, P.; Monal, J. L.; Lejaille, M. F.
Experimental apparatus and details for the synthesis of sulfuric acid by the contact process.
Martin, J. A.; Baudot, P.; Monal, J. L.; Lejaille, M. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 188.
Synthesis |
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Industrial Chemistry
Some reactions of tungsten: A lecture demonstration  Nelson, D. L.; Reeves, R. R.; Richtol, H. H.
Several demonstrations involving reactions of tungsten.
Nelson, D. L.; Reeves, R. R.; Richtol, H. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 810.
Metals |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
Five questions requiring a practical application of basic principles of chemistry.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 774.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Applications of Chemistry |
Plant Chemistry |
Metabolism
Analysis of commercial vitamin C tablets by iodometric and coulometric titrimetry  Marsh, Daniel G.; Jacobs, Deborah L.; Veening, Hans
The ascorbic acid content of vitamin C tablets is determined iodometrically using a back titration with standard thiosulfate; ascorbic acid is then titrated coullometrically by direct oxidation to dehydroascorbic acid using electrolytically generated bromine.
Marsh, Daniel G.; Jacobs, Deborah L.; Veening, Hans J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 626.
Vitamins |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
Four questions requiring an application of chemistry principles and their answers.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 424.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
pH |
Metabolism
Saving a life with alcohol  Scala, A. A.
Using alcohol as a treatment for ethylene glycol poisoning.
Scala, A. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 365.
Alcohols |
Toxicology |
Metabolism |
Constitutional Isomers
Drinking too fast can cause sudden death  Plumb, Robert C.; Eskelson, C. D.
Examines the metabolism of alcohol.
Plumb, Robert C.; Eskelson, C. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 365.
Alcohols |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Metabolism
Drinking too fast can cause sudden death  Plumb, Robert C.; Eskelson, C. D.
Examines the metabolism of alcohol.
Plumb, Robert C.; Eskelson, C. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 365.
Alcohols |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Metabolism
Molecular weight determination of aldehydes and ketones. A quantitative organic experiment  Steinhaus, Ralph K.
The reaction between semicarbazide and an unknown ketone is used to determine molecular weight.
Steinhaus, Ralph K. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 293.
Physical Properties |
Quantitative Analysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
Six questions requiring an application of chemical principles.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 281.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Lipids |
Gases |
Electrochemistry
Stomach upset caused by aspirin  Hobey, William D.; Davenport, Horace W.
The chemistry behind the slight damage that aspirin causes to the lining of the stomach.
Hobey, William D.; Davenport, Horace W. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 212.
Acids / Bases |
Solid State Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Equilibrium |
Consumer Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Lipids
Commercial gas replaces hydrogen in general chemistry laboratory  Ehlert, Thomas C.
Methane can be used in place of hydrogen to reduce metal oxides.
Ehlert, Thomas C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 162.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Laboratory Management |
Gases |
Metals
Use of a new chemical reducing agent in the undergraduate organic laboratory  Kushner, Arthur S.; Vaccariello, Terry
Using sodium bis(2-methoxy-ethoxy)aluminum hydride as a reducing agent in the undergraduate organic laboratory.
Kushner, Arthur S.; Vaccariello, Terry J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 154.
Laboratory Management |
Oxidation / Reduction
An investigation of sebum and other facial lipids  Calsin, Dennis; Trinler, W. A.
An introductory thin layer chromatography experiment that illustrates the variety of surface facial lipids, produced chiefly by sebaceous glands.
Calsin, Dennis; Trinler, W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 135.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Lipids |
Natural Products
The difference in oxidizing strength of dilute and concentrated nitric acid  Glasoe, Paul K.
H2S gas is bubbled through dilute and concentrated HNO3.
Glasoe, Paul K. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A644.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction
The bombardier beetle  Plumb, Robert C.; Erickson, Karen L.
The chemistry behind the bombardier beetle's chemical defenses illustrates the principles of reaction rates, catalysis, and laboratory safety.
Plumb, Robert C.; Erickson, Karen L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 705.
Applications of Chemistry |
Natural Products |
Rate Law |
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aromatic Compounds
Durable chrome plating  Plumb, Robert C.; Saur, Roger L.
How chrome plating works to protect bumpers from corrosion.
Plumb, Robert C.; Saur, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 626.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry |
Kinetics
Durable chrome plating  Plumb, Robert C.; Saur, Roger L.
