TIGER

Journal Articles: 280 results
A One-Pot, Asymmetric Robinson Annulation in the Organic Chemistry Majors Laboratory  Kiel E. Lazarski, Alan A. Rich, and Cheryl M. Mascarenhas
Describes a one-pot, enantioselective, Robinson annulation geared towards the second-year organic chemistry major and demonstrating aspects of green chemistry.
Lazarski, Kiel E.; Rich, Alan A.; Mascarenhas, Cheryl M. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1531.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Asymmetric Synthesis |
Catalysis |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Gas Chromatography |
HPLC |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Green Chemistry
The Discovery-Oriented Approach to Organic Chemistry. 7. Rearrangement of trans-Stilbene Oxide with Bismuth Trifluoromethanesulfonate and Other Metal Triflates  James E. Christensen, Matthew G. Huddle, Jamie L. Rogers, Herbie Yung, and Ram S. Mohan
Presents a microscale, green organic chemistry laboratory experiment that illustrates the utility of metal triflates, especially bismuth triflate, as a Lewis acid catalyst. Bismuth compounds are especially attractive for use as catalysts in organic synthesis because of their low toxicity, low cost, and ease of handling.
Christensen, James E.; Huddle, Matthew G.; Rogers, Jamie L.; Yung, Herbie; Mohan, Ram S. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1274.
Catalysis |
Epoxides |
Green Chemistry |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy
Frank Westheimer's Early Demonstration of Enzymatic Specificity  Addison Ault
Reviews one of the most significant accomplishments of one of the most respected chemists of the 20th centurya series of stereospecific enzymatic oxidation and reduction experiments that led chemists to recognize enantiotopic and diastereotopic relationships of atoms, or groups of atoms, within molecules.
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1246.
Asymmetric Synthesis |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Catalysis |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers |
Enzymes |
Isotopes |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stereochemistry
The Preparation and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of a Library of Esters  Elizabeth M. Sanford and Traci L. Smith
In this investigative case study, students work collaboratively to prepare and characterize a library of esters using Fischer esterification and alcoholysis of acid chlorides and their subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis by pig liver and orange peel esterases.
Sanford, Elizabeth M.; Smith, Traci L. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 944.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Enzymes |
Esters |
Industrial Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Modification to Synthesis of Methyl Diantilis  William H. Miles
After we published the Synthesis of Methyl Diantilis, a Commercially Important Fragrance,we encountered a problem with the catalyst, Amberlyst-15, used in the second step. A revised laboratory procedure has replaced the original supplement available at JCE Online.
Miles, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 917.
Catalysis |
Synthesis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
"Greening Up" the Suzuki Reaction  Evangelos Aktoudianakis, Elton Chan, Amanda R. Edward, Isabel Jarosz, Vicki Lee, Leo Mui, Sonya S. Thatipamala, and Andrew P. Dicks
This article describes the green synthesis of a biaryl compound via a Pd(0)-catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling reaction in water. The methodology exposes students to purely aqueous microscale organic reactivity and showcases topical research regarding an industrial process.
Aktoudianakis, Evangelos; Chan, Elton; Edward, Amanda R.; Jarosz, Isabel; Lee, Vicki; Mui, Leo; Thatipamala, Sonya S.; Dicks, Andrew P. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 555.
Aromatic Compounds |
Catalysis |
Green Chemistry |
Microscale Lab |
Phenols |
Water / Water Chemistry
Acylation of Ferrocene: A Greener Approach  Kurt R. Birdwhistell, Andy Nguyen, Eric J. Ramos, and Robert Kobelja
This article describes an acylation of ferrocene that is more eco-friendly than the conventional experiment, which has been modified by replacing mineral acid with a polymeric acid catalyst and using microwave instead of conventional heating.
Birdwhistell, Kurt R.; Nguyen, Andy; Ramos, Eric J.; Kobelja, Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 261.
Catalysis |
Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
Organometallics |
Synthesis |
Transition Elements |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
OMLeT—An Alternative Approach to Learning Metabolism: Glycolysis and the TCA Cycle as an Example  Charles M. Stevens, Dylan M. Silver, Brad Behm, Raymond J. Turner, and Michael G. Surette
Using PHP Hypertext Preprocessor scripting, the dynamic OMLeT (Online Metabolism Learning Tool) Web site is geared towards different learning styles and allows the student to process metabolic pathways (glycolysis and TCA cycle) via a user-defined approach.
Stevens, Charles M.; Silver, Dylan M.; Behm, Brad; Turner, Raymond J.; Surette, Michael G. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 2024.
Bioenergetics |
Enzymes |
Learning Theories |
Metabolism |
Proteins / Peptides
Catalytic Hydrogenation of Maleic Acid at Moderate Pressures  Kwesi Amoa
This article demonstrates the reduction of maleic acid in about 90 minutes using moderate-pressure catalytic hydrogenation.
Amoa, Kwesi. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1948.
Alkenes |
Catalysis |
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Spectroscopy |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Biochemical View: A Web Site Providing Material for Teaching Biochemistry Using Multiple Approaches  Fernanda C. Dórea, Higor S. Rodrigues, Oscar M. M. Lapouble, Márcio R. Pereira, Mariana S. Castro, and Wagner Fontes
Biochemical View is a free, full access Web site whose main goals are to complement existing biochemistry instruction and materials, provide material to teachers preparing conventional and online courses, and popularize the use of these resources in undergraduate courses.
Dórea, Fernanda C.; Rodrigues, Higor S.; Lapouble, Oscar M. M.; Pereira, Márcio R.; Castro, Mariana S.; Fontes, Wagner. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1866.
Amino Acids |
Bioenergetics |
Carbohydrates |
Enzymes |
Glycolysis |
Lipids |
Metabolism |
Fatty Acids
Hydration of Acetylene: A 125th Anniversary  Dmitry A. Ponomarev and Sergey M. Shevchenko
The discovery the hydration of alkynes catalyzed by mercury ions by Mikhail Kucherov made possible industrial production of acetaldehyde from acetylene and had a profound effect on the development of industrial chemistry in the 1920th centuries.
Ponomarev, Dmitry A.; Shevchenko, Sergey M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1725.
Addition Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkynes |
Catalysis |
Industrial Chemistry |
Reactions
A Bioanalytical Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduate Students: Biosensors Based on Metal Nanoparticles  John Njagi, John Warner, and Silvana Andreescu
Describes a laboratory experiment on the development of a biosensor in which students apply electrochemical methods to deposit gold nanoparticles onto electrode surfaces, immobilize an enzyme using glutaraldehyde chemistry, and perform quantitative analysis of phenol using a biosensor with amperometric detection.
Njagi, John; Warner, John; Andreescu, Silvana. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1180.
Bioanalytical Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Enzymes |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Phenols
Receptor Surface Models in the Classroom: Introducing Molecular Modeling to Students in a 3-D World  Werner J. Geldenhuys, Michael Hayes, Cornelis J. Van der Schyf, David D. Allen, and Sarel F. Malan
Proposes a novel method for teaching drug interactions with a receptor, enzyme, or any other macromolecule or protein using plastic molecular models and aluminum foil.
Geldenhuys, Werner J.; Hayes, Michael; Van der Schyf, Cornelis J.; Allen, David D.; Malan, Sarel F. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 979.
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Molecular Modeling |
Enzymes
A Green Alternative to Aluminum Chloride Alkylation of Xylene  Grigoriy A. Sereda and Vikul B. Rajpara
Presents a simple laboratory experiment that introduces organic chemistry students to the basic principles of green technologies, such as lack of toxic or bulk byproducts, nontoxicity, and reusability of the catalyst.
Sereda, Grigoriy A.; Rajpara, Vikul B. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 692.
Alkylation |
Green Chemistry |
Catalysis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Reactions |
Synthesis
A Green Enantioselective Aldol Condensation for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory  George D. Bennett
The proline-catalyzed aldol condensation between acetone and isobutyraldehyde proceeds in good yield and with high enantioselectivity at room temperature. This multi-week experiment also illustrates a number of principles and trade-offs of green chemistry.
Bennett, George D. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1871.
Addition Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Asymmetric Synthesis |
Catalysis |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Green Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stereochemistry
Nature's Way To Make the Lantibiotics  Heather A. Relyea and Wilfred A. van der Donk
This article focuses on one class of antimicrobial compounds, the lantibiotics, and discusses their biosynthetic pathways as well as their molecular mode of action. In the course of the review, the meaning of the terms regio-, chemo-, and stereoselectivity are discussed.
Relyea, Heather A.; van der Donk, Wilfred A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1769.
Applications of Chemistry |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Biotechnology |
Biosynthesis |
Catalysis |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Proteins / Peptides
The Step-by-Step Robinson Annulation of Chalcone and Ethyl Acetoacetate. An Advanced Undergraduate Project in Organic Synthesis and Structural Analysis  Lionel Delaude, Jean Grandjean, and Alfred F. Noels
The Robinson annulation is a three-step process involving a Michael addition followed by an internal aldol condensation and a dehydration. It is possible to stop the reaction after every step and to isolate the three products, allowing students to confirm the validity of the stepwise mechanism and develop a more thorough understanding of the whole process.
Delaude, Lionel; Grandjean, Jean; Noels, Alfred F. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1225.
Catalysis |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Conformational Analysis |
Diastereomers |
IR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry
Colorful Chemical Demonstrations on the Extraction of Anionic Species from Water into Ether Mediated by Tricaprylylmethylammonium Chloride (Aliquat 336), a Liquid–Liquid Phase-Transfer Agent  Anil Joseph Pezhathinal, Kerensa Rocke, Louis Susanto, Derek Handke, Roch Chan-Yu-King, and Patrick Gordon
Provides a list of safe and easy experiments to demonstrate the extraction of colorful, water-soluble reagents by Aliquat 336 into ether. The demonstrations simulate the preliminary extractive step of an ionic species in liquidliquid phase transfer-catalyzed reactions and introduce various undergraduate chemistry concepts and principles to students.
Pezhathinal, Anil Joseph; Rocke, Kerensa; Susanto, Louis; Handke, Derek; Chan-Yu-King, Roch; Gordon, Patrick. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1161.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Catalysis |
Dyes / Pigments |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Enantioselective Reduction by Crude Plant Parts: Reduction of Benzofuran-2-yl Methyl Ketone with Carrot (Daucus carota) Bits  Silvana Ravía, Daniela Gamenara, Valeria Schapiro, Ana Bellomo, Jorge Adum, Gustavo Seoane, and David Gonzalez
Presents the enantioselective reduction of a ketone by crude plant parts, using carrot (Daucus carota) as the reducing agent.
Ravía, Silvana; Gamenara, Daniela; Schapiro, Valeria; Bellomo, Ana; Adum, Jorge; Seoane, Gustavo; Gonzalez, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1049.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Biotechnology |
Catalysis |
Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stereochemistry |
Separation Science
The Amazingly Versatile Titanocene Derivatives  Donald C. Bowman
Derivatives of titanocene are remarkably versatile in their chemical applications. This article presents a brief review of the derivatives' uses in the fields of polymers, medical oncology, and organic synthesis.
Bowman, Donald C. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 735.
Applications of Chemistry |
Catalysis |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Organometallics |
Polymerization |
Synthesis
4-Dimethylaminopyridine or Acid-Catalyzed Syntheses of Esters: A Comparison  Annemieke W. C. van den Berg and Ulf Hanefeld
Students compare acid-catalyzed ester synthesis and the 4-dimethylaminopyridine-catalyzed reaction. Based on the outcome of the experiments, students discuss the different reaction mechanisms and reason why different products are formed.
van den Berg, Annemieke W. C.; Hanefeld, Ulf. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 292.
Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Chromatography |
Esters |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Synthesis of Methyl Diantilis, a Commercially Important Fragrance  William H. Miles and Katelyn B. Connell
Describes the synthesis of a family of fragrances, including the commercially important Methyl Diantilis, and provides an excellent introduction to intellectual property laws.
Miles, William H.; Connell, Katelyn B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 285.
Alcohols |
Food Science |
Catalysis |
Ethers |
Industrial Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis
Grubbs's Cross Metathesis of Eugenol with cis-2-Butene-1,4-diol To Make a Natural Product. An Organometallic Experiment for the Undergraduate Lab   Douglass F. Taber and Kevin J. Frankowski
Describes the ruthenium catalyzed cross metathesis of eugenol with cis-1,4-butenediol. The experiment is an excellent example of the powerful selectivity possible with the Grubbs' catalyst, demonstrating the preference for trans over cis alkene formation and for cross metathesis over homodimerization.
Taber, Douglass F.; Frankowski, Kevin J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 283.
Alkenes |
Catalysis |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Organometallics |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Transition Elements
Fluorous Compounds and Their Role in Separation Chemistry  Maria Angeles Ubeda and Roman Dembinski
Reviews fluorous technology and outlines strategies towards organic synthesis.
Ubeda, Maria Angeles; Dembinski, Roman. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 84.
Amino Acids |
Catalysis |
Esters |
Green Chemistry |
Separation Science |
Synthesis
Caught on Tape: Catalyst Recovery; Secondary Structure Switch; DNA-Based Chiral Catalysts   Angela G. King
Common lab tape aids catalyst delivery and recovery, DNA lends its chirality to organic reaction, and a model for studying the transformation of ahelices to ?sheets.
King, Angela G. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 10.
Catalysis |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Glycosyltransferases A and B: Four Critical Amino Acids Determine Blood Type  Natisha L. Rose, Monica M. Palcic, and Stephen V. Evans
Human A, B, and O blood type is determined by the presence or absence of distinct carbohydrate structures on red blood cells. In this review the chemistry of the blood group ABO system and the role of glycosyltransferase A, glycosyltransferase B, and the four amino acids critical to determining blood group status are discussed.