How chrome plating works to protect bumpers from corrosion.
Plumb, Robert C.; Saur, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 626.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry |
Kinetics
The presentation of electrode potentials using an energy level diagram  Pinfold, T. A.
The tabular form in which standard electrode potentials are usually presented often leads to confusion that can be diminished by representing the electrochemical series on an energy diagram like that provided.
Pinfold, T. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 506.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
Five questions requiring an application of basic chemical principles.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 269.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Agricultural Chemistry |
Metabolism |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Proteins / Peptides
Computer evaluation of titrations by Gran's method. An analytical chemistry experiment  MacDonald, Timothy J.; Barker, Barbara J.; Caruso, Joseph A.
A computer program has been developed for the evaluation of potentiometric redox titration data by Gran's method.
MacDonald, Timothy J.; Barker, Barbara J.; Caruso, Joseph A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 200.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry |
Acids / Bases
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
Five questions requiring an application of basic chemical principles.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 181.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Applications of Chemistry |
Metabolism
Mercury poisoning  Strong, Laurence E.
Explains why mercury is poisonous.
Strong, Laurence E. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 28.
Toxicology |
Metabolism
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
Six questions requiring an application of basic principles of chemistry. [Debut]
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 5.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Vitamins |
Alcohols |
Oxidation / Reduction
Oxymercuration-demercuration. An organic experiment involving the Markovnikov hydration of olefins  Gibbs, R.; Weber, William P.
While acid catalyzed hydration of olefins to yield alcohol's is important in organic chemistry, it is seldom performed by students for practical reasons. The authors contribute a laboratory that can be particularly performed by organic chemistry students.
Gibbs, R.; Weber, William P. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 477.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Lipids
A color indicating time reaction  Chen, Philip S.
Combining solutions of sodium thoisulfate and ferric chloride produces a dramatic color change.
Chen, Philip S. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A784.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Catalysis demonstrations with Cr2O3  Briggs, Thomas S.
Cr2O3 is used as a catalyst in the oxidation of nonflammable substances such as glycerine and glacial acetic acid.
Briggs, Thomas S. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A206.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Catalysis
Autoxidation of benzoin  Chen, Philip S.
Benzoin in its enediol form undergoes autoxidation in alkaline solution in the presence of air.
Chen, Philip S. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A67.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Preparation of 6-aminosaccharin  Rose, Norman C.; Rome, Sanford
This synthesis involves the substitution of a chlorosulfonyl group onto an aromatic ring at a position predictable on the basis of the directing ability of the groups already present, the oxidation of a methyl group, a cyclization that is an example of the ease with which five-membered rings are formed, and the reduction of a nitro group.
Rose, Norman C.; Rome, Sanford J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 649.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction
A chemiluminescence reaction  Slabaugh, W. H.
A dramatic demonstration of chemiluminescence can be made with the oxidation of the vat dye violanthrone.
Slabaugh, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 522.
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Dyes / Pigments
Controlled potential electrolysis: An experiment for elementary quantitative analysis  Kennedy, John H; Adams, Frank
Iron(II), iodide, and arsenic(III) are oxidized and data recorded using the E-cell Data-Stor Unit, a small silver coulometer.
Kennedy, John H; Adams, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 461.
Quantitative Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
The equivalent weight of the iodate ion in oxidimetric titrations  Pantani, Francesco
Titrations with potassium iodate can not only solve many analytical problems but are also of educational importance, since iodate ions are involved in numerous redox systems; this paper explains the analysis of these types of titrations and the determination of equivalent weight.
Pantani, Francesco J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 309.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Equivalence point potential in redox titrations  Heyn, Arno H. A.
Many analytical chemistry textbooks ignore or mistake the effect of [H+] on the equivalence point potential.
Heyn, Arno H. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 240.
Electrochemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases |
Solutions / Solvents
A simple cell for preparation of electrolytes  Penzes, S.
Design of a simple electrolytic cell that can produce a high concentration of the anodically dissolved metal.
Penzes, S. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 138.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Synthesis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals
The oxidation of hydrazine by basic iodine solutions: A stoichiometric study  Cooper, J. N.; Ramette, R. W.
This experiment relies on an oxidation-reduction reaction for which a variety of products is energetically possible.
Cooper, J. N.; Ramette, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 872.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
The essential oils: A series of laboratory experiments  Runquist, Olaf
Describes a variety of "research type" laboratory problems for the second term introductory organic chemistry course involving essential oils.
Runquist, Olaf J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 846.
Lipids |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
The Hantzsch pyridine synthesis: A factorial design experiment for the introductory organic laboratory  Norcross, B. E.; Clement, G.; Weinstein, M.
Students carry out the two-step Hantzsch pyridine synthesis; students are required to select the oxidizing agent and conditions for the second reaction step.
Norcross, B. E.; Clement, G.; Weinstein, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 694.
Synthesis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Heterocycles |
Mechanisms of Reactions
A simple amperostat for coulometric titration  Vincent, Colin A.; Ward, J. G.
Describes the circuit, assembly, and performance of a simple amperostat for coulometric titration.
Vincent, Colin A.; Ward, J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 613.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
A simple method for the analysis of cobalt in Co(III) complexes  Hughes, R. Graham; Endicott, John F.; Hoffman, Morton Z.; House, D. A.
Presents two direct chemical methods for effecting the Co(III) to Co2+ reduction.
Hughes, R. Graham; Endicott, John F.; Hoffman, Morton Z.; House, D. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 440.
Coordination Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Laboratory Management
Group VI. The Sulfur Family D. Sulfur Dioxide  Alyea, Hubert N.
Seven demonstrations involving sulfur dioxide.
Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A977.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Reactions |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Oxidation / Reduction
Nitrogen chemistry. E. Nitrites and nitrates  Mancuso, Carl J.; Alyea, Hubert N.; Slabaugh, W. A.
Demonstrations include nitric acid + H2S, sodium nitrate + carbon, fire-writing with KNO3, nitrate ring test, nitrate versus nitrite, and micro-analysis for nitrogen compounds.
Mancuso, Carl J.; Alyea, Hubert N.; Slabaugh, W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A607.
Qualitative Analysis |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction
The kinetics of oxidation-reduction reactions: An alternate derivation of Marcus' cross relation  Newton, T. W.
The purpose of this article is to show how Marcus' cross relation can be derived from a simple, essentially mechanical model.
Newton, T. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 571.
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Acids as derivatives of aldehydes prepared with silver oxides  Thomason, Sandra C.; Kubler, Donald G.
Examines the use of silver(i) and silver(II) oxide to convert aldehydes into acid derivatives.
Thomason, Sandra C.; Kubler, Donald G. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 546.
Acids / Bases |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis
Effect of complexing agents on oxidation potentials  Helsen, Jef
A short note on a simple experiment to demonstrate the effect of complexing agents on the oxidation-reduction properties of redox couples such as Fe3+/Fe2+.
Helsen, Jef J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 518.
Coordination Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry
Mechanisms of oxidation-reduction reactions  Taube, Henry
Examines the mechanisms of oxidation-reduction reactions.
Taube, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 452.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Oxidation State |
Coordination Compounds
Why does methane burn?  Sanderson, R. T.
A thermodynamic explanation for why methane burns.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 423.
Thermodynamics |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
Using TLC to follow the oxidation of a secondary alcohol to a ketone  Davis, Michael
A short note regarding a simple procedure involving the use of thin layer chromatography to follow the oxidation of a secondary alcohol to a ketone.
Davis, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 192.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Biological oxidations and energy conservation  Kirschbaum, Joel
Examines the oxidative steps leading to the synthesis of ATP in living organisms and their metabolic control.
Kirschbaum, Joel J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 28.
Bioenergetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics |
Metabolism
Metallurgy C. Reducton of Ore  Rogers, Crosby U.
Demonstrations include the reduction of Cu2O with charcoal, heating zinc carbonate, and zinc sulfide heated in air.
Rogers, Crosby U. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A717.
Metallurgy |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction
Reaction rates and equilibria. D. Redox  Klug, Evangeline B.
Sugar + chlorate + acid produces an exothermic reaction using a violent oxidizing agent.
Klug, Evangeline B. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A545.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Equilibrium
Energy C. Electrical Energy  Soule, Dean; Hornbeck, Leroy G.; Jackson, Kenneth V.; Barnard, Robert; Noerdin, Isjrin
Demonstrations include aluminum flashed in oxygen; photo-bromination of cinnamic acid, hexane, tartaric acid, toluene; photochemical H2+Cl2 explosion and the slow photochemical H2+Cl2 into 2HCl.