Rose, Natisha L.; Palcic, Monica M.; Evans, Stephen V. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1846.
Carbohydrates |
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Biology |
X-ray Crystallography |
Amino Acids
Just Click It: Undergraduate Procedures for the Copper(I)-Catalyzed Formation of 1,2,3-Triazoles from Azides and Terminal Acetylenes  William D. Sharpless, Peng Wu, Trond Vidar Hansen, and James G. Lindberg
In keeping with the defining aspects of click chemistry, this reaction is high-yielding, requires no chromatography, is easily monitored by TLC, and displays distinct peaks in both IR and 1H-NMR. Virtually all products precipitate, and with just a few different starting blocks, every student, or pair of lab partners, can produce a unique "clicked" compound.
Sharpless, William D.; Wu, Peng; Hansen, Trond Vidar; Lindberg, James G. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1833.
Catalysis |
Heterocycles |
Alkynes |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Reactions |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Synthesis
Organic Chemistry of the Cell: An Interdisciplinary Approach To Learning with a Focus on Reading, Analyzing, and Critiquing Primary Literature  Craig A. Almeida and Louis J. Liotta
Describes a sophomore-level learning community entitled Organic Chemistry of the Cell comprised of two linked courses, Organic Chemistry I and Cell Biology, and an Integrative Seminar. The Integrative Seminar is grounded in the reading, critical analysis, and discussion of primary literature that ties together organic chemistry and cell biology.
Almeida, Craig A.; Liotta, Louis J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1794.
Biological Cells |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Enzymes |
Molecular Biology |
Student-Centered Learning
Photocatalytic Oxidation of Sulfurous Acid in an Aqueous Medium  Alicia Romero, Guillermo Hernández, and Marco F. Suárez
The photooxidation process of sulfurous acid by molecular oxygen in the presence of TiO2 is described. The effect of some reaction parameters, such as initial concentration of sulfurous acid, oxygen, TiO2 crystalline structure, and quantity of TiO2, were investigated. The reactions were run in an inexpensive reactor. The experiments are ideal for second-year chemistry undergraduate students interested in photocatalysis and green chemistry.
Romero, Alicia; Hernández, Guillermo; Suárez, Marco F. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1234.
Catalysis |
Green Chemistry |
Kinetics
Use of Enzymes in Organic Synthesis: Reduction of Ketones by Baker's Yeast Revisited  James Patterson and Snorri Th. Sigurdsson
The undergraduate organic laboratory Bakers Yeast Reduction of Ethyl Acetoacetate has been improved in two different ways. First, the addition of small quantities of hexane to the aqueous yeast system along with an improved workup protocol has dramatically increased the yield and reproducibility of the ketone conversion to the corresponding alcohol with a high enantiomeric excess. Second, the enantiomeric excess of the alcohol product was ascertained by coupling the alcohol mixture with a chiral acid and analyzing the resulting mixture of diastereomeric esters by proton NMR.
Patterson, James; Sigurdsson, Snorri Th. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1049.
Enzymes |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Synthesis
Response to Note on Photocatalytic Destruction of Organic Wastes: Methyl Red as a Substrate  José Alberto Herrera-Melián and Javier Araña Mesa
Aqueous p-nitrophenol solutions are not as hazardous as the solid compound, but of course if no wastes are available (unusual in a lab) the solid compound must be used, prepared by the lab trainer or by the students.
Herrera-Melián, José Alberto; Araña Mesa, Javier. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 526.
Catalysis |
Green Chemistry |
Photochemistry
Note on Photocatalytic Destruction of Organic Wastes: Methyl Red as a Substrate  L. J. Soltzberg and Virginia Brown
The laboratory experiment by Herrera-Melin, et al., Solar Photocatalytic Destruction of p-Nitrophenol, utilizes colorimetric monitoring of the disappearance of p-nitrophenol in a TiO2-catalyzed photochemical reaction. The hazardous nature of p-nitrophenol, documented in that paper, necessitates the use of protective clothing and respirators by those handling that material.
Soltzberg, L. J.; Brown, Virginia. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 526.
Catalysis |
Green Chemistry |
Photochemistry
Note on Photocatalytic Destruction of Organic Wastes: Methyl Red as a Substrate  L. J. Soltzberg and Virginia Brown
The laboratory experiment by Herrera-Melin, et al., Solar Photocatalytic Destruction of p-Nitrophenol, utilizes colorimetric monitoring of the disappearance of p-nitrophenol in a TiO2-catalyzed photochemical reaction. The hazardous nature of p-nitrophenol, documented in that paper, necessitates the use of protective clothing and respirators by those handling that material.
Soltzberg, L. J.; Brown, Virginia. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 526.
Catalysis |
Green Chemistry |
Photochemistry
FTIR Determination of Pollutants in Automobile Exhaust: An Environmental Chemistry Experiment Comparing Cold-Start and Warm-Engine Conditions  Laura J. Medhurst
An environmental chemistry lab has been developed using FTIR spectroscopy to determine and compare the components of automobile exhaust for cold start and warm engine conditions. The results are compared with the EPA certification values for the same vehicle and the State of Virginia emissions test.
Medhurst, Laura J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 278.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases |
IR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Catalysis |
Precipitation / Solubility
Combinatorial Partial Hydrogenation Reactions of 4-Nitroacetophenone. An Undergraduate Organic Laboratory  Kevin W. Kittredge, Susan S. Marine, and Richard T. Taylor
A combinatorial organic chemistry experiment that utilizes an inexpensive commercially available parallel reactor, Argonaut's FirstMate, is described. Students perform a metal catalyzed partial hydrogenation reaction on a multi-functionalized substrate and analyze product ratios by GCMS. Students evaluate a simple organic reaction that yields four different products. The reactions are performed in the presence and absence of a reaction modifier, methanesulfonic acid. Differing product ratios are obtained with the different types of metal catalysts and with the presence or the absence of the reaction modifier.
Kittredge, Kevin W.; Marine, Susan S.; Taylor, Richard T. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1494.
Catalysis |
Combinatorial Chemistry |
Synthesis |
Reactions
Catalytic Hydrogenation of Organic Compounds without H2 Supply: An Electrochemical System  Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz Navarro and Marcelo Navarro
A system for hydrogenation of organic compounds without a hydrogen gas supply is described. The process involves an electrochemical apparatus for the generation of hydrogen in situ. The simplicity of the experiment allows students to carry out easy experiments in the laboratory and the instructors to introduce the following concepts: electrochemical principles and catalytic and hydrogenation reactions. A sacrificial anode of nickel is used in the electrochemical system with a double function: to permit the use of an undivided cell and activate the cathode surface.
Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Navarro, Marcelo. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1350.
Catalysis |
Chromatography |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Chemical Modification of Papain and Subtilisin: An Active Site Comparison. An Undergraduate Biochemistry Experiment   Mireille St-Vincent and Michael Dickman
This experiment demonstrates the specific chemistry of cysteine and serine residues in the active sites of papain and subtilisin.
St-Vincent, Mireille; Dickman, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1048.
Amino Acids |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Enzymes
Removal of Zinc from Carbonic Anhydrase. A Kinetics Experiment for Upper-Level Chemistry Laboratories  Kathryn R. Williams and Bhavin Adhyaru
The Zn(II) ion in the active site of carbonic anhydrase can be removed by complexation with 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylate (dipicolinate).
Williams, Kathryn R.; Adhyaru, Bhavin. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1045.
Kinetics |
Biophysical Chemistry |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Enzymes |
Instrumental Methods
Class Projects in Physical Organic Chemistry: The Hydrolysis of Aspirin  Peter S. Marrs
The students prepare a pHrate profile for the hydrolysis of aspirin and analyze this profile to determine the mechanism and type of catalysis of the hydrolysis at different pH values.
Marrs, Peter S. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 870.
pH |
Catalysis |
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics
The Monosodium Glutamate Story: The Commercial Production of MSG and Other Amino Acids  Addison Ault
Examples of the industrial synthesis of pure amino acids are presented. The emphasis is on the synthesis of (S)-glutamic acid and, to a lesser extent, (S)-lysine and (R,S)-methionine. These amino acids account for about 90% of the total world production of amino acids.
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 347.
Amino Acids |
Biotechnology |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Consumer Chemistry |
Enzymes |
Natural Products |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis |
Food Science
Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production by Direct Sunlight: A Laboratory Experiment  Atif Koca and Musa Sahin
The experiment can be used to introduce students to the concept of a renewable and sustainable hydrogen energy system of the future, as well as its production techniques, and to demonstrate the use of a CdS/ZnS photocatalyst system for photocatalytic hydrogen production from direct sunlight.
Koca, Atif; Sahin, Musa. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1314.
Catalysis |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Some Like It Cold: A Computer-Based Laboratory Introduction to Sequence and Tertiary Structure Comparison of Cold-Adapted Lactate Dehydrogenases Using Bioinformatics Tools  M. Sue Lowery and Leigh A. Plesniak
Students download sequences and structures from appropriate databases, create sequence alignments, and carry out molecular modeling exercises, and then form hypotheses about the mechanism of biochemical adaptation for function and stability. This laboratory is appropriate for biochemistry and molecular biology laboratory courses, special topics, and advanced biochemistry lecture courses, and can be adapted for honors high school programs.
Lowery, M. Sue; Plesniak, Leigh A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1300.
Enzymes |
Molecular Modeling |
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Properties / Structure
"Chiral Acetate": The Preparation, Analysis, and Applications of Chiral Acetic Acid  Addison Ault
Production of chiral acetic acid using deuterium and tritium and its application to understanding stereochemistry and the specificity of enzymatic reactions.
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 333.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enzymes |
Isotopes |
Synthesis |
Stereochemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Carboxylic Acids |
Enantiomers |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Using a Graphing Calculator to Determine a First-Order Rate Constant When the Infinity Reading Is Unknown  José E. Corté s-Figueroa and Deborah A. Moore
Using a graphing calculator and an acid-catalyzed sucrose inversion to determine a first-order rate constant when the infinity reading is unknown.
Cortés-Figueroa, José E. ; Moore, Deborah A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1462.
Kinetics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Rate Law |
Photochemistry |
Catalysis
Collaboration between Chemistry and Biology to Introduce Spectroscopy, Electrophoresis, and Molecular Biology as Tools for Biochemistry  Vicky L. H. Bevilacqua, Jennifer L. Powers, Connie Tran, Swapan S. Jain, Reem Chabayta, Dale L. Vogelien, Ralph J. Rascati, Michelle Hall, and Kathleen Diehl
Program that integrates a variety of instrumental techniques across the biological and chemistry curricula, including biochemistry, plant physiology, genetics, and forensics.
Bevilacqua, Vicky L. H.; Powers, Jennifer L.; Vogelien, Dale L.; Rascati, Ralph J.; Hall, Michelle; Diehl, Kathleen; Tran, Connie; Jain, Swapan S.; Chabayta, Reem . J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1311.
Biotechnology |
Enzymes |
Forensic Chemistry |
Hormones |
Instrumental Methods |
Kinetics |
Plant Chemistry |
Proteins / Peptides |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Depletion: A Game with Natural Rules for Teaching Reaction Rate Theory  Donald J. Olbris and Judith Herzfeld
Game that reinforces central concepts of rate theory through simulation.
Olbris, Donald J.; Herzfeld, Judith. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1232.
Kinetics |
Nonmajor Courses |
Rate Law |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Catalysis
Application of Datalogger in Biosensing: A Glucose Biosensor  Martin M. F. Choi and Pui Shan Wong
Using an eggshell as a platform for the immobilization of glucose oxidase while determining glucose concentration through the depletion of oxygen as measured by an oxygen sensor and datalogger.
Choi, Martin M. F.; Wong, Pui Shan. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 982.
Carbohydrates |
Enzymes |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
A Simple Student Experiment for Teaching Surface Electrochemistry: Adsorption of Polyoxometalate on Graphite Electrodes  David Martel, Neso Sojic, and Alexander Kuhn
Experiment that illustrates the electrochemical behavior of a surface-adsorbed redox species through cyclic voltametry.
Martel, David; Sojic, Neso; Kuhn, Alexander. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 349.
Catalysis |
Electrochemistry |
Surface Science |
Oxidation / Reduction
Factors Affecting Reaction Kinetics of Glucose Oxidase  Kristin A. Johnson
Demonstration based on a biochemical kinetics experiment in which the rate of reaction varies with the enzyme concentration, substrate concentration, substrate used in the reaction, and temperature.
Johnson, Kristin A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 74.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Proteins / Peptides |
Carbohydrates |
Catalysis |
Rate Law
Preparation and Use of a Room-Temperature Catalytic Converter  Gareth Wong, Bernard Mark, Xijia Chen, Toran Furch, Karen A. Singmaster, and Paul S. Wagenknecht
Procedure and apparatus to use a Au/Fe2O3 catalyst to convert CO to CO2.
Wong, Gareth; Mark, Bernard; Chen, Xijia; Furch, Toran; Singmaster, Karen A.; Wagenknecht, Paul S. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1667.
IR Spectroscopy |
Solid State Chemistry |
Transition Elements |
Catalysis
An Improved Preparation of a-D-(+)-Glucopyranose Pentaacetate  Paul F. Schatz
Using iodine rather than zinc chloride as a Lewis-acid catalyst in the preparation of alpha-(+)-glucopyranose pentaacetate.
Schatz, Paul F. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1378.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Laboratory Management |
Catalysis
Synthesis and Use of Jacobsen's Catalyst: Enantioselective Epoxidation in the Introductory Organic Laboratory  John Hanson
Laboratory series to introduce students to an important synthetic method and many common techniques used in running reactions, purifying products, and characterizing compounds.
Hanson, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1266.