Soule, Dean; Hornbeck, Leroy G.; Jackson, Kenneth V.; Barnard, Robert; Noerdin, Isjrin J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A83.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Photochemistry
The stoichiometry of an oxidation-reduction reaction  Latimer, George W., Jr.
A short note on the titration of hydrazine sulfate with standard bromate in the presence of sodium molybdate that requires students to identify the products through the use of some elementary qualitative analysis.
Latimer, George W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 537.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis
The photochemical oxidation of aqueous iodide solutions: An experiment demonstrating the competitive reactions of the hydrated electron  Ayscough, P. B.; Burchill, C. E.; Ivin, K. J; Logan, S. R.
Hydrated electrons are formed by the photochemical method referred to in the cited article.
Ayscough, P. B.; Burchill, C. E.; Ivin, K. J; Logan, S. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 349.
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
VII - Combustion and flame  Anderson, Robbin C.
Presents and describes an extensive bibliography on the study of combustion and flames.
Anderson, Robbin C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 248.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Gases
Stereochemical correlations in the camphor series  Markgraf, J. Hodge
This paper presents a series of experiments that require the student to interpret the effect of structure on the steric course of an oxidation and a reduction in a bicyclic system.
Markgraf, J. Hodge J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 36.
Stereochemistry |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A simple potentiostat for controlled potential electrolysis  Tackett, Stanford L.; Knowles, John A.
Present a circuit diagram and describes typical applications of a simple potentiostat for controlled potential electrolysis.
Tackett, Stanford L.; Knowles, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 428.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Instrumental Methods
Use of KMnO4, to oxidize interfering organic anions in qualitative analysis  Poonia, N. S.; Bhagwat, W. V.
A simple procedure is presented here that is based upon the oxidation of organic material by permanganate ion in acidified medium.
Poonia, N. S.; Bhagwat, W. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 424.
Qualitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Selective reduction of dinitro compounds  Weiss, Hilton M.
The selective reduction of aromatic dinitro compounds by ammonium sulfide is an opportunity to consider an open-ended question.
Weiss, Hilton M. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 384.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aromatic Compounds |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The use of oxidation potentials in inorganic chemistry  Jolly, William L.
This paper attempts to show, using a minimum of thermodynamics, how oxidation potentials can be used to predict the products and driving forces of oxidation-reduction reactions.
Jolly, William L. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 198.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Thermodynamics
Combustion versus biological oxidation  Asenjo, Conrado F.
Describes a simple toy that can be used to illustrate the difference between combustion and biological oxidation.
Asenjo, Conrado F. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 558.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Kinetics of corrosion of metals  Habashi, Fathi
It is the purpose of this paper to report that all corrosion processes that produce no insoluble end products and evolve hydrogen follow a single kinetic law.
Habashi, Fathi J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 318.
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Kinetics
Continuous process for catalytic oxidation of ammonia  Olmsted, Michael P.
A heated platinum coil catalyzes the oxidation of ammonia.
Olmsted, Michael P. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A973.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
The oxidation of iodide ion by persulfate ion  Moews, P. C., Jr.; Petrucci, R. H.
Presents the oxidation of iodide ion by persulfate ion as an ideal reaction to study as part of an experiment on kinetics.
Moews, P. C., Jr.; Petrucci, R. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 549.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Signs of tensions in electrochemistry  Van Rysselberghe, Pierre
Discusses conventions and definitions for electrochemical terms and relationships.
Van Rysselberghe, Pierre J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 486.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Oxidation / Reduction
Rocket propulsion: The chemical challenge  Dafler, James R.
Examines the chemistry of rocket fuels and engines.
Dafler, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 58.
Reactions |
Applications of Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Demonstration notes: Chemiluminescence in electrolysis  Villarreal, Fidel; Garcia, Octavio
Suggests a modification to the usual chemiluminescence demonstration with luminol.
Villarreal, Fidel; Garcia, Octavio J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A477.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
The stereochemistry of (-) menthol: An organic laboratory experiment  Dunathan, H. C.
This experiment determines the relative configuration of (-) menthol in which students measure optical rotations, follows the rate of a mutarotation, evaluates rate constants, and carries out a reaction involving asymmetric induction.
Dunathan, H. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 205.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Oxidation / Reduction
Inorganic reaction mechanisms by volumetric analysis: Oxidation of iodide ion  Moody, G. J.; Thomas, J. D. R.
Uses the Andrews' method of titration as a simple means of exposing the two-step oxidation of the iodide ion to iodine in concentrated hydrochloric acid with a variety of oxidizing agents.
Moody, G. J.; Thomas, J. D. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 151.
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Demonstration notes: Spontaneous combustion of H2S  Thomas, P. M.
Hydrogen sulfide passed over lead(IV) oxide bursts into flame.
Thomas, P. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A839.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Oxidation-reduction mechanisms  Duke, F. R.
Summarizes various types of oxidation-reduction mechanisms.
Duke, F. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 161.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The Corrosion and Oxidation of Metals: Scientific Principles and Practical Applications (Evans, Ulick R.)  Goldstein, Ernst M.

Goldstein, Ernst M. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 662.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals
Oxidation of hydrogen sulfide in inorganic qualitative analysis  Stock, John T.; Shinozuka, Fujiko
Presents the results of an investigation into the sulfate-forming tendencies of various oxidizing agents.
Stock, John T.; Shinozuka, Fujiko J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 385.
Qualitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Balancing organic redox equations  Burrell, Harold P. C.
This paper presents a method for balancing organic redox equations based on the study of structural formulas and an artificial device - the use of hypothetical free radicals.
Burrell, Harold P. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 77.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Free Radicals
Explosive hazard of aluminum-liquid oxygen mixtures  Austin, Calvin M.; Rohrer, Charles S.; Seifert, Ralph L.
Details the serious explosive hazards and ignition properties of aluminum-liquid oxygen mixtures; this demonstration should NEVER be used for classroom or public viewing purposes.
Austin, Calvin M.; Rohrer, Charles S.; Seifert, Ralph L. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 54.
Oxidation / Reduction
EDTA and complex formation  Johnston, M. B.; Bernard, A. J., Jr.; Flaschka, H. A.
It is the purpose of this paper to fill the void in chemistry texts regarding EDTA and its application to titrations in analytical chemistry, and to present some integrated experiments designed to serve as a general introduction to water-soluble chelates.
Johnston, M. B.; Bernard, A. J., Jr.; Flaschka, H. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 601.
Coordination Compounds |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Precipitation / Solubility
The stability of solutions for the iodine clock reaction  Kauffman, George B.; Hall, Charles R.
The results of attempts to stabilize solutions needed for the iodine clock reaction to allow long-term storage.
Kauffman, George B.; Hall, Charles R. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 577.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Systematic detection of anions through their parent elements  Caldas, Alcides; Gentil, Vicente
Presents an analysis scheme that aims at the detection of the parent elements of the anions, no matter what their state of combination.
Caldas, Alcides; Gentil, Vicente J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 545.
Qualitative Analysis |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The reduction of carbon dioxide  Hollander, Jerome; Spialter, Leonard
Examines the reduction of carbon through a variety of processes, including catalytic hydrogenation, reduction by metals and complex metal hydrides, electrochemical reduction, and reduction under the influence of radiation.
Hollander, Jerome; Spialter, Leonard J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 446.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Catalysis |
Metals |
Electrochemistry |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
The use of N-chlorosuccinimide for identification of bromide and iodide ions  Filler, Robert
Describes the use of N-chlorosuccinimide as an oxidizing agent in preference to "chlorine water" for the identification of bromide and iodide ions.
Filler, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 407.
Qualitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Reduction with complex metal hydrides  Gaylord, Norman G.
Focusses on the use of lithium aluminum hydride, aluminum hydride, magnesium aluminum hydride, sodium aluminum hydride, sodium borohydride, potassium borohydride, lithium borohydride, and lithium gallium hydride as analytical reducing reagents.
Gaylord, Norman G. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 367.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Reactions
Textbook errors: V. The reaction of the Leclanche dry cell  Mysels, Karol J.
Most textbooks do not completely and accurately describe the chemistry of the Leclanche dry cell.
Mysels, Karol J. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 638.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Lecture demonstrations of incendiaries. II  Antelman, Marvin
Demonstrations described involve gunpowder, the combustion of sulfur dioxide, zirconium, nitric acid, sodium peroxide, hot iron, ammonium nitrate, organic chlorates and nitrates, and zinc stearate.