Catalysis |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Synthesis |
Organometallics |
Stereochemistry |
Epoxides |
Enantiomers |
Aromatic Compounds
A Modification of a Lactase Experiment by Use of Commercial Test Strips  Tammy J. Melton
Using urinalysis test strips to detect the presence of glucose.
Melton, Tammy J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1243.
Carbohydrates |
Catalysis |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Enzymes |
Nonmajor Courses |
Qualitative Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Bioanalytical Experiments for the Undergraduate Laboratory: Monitoring Glucose in Sports Drinks  J. Justin Gooding, Wenrong Yang, and Manihar Situmorang
Introducing students to the techniques of bioanalytical chemistry by using a solution-based enzyme assay and an enzyme electrode for the analysis of glucose concentrations in sports drinks.
Gooding, J. Justin; Yang, Wenrong; Situmorang, Manihar. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 788.
Electrochemistry |
Enzymes |
Food Science |
Quantitative Analysis |
Applications of Chemistry |
Carbohydrates
Solar Photocatalytic Destruction of p-Nitrophenol: A Pedagogical Use of Lab Wastes  J. A. Herrera-Melián, J. M. Doña-Rodríguez, E. Tello Rendón, A. Soler Vila, M. Brunet Quetglas, A. Alvera Azcárate, and L. Pascual Pariente
Using lab wastes to develop new chemistry experiments.
Herrera-Melián, J. A.; Doña-Rodríguez, J. M.; Rendón, E. Tello; Soler Vila, A.; Brunet Quetglas, M.; Azcárate, A. Alvera; Pascual Pariente, L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 775.
Catalysis |
Free Radicals |
Photochemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry
Surfactant-Induced Osazone Formation at Room Temperature  K. Nagajyothi, P. S. Raghavan, and R. Gopalan
Using surfactants for speedy and easy identification of reducing sugars without heating.
Nagajyothi, K.; Raghavan, P. S.; Gopalan, R. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 728.
Catalysis |
Micelles |
Surface Science |
Carbohydrates |
Qualitative Analysis
Correction to "Drug Metabolism: The Body's Defense against Chemical Attack" (J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 349-353)  
Corrections to molecular structures.
J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 312.
Carbohydrates |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Enzymes |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Metabolism |
Synthesis
The Photochemical Basis of Cyanotype Photography (about J. Chem. Educ., 1999, 76, 1199-1200)  Harmon B. Abrahamson
Clarification of the chemical reactions that take place in the cyanotype process.
Abrahamson, Harmon B. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 311.
Catalysis |
Nonmajor Courses |
Photochemistry
Organic-Solvent-Free Phase-Transfer Oxidation of Alcohols Using Hydrogen Peroxide  Martin Hulce and David W. Marks
Six representative alcohols are oxidized to the corresponding aldehyde or ketone, integrating the various techniques of extraction, drying, filtration, column chromatography, gas chromatography, NMR and IR spectroscopy, and reaction kinetics.
Hulce, Martin; Marks, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 66.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Phenols
A Simple Method for Demonstrating Enzyme Kinetics Using Catalase from Beef Liver Extract  Kristin A. Johnson
A simple visual method of demonstrating enzyme kinetics using beef liver catalase. Filter paper is saturated with beef liver extract and placed into a solution of hydrogen peroxide. The catalase in the extract decomposes the hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen. Oxygen forms on the filter paper, and the filter paper rises to the top of the beaker. Catalase activity is measured by timing the rise of the enzyme-soaked filter paper to the top of beakers containing different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide.
Johnson, A. Kristin. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1451.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Proteins / Peptides |
Reactions
Enzymatic Spectrophotometric Reaction Rate Determination of Glucose in Fruit Drinks and Carbonated Beverages. An Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment for Food Science-Oriented Students  Argyro-Maria G. Vasilarou and Constantinos A. Georgiou
This laboratory experiment demonstrates the implementation of reaction rate kinetic methods of analysis, the use of enzymes as selective analytical reagents for the determination of substrates, the kinetic masking of ascorbic acid interference, and the analysis of glucose in drinks and beverages.
Vasilarou, Argyro-Maria G.; Georgiou, Constantinos A. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1327.
Enzymes |
Food Science |
Kinetics |
Quantitative Analysis |
Carbohydrates
The Heck Reaction: A Microscale Synthesis Using a Palladium Catalyst  William B. Martin and Laura J. Kateley
The microscale synthesis described uses a reaction between a bromoiodobenzene and acrylic acid to produce a bromocinnamic acid. Structure verification for the product uses IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy.
Martin, William B.; Kateley, Laura J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 757.
Catalysis |
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds |
Mechanisms of Reactions
An Unexpected Event When Chymotrypsin Performs Its Physiological Role  Ivan G. Darvey
One of the events that occur during the chymotrypsin-catalyzed hydrolysis of proteins is an example of an exception to a rule of thumb taught in introductory organic chemistry courses, namely, that amides can't readily be converted to esters. If biochemistry teachers and the authors of textbooks of biochemistry commented on this unusual reaction, it would emphasize further the remarkable part chymotrypsin plays as a catalyst in carrying out its main perceived "physiological role".
Darvey, Ivan G. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 422.
Catalysis |
Enzymes |
Amides |
Esters
An Analytical Laboratory Experiment in Error Analysis: Repeated Determination of Glucose Using Commercial Glucometers  Paul L. Edmiston and Theodore R. Williams
Glucometers measure reflectance from enzyme test strips to quantitate glucose concentrations in blood. Since the typical measurement takes less than two minutes, large data sets can be obtained for statistical analysis. Students design experiments to answer specific questions concerning the performance of the glucometers.
Edmiston, Paul L.; Williams, Theodore R. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 377.
Chemometrics |
Carbohydrates |
Enzymes
Catalytic Asymmetric Epoxidation Using a Fructose-Derived Catalyst  Andy Burke, Patrick Dillon, Kyle Martin, and T. W. Hanks
Modern epoxidation methods are able to create two adjacent stereocenters with very high enantioselectivity. Opening of the epoxides with nucleophiles permits rapid entry into complex organic systems, making this powerful synthetic methodology one of the fundamental reactions in organic synthesis.
Burke, Andy; Dillon, Patrick; Martin, Kyle; Hanks, Timothy W. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 271.
Catalysis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers
Catalytic Oxidation of Ammonia: A Sparkling Experiment  Vladimir A. Volkovich and Trevor R. Griffiths
A lecture demonstration experiment on the catalytic oxidation of ammonia using chromium(III) oxide as a catalyst is described.
Volkovich, Vladimir A.; Griffiths, Trevor R. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 177.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
An Experiment to Demonstrate How a Catalyst Affects the Rate of a Reaction  Christine L. Copper and Edward Koubek
This experiment, which is a modified version of the traditional iodine clock reaction, allows students to calculate rates of reaction, orders of reactants, and activation energies. It also lets students discover that to increase a reaction's rate, a catalyst need only provide any additional pathway for the reaction, not necessarily a pathway having a lower activation energy.
Copper, Christine L.; Koubek, Edward. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1714.
Catalysis |
Physical Properties |
Rate Law
An Alternative Procedure for the Glucose Oxidase Assay of Glucose as Applied to the Lactase Activity Assay  T. Corbin Mullis, Jeffery T. Winge, and S. Todd Deal
The glucose oxidase assay of glucose has been modified to eliminate the use of micropipets. The modification involves the use of disposable Pasteur pipets and a specified number of drops of each reagent. This simplified technique gives accurate and reproducible results.
Mullis, T. Corbin; Winge, Jeffery T.; Deal, S. Todd. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1711.
Enzymes |
Carbohydrates |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
UV Catalysis, Cyanotype Photography, and Sunscreens  Glen D. Lawrence and Stuart Fishelson
This laboratory experiment is intended for a chemistry course for non-science majors. The experiment utilizes one of the earliest photographic processes, the cyanotype process, to demonstrate UV catalysis of chemical reactions.
Lawrence, Glen D.; Fishelson, Stuart. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1199.
Nonmajor Courses |
Photochemistry |
Catalysis
A Further Demonstration of Sulfite-Induced Redox Cycling of Metal Ions Initiated by Shaking  Horacio D. Moya, Eduardo Almeida Neves, and Nina Coichev
Details of a fascinating laboratory demonstration of the sulfite-induced redox cycling of Ni(II)/Ni(III), which is initiated by shaking the solution in the presence of air, are reported. The balance between the sulfite and oxygen concentration controls the direction of the overall reaction.
Moya, Horacio D.; Neves, Eduardo Almeida; Coichev, Nina. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 930.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Catalysis
Homogeneous Immunoassays: Historical Perspective and Future Promise  Edwin F. Ullman
The founding and growth of Syva Company is examined in the context of its leadership role in the development of homogeneous immunoassays. The simple mix and read protocols of these methods offer advantages in routine analytical and clinical applications.
Ullman, Edwin F. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 781.
Biotechnology |
Enzymes |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Free Radicals |
Photochemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Proteins / Peptides
Sharpless Asymmetric Dihydroxylation: Effect of Alkene Structure on Rates and Selectivity  Alan C. Spivey, R. Hanson, N. Scorah, and S. J. Thorpe
Each student is assigned an alkene and performs three dihydroxylation reactions: one racemic and two enantioselective variants. The products are characterized by 1H NMR, IR, MS, [a]D20, and chiral chromatography (HPLC or GC). Comparison by the students of their results with those reported in the literature, particularly the extensive work of Sharpless, allows an exploration of the validity of Sharpless's mnemonic for predicting the stereochemical outcome of these reactions.
Spivey, Alan C.; Hanson, R.; Scorah, N.; Thorpe, S. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 655.
Synthesis |
Catalysis |
Stereochemistry |
Organometallics |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Kinetics of Papain: An Introductory Biochemistry Laboratory Experiment  Kathleen Cornely, Eric Crespo, Michael Earley, Rachel Kloter, Aime Levesque, and Mary Pickering
In this experiment, we investigate the kinetics of the thiol protease papain. A specific substrate, Na-benzoyl-arginine-p-nitroanilide (BAPNA), is used, which takes advantage of the fact that papain interacts with a phenylalanine residue two amino acids away from the peptide bond cleaved. Upon hydrolysis by papain, a bright yellow product is released, p-nitroaniline. This allows the reaction to be monitored spectrophotometrically by measuring the rate of formation of the p-nitroaniline product as a function of the increase in absorbance of the solution at the lmax of p-nitroaniline (400 nm) over time at various substrate concentrations. These data are used to plot a Lineweaver-Burk plot from which the vmax and KM are obtained.
Cornely, Kathleen; Crespo, Eric; Earley, Michael; Kloter, Rachel; Levesque, Aime; Pickering, Mary. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 644.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Redox Buffer Strength  Robert de Levie
The proper functioning of enzymes in bodily fluids requires that the pH be maintained within rather narrow limits. The first line of defense against large pH fluctuations in such fluids is the passive control provided by the presence of pH buffers. It is equally important for many enzymes that the redox potential is kept within a narrow range. In that case, stability of the potential is most readily achieved with a redox buffer. In this communication the redox buffer strength is defined by analogy with acid-base buffer strength.
de Levie, Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 574.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases |
Enzymes
Properties of Zeolite A Obtained from Powdered Laundry Detergent (the author replies)  Lindquist, David
The thermal instability of zeolite NH4-A and the inability to form zeolite H-A.
Lindquist, David J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 470.
Industrial Chemistry |
Catalysis
Properties of Zeolite A Obtained from Powdered Laundry Detergent  Davis, Pamela J.; Bekkum, Herman van; Coker, Eric N.
The thermal instability of zeolite NH4-A and the inability to form zeolite H-A.
Davis, Pamela J.; Bekkum, Herman van; Coker, Eric N. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 469.
Industrial Chemistry |
Catalysis
General Potential Energy Surfaces for Catalytic Processes  S. H. Bauer
Here we argue that one may describe, in general terms, how catalysts modify reaction mechanisms by entering and leaving a conversion sequence, using potential energy surfaces that are conceptually correct. Thermochemical and kinetic constraints providing bounds that limit catalytic processes are formulated. 3-D diagrams are proposed. These clearly illustrate the basic principle that catalysts initially associate with the substrates and thus directly participate in modified conversion pathways, but are regenerated in the final step, thereby providing for a turnover number greater than unity.
Bauer, S. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 440.
Catalysis |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The Pechmann Reaction  Michael S. Holden and R. David Crouch
A solid acid-catalyzed version of the Pechmann reaction for the synthesis of coumarins is described. The Pechmann reaction is a multiple-transformation process which is not a part of the normal organic chemistry curriculum.
Holden, Michael S.; Crouch, R. David. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1631.
Catalysis |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Reactions |
Phenols
The Blue Bottle Experiment-Simple Demonstration of Self-Organization  L'ubica Adamcíková and Peter Sevcík
This article describes a pattern that is formed in the blue bottle experiment.
Adamcíková, L'ubica; Sevcík, Peter. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1580.
Catalysis |
Dyes / Pigments |
Kinetics
A 19F NMR Study of Enzyme Activity  Keith E. Peterman, Kevin Lentz, and Jeffery Duncan
This basic enzyme activity laboratory experiment demonstrates how 19F NMR can be used in biochemical studies and presents the advantages of 19F NMR over 1H NMR for studies of this nature. This is a viable laboratory experiment for junior/senior-level courses in instrumental analytical chemistry, biochemistry, molecular biology, or spectroscopy.
Peterman, Keith E.; Lentz, Kevin; Duncan, Jeffery. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1283.
Instrumental Methods |
Enzymes |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy
Immobilized Lactase in the Biochemistry Laboratory  Matthew J. Allison and C. Larry Bering
Lactase from over-the-counter tablets for patients with lactose intolerance is immobilized in polyacrylamide, which is then milled into small beads and placed into a chromatography column. A lactose solution is added to the column and the eluant is assayed using the glucose oxidase assay, available as a kit.
Allison, Matthew J.; Bering, C. Larry. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1278.
Enzymes |
Biotechnology
Enzyme-Linked Antibodies: A Laboratory Introduction to the ELISA  Gretchen L. Anderson and Leo A. McNellis
A fast and economical laboratory exercise is presented that qualitatively demonstrates the power of enzyme-linked antibodies to detect a specific antigen. Although ELISAs are commonly used in disease diagnosis in clinical settings, this application uses biotin, covalently attached to albumin, to take advantage of readily available reagents and avoids problems associated with potentially pathogenic antigens.
Anderson, Gretchen L.; McNellis, Leo A. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1275.
Enzymes |
Nonmajor Courses |
Medicinal Chemistry
A Simple Method To Demonstrate the Enzymatic Production of Hydrogen from Sugar  Natalie Hershlag, Ian Hurley, and Jonathan Woodward
In the experimental protocol described here, it has been demonstrated that the common sugar glucose can be used to produce hydrogen using two enzymes, glucose dehydrogenase and hydrogenase. No sophisticated or expensive hydrogen detection equipment is required-only a redox dye, benzyl viologen, which turns purple when it is reduced. The color can be detected by a simple colorimeter.
Hershlag, Natalie; Hurley, Ian; Woodward, Jonathan. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1270.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Carbohydrates |
Applications of Chemistry
Working with Enzymes - Where Is Lactose Digested? An Enzyme Assay for Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratories  Sandi R. Pope, Tonya D. Tolleson, R. Jill Williams, Russell D. Underhill, and S. Todd Deal
An enzyme assay utilizing lactase enzyme from crushed LactAid tablets and a 5% lactose solution ("synthetic milk"). In the experiment, the students assay the activity of the enzyme on the "synthetic milk" at pHs of approximately 1, 6, and 8 with the stated goal of determining where lactose functions in the digestive tract. The activity of the lactase may be followed chromatographically or spectrophotometrically.
Pope, Sandi R.; Tolleson, Tonya D.; Williams, R. Jill; Underhill, Russell D.; Deal, S. Todd. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 761.
Enzymes |
Carbohydrates |
Catalysis |
Chromatography |
Spectroscopy |
Nutrition
Photocatalytic Degradation of a Gaseous Organic Pollutant  Jimmy C. Yu and Linda Y. L. Chan
A simple and effective method to demonstrate the phenomenon of photocatalytic degradation of a gaseous organic pollutant was developed. Titanium dioxide (anatase) was used as the photocatalyst, and sunlight was found to be an effective light source for the activation of TiO2. The organic pollutant degrade in this demonstration was a common indoor air pollutant, dichloromethane.
Yu, Jimmy C.; Chan, Linda Y. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 750.
Catalysis |
Photochemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Kinetic Demonstration of Intermolecular General Acid (GA) Catalysis in Thiolysis of 9-Anilinoacridine   Mohammad Niyaz Khan
After nearly five decades of active research and numerous publications on GA-GB catalysis, introduction of an experiment on GA for students majoring in enzymology/physical organic chemistry at advanced undergraduate/postgraduate level is appropriate. A kinetic experiment involving the reaction of 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) with 9-anilinoacridine (9-ANA) is designed to demonstrate intermolecular GA catalysis.
Khan, Mohammad Niyaz. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 632.
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Catalysis |
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics
Disadvantages of Double Reciprocal Plots  R. Bruce Martin
Because they involve grossly uneven weightings of points, the linear and formally similar double reciprocal Benesi-Hildebrand and Lineweaver-Burke plots should never be used to resolve equilibrium and enzyme kinetic results.
Martin, R. Bruce. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1238.
Biophysical Chemistry |
Enzymes |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics
Two Simulations for Windows: Abstract of Volume 5D, Number 1  
Enzyme Lab: A Virtual Lab for Enzyme kinetics, and Lake Study for Windows.
J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 871.
Enzymes
Conversion of an Alkyl Chloride to a Bromide (or Vice-Versa) by Homogeneous Nucleophile Exchange  Roger C. Hahn
Quaternary salt-catalyzed bromide-chloride exchange between alkyl chlorides and alkyl bromides is used to demonstrate effects of temperature, catalyst, concentration, and substrate structure on reaction rates and chemoselectivity. Microscale reactions are monitored by GC analysis.
Hahn, Roger C. . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 836.
Catalysis |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Microscale Lab |
Gas Chromatography |
Rate Law |
Kinetics
Synthesis of Tetrahydro-2-(2-propynyloxy)-2H-pyran: Illustrating Markownikov Addition, Protecting Groups, and Advance 1H-NMR Phenomena  Ronald G. Brisbois, William G. Batterman, and Scott R. Kragerud
Synthesis of the target compound illustrates Markownikov Addition and formation of a THP-ether protecting group, produces an acetal functional group, and models a recently developed resin used in combinatorial chemistry. Purification of the target compound via flash column chromatography exposes students to a central technique of modern synthetic methodology.
Brisbois, Ronald G. ; Batterman, William G. ; Kragerud, Scott R. . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 834.
Catalysis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
Combinatorial Chemistry
Microscale Dehydration of Cyclohexanol Using a Macroreticular Cation Exchange Resin as Catalyst  Harriet P. Moeur, Sharon A. Swatik, and Robert P. Pinnell
In this experiment, cyclohexanol is dehydrated to cyclohexene using Amberlyst 15 macroreticular resin as an acid catalyst. The procedure is carried out with partners, one student using phosphoric acid-sulfuric acid catalyst, the other student using the resin. Yields and ease of manipulation between the two options are compared.
Moeur, Harriet P.; Swatik, Sharon A. ; Pinnell, Robert P. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 833.
Microscale Lab |
Alcohols |
Catalysis
Properties of Zeolite A Obtained from Powdered Laundry Detergent: An Undergraduate Chemistry Experiment  David A. Lindquist and Alison L. Smoot
A number of laboratory experiments using zeolites filtered from a suspension of powdered laundry detergent are described. The various experiments illustrate the myriad uses of zeolites as desiccants, ion exchange materials, and catalysts.
Lindquist, David A.; Smoot, Alison L. . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 569.
Catalysis |
Consumer Chemistry |
Industrial Chemistry |
Ion Exchange
Catalytic Transfer Hydogenation Reactions for Undergraduate Practical Programs  R. W. Hanson
A brief review of catalytic transfer hydrogenation (CTH) reactions is given. Attention is drawn, particularly, to the utility of ammonium formate as the hydrogen donor in this type of reaction.
Hanson, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 430.
Catalysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The Acid Catalyzed Dehydration of an Isomeric 2-Methylcyclohexanol Mixture: A Kinetic and Regiochemical Study of the Evelyn Effect  John J. Cawley and Patrick E. Linder
This paper details an experiment which serves as an introduction to organic laboratory research. The reaction is the dehydration of a cis, trans mixture of 2-methylcyclohexanols. At intervals of times the reactant mixture is sampled for the cis and trans reactants. At those same intervals of times the receiver flasks of product cyclohexanes being collected are changed, such that sequential fractions of material are obtained.
Cawley, John J.; Linder, Patrick E. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 102.
Catalysis |
Kinetics |
Alcohols |
Stereochemistry
Use of Blood-Glucose Test Strips for Introducing Enzyme Electrodes and Modern Biosensors  Joseph Wang and Carlo Macca
Little attention is given to the field of chemical sensors, despite the growing importance of these devices in real-life applications. In this article we introduce students to modern biosensor technology, and in particular to disposable screen-printed glucose strips
Wang, Joseph; Maccà, Carlo. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 797.
Biotechnology |
Enzymes |
Applications of Chemistry
The Neglected Element in Sophomore Organic Chemistry  Kelly L. Bieda and Suzzane T. Purrington
There are many aspects of organic chemistry that would benefit from the inclusion of organofluorine chemistry. The properties of fluorine help in the clarification of many topics such as bond strength, leaving groups, substitution reactions, radical reactions, polymers, pharmaceuticals, and enzymes.
Bieda, Kelly L.; Purrington, Suzanne T. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 754.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Enzymes |
Polymerization |
Nucleophilic Substitution
The Well-Read Biochemist  Gale Rhodes
This article describes how I use a collection of poems, essays, and fiction to inspire my biochemistry students to make connections between the arcane world of cellular chemistry and the wider world of literature and the humanities.
Rhodes, Gale. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 732.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Metabolism |
Proteins / Peptides |
Membranes
Biochemical Data on the Web  Barmettler, Peter
186. Searching for information about enzymes, receptors, and other biochemical data is a painstaking task for chemists even in well-equipped libraries. The World Wide Web (WWW), also called the information superhighway, offers now an alternative approach, which is especially advantageous for homology modeling.
Barmettler, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 520.
Enzymes |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Proteins / Peptides |
Receptors
Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of an Enantiomerically Pure Lactone: A Three-Step Synthesis for Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Cynthia K. McClure and H. Keith Chenault
A three-step laboratory sequence for the undergraduate organic laboratory is described. This series of experiments requires a student to use the product from one reaction as the starting material for a subsequent reaction, and thus the affords the student a "real world" experience of multistep synthesis.
McClure, Cynthia K.; Chenault, H. Keith. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 467.
Synthesis |
Catalysis |
Enzymes |
IR Spectroscopy
A Problem-Based Learning Design for Teaching Biochemistry  Richard F. Dods
This article describes the design of a biochemistry course that uses problem-based learning. Examples of some of the problems incorporated into the course are described in detail.
Dods, Richard F. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 225.
Proteins / Peptides |
Enzymes |
Learning Theories
Enzymatic Resolution of (+/-)-Menthol Using Transesterification with Methyl (2R)-(+)-2-Chloropropanoate: A Biocatalyzed Reaction Studied by NMR Spectroscopy and Polarimetry for an Advanced Undergraduate Project in Modern Organic Chemistry  C. Poiré, C. Rabiller, C. Chon, and P. Hudhomme
Lipase from Candida rugosa is used as an efficient biocatalyst for the kinetic resolution of (+/-)-Menthol. Methyl (2R)-(+)-2-chloropropanoate is chosen as an acyl donor for the transesterification reaction of menthol.
Poiré, C.; Rabiller, C.; Chon, C.; Hudhomme, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 93.
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Alcohols |
Catalysis |
Enzymes |
NMR Spectroscopy
Phase Transfer Catalysis Applied to Oxidation  Claude Amsterdamsky
Benzhydrol and cycloheptanol have been oxidized to ketones using commercial bleach as oxidizer and tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate as a phase transfer catalyst.
Amsterdamsky, Claude. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 92.
Alcohols |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Catalysis
Blood or Taco Sauce?: The Chemistry behind Criminalists' Testimony in the O. J. Simpson Murder Case  Donald B. DuPré
A presumptive test for blood using phenolphthalein and hydrogen peroxide was mentioned on several occasions in the murder trial of O. J. Simpson. The chemistry behind this test, along with cautions as to false positives, is discussed for use as a relevant and newsworthy lecture topic or demonstration in general chemistry or biochemistry.
DuPré, Donald B. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 60.
Enzymes
Novel Biocatalysts Will Work Even Better for Industry  Alan Wiseman
Bioconversions using immobilized enzymes or immobilized cells are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Redesign of enzymes and adoption of enzyme mimics will greatly enhance such catalytic processes, so too will the introduction of novel pathways into cells by recombinant DNA techniques.
Wiseman, Alan. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 55.
Food Science |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Enzymes
Selective and Quantitative Catalytic Hydrogenation: A Safe, Inexpensive Experiment for Large Classes  John A. Landgrebe
A catalytic hydrogenation experiment suitable for large classes.
Landgrebe, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A220.
Catalysis |
Synthesis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab
Methods in Carbohydrate Chemistry. Volume 10, Enzymic Methods (BeMiller, James N.)  
New title in a continuing series.
J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A109.
Carbohydrates |
Enzymes
Tetrahedron Organic Chemistry Series. Volume 12, Enzymes in Synthetic Organic Chemistry (Wong, Chi-Huey, Whitesides, George M.; Baldwin, J. E.; Magnus, P. D.)  
Continuing series.
J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A94.
Synthesis |
Enzymes
Discovery-Based Microscale Catalytic Decarbonylation of Aldehydes  Pearsall, Mary-Ann; Rosen, Alan M.; Conrad, Jennifer S.; Hendrickson, Carrie A.; Pacchia, Ann Marie L.; Schantz, Daniel J.
Experimental procedure for decarbonylation of aldehydes by heating over a palladium/carbon catalyst.
Pearsall, Mary-Ann; Rosen, Alan M.; Conrad, Jennifer S.; Hendrickson, Carrie A.; Pacchia, Ann Marie L.; Schantz, Daniel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A29.
Synthesis |
Catalysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Microscale Lab
Two Paired "Le Chatelier" Reactions  John J. Cawley
Procedure involving acid-catalyzed esterfication and base-catalyzed hydrolysis to illustrate the ideas of equilibrium, percent yield, and Le Chtelier's principle; both reactions result in percentage yields greater than the equilibrium constant would suggest.
Cawley, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 657.
Catalysis |
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases
Breaking Bonds versus Chopping Heads: The Enzyme as Butcher  Todd P. Silverstein
Analogy to help biochemistry students understand concepts of Michaelis-Menten kinetics; active site/binding site; activation energy; substrate saturation; cooperativity; allosteric effects; and inhibitors.
Silverstein, Todd P. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 645.
Catalysis |
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Proteins / Peptides |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions |
Rate Law
An Integrated Approach to the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory   James G. Harman, John A. Anderson, Richard A. Nakashima, and Robert W. Shaw
Plan to improve the undergraduate biochemistry laboratory curriculum, including list and brief description of tutorials and experiments.
Harman, James G.; Anderson, John A.; Nakashima, Richard A.; Shaw, Robert W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 641.
Enzymes |
Proteins / Peptides
Kinetic Study of the Enzyme Urease from Dolichos biflorus  Natarajan, K. R.
Procedure for studying the enzyme urease to catalyze the hydrolysis of urea.
Natarajan, K. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 556.
Enzymes
Photocatalytic Destruction of an Organic Dye Using TiO2 and Solar Energy: A General Chemistry Experiment  Giglio, Kimberly D.; Green, David B.; Hutchinson, Ben
Procedure that illustrates the ability of TiO2 to act as a photocatalyst by mineralizing an organic dye to carbon dioxide; includes sample data and analysis.
Giglio, Kimberly D.; Green, David B.; Hutchinson, Ben J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 352.
Photochemistry |
Catalysis |
Metals |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments
Inhibition of Enzymatic Browning Reaction by Sulfite  Kim, Hie-Joon
Laboratory procedure for demonstrating the function of sulfite as an effective food additive.
Kim, Hie-Joon J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 242.
Enzymes |
Food Science |
Consumer Chemistry |
Industrial Chemistry
Nucleophilic and Enzymic Catalysis of p-Nitrophenylacetate Hydrolysis  Head, Michael B.; Mistry, Kalpna S.; Ridings, Bernard J.; Smith, Christopher A.; Parker, Mark J.
Experimental procedure for determining the relative effectiveness of several amino acids and enzymes in catalyzing the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylacetate; sample data and analysis included.
Head, Michael B.; Mistry, Kalpna S.; Ridings, Bernard J.; Smith, Christopher A.; Parker, Mark J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 184.
Amino Acids |
Enzymes |
Proteins / Peptides |
Catalysis
A Fast Restriction Enzyme Experiment for the Undergraduate Biochemistry Lab  Farrell, Shawn O.
The article describes a rapid experiment using restriction enzymes. It can be done in one three-hour lab and yields reliable results.
Farrell, Shawn O. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1095.
Enzymes
A Simple and Safe Catalytic Hydrogenation of 4-Vinylbenzoic Acid  De, Shantanu; Gambhir, Geetu; Krishnamurty, H. G.
An alternative procedure to catalytic hydrogenation is catalytic transfer hydrogenation. In this technique, the reduction of an organic compound is achieved with the aid of a donor substance in the presence of a catalyst.
De, Shantanu; Gambhir, Geetu; Krishnamurty, H. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 992.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes
An Effective Approach for Teaching Intermolecular Interactions  Campanario, Juan Miguel; Bronchalo, Enrique; Hidalgo, Miguel Angel
Using electrostatic potential to help students achieve a better understanding of molecular interactions.
Campanario, Juan Miguel; Bronchalo, Enrique; Hidalgo, Miguel Angel J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 761.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Molecular Recognition |
Enzymes |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory
The Hydration of 1-Hexene and 1-Hexyne  Touchette, Kim M.; Weiss, Hilton M.; Rozenberg, Daniel
The sulfuric acid-catalyzed hydration of 1-hexene and 1-hexyne.
Touchette, Kim M.; Weiss, Hilton M.; Rozenberg, Daniel J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 534.
Alkynes |
Alkenes |
Alcohols |
Catalysis |
Synthesis
Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution, Promoted by Bentonitic Clay  Angeles, Enrique; Ramirez, Alberto; Martinez, Ignacio; Moreno, Enrique
Experiment that uses bentonitic clay as a catalyst instead of the conventional Lewis acid in the chlorination and bromination of benzene and dimerization of toluene.
Angeles, Enrique; Ramirez, Alberto; Martinez, Ignacio; Moreno, Enrique J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 533.
Aromatic Compounds |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Catalysis
On the Use of Least Squares To Fit Data in Linear Form  Chong, Delano P.
Analysis of Michaelis-Menten kinetics as an example of using least squares to fit data in a linear form.
Chong, Delano P. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 489.
Chemometrics |
Enzymes |
Kinetics
An Oscillating Reaction as a Demonstration of Principles Applied in Chemistry and Chemical Engineering  Weimer, Jeffrey J.
Platinum catalyzed decomposition of methanol.
Weimer, Jeffrey J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 325.
Thermodynamics |
Catalysis |
Transport Properties |
Kinetics |
Reactions
Photodegradation of methylene blue: Using solar light and semiconductor (TiO2)  Nogueira, Raquel F. P.; Jardim, Wilson F.
An experiment that can be used to introduce or explore concepts such as photochemistry, semiconductors, and kinetics.
Nogueira, Raquel F. P.; Jardim, Wilson F. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 861.
Semiconductors |
Photochemistry |
Kinetics |
Catalysis |
MO Theory
A suggested modification of the nitrito-nitro isomerization kinetic experiment   Goren, Smadar; Zayat, Marcos; Heitner-Wirguin, Carla
Some suggestions to enhance an experiment that appeared in the past in this Journal (September 1981, page 734).
Goren, Smadar; Zayat, Marcos; Heitner-Wirguin, Carla J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 606.
Catalysis |
Kinetics
The preparation of furoin-A biomimetic reaction  Hanson, R. W.
A procedure for the title reaction using a nontoxic analog to cyanide.
Hanson, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 257.
Enzymes |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Catalysis
Microscale elimination reactions: Experiments for organic chemistry using the small scale approach  Gilow, Helmuth M.
Procedure illustrating E1 and E2 reactions.
Gilow, Helmuth M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A265.
Microscale Lab |
Reactions |
Elimination Reactions |
Alcohols |
Alkenes |
Catalysis
Preparing and purifying 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones: Alternatives to the Brady procedure  Zhang, Juan; Hertzler, Russell L.; Eisenbraun, E. J.
Problems with and an alternative to the Brady procedure for preparing 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone; using a sulfonic acid ion-exchange resin in refluxing toluene.
Zhang, Juan; Hertzler, Russell L.; Eisenbraun, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1037.
Synthesis |
Catalysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
A simple and colorful demonstration of light-catalyzed bromination of an alkane  Stevens, Malcolm P.
Light-catalyzed bromination of an alkane.
Stevens, Malcolm P. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1028.
Catalysis |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Photochemistry |
Reactions
Detoxifying enzymes and insect symbionts  Shen, Samuel K.; Dowd, Patrick F.
Enzymes and pathways for the detoxification of substances in a variety of organisms.
Shen, Samuel K.; Dowd, Patrick F. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 796.
Enzymes |
Toxicology
A biochemistry project to study mushroom tyrosinase: Enzyme localization, isoenzymes, and detergent activation  Rodriquez, Marta Olga; Flurkey, William H.
Investigating mushroom tyrosinase isoenzymes in different tissue sections of commercial mushrooms.
Rodriquez, Marta Olga; Flurkey, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 767.
Enzymes |
Electrophoresis |
Kinetics
Estimation of submicrogram amounts of tungsten by its catalysis of the ferric ion/thiosulfate reaction  Lampard, M.
Determining submicrogram amounts of tungsten by reaction with iron thiocyanate.
Lampard, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 766.
Catalysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Preparation of sucrose octaacetate-A bitter-tasting compound.  Mann, Thierry D.; Mosher, James D.; Wood, William F.
Acetylation of the eight hydroxy groups of sucrose changes its sweet taste to intensely bitter.
Mann, Thierry D.; Mosher, James D.; Wood, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 668.
Synthesis |
Carbohydrates |
Catalysis
Applications of Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution diagrams.  Peckham, Gavin D.; McNaught, Ian J.
Although Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution diagrams are intuitively appealing, care must be taken to avoid several common errors and misconceptions.
Peckham, Gavin D.; McNaught, Ian J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 554.
Thermodynamics |
Rate Law |
Catalysis
Teaching bioorganic chemistry: An introductory course  Dugas, Hermann
Bioorganic chemistry could be defined as a discipline that is essentially concerned with using the tools of organic chemistry to understand biochemical processes.
Dugas, Hermann J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 268.
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Catalysis |
Biological Cells |
Proteins / Peptides |
Medicinal Chemistry
The conversion of chemical energy: Part 2. Biochemical examples  Wink, Donald J.
Biological systems regulate energy transfer reactions through enzymes that permit a spontaneous reaction to go faster through a mechanism that also accomplishes work instead of, or in addition to, releasing energy as heat.
Wink, Donald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 264.
Enzymes |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Bioenergetics
Enzyme activity: The ping-pong ball torture analogy  Helser, Terry L.
The author uses this analogy to help students visualize and understand the effect of reaction conditions on the initial rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 137.
Enzymes |
Reactions
Beta-keto esters from tin(II) chloride catalyzed reactions of aldehydes with ethyl diazoacetate: An undergraduate laboratory experiment drawn from the current literature  Brockwell, Joyce C.; Holmquist, Christopher R.
This is an experimental procedure for producing longer-chain keto esters from unconjugated aldehydes on reaction with ethyl diazoacetate catalyzed by Lewis acids for use in an undergraduate laboratory.
Brockwell, Joyce C.; Holmquist, Christopher R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 68.
Catalysis |
Synthesis |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters
Enzyme activity: A simple analogy   Abel, Kenton B.; Halenz, Donald R.
Presented here is a simple analogy that has helped students in our classes grasp the concept of enzyme activity
Abel, Kenton B.; Halenz, Donald R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 9.
Enzymes
Isomerization of dimethyl maleate to dimethyl fumarate: An undergraduate experiment illustrating amine-catalyzed alkene isomerization, stereochemical principles, sublimation, and product identification by spectroscopic methods  Fryhle, Craig B.; Rybak, Carol M.; Pulley, Kenneth E.
An undergraduate experiment illustrating amine-catalyzed alkene isomerization, stereochemical principles, sublimation, and product identification by spectroscopic methods.
Fryhle, Craig B.; Rybak, Carol M.; Pulley, Kenneth E. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1050.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Diastereomers |
Gas Chromatography |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Catalysis
An NMR study of the stereochemistry of the fumarase-catalyzed hydration of fumaric acid  Olsen, Julie A.; Olsen, Robert J.
An NMR study of the stereochemistry of the fumarase-catalyzed hydration of fumaric acid.
Olsen, Julie A.; Olsen, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 436.
Acids / Bases |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Enzymes |
Molecular Modeling |
Diastereomers
Fabric softeners as phase transfer catalyst in organic synthesis  Lee, Albert W. M.; Yip, W. C.
Phase transfer catalysts such as quaternary ammonium compounds are often found in commercial fabric softeners due to their antistatic properties.
Lee, Albert W. M.; Yip, W. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 69.
Gas Chromatography |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Catalysis |
Synthesis
Superoxide dismutase and the Briggs-Rauscher reaction  Franz, David A.
Oxygen-derived species provide chemistry teachers with excellent examples for discussion of molecular-orbital theory, bond order and reactivity, redox potentials, radical reactivity, disproportionation, and enzyme activity.
Franz, David A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 57.
Enzymes |
Biophysical Chemistry |
MO Theory |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Covalent Bonding
Effects of "crowding" in protein solutions  Ralston, G. B.
The effects of macromolecular nonideality and crowding on chemical equilibria, association reactions, and enzyme kinetics.
Ralston, G. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 857.
Proteins / Peptides |
Equilibrium |
Reactions |
Enzymes |
Kinetics
Permanganate-oxalic acid reaction: A modified approach using surfactant solutions  Ponraj, D. Suresh; Venkataraman, R.; Raghavan, P. S.
A simple modification to the permanganate-oxalic acid reaction employing surfactant media that enable the quick and quantitative determination of KMnO4 at room temperature.
Ponraj, D. Suresh; Venkataraman, R.; Raghavan, P. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 621.
Surface Science |
Catalysis
A simple procedure for the base-catalyzed cleavage of benzopinacolone to triphenylmethane: An undergraduate experiment  Stranberg, Michael; Anselme, J. -P.
A simple procedure for the base-catalyzed cleavage of benzopinacolone to triphenylmethane: An undergraduate experiment.
Stranberg, Michael; Anselme, J. -P. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 616.
Catalysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis
A kinetic experiment for determination of traces of Cu2+  Lampard, M.
Adaptation of a spot technique used to identify trace amounts of cupric ion by its catalytic effect of the ferric ion / thiosulfate reaction.
Lampard, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 601.
Qualitative Analysis |
Catalysis |
Kinetics
Binding energy and enzymatic catalysis  Hansen, David E.; Raines, Ronald T.
The authors discuss the fundamental role that the favorable free energy of binding of the rate-determining transition state plays in catalysis and review the principle that many catalytic factors are realized by the use of this binding energy.
Hansen, David E.; Raines, Ronald T. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 483.
Enzymes |
Catalysis |
Thermodynamics
Laboratory experiments on phase-transfer-catalyzed reactions of neutral molecules  Mathur, Nawal K.; Narang, Chander K.
In order to illustrate the application of a phase transfer catalyst (PTC), the preparation of benzophenone oxime was attempted under different conditions.
Mathur, Nawal K.; Narang, Chander K. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 273.
Catalysis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Partitioning ratios and a biochemical kinetic dilemma: The pH dependence of chymotrypsin catalysis  Breslow, Ronald
This example show the attractiveness and ease of the partitioning ratio alternative to the commonly used steady-state method.
Breslow, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 228.
Kinetics |
pH |
Catalysis
An enzyme immunoassay for human transferrin  Russo, Salvatore F.; Dahlberg, Judy Utter
The field of immunology provides a powerful method for detecting specific noncatalytic proteins.
Russo, Salvatore F.; Dahlberg, Judy Utter J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 175.
Enzymes |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Proteins / Peptides
Catalysis: New reaction pathways not just a lowering of the activation energy  Haim, Albert
The explanation that the increased rate associated with a catalyzed reaction is the result of a lowering of the activation energy cannot always be correct.
Haim, Albert J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 935.
Catalysis |
Rate Law
Student comparisons of analytical chemical methods in undergraduate chemistry courses  Harrison, Aline M.; Peterman, Keith E.
Four experiments in which different analytical methods are used to make the same measurement for purposes of comparison.
Harrison, Aline M.; Peterman, Keith E. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 772.
Gravimetric Analysis |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Enzymes |
Quantitative Analysis
Azosulfonamides: Preparation and binding to carbonic anhydrase: A bioorganic chemistry experiment  Manalang, Mary G.; Bundy, Hallie F.
Preparation of azosulfonamide, visible absorption analysis of free and enzyme-bond azosulfonamide, and titration of BCA with azosulfonamide.
Manalang, Mary G.; Bundy, Hallie F. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 609.
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Synthesis |
Proteins / Peptides |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Enzymes
The catalytic hydrogenation of methyl oleate by in situ hydrogen generation  Plummer, Ben
Modification of the catalytic hydrogenation of methyl oleate into methyl stearate.
Plummer, Ben J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 518.
Catalysis |
Alkenes |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
On a Reaction Involving Oxygen and Metal Sulfides  Hill, William D., Jr.
The role of iron(III) oxide as a catalyst in the production of oxygen by the thermal decomposition of potassium chlorate promoted the idea to use this oxide to repeat the reactions involving oxygen and the metal sulfides described in an earlier article.
Hill, William D., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 448.
Catalysis |
Reactions
Friedel Crafts alkylation using elemental aluminum catalyst: An undergraduate laboratory experiment  Meeks, B. Spencer; Lucas, Anita R.
This experiment uses aluminum metal as a catalyst for the synthesis of sec-butyltoluene by Friedel-Crafts alkylation of toluene.
Meeks, B. Spencer; Lucas, Anita R. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 176.
Alkylation |
Catalysis |
Synthesis
Analysis of kinetic data with a spreadsheet program  Henderson, John
An article about spreadsheet templates that accept concentration versus time data for several runs of an experiment, determination of least-squares lines through data points for each run, and will allow the user to exclude points from the least-squares calculation.
Henderson, John J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A150.
Chemometrics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Enzymes
Example of the Robinson annulation procedure via phase transfer catalysis a beginning organic synthesis experiment  Soriano, D. S.; Lombardi, A. M.; Persichini, P. J.; Nalewajek, D.
A brief description of the procedure.
Soriano, D. S.; Lombardi, A. M.; Persichini, P. J.; Nalewajek, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 637.
Catalysis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
The biochemistry of brewing   Bering, Charles L.
There are few topics that hold the attention of students as much as the one presented in this paper.
Bering, Charles L. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 519.
Biological Cells |
Carbohydrates |
Applications of Chemistry |
Alcohols |
Metabolism |
Enzymes |
Biotechnology |
Molecular Biology |
Consumer Chemistry
A convenient synthesis of aspartame  Lindeberg, Gunnar
The one tube, enzymatic synthesis of the dipeptide sweetener aspartame.
Lindeberg, Gunnar J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1062.
Synthesis |
Enzymes |
Proteins / Peptides
A synthesis of chrysanthemic ester: An undergraduate experiment  Kelly, Lawrence F.
Procedure for producing a mixture of cis- and trans-ethyl chrysanthemates.
Kelly, Lawrence F. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1061.
Esters |
Synthesis |
Catalysis |
Diastereomers |
Stereochemistry
Chemical oscillations: A microcomputer-controlled experiment  Aroca, Patricia, Jr.; Aroca, Ricardo
88. A microcomputer-controlled experiment that interfaces an ion-selective sensor, an analogue-to-digital converter, and a microcomputer in order to display and study the periodicity of chemical oscillators.
Aroca, Patricia, Jr.; Aroca, Ricardo J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1017.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Electrochemistry |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Catalysis
The kinetic rate law for autocatalytic reactions  Mata-Perez, Fernando; Perez-Benito, Joaquin F.
A method for obtaining accurate rate constants for autocatalytic reactions.
Mata-Perez, Fernando; Perez-Benito, Joaquin F. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 925.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Decarboxylation of a keto acids  Hanson, R. W.
Rectifies the lack of information concerning the nonenzymatic decarboxylation of alpha-keto acids found in many textbooks and to correct errors found in others.
Hanson, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 591.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Catalysis
The misuse of Markownikov's rule  Newton, Thomas A.
Many organic textbooks site an incorrect example as a simple anti-Markownikov addition reaction.
Newton, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 531.
Catalysis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The induction by iron(II) of the oxidation of iodide by dichromate  Jolly, William L.
A surprising mechanism for an inorganic reaction in aqueous solution.
Jolly, William L. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 444.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Catalysis
The metabolism of xenobiotic chemicals  Cullen, John W.
Metabolic processes can produce compounds that are more toxic than that originally inhaled or ingested; considers Phase I and Phase II reactions and their major constituents.
Cullen, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 396.
Metabolism |
Toxicology |
Enzymes |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
Chlorofluorocarbons and stratospheric ozone  Elliot, Scott; Rowland, F. S.
Review of the physical atmospheric chemistry behind CFC-ozone relationships, first from a historical perspective and then in light of the "ozone-hole" discovered over Antarctica.
Elliot, Scott; Rowland, F. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 387.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Photochemistry |
Catalysis
Introduction to overhead projector demonstrations  Kolb, Doris
General suggestions for using the overhead projector and 21 demonstrations. [Debut]
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 348.
Rate Law |
Reactions |
Catalysis |
Equilibrium |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases
RNA's as catalysts: A new class on enzymes  McCorkle, George M.; Altman, Sidney
Analysis of two RNA's that act as enzymes, upsetting the long-held position that all enzymes are proteins.
McCorkle, George M.; Altman, Sidney J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 221.
Catalysis |
Enzymes
An undergraduate experiment in homogeneous catalysis: Synthesis of phenylethoxycarbene tungsten pentacarbonyl and polymerization of norbornene and phenylacetylene  Villemin, Dider
An experiment to illustrate the chemistry of metal carbenes.
Villemin, Dider J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 183.
Synthesis |
Organometallics |
Catalysis
Metabolic questions  Akers, Hugh A.
Students are asked to construct a metabolic pathway from a description of a sequence of events and to identify (logical) cofactors that are anticipated to be utilized.
Akers, Hugh A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 159.
Metabolism |
Enzymes
Synthesis of fulvenes using phase-transfer catalysis  Hill, John W.; Jenson, Jeffrey A.; Yaritz, Joseph G.
These authors have devised a new procedure for synthesizing fulvenes from indene and fluorene using phase-transfer catalysis.
Hill, John W.; Jenson, Jeffrey A.; Yaritz, Joseph G. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 916.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Catalysis
Enzyme technology: A practical topic in basic chemical education   Grunwald, Peter
This article elucidates how a new important field of development and research like biotechnology can be integrated into a normal chemistry course.
Grunwald, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 775.
Enzymes |
Catalysis |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Biotechnology
The enzymatic resolution of aromatic amino acids  Sheardy, Riehard; Liotta, L.; Steinhart, E.; Champion, R.; Rinker, J.; Planutis, M.; Salinkas, J.; Boyer, T.; Carcanague, D.
This article presents an experiment that can demonstrate as many principles of steroisomersim as possible and is also efficient in terms of time and preparation.
Sheardy, Riehard; Liotta, L.; Steinhart, E.; Champion, R.; Rinker, J.; Planutis, M.; Salinkas, J.; Boyer, T.; Carcanague, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 646.
Stereochemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amino Acids |
Enzymes
An experiment of homogeneous catalysis  Frugoni, Juan A. Coch; Zepka, Marilene; Figueira, Alvaro Rocha; Campos, Ana Sabina
The experiment described in this article shows, by color changes, the chemical participation of the catalyst and its regeneration when the reaction is complete.
Frugoni, Juan A. Coch; Zepka, Marilene; Figueira, Alvaro Rocha; Campos, Ana Sabina J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 549.
Catalysis |
Reactions
Optical projection experiments to demonstrate new curricula contents   Perina, Ivo
Demonstration of experiments by optical projection compared with classic demonstration of experiments has a number of advantages.
Perina, Ivo J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 344.
Alcohols |
Enzymes |
Atmospheric Chemistry
Musical mechanisms  Jones, Peter
Portraying the mechanism of the catalysis of hydrogen peroxide decomposition by catalase using an adaptation of musical notation.
Jones, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1093.
Catalysis |
Enzymes |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Use of the "cubic snake" as a molecular model  Gilon, Chaim
Using a "cubic snake" to model macromolecules.
Gilon, Chaim J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1074.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Proteins / Peptides |
Enzymes
The catalytic function of enzymes  Splittgerber, Allan G.
Review of the structure, function, and factors that influence the action of enzymes.
Splittgerber, Allan G. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1008.
Catalysis |
Enzymes |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Zinc enzymes  Bertini, I.; Luchinat, C.; Monnanni, R.
The role played by catalytic and noncatalytic zinc in biochemical systems. From the "State of the Art Symposium: Bioinorganic Chemistry", held at the ACS meeting, Miami, 1985.
Bertini, I.; Luchinat, C.; Monnanni, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 924.
Enzymes |
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Proteins / Peptides
Phase-transfer-catalyzed alkylation of ethyl acetoacetate and diethyl malonate  Thompson, Douglas L.; Reeves, Perry C.
Improved method that requires shorter reaction times and safer reagents than traditional procedures.
Thompson, Douglas L.; Reeves, Perry C. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 907.
Catalysis |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis
The production of oxygen gas: A student catalysis experiment  Onuchukwu, A. I.; Mshelia, P. B.
Synthesizing copper ferrite spinnel and using it as a catalyst in the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to generate oxygen; the rate of generation is used to determine the kinetic activity of the catalyst.
Onuchukwu, A. I.; Mshelia, P. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 809.
Catalysis |
Synthesis |
Kinetics
Biochemistry off the shelf  Wilson, Jerry L.
Rather than using animal sources for biochemistry experiments, non-animal sources are inexpensive, readily available, and require no special storage.
Wilson, Jerry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 796.
Enzymes |
Carbohydrates |
Lipids |
Metabolism
Phase transfer catalysis and carbanion formation  Hill, John W.; Enloe, Lori J.
Shows the formation of highly colored, stable carbanions, the action of phase transfer catalysts, and the necessity of water for this catalysis.
Hill, John W.; Enloe, Lori J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 608.
Catalysis
The Wittig reaction in the undergraduate organic laboratory  Warner, John C.; Anastas, Paul T.; Anselme, Jean-Pierre
Using phase-transfer catalysis to prepare cis- and trans-stilbenes from the Wittig condensation of benzaldehyde.
Warner, John C.; Anastas, Paul T.; Anselme, Jean-Pierre J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 346.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis |
Catalysis |
Diastereomers |
Stereochemistry
Methemoglobinemia: An illness caused by the ferric state  Senozan, N. M.
Hemoglobin's ability to carry oxygen depends on the iron being in the +2 state; methemoglobinemia involves the oxidation of hemoglobin iron to the +3 state.
Senozan, N. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 181.
Proteins / Peptides |
Enzymes |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Oxidation of alcohols using calcium hypochlorite and solid/liquid phase-transfer catalysis  Hill, John W.; Jenson, Jeffrey A.; Henke, Charles F.; Yaritz, Joseph G.; Pedersen, Richard L.
Includes synthesis of an aldehyde from a primary alcohol as well as several ketones from secondary alcohols.
Hill, John W.; Jenson, Jeffrey A.; Henke, Charles F.; Yaritz, Joseph G.; Pedersen, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1118.
Alcohols |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Catalysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Synthesis
Kinetics and mechanism-a games approach  Harsch, Gunther
Using statistical games to simulate and illustrate a variety of chemical kinetics.
Harsch, Gunther J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1039.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Catalysis |
Rate Law
A useful model for the "lock and key" analogy  Fenster, Ariel E.; Harpp, David N.; Schwarcz, Joseph A.
A model that nicely illustrates this principle is the "SOMA" puzzle cube.
Fenster, Ariel E.; Harpp, David N.; Schwarcz, Joseph A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 967.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Recognition |
Enzymes
Catalysis of radical chain reactions  Bardsley, W. D.; Failes, R. L.; Hunter, R.; Stimson, V. R.
Examples where "catalysts" enter into reaction in a consistent manner, to increase the rate in one case and decrease it in the other.
Bardsley, W. D.; Failes, R. L.; Hunter, R.; Stimson, V. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 657.
Catalysis |
Free Radicals |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Making candy with enzymes  Kirschenbaum, Donald M.
How is a liquid-center, chocolate-covered cherry made?
Kirschenbaum, Donald M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 652.
Enzymes |
Food Science
A phase transfer catalyzed permanganate oxidation: preparation of vanillin from isoeugenol acetate  Lampman, Gary M.; Sharpe, Steven D.
There are several attractive features in this reaction sequence for the undergraduate laboratory. These include (1) use of a protecting acetate group, (2) use of a familiar "textbook" oxidant, potassium permanganate, (3) use of phase transfer catalyst, (4) preparing of an aldehyde, (5) short reaction period, and (6) the laboratory has a pleasant aroma.
Lampman, Gary M.; Sharpe, Steven D. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 503.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Catalysis |
Natural Products |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols |
Aromatic Compounds
The synthesis of 4,4'-di-tertbutyl biphenyl: a sophomore organic chemistry experiment  Horne, Deane A.
A brief note providing a sequence of experiments for an introductory organic course that is inexpensive and does not pose a health hazard.
Horne, Deane A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 246.
Acids / Bases |
Aromatic Compounds |
Catalysis |
Alkylation |
Solutions / Solvents
A modification of the copper catalysis demonstration apparatus  Olsen, Edwin S.; Ashmore, R. E.
A modification to an earlier device for illustrating the oxidation of alcohols to carbonyl compounds over a copper catalyst.
Olsen, Edwin S.; Ashmore, R. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 1042.
Catalysis |
Alcohols |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A catalyst for the synthesis of soap  Hill, John W.; Soldberg, Sherrie J.; Hill, Cynthia S.
Use of a catalyst allows soap to be synthesized overnight at room temperature.
Hill, John W.; Soldberg, Sherrie J.; Hill, Cynthia S. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 788.
Catalysis |
Synthesis |
Consumer Chemistry
An easy student synthesis of a substituted 1,3-dioxane by use of an ion-exchange resin as catalyst: Clean illustration of the Prins reaction  Delmas, Michel; Kalck, Phillipe; Gorrichon, Jean-Pierre; Gaset, A.
The preparation of 4-(4-hydroxy, 3-methoxy-phenyl) 5-methyl 1,3-dioxane from isoeugenol via the Prins reaction.
Delmas, Michel; Kalck, Phillipe; Gorrichon, Jean-Pierre; Gaset, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 700.
Synthesis |
Catalysis |
Natural Products
Invert sugar (and a honey of a problem)  Wendland, Ray
Question regarding the optical rotation of sucrose, and a sucrose/dextrose/levulose mixture.
Wendland, Ray J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 217.
Carbohydrates |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enzymes
Amperometric determination of phenol bromination kinetics  Cohen, R.; Matzek, C.; Schlosser, S.; Huber, C. O.
A laboratory that allows students to explore bromination substitution reactions as examples of important non-aqueous solution kinetics including the role of a catalyst, the relationship between rate laws and mechanisms, and acid-base properties.
Cohen, R.; Matzek, C.; Schlosser, S.; Huber, C. O. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 823.
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics |
Catalysis |
Electrochemistry |
Reactions
An Ether Synthesis Using Phase Transfer Catalysis  Hill, John W.; Corredor, Jorge
Williamson syntheses may be carried out under milder conditions by employing phase-transfer catalyst; anhydrous solvents are nor needed.
Hill, John W.; Corredor, Jorge J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 822.
Ethers |
Synthesis |
Catalysis
Chemical equilibrium  Mickey, Charles D.
The law of mass action, the equilibrium constant, and the effect of temperature, concentration, and pressure on equilibrium.
Mickey, Charles D. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 801.
Equilibrium |
Catalysis
The preparation and properties of polybutadiene (jumping rubber)  Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.; Dirreen, Glen E.; Williams, Lloyd C.
A catalyst is added to a pop bottle containing 1,3-butadiene in pentane; after being shaken, the mixture sets to gel and the contents erupt from the bottle within two minutes.
Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.; Dirreen, Glen E.; Williams, Lloyd C. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 738.
Catalysis
On the reaction in the cobalt(II)-hydrogen peroxide-tartaric acid system  Tth, Zoltn
Incorrect interpretation of the reaction of interest made by the author of the referenced article.
Tth, Zoltn J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 464.
Catalysis
The preparation of p-cresyl propyl ether by phase transfer catalysis  Rowe, Jeffrey E.
Modifying the referenced procedure to produce aromatics ethers.
Rowe, Jeffrey E. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 162.
Catalysis |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Ethers
Diphenylbutadienes syntheses by means of the Wittig reaction: Experimental introduction to the use of phase transfer catalysis  Gillois, J.; Guillerm, G.; Stephen, E.; Vo-Quang, L.
Intended as a project carried out by students at the end of introductory organic chemistry.
Gillois, J.; Guillerm, G.; Stephen, E.; Vo-Quang, L. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 161.
Synthesis |
Catalysis |
Alkenes |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Stereochemistry
Drugs in the chemistry laboratory: The conversion of acetaminophen into phenacetin  Volker, Eugene J.; Pride, Ernest; Hough, Charles
The phenolic alcohol group of acetaminophen is alkylated with ethyl iodide using the basic catalyst K2CO3.
Volker, Eugene J.; Pride, Ernest; Hough, Charles J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 831.
Nonmajor Courses |
Applications of Chemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Synthesis |
Catalysis |
Phenols |
Alcohols
A permanganate test for unsaturated fats using phase transfer catalysis  Hill, John W.; Boyd, Thomas C.
Phase transfer catalysis eliminates problems associated with the Baeyer test.
Hill, John W.; Boyd, Thomas C. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 824.
Lipids |
Catalysis |
Fatty Acids
The second year course in inorganic chemistry at the free university of Amsterdam  Bolster, M. W. G.
Includes an outline of the experiments used in the course.
Bolster, M. W. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 734.
Coordination Compounds |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
IR Spectroscopy |
Magnetic Properties |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Catalysis
Petroleum chemistry  Kolb, Doris; Kolb, Kenneth E.
The history of petroleum chemistry.
Kolb, Doris; Kolb, Kenneth E. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 465.
Natural Products |
Geochemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Industrial Chemistry |
Catalysis |
Polymerization
Isoenzymes  Daugherty, N. A.
The separation, identification, and measurement of isoenzymes is an appropriate topic for a special lecture in general chemistry.
Daugherty, N. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 442.
Enzymes |
Proteins / Peptides |
pH |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Electrochemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
The electrophoresis of indicators: An analogy to isoenzyme separation  Daugherty, N. A.; Lavallee, D. K.
A lecture demonstration that illustrates the principles involved in the separation of isoenzymes but avoids the problems inherent in isoenzyme separations.
Daugherty, N. A.; Lavallee, D. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 353.
Electrochemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Dyes / Pigments |
Enzymes |
Separation Science
Salt effects on the hydrolysis of sucrose  Dordick, Robert S.; Clarke, George A.
Under the appropriate conditions, the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of sucrose follows pseudo-first order kinetics.
Dordick, Robert S.; Clarke, George A. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 352.
Carbohydrates |
Catalysis |
Kinetics
Some aspects of the bioinorganic chemistry of molybdenum  Swedo, Kathleen Bizot; Enemark, John H.
The biological role of molybdenum, biophysical studies of the molybdenum atoms in molybdo-enzymes, and aspects of coordination chemistry that bear on the understanding of molybdo-enzymes.
Swedo, Kathleen Bizot; Enemark, John H. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 70.
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Organometallics |
Enzymes |
Coordination Compounds |
Transition Elements
Amine-catalyzed isomerization of diethylmaleate to diethylfumarate  Glover, Irving T.; Cushing, Gary W.; Windsor, Chris M.
The authors have used the reaction in this paper in their introductory organic chemistry course to illustrate principles of GLC , geometric isomerism, homogeneous catalysis, and activation energy determinations.
Glover, Irving T.; Cushing, Gary W.; Windsor, Chris M. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 812.
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers |
Catalysis |
Gas Chromatography
A new synthesis of tertiary alkyl N-aryl-carbamates from isocyanates  Bailey, William J.; Griffith, James R.
A simple, convenient, and fast procedure has been developed for the synthesis of tertiary alkyl N-acrylcarbamate from phenyl and 1-naphthyl isocyanates as solid derivatives of tertiary alcohols by the use of lithium tertiary alkoxides as catalysts.
Bailey, William J.; Griffith, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 809.
Catalysis |
Alcohols |
Synthesis
Phase transfer catalysis: An interim project  Reeves, W. Preston
The authors have found that experiments in phase transfer catalysis provide students with a very profitable interim project.
Reeves, W. Preston J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 433.
Catalysis |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Separation Science
Phase transfer catalysis. Part II: Synthetic applications  Gokel, George W.; Weber, William P.
In this month's continuation of an article, the authors have catalogued a number of illustrative examples so that the range of applicability of phase transfer catalysis will be.
Gokel, George W.; Weber, William P. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 429.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Catalysis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Organometallics |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Synthesis |
Esters |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alkylation
Sodium nitroprusside reagent II-A solvent modification  Dougherty, Charles M.; Baumgarten, Reuben L.; Markowska, Maria; Battey, York C.
The authors report an improvement classification test for aliphatic and aryl amines.
Dougherty, Charles M.; Baumgarten, Reuben L.; Markowska, Maria; Battey, York C. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 341.
Qualitative Analysis |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Catalysis
Phase-transfer catalysis using quaternary 'Onium salts  Mclntosh, J. M.
This article is intended to focus attention on the preparative applications of the catalytic phase-transfer technique.
Mclntosh, J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 235.
Catalysis |
Ethers |
Solutions / Solvents
Nucleophilic substitution by phase transfer catalysis  Reeves, W. Preston; White, Mitchell R.; Bier, Deana
The preparation of alkyl thiocyanates to be an excellent and versatile experiment for first year organic students.
Reeves, W. Preston; White, Mitchell R.; Bier, Deana J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 56.
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Catalysis
Quarternary ammonia salts: Some recent applications in organic synthesis  Varughese, Pothen
Presents a variety of applications for quarternary ammonia salts, including as reaction media, a reagent for mesylation, catalytic hydrogenation, and micellar and phase-transfer catalysis.
Varughese, Pothen J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 666.
Synthesis |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Micelles |
Catalysis
Substituent effects in electrophilic aromatic substitution. A laboratory in organic chemistry  Gilow, Helmuth
The acid catalyzed bromination of aromatic substrates with hydrobromous acid.
Gilow, Helmuth J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 450.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Aromatic Compounds |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Catalysis
Belousov's oscillating reaction in acid medium other than sulfuric acid  Mishra, H. C.; Singh, C. M.
Reports of the existence of oscillatory phenomenon in the Mn+2 catalyzed reaction between citric acid and potassium bromate in phosphoric and nitric acids.
Mishra, H. C.; Singh, C. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 377.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions |
Catalysis
New skeletal-space-filling models. A model of an enzyme active site  Clarke, Frank H.
Reviews the molecular modeling systems available for representing organic and biochemical structures; includes requirements and coordinates for a model of the alpha chymotrypsin active site.
Clarke, Frank H. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 230.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enzymes |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Recognition
Cycloamyloses  Bergeron, Raymond J.
Examines an unusual carbohydrate system of current interest in the hope of generating some enthusiasm for the topic.
Bergeron, Raymond J. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 204.
Carbohydrates |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Enzymes |
Spectroscopy
Murray Raney of Chattanooga and nickel catalysts  Tarbell, D. Stanley; Tarbell, Ann Tracy
Biography of Murray Raney, who received a patent in 1927 for a catalysts prepared from an alloy of nickel and aluminum.
Tarbell, D. Stanley; Tarbell, Ann Tracy J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 26.
Catalysis
Simple models for tough concepts  Cavagnol, Richard M.; Barnett, Thomas
One of the most challenging aspects of instructional interaction is the presentation of dynamic chemical concepts interaction is the presentation of dynamic chemical concepts in a way that is both believable and understandable. The authors have devised a series of models that are simple, inexpensive, and require very little time or skill to construct. They allow students to visualize a whole spectrum of phenomena from atomic structure to enzyme-substrate interactions.
Cavagnol, Richard M.; Barnett, Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 643.
Enzymes |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Transport Properties
Micelle catalysis of an aromatic substitution reaction  Corsaro, Gerald; Smith, J. K.
This article describes an experiment which demonstrates micelle catalysis.
Corsaro, Gerald; Smith, J. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 589.
Micelles |
Aromatic Compounds |
Reactions |
Catalysis
The scope of the Haworth synthesis  Agranat, Israel; Shih, Yu-Shan
The duality of the Haworth synthesis as revealed most conspicuously in the preparation of both anthracene and phenanthrene, widens the scope of the method. On the basis of the reversibility of Friedel-Crafts acylation in PPA, the Haworth synthesis may serve as a route to linearly annelated-as well as to angularly annelated polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons.
Agranat, Israel; Shih, Yu-Shan J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 488.
Synthesis |
Catalysis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Syntheses and rearrangements of cage molecules related to cubane  Jefford, Charles W.
This article looks at the synthesis of cubane, basketene, miscellaneous homocubane chemistry, snoutene, triqunacene, hypostrophene, tris-homocubane, and catalysis by transition metals.
Jefford, Charles W. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 477.
Catalysis |
Transition Elements |
Alkenes |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Heterocycles |
Alcohols
Photooxidation of methionine. An integrated organic-analytical-biochemistry laboratory experiment  Lewis, Catherine; Scouten, William H.
The experiments presented here familiarize the student with the organic reactions necessary to prepare the starting material; introduces the use of glass beads for immobilizing a catalyst; demonstrates the use of light and methylene blue as oxidizers; requires the implementation of an important analytical technique, thin layer chromatography; provides the student with a good example of the reactivity of one amino acid, methionine.
Lewis, Catherine; Scouten, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 395.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Amino Acids |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Catalysis
Bromolain. Experiments illustrating proteolytic enzyme action  Reigh, Darryel L.
The following set of exercises provides a simple visual method of demonstrations some of the characteristics of enzymes in general, such as heat and pH lability and inhibition, as well as some specific properties of bromelain intide hydrolysis. These experiments can be used with freshman in introductory courses and juniors in biochemistry.
Reigh, Darryel L. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 386.
Enzymes |
pH |
Food Science |
Natural Products |
Proteins / Peptides
Imidazole - Versatile today, prominent tomorrow  Matuszak, C. A.; Matuszak, A. J.
Imidazole chemistry has pedagogical utility for all the organic chemistry students pursing careers in the life sciences.
Matuszak, C. A.; Matuszak, A. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 280.
Grignard Reagents |
Aromatic Compounds |
Heterocycles |
Phenols |
Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Coordination Compounds |
Hydrogen Bonding
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
216-219. Four questions applying chemistry and their solutions.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 807.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Enzymes |
Lipids |
Metabolism |
Fatty Acids
A space-filling model of the active site region of carboxypeptidase A  Sebastian, John F.; Butkus, John C.
A three-dimensional CPK space-filling model of the active site of carboxypeptidase A.
Sebastian, John F.; Butkus, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 660.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Enzymes |
Amino Acids
Collision and transition state theory approaches to acid-base catalysis  Dunford, H. B.
Shows that the description of acid-catalyzed chemical reactions in terms of transition state acid dissociation constants is formally equivalent to the collision theory approach, in which dissociation constants of acid groups on initial reactants are utilized.
Dunford, H. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 578.
Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Kinetics |
Equilibrium
A new chemistry program for nursing and allied health students  Stanitski, Conrad L.; Sears, Curtis T., Jr.
Outlines and discusses the topics considered in a chemistry program for nursing and allied health students.
Stanitski, Conrad L.; Sears, Curtis T., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 226.
Nonmajor Courses |
Applications of Chemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Catalysis |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Metabolism |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
Synthesis of sulfuric acid by the contact process. A student laboratory experiment  Martin, J. A.; Baudot, P.; Monal, J. L.; Lejaille, M. F.
Experimental apparatus and details for the synthesis of sulfuric acid by the contact process.
Martin, J. A.; Baudot, P.; Monal, J. L.; Lejaille, M. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 188.
Synthesis |
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Industrial Chemistry
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
175-179. Five ecological chemistry questions and their answers.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 171.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Photochemistry |
Catalysis |
Enzymes
Heterogeneous catalysis: Resin-catalyzed saponification of methyl acetate  Nieto, Alberto
An experiment designed to illustrate a heterogeneous catalyzed reaction with a soluble acid.
Nieto, Alberto J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 846.
Catalysis |
Kinetics
Dihalocarbene addition reaction  Goh, S. H.
This experiment illustrates the synthetic utility of carbenes and that of phase transfer catalysis.
Goh, S. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 678.
Alkenes |
Addition Reactions |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Catalysis |
Synthesis
The bombardier beetle  Plumb, Robert C.; Erickson, Karen L.
The chemistry behind the bombardier beetle's chemical defenses illustrates the principles of reaction rates, catalysis, and laboratory safety.
Plumb, Robert C.; Erickson, Karen L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 705.
Applications of Chemistry |
Natural Products |
Rate Law |
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aromatic Compounds
Acid and base catalyzed isomerization of 5-cholesten-3-one. An experiment in UV/kinetics  Dimmel, Donald R.; McKinney, Michael A.
This experiment is designed to introduce the student to the principles of ultraviolet spectroscopy and point out its application to following the rate of a chemical change; the experiment also clearly demonstrates that a conjugated system is thermodynamically more stable than a nonconjugated system.
Dimmel, Donald R.; McKinney, Michael A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 373.
Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Catalytic hydrogenation of ketones at moderate pressures. An organic demonstration-experiment  Kaye, Irving Allan
This procedure requires a moderate pressure hydrogenator and can be completed as a demonstration or a laboratory with a small number of students.
Kaye, Irving Allan J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 131.
Catalysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
A demonstration of enzyme activity for the "Sceptical Chymist"  Fried, Rainer; Howse, Margaret
A simple laboratory or demonstration that illustrates the nature and fundamental properties of enzymes through a color change.
Fried, Rainer; Howse, Margaret J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 847.
Enzymes |
Rate Law
Catalysis demonstrations with Cr2O3  Briggs, Thomas S.
Cr2O3 is used as a catalyst in the oxidation of nonflammable substances such as glycerine and glacial acetic acid.
Briggs, Thomas S. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A206.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Catalysis
Simple method for demonstrating an enzymatic reaction  Tang, Chung-Shih
Uses taste sensations of papaya seeds under varying conditions to demonstrate an enzymatic reaction.
Tang, Chung-Shih J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 692.
Enzymes |
Proteins / Peptides |
Food Science |
Reactions |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Hydrogen sulfide under any other name still smells. A poisonous story  Brasted, Robert C.
The chemistry of hydrogen sulfide affords an excellent opportunity to integrate descriptive inorganic and coordination chemistry with biochemistry.
Brasted, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 574.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Coordination Compounds |
Enzymes |
Proteins / Peptides
Catalysis and cleanliness  Johnston, Joseph E.
A catalytic reaction demonstrates that it is practically impossible to thoroughly clean a piece of glassware.
Johnston, Joseph E. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A547.
Catalysis
Disposable macromolecular model "kits"  Nicholson, Isadore
A brief note suggesting the use of colored pipe cleaners for the construction of three dimensional models of polymers, particularly enzymes and other proteins.
Nicholson, Isadore J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 671.
Molecular Modeling |
Enzymes |
Proteins / Peptides
Preparation of adamantane: An introductory organic experiment  Ault, Addison; Kopet, Rachel
This preparation involves the aluminum chloride catalyzed isomerization of endo-tetrahydrodicyclopentadiene.
Ault, Addison; Kopet, Rachel J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 612.
Synthesis |
Catalysis
The principle of exponential change: Applications in chemistry, biochemistry, and radioactivity  Green, Frank O.
Examines the nature of exponential change and its applications to chemistry, biochemistry, and radioactivity, including radioactive decay, enzyme kinetics, colorimetry, spectrophotometry, and first order reaction kinetics.
Green, Frank O. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 451.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Kinetics |
Enzymes |
Spectroscopy
Preparation of p-anisole: An organic chemistry experiment  Smith, Richard F.; Bates, Alvin C.
In this experiment, p-anisaldehyde is converted to p-anisonitrile by a modification of the three-step aldehyde-nitrile synthesis of Smith and Walker.
Smith, Richard F.; Bates, Alvin C. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 174.
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Addition Reactions |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Elimination Reactions |
Catalysis
Molecular models of metal chelates to illustrate enzymatic reactions  Hendrickson, H. Stewart; Srere, Paul A.
This paper describes an alternative to the Ogston model that uses a metal ion to discriminate between the symmetrical ends of the citrate molecule.
Hendrickson, H. Stewart; Srere, Paul A. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 539.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enzymes |
Organometallics |
Coordination Compounds
Letter to the editor  Yates, D. J. C.
Comments on methods described in a prior paper for removing oxygen from inert gases and suggests improvements.
Yates, D. J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 699.
Catalysis |
Gases
Reaction rate analysis and instrumentation: An experiment for the analytical laboratory  Pardue, Harry L.; Burke, Michael F.; Jones, David O.
This experiment exemplifies the use of operational amplifiers for measurement and analog computation in determining the glucose utilizing glucose enzyme.
Pardue, Harry L.; Burke, Michael F.; Jones, David O. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 684.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Catalysis |
Enzymes |
Carbohydrates
Interactions of enzymes and inhibitors  Baker, B. R.
Examines the kinetics and interactions of enzymes and inhibitors and considers specifically lactic dehydrogenase, dihydrofolic reductase, thymidine phosphorylate, guanase, and xanthine oxidase.
Baker, B. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 610.
Enzymes |
Catalysis |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Recognition |
Hydrogen Bonding
Determination of glucose: A kinetics experiment for the analytical course  Toren, E. Clifford, Jr.
This determination of glucose demonstrates both kinetic and enzymatic methods of analysis.
Toren, E. Clifford, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 172.
Quantitative Analysis |
Carbohydrates |
Kinetics |
Enzymes
A practical method of removing oxygen from inert gases  Broadbent, A. D.
Describes the use of BTS-catalyst to remove oxygen from nitrogen and other inert gases.
Broadbent, A. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 145.
Gases |
Separation Science |
Catalysis
Textbooks errors. Miscellanea no. 5  Mysels, Karol J.
Considers inconsistencies in the units involved in thermodynamic expressions, incorrect units given for equivalent conductivity, oscillations in polargraphic measurements, and inconsistencies in dealing with catalysis.
Mysels, Karol J. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 44.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Thermodynamics |
Catalysis
Letter to the editor  Garrigan, George A.
Comments on the teaching potential of an earlier published experiment involving the acid catalyzed hydrolysis of sucrose.
Garrigan, George A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 681.
Carbohydrates |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Catalysis
The effect of carbonate on the chromium (III)-EDTA reaction: An example of inorganic catalysis  Agger, Sister R. M.; Hedrick, C. E.
The effect of bicarbonate on the formation of the chromium(III)-thiocyanate complex is an example of coordination catalysis by a secondary ligand and may be a vehicle for the study of elementary solution kinetics.
Agger, Sister R. M.; Hedrick, C. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 541.
Catalysis |
Coordination Compounds |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
The effect of structure on chemical and physical properties of polymers  Price, Charles C.
Suggests using polymers to teach the effect of changes in structure on chemical reactivity, the effect of structure on physical properties, the role of catalysts, and the basic principles of a chain reaction mechanism.
Price, Charles C. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 13.
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Polymerization |
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Catalysis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Continuous process for catalytic oxidation of ammonia  Olmsted, Michael P.
A heated platinum coil catalyzes the oxidation of ammonia.
Olmsted, Michael P. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A973.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Crystalline molecular sieves  Breck, D. W.
This article introduces zeolites - crystalline aluminosilicates that function as molecular sieves.
Breck, D. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 678.
Separation Science |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Ion Exchange |
Catalysis
The amine catalyzed Perkin condensation: A class project  Ketcham, Roger
In this exercise students carry out the amine catalyzed Perkin condensations of substituted benzaldehydes with substituted phenylacetic acids to give alpha-phenyl-cis- and trans-cinnamic acids.
Ketcham, Roger J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 565.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Catalysis |
Reactions |
Synthesis
Three-dimensional effects in biochemistry  Ingraham, Lloyd L.
Explores stereospecificity and stereoselectivity; rigidity requirements; steric effects; and stereospecificity when not required mechanistically.
Ingraham, Lloyd L. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 66.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Catalysis |
Enzymes |
Molecular Recognition |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stereochemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers
Ficin as a catalyst in organic syntheses  Abernethy, John Leo; Leonardo, Gilbert L.
Examines the chemistry of ficin, particularly its catalytic behavior, and suggests experiments involving this natural substance.
Abernethy, John Leo; Leonardo, Gilbert L. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 53.
Catalysis |
Synthesis
The catalyzed decomposition of potassium chlorate  Rochow; Eugene G.; Gaidis, James M.
Research into why manganese dioxide acts as a catalyst in the decomposition of potassium chlorate.
Rochow; Eugene G.; Gaidis, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 78.
Catalysis |
Reactions
Zirconium chemistry in industry  Blumenthal, Warren B.
Examines the processing of zircon; zirconium carbide, chlorides, fluorides, and sulfates; hydrous zirconia; zirconyl acetate; ammonium zirconyl carbonate; zirconium in organic chemistry; and zirconium compounds as catalysts.
Blumenthal, Warren B. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 604.
Industrial Chemistry |
Catalysis
Demonstrating enzymatic hydrolysis of glucosides by paper chromatography  Darling, S. F.
The hydrolysis of beta-glucosides in the presence of beta-glucosidase is followed chromatographically using only micro amounts.
Darling, S. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 508.
Enzymes |
Chromatography |
Microscale Lab
Electronic configuration of metal oxides  O'Reilly, D. E.
Examines the properties of metal oxides in light of crystal field theory, covalency, catalysis, and energy bands.
O'Reilly, D. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 312.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Metals |
Transition Elements |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Catalysis
Papain as an enzyme catalyst in undergraduate organic chemistry  Abernethy, John Leo; Kientz, Marvin
A rather large number of papain-catalyzed reactions can be selected for use in undergraduate organic laboratory work.
Abernethy, John Leo; Kientz, Marvin J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 582.
Enzymes |
Catalysis
The reduction of carbon dioxide  Hollander, Jerome; Spialter, Leonard
Examines the reduction of carbon through a variety of processes, including catalytic hydrogenation, reduction by metals and complex metal hydrides, electrochemical reduction, and reduction under the influence of radiation.
Hollander, Jerome; Spialter, Leonard J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 446.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Catalysis |
Metals |
Electrochemistry |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
Anionic polymerization of vinyl monomers: A demonstration  Zilkha, Albert; Albeck, Michael; Frankel, Max
Describes experiments on the polymerization of styrene using butyl lithium as a catalyst by an anionic mechanism.
Zilkha, Albert; Albeck, Michael; Frankel, Max J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 345.
Polymerization |
Catalysis
Polymerization of ethylene at atmospheric pressure: A demonstration using a "Ziegler" type catalyst  Zilkha, Albert; Calderon, Nissim; Rabani, Joseph; Frankel, Max
A simple experiment on the polymerization of ethylene at atmospheric pressure is described using a "Ziegler" type catalyst prepared from amyl lithium and titanium tetrachloride.
Zilkha, Albert; Calderon, Nissim; Rabani, Joseph; Frankel, Max J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 344.
Polymerization |
Reactions |
Catalysis |
Alkenes
Chemistry in the manufacture of modern gasoline  Kimberlin, C. N., Jr.
This paper presents a brief review of the chemistry involved in the manufacture of gasoline, particularly catalytic cracking reactions.
Kimberlin, C. N., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 569.
Industrial Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Catalysis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Preparation of carbonyl compounds by catalytic dehydrogenation in liquid phase  Halasz, A.
Offers a procedure for the preparation of carbonyl compounds by catalytic dehydrogenation in liquid phase.
Halasz, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 624.
Synthesis |
Catalysis
A laboratory exercise in catalytic dehydrogenation  Allison, Elizabeth; Gorsich, Richard; Binder, L. O.
Presents an apparatus that uses a copper catalyst to prepare aldehydes and ketones from alcohols through catalytic dehydrogenation.
Allison, Elizabeth; Gorsich, Richard; Binder, L. O. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 209.
Catalysis |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Synthesis
Letters  Wolf, Milton G.
A high school chemistry teacher is surprised by the transformation of olive oil into a crystalline solid, apparently through the action of selenium.
Wolf, Milton G. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 499.
Catalysis