Antelman, Marvin J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 273.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Letters to the editor  Hendricks, B. Clifford
Questions what happens to the cryolite needed in the reduction of aluminum from its ore.
Hendricks, B. Clifford J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 52.
Industrial Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
A sequence of synthesis in the general organic laboratory class  Lange, Erwin F.; Teranishi, Roy; Christensen, Bert E.
This synthesis involves the oxidation of p-xylene, nitration and esterfication of terephthalic acid, reduction of nitroterephthalic acid, and the preparation of 4-quinazolone-7-carboxylic acid.
Lange, Erwin F.; Teranishi, Roy; Christensen, Bert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 40.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
A cell for the preparation of small quantities of alkali metals  Baker, Philip S.; Wells, G. F.; Rathkamp, W. R.
The work described here deals with the development of a miniature cell designed for the preparation of alkali metals (particularly lithium) from small amounts of their salts.
Baker, Philip S.; Wells, G. F.; Rathkamp, W. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 515.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
An oxidation-reduction diagram  Tarsey, Alexandre R.
Describes the construction and properties of a chart capable of providing a visual approach to correlating the various concepts pertaining to oxidation and reduction potentials.
Tarsey, Alexandre R. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 375.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Material balances and redox equations  Bennett, George W.
It is the purpose of this paper to remind teachers of a third method of balancing redox equations that does not depend on rule-of-thumb empiricism but relies on the conservation of matter.
Bennett, George W. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 324.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Investigation of complex metal ions by the polarographic method  Gayer, Karl H.; Demmler, Anita; Elkind, Michael J.
The purpose of this paper is to present in a simplified and readily understandable manner the outline of one of the instrumental methods that, in recent years, has become an increasingly prominent tool in the investigation of complex metal ions.
Gayer, Karl H.; Demmler, Anita; Elkind, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 557.
Coordination Compounds |
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Letters  Davidson, David
Responds to comments made in a related letter.
Davidson, David J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 534.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Letters  Ricci, John E.
Discusses the question of teaching students how to "solve" problems requiring more than one equilibrium constant.
Ricci, John E. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 532.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Demonstration of the intermediate position of cobalt between iron and nickel  Goldstein, Ernst M.
The different oxidizability of ferrous, cobaltous, and nickelous hydroxides, together with increasing color deepness of the oxidation products, can be used to demonstrate that cobalt is intermediate in its properties between iron and nickel.
Goldstein, Ernst M. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 387.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Qualitative Analysis
Letters  Swinehart, D. F.
The author responds to questions raised regarding his earlier article on oxidation states.
Swinehart, D. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 265.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Letters  Miranda, Bienvenido T.
Commmentary on two earlier Journal articles.
Miranda, Bienvenido T. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 264.
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
The algebra of simultaneous equilibria  Davidson, David; Geller, Kenneth
Presents a series of rules for dealing with simultaneous equilibria using simple algebra.
Davidson, David; Geller, Kenneth J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 238.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Redox diagrams  Sillen, Lars Gunnar
Develops redox diagrams that portray redox equilibria for a variety of species.
Sillen, Lars Gunnar J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 600.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State |
Metals
Letters  Hackney, J. C.
The author elaborates on the source of a fallacy in the calculation of an overall redox potential by combination of two half-cell potentials.
Hackney, J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 472.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Tracer isotopes in biochemistry  Bergen, Catherine M.
Describes some of the history behind the isolation and detection of isotopes, as well as their use in metabolic and other biochemical studies.
Bergen, Catherine M. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 84.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Isotopes |
Metabolism
Letters  Angus, L. H.
Briefly describes the use of ferroxyl gels to demonstrate the oxidation of iron.
Angus, L. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 556.
Oxidation / Reduction
Letters  Hackney, J. C.
Discusses pitfalls in the construction of "objective" examinations.
Hackney, J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 556.
Oxidation / Reduction
The effect of nitrous acid on the oxidizing power of nitric acid  Brasted, Robert C.
this demonstration illustrates that the oxidizing action of nitric acid may be considerably enhanced by small quantities of nitrous acid which are usually present.
Brasted, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 442.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The use of starch-iodate paper in qualitative analysis  Lundin, John A.
Describes the preparation of starch-iodate paper and its use in detecting sulfur dioxide and reducing anions.
Lundin, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 122.
Qualitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction