TIGER

Journal Articles: 165 results
Molecules and Medicine (E. J. Corey, Barbara Czakó, and László Kürti)  Robert E. Buntrock
Looking for a book on common drugs and pharmaceuticals? On diseases and medical conditions? On pharmacology? In addition, do you need some background in chemistry to handle all of this information? If you want all of this, and in addition want it under one cover, then this is the book for you.
Buntrock, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1495.
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Proteins / Peptides |
Synthesis |
Toxicology
OMLeT—An Alternative Approach to Learning Metabolism: Glycolysis and the TCA Cycle as an Example  Charles M. Stevens, Dylan M. Silver, Brad Behm, Raymond J. Turner, and Michael G. Surette
Using PHP Hypertext Preprocessor scripting, the dynamic OMLeT (Online Metabolism Learning Tool) Web site is geared towards different learning styles and allows the student to process metabolic pathways (glycolysis and TCA cycle) via a user-defined approach.
Stevens, Charles M.; Silver, Dylan M.; Behm, Brad; Turner, Raymond J.; Surette, Michael G. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 2024.
Bioenergetics |
Enzymes |
Learning Theories |
Metabolism |
Proteins / Peptides
Biochemical View: A Web Site Providing Material for Teaching Biochemistry Using Multiple Approaches  Fernanda C. Dórea, Higor S. Rodrigues, Oscar M. M. Lapouble, Márcio R. Pereira, Mariana S. Castro, and Wagner Fontes
Biochemical View is a free, full access Web site whose main goals are to complement existing biochemistry instruction and materials, provide material to teachers preparing conventional and online courses, and popularize the use of these resources in undergraduate courses.
Dórea, Fernanda C.; Rodrigues, Higor S.; Lapouble, Oscar M. M.; Pereira, Márcio R.; Castro, Mariana S.; Fontes, Wagner. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1866.
Amino Acids |
Bioenergetics |
Carbohydrates |
Enzymes |
Glycolysis |
Lipids |
Metabolism |
Fatty Acids
A New Colorimetric Assay of Tabletop Sweeteners Using a Modified Biuret Reagent  Christopher J. Fenk, Nathan Kaufman, and Donald G. Gerbig, Jr.
Presents a new, fast and effective colorimetric analysis of aspartame that incorporates a less caustic biuret reagent and visible spectroscopic analysis for selective detection in aqueous solutions using readily available instrumentation.
Fenk, Christopher J.; Kaufman, Nathan; Gerbig, Donald G., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1676.
Consumer Chemistry |
Coordination Compounds |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Food Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Amino Acids
The A1c Blood Test: An Illustration of Principles from General and Organic Chemistry  Robert C. Kerber
The glycated hemoglobin blood test is a key measure of the effectiveness of glucose control in diabetics. The chemistry of glucose in the bloodstream, which underlies the test and its impact, provides an illustration of the importance of chemical equilibrium and kinetics to a major health problem.
Kerber, Robert C. . J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1541.
Applications of Chemistry |
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Carbohydrates |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Proteins / Peptides |
Bioorganic Chemistry
Nature's Way To Make the Lantibiotics  Heather A. Relyea and Wilfred A. van der Donk
This article focuses on one class of antimicrobial compounds, the lantibiotics, and discusses their biosynthetic pathways as well as their molecular mode of action. In the course of the review, the meaning of the terms regio-, chemo-, and stereoselectivity are discussed.
Relyea, Heather A.; van der Donk, Wilfred A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1769.
Applications of Chemistry |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Biotechnology |
Biosynthesis |
Catalysis |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Proteins / Peptides
Amino Acids  William F. Coleman
The Featured Molecules this month are the 20 standard alpha-amino acids found in proteins. The molecules are presented in two formats, the neutral form and the ionized form found in solution at physiologic pH.
Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1103.
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics
Fluorous Compounds and Their Role in Separation Chemistry  Maria Angeles Ubeda and Roman Dembinski
Reviews fluorous technology and outlines strategies towards organic synthesis.
Ubeda, Maria Angeles; Dembinski, Roman. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 84.
Amino Acids |
Catalysis |
Esters |
Green Chemistry |
Separation Science |
Synthesis
Caught on Tape: Catalyst Recovery; Secondary Structure Switch; DNA-Based Chiral Catalysts   Angela G. King
Common lab tape aids catalyst delivery and recovery, DNA lends its chirality to organic reaction, and a model for studying the transformation of ahelices to ?sheets.
King, Angela G. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 10.
Catalysis |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Glycosyltransferases A and B: Four Critical Amino Acids Determine Blood Type  Natisha L. Rose, Monica M. Palcic, and Stephen V. Evans
Human A, B, and O blood type is determined by the presence or absence of distinct carbohydrate structures on red blood cells. In this review the chemistry of the blood group ABO system and the role of glycosyltransferase A, glycosyltransferase B, and the four amino acids critical to determining blood group status are discussed.
Rose, Natisha L.; Palcic, Monica M.; Evans, Stephen V. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1846.
Carbohydrates |
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Biology |
X-ray Crystallography |
Amino Acids
Cotton Effect in Copper–Proline Complexes in the Visible Region  Victor Volkov and Rolf Pfister
This article suggests taking advantage of the visible dd electronic transition of Cu2+, which allows one to contrast the normal optical rotatory dispersion response of d- and l-proline in aqueous solution with the strong Cotton effect observed when these amino acids are complexed with a metal cation.
Volkov, Victor; Pfister, Rolf. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1663.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Amino Acids |
Coordination Compounds |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory
A Green Polymerization of Aspartic Acid for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory  George D. Bennett
Based on a technology that won a Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Award, this experiment involves the thermal polymerization of aspartic acid and subsequent hydrolysis to give sodium poly(aspartate). The procedure is suitable for introducing students to the important topic of polymers and for illustrating several of the principles of green chemistry.
Bennett, George D. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1380.
Green Chemistry |
Synthesis |
Industrial Chemistry |
Natural Products |
Polymerization |
Proteins / Peptides
A Supramolecular Approach to Medicinal Chemistry: Medicine Beyond the Molecule  David K. Smith
This article emphasizes a conceptual view of medicinal chemistry, which has important implications for the future, as the supramolecular approach to medicinal-chemistry products outlined here is rapidly allowing nanotechnology to converge with medicine. In particular, this article discusses recent developments including the rational design of drugs such as Relenza and Tamiflu, the mode of action of vancomycin, and the mechanism by which bacteria develop resistance, drug delivery using cyclodextrins, and the importance of supramolecular chemistry in understanding protein aggregation diseases such as Alzheimer's and CreutzfieldJacob.
Smith, David K. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 393.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Nanotechnology |
Proteins / Peptides
An SDS–PAGE Examination of Protein Quaternary Structure and Disulfide Bonding for a Biochemistry Laboratory  Jennifer L. Powers, Carla S. Andrews, Caroline C. St. Antoine, Swapan S. Jain, and Vicky L. H. Bevilacqua
In this experiment, students use sodium dodecyl sulfatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDSPAGE) and -mercaptoethanol (ME) to determine preliminary information about protein quaternary structure. This experiment gives students a better understanding of protein subunit composition and the forces responsible for the stability of quaternary structure. The experiment can be accomplished in one three-hour laboratory period.
Powers, Jennifer L.; Andrews, Carla S.; St. Antoine, Caroline C.; Jain, Swapan S.; Bevilacqua, Vicky L. H. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 93.
Bioanalytical Chemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Proteins / Peptides
Chemical Modification of Papain and Subtilisin: An Active Site Comparison. An Undergraduate Biochemistry Experiment   Mireille St-Vincent and Michael Dickman
This experiment demonstrates the specific chemistry of cysteine and serine residues in the active sites of papain and subtilisin.
St-Vincent, Mireille; Dickman, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1048.
Amino Acids |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Enzymes
Proposed Improvements to a Lab on Equilibrium Binding of Phenol Red to Protein  Todd Silverstein
Many biochemistry courses incorporate a laboratory project published as experiment 3 in Modern Experimental Biochemistry. Boyer recommends that students calculate the fraction of bound dye using the areas of the two eluted peaks in the absorbance versus fraction number plot. This will only work if the dyes absorbance is identical for both the bound and the free form.
Silverstein, Todd. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 645.
Dyes / Pigments |
Chromatography |
Proteins / Peptides |
Equilibrium
Proposed Improvements to a Lab on Equilibrium Binding of Phenol Red to Protein  Todd Silverstein
Many biochemistry courses incorporate a laboratory project published as experiment 3 in Modern Experimental Biochemistry. Boyer recommends that students calculate the fraction of bound dye using the areas of the two eluted peaks in the absorbance versus fraction number plot. This will only work if the dyes absorbance is identical for both the bound and the free form.
Silverstein, Todd. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 645.
Dyes / Pigments |
Chromatography |
Proteins / Peptides |
Equilibrium
The Proteomics Stock Market Project. A Cross-Disciplinary Collaboration in Biochemistry and Business Education  Heath Keller and James R. Cox
Students taking courses in different disciplines can work together to add unique elements to their educational experience. Stage I involved biochemistry students investigating the topic of proteomics and choosing companies for potential investment based only on scientific investigation. Marketing and management students completed Stage II and provided an investment analysis on the companies selected in Stage I.
Keller, Heath; Cox, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 519.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Proteins / Peptides
A Modular Laser Apparatus for Polarimetry, Nephelometry, and Fluorimetry in General Chemistry  Scott A. Darveau, Jessica Mueller, April Vaverka, Cheri Barta, Anthony Fitch, Jessica Jurzenski, and Yvonne Gindt
We present an apparatus suitable for multiple uses in the general chemistry laboratory including polarimetry, fluorescence, and nephelometry. The open design of the instrument also decreases the chance that students will contract the "black-box syndrome" that seems to develop when using instruments that only provide the final data in an experiment without showing how the measurements are obtained.
Darveau, Scott A.; Mueller, Jessica; Vaverka, April; Barta, Cheri; Fitch, Anthony; Jurzenski, Jessica; Gindt, Yvonne. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 401.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Kinetics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Proteins / Peptides |
Water / Water Chemistry
The Monosodium Glutamate Story: The Commercial Production of MSG and Other Amino Acids  Addison Ault
Examples of the industrial synthesis of pure amino acids are presented. The emphasis is on the synthesis of (S)-glutamic acid and, to a lesser extent, (S)-lysine and (R,S)-methionine. These amino acids account for about 90% of the total world production of amino acids.
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 347.
Amino Acids |
Biotechnology |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Consumer Chemistry |
Enzymes |
Natural Products |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis |
Food Science
LC–MS of Metmyoglobin at pH = 2. Separation and Characterization of Apomyoglobin and Heme by ESI–MS and UV–Vis  Helen Cleary Stynes, Araceli Layo, and Richard W. Smith
This article describes an experiment employing LCMS where metmyoglobin is denatured to apomyoglobin and heme in a mobile phase gradient of acetonitrile H2O with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid. The apomyoglobin is separated from the heme group by reversed-phase chromatography.
Stynes, Helen Cleary; Layo, Araceli; Smith, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 266.
Biotechnology |
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Proteins / Peptides |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
A "Polypeptide Demonstrator"  Addison Ault
I have used a telephone Handset Coil Cord as a simple and convenient model for the structure of a polypeptide.
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 196.
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Food: The Chemistry of Its Components, 4th Edition (T. P. Coultrate)  Richard Pagni
The book begins with an extensive discussion of the major constituents of food: sugars and their polymers, lipids, and amino acids and their polymers. This is followed by fascinating chapters on colors and flavors, the ingredients that do so much to make food enjoyable.
Pagni, Richard. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 39.
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
Applications of Chemistry |
Carbohydrates |
Proteins / Peptides |
Lipids
Some Like It Cold: A Computer-Based Laboratory Introduction to Sequence and Tertiary Structure Comparison of Cold-Adapted Lactate Dehydrogenases Using Bioinformatics Tools  M. Sue Lowery and Leigh A. Plesniak
Students download sequences and structures from appropriate databases, create sequence alignments, and carry out molecular modeling exercises, and then form hypotheses about the mechanism of biochemical adaptation for function and stability. This laboratory is appropriate for biochemistry and molecular biology laboratory courses, special topics, and advanced biochemistry lecture courses, and can be adapted for honors high school programs.
Lowery, M. Sue; Plesniak, Leigh A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1300.
Enzymes |
Molecular Modeling |
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Protein Design Using Unnatural Amino Acids  Basar Bilgiçer and Krishna Kumar
Using examples from the literature, this article describes the available methods for unnatural amino acid incorporation and highlights some recent applications including the design of hyperstable protein folds.
Bilgiçer, Basar; Kumar, Krishna. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1275.
Amino Acids |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Biotechnology |
Proteins / Peptides |
Synthesis |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Tensile Strength Measurements on Biopolymer Films  Eugene S. Stevens and Mark D. Poliks
Measuring the tensile strength of biopolymer films using a simple student apparatus; results are compared with data obtained from industry-standard equipment.
Stevens, Eugene S.; Poliks, Mark D. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 810.
Biotechnology |
Carbohydrates |
Industrial Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Materials Science |
Proteins / Peptides
Milk as a Drug Analysis Medium: HPLC Determination of Isoniazid  Enzo Sottofattori, Riccardo Raggio, and Olga Bruno
Using milk as a safer biological fluid for drug analysis; detecting isoniazid in cow's milk through HPLC.
Sottofattori, Enzo; Raggio, Riccardo; Bruno, Olga. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 547.
Chromatography |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Food Science |
Proteins / Peptides |
HPLC |
Quantitative Analysis |
Applications of Chemistry
Identifying a Protein by MALDI–TOF Mass Spectrometry: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory  Anne E. Counterman, Matthew S. Thompson, and David E. Clemmer
Experiment that requires students to use mass spectral data (MALDI-TOF) to find the identity of an unknown protein sample by performing a database search on the Internet.
Counterman, Anne E.; Thompson, Matthew S.; Clemmer, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 177.
Mass Spectrometry |
Proteins / Peptides |
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis
Collaboration between Chemistry and Biology to Introduce Spectroscopy, Electrophoresis, and Molecular Biology as Tools for Biochemistry  Vicky L. H. Bevilacqua, Jennifer L. Powers, Connie Tran, Swapan S. Jain, Reem Chabayta, Dale L. Vogelien, Ralph J. Rascati, Michelle Hall, and Kathleen Diehl
Program that integrates a variety of instrumental techniques across the biological and chemistry curricula, including biochemistry, plant physiology, genetics, and forensics.
Bevilacqua, Vicky L. H.; Powers, Jennifer L.; Vogelien, Dale L.; Rascati, Ralph J.; Hall, Michelle; Diehl, Kathleen; Tran, Connie; Jain, Swapan S.; Chabayta, Reem . J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1311.
Biotechnology |
Enzymes |
Forensic Chemistry |
Hormones |
Instrumental Methods |
Kinetics |
Plant Chemistry |
Proteins / Peptides |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Entropy Loss of Hydroxyl Groups of Balanol upon Binding to Protein Kinase A  Gergely Gidofalvi, Chung F. Wong, and J. Andrew McCammon
Summer project to give undergraduates hands-on experience in using several modern tools of molecular modeling for computer-aided drug design.
Gidofalvi, Gergely; Wong, Chung F.; McCammon, J. Andrew. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1122.
Computational Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Molecular Recognition |
Undergraduate Research |
Molecular Modeling |
Statistical Mechanics |
Thermodynamics |
Proteins / Peptides
Factors Affecting Reaction Kinetics of Glucose Oxidase  Kristin A. Johnson
Demonstration based on a biochemical kinetics experiment in which the rate of reaction varies with the enzyme concentration, substrate concentration, substrate used in the reaction, and temperature.
Johnson, Kristin A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 74.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Proteins / Peptides |
Carbohydrates |
Catalysis |
Rate Law
Thin-Layer Electrophoresis  Tom Lyons Fisher, Tara Leslie Fitzsimmons, and I. David Reingold
Thin-layer electrophoresis apparatus.
Fisher, Tom Lyons; Fitzsimmons, Tara Leslie; Reingold, I. David. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1241.
Amino Acids |
Electrophoresis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Blood-Chemistry Tutorials: Teaching Biological Applications of General Chemistry Material  Rachel E. Casiday, Dewey Holten, Richard Krathen, and Regina F. Frey
Four, Web-based tutorials that deal with chemical processes in the blood and provide an integrated biological context for a variety of chemical concepts.
Casiday, Rachel E.; Holten, Dewey; Krathen, Richard; Frey, Regina F. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1210.
Applications of Chemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Proteins / Peptides |
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Protein Structure Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Puzzle with 37 names, terms, prefixes, and acronyms that describe protein structure.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 474.
Proteins / Peptides |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The Chemical Adventures of Sherlock Holmes: The Shroud of Spartacus  Thomas G. Waddell and Thomas R. Rybolt
A chemical mystery featuring Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson.
Waddell, Thomas G.; Rybolt, Thomas R. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 470.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Forensic Chemistry |
Proteins / Peptides |
Quantitative Analysis
A Simple Method for Demonstrating Enzyme Kinetics Using Catalase from Beef Liver Extract  Kristin A. Johnson
A simple visual method of demonstrating enzyme kinetics using beef liver catalase. Filter paper is saturated with beef liver extract and placed into a solution of hydrogen peroxide. The catalase in the extract decomposes the hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen. Oxygen forms on the filter paper, and the filter paper rises to the top of the beaker. Catalase activity is measured by timing the rise of the enzyme-soaked filter paper to the top of beakers containing different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide.
Johnson, A. Kristin. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1451.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Proteins / Peptides |
Reactions
An Inexpensive Gradient Maker for the Biochemistry Laboratory  William H. Flurkey
A gradient maker for use in the biochemistry laboratory was constructed out of plastic graduated cylinders or other easily obtained plastic items. Assembly of the gradient makers requires little time or expense. Details on construction and operation are given.
Flurkey, Bill. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1041.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Proteins / Peptides
Thermal Denaturation of Proteins Studied by UV Spectroscopy  Natasa Poklar and Gorazd Vesnaver
UV spectroscopy has been widely used for monitoring the unfolding of proteins. During temperature-induced denaturation the protein absorbance changes with temperature until the process of unfolding is completed. A determination of DH(Td) and DS(Td) for a-chymotrypsinogen A at pH 3.0 is demonstrated.
Poklar, Natasa; Vesnaver, Gorazd. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 380.
Biophysical Chemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Undergraduate Research |
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Amino Acids, Aromatic Compounds, and Carboxylic Acids: How Did They Get Their Common Names?  Sam H. Leung
This article provides a brief survey of the origins of the common names of some amino acids, aromatic compounds, and carboxylic acids.
Leung, Sam H. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 48.
Amino Acids |
Aromatic Compounds |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Carboxylic Acids
Chromatin Isolation and DNA Sequence Analysis in Large Undergraduate Laboratory Sections  Ann E. Hagerman
One exercise is a simple laboratory experiment in which chromatin is isolated from chicken liver and is resolved into histone proteins and DNA by ion-exchange chromatography. The other is a series of computer simulations that introduce DNA sequencing, mapping, and sequence analysis to the students.
Hagerman, Ann E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1426.
Biotechnology |
Proteins / Peptides |
Nucleic Acids / DNA / RNA
Homogeneous Immunoassays: Historical Perspective and Future Promise  Edwin F. Ullman
The founding and growth of Syva Company is examined in the context of its leadership role in the development of homogeneous immunoassays. The simple mix and read protocols of these methods offer advantages in routine analytical and clinical applications.
Ullman, Edwin F. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 781.
Biotechnology |
Enzymes |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Free Radicals |
Photochemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Proteins / Peptides
Immunoassay, DNA Analysis, and Other Ligand Binding Assay Techniques: From Electropherograms to Multiplexed, Ultrasensitive Microarrays on a Chip  Roger P. Ekins
"Ligand" or "binding" assays have made a major impact on biomedical research and clinical diagnosis since their development in the late 1950s. Immunoassay techniques (relying on specific antibodies to bind the target analyte) represent the best-known example, but analogous DNA and RNA analysis methods (using oligonucleotides to recognize defined polynucleotide sequences) are rapidly gaining in importance and are likely to exert profound effects on human society.
Ekins, Roger P. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 769.
Hormones |
Instrumental Methods |
Molecular Recognition |
Nanotechnology |
Proteins / Peptides |
Biotechnology
Amino Acid Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
This is a short puzzle with all 20 genetically encoded amino acids embedded in the matrix. The unused letters form a sentence describing them.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 494.
Amino Acids
Molecular Mechanics across Chemistry (by Anthony K. Rapp and Carla J. Casewit)  G. Craig Hill
The text is divided into 8 chapters, beginning with an Overview, followed by Organics, Peptides and Proteins, Drug Design, DNA, Synthetic Polymers, Inorganics, and Force Fields.
Hill, G. Craig. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 325.
Proteins / Peptides |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
Showing Food Foams Properties with Common Dairy Foods  Carlos Bravo-Diaz and Elisa Gonzalez-Romero
Some easy to carry, inexpensive and safe experiments developed using familiar kitchen materials related with egg foams. Eggs's properties are not only limited to prepare excellent and delicious emulsions like mayonnaise but also makes excellent foams, increasing their volume significantly in two primary ways.
Bravo-Diaz, Carlos; Gonzalez-Romero, Elisa. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1133.
Learning Theories |
Food Science |
Proteins / Peptides |
Applications of Chemistry
The Sweetness of Aspartame: A Biochemistry Lab for Health Science Chemistry Courses  Paul J. Stein
A laboratory exercise to study the effect of aspartame concentration on sweetness has been developed. Class data is averaged and plotted on the same graph as absorbance and taste rating vs. [aspartame]. The absorbance plot follows Beer's law while the taste rating plot displays the hyperbolic response of protein-ligand binding plots.
Stein, Paul J. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1112.
Food Science |
Nonmajor Courses |
Proteins / Peptides |
Medicinal Chemistry
Microburger Biochemistry: Extraction and Spectral Characterization of Myoglyobin from Hamburger  Sheri A. Bylkas and Laura A. Andersson
The protocol combines protein extraction, oxidation and reduction, and simple spectroscopic analysis, as well as gel filtration chromatography and generation/analysis of spectral scans. Mammalian myoglobin (Mb) is easily extracted from steak, to illustrate and address why fresh meat is red and aged meat is brown; the protein has unique spectral properties that are diagnostic for characterization of sample identity.
Bylkas, Sheri A.; Andersson, Laura A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 426.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Proteins / Peptides |
Oxidation / Reduction |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Chromatography
The Purification of Horse Heart Cytochrome c by Ion Exchange Chromatography  Patricia Ann Mabrouk
This paper describes a highly successful experiential learning laboratory experiment for use in undergraduate Quantitative Analysis which capitalizes on current student interest in biotechnology.
Patricia Ann Mabrouk. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A149.
Biotechnology |
Quantitative Analysis |
Chromatography |
Proteins / Peptides |
Ion Exchange |
Spectroscopy
The Use of a "Qual" Centrifuge for Greatly Simplifying and Speeding the Study of Milk  Quentin R. Petersen
Laboratory study of the constituents of milk is almost always slowed by difficult separation of relatively large amounts of curd and whey by filtration. In the two-and-one-half hour experiment described, only 5 mL of skim milk is used and the curd is separated from the whey by using a simple "qual" centrifuge.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 848.
Proteins / Peptides |
Carbohydrates |
Qualitative Analysis
Labeling Histidines in Cytochrome c: An Integrated Laboratory Project  Amy M. Bonser and Owen A. Moe
This four-week laboratory project uses an inorganic protein labeling reagent, chloro(2,2':6,2''-terpyridine)-platinum(II)chloride dihydrate ([Pt(trpy)Cl]Cl(2H2O), to label histidine residues of the protein, cytochrome c. The goal of the experiment is to determine the stoichiometry of labeling.
Bonser, Amy M.; Moe, Owen A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 794.
Instrumental Methods |
Stoichiometry |
Proteins / Peptides |
Gas Chromatography |
HPLC |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
The Well-Read Biochemist  Gale Rhodes
This article describes how I use a collection of poems, essays, and fiction to inspire my biochemistry students to make connections between the arcane world of cellular chemistry and the wider world of literature and the humanities.
Rhodes, Gale. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 732.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Metabolism |
Proteins / Peptides |
Membranes
Research in Undergraduate Instruction: A Biotech Lab Project for Recombinant DNA Protein Expression in Bacteria  Mark Brockman, Alfred B. Ordman, and A. Malcolm Campbell
In the sophomore-level Molecular Biology and Biotechnology course at Beloit College, students learn basic methods in molecular biology in the context of pursuing a semester-long original research project on how DNA sequence affects expression levels of proteins.
Brockman, Mark; Ordman, Alfred B.; Campbell, A. Malcom. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 542.
Molecular Biology |
Proteins / Peptides
Biochemical Data on the Web  Barmettler, Peter
186. Searching for information about enzymes, receptors, and other biochemical data is a painstaking task for chemists even in well-equipped libraries. The World Wide Web (WWW), also called the information superhighway, offers now an alternative approach, which is especially advantageous for homology modeling.
Barmettler, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 520.
Enzymes |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Proteins / Peptides |
Receptors
Fluorescent Measurement of TNS Binding to Calmodulin: A Biochemistry Laboratory Experiment  Jeanne M. Buccigross, Cynthia M. Bedell, and Heather L. Suding-Moster
This article describes a method for the determination of the sites of binding of a fluorescent probe to a protein. The protein examined is Calmodulin.
Buccigross, Jeanne M.; Bedell, Cynthia M.; Suding-Moster, Heather L. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 275.
Proteins / Peptides |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy
Isolation and Purification of Calmodulin from Bovine Brain: A Biochemistry Experiment  Jeanne M. Buccigross, Jerry W. Hayes II, and Christa S. Metz
This article describes a procedure for the purification of an enzyme from a readily available animal tissue. It allows for classical methods of enzyme purification to be examined by students.
Buccigross, Jeanne M.; Hayes II, Jerry W.; Metz, Christa S. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 273.
Proteins / Peptides |
Chromatography
A Problem-Based Learning Design for Teaching Biochemistry  Richard F. Dods
This article describes the design of a biochemistry course that uses problem-based learning. Examples of some of the problems incorporated into the course are described in detail.
Dods, Richard F. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 225.
Proteins / Peptides |
Enzymes |
Learning Theories
A Simplified Procedure for Dipeptide Sequence Analysis in the Undergraduate Laboratory  Paul W. Rogers
This short article reports two simplifications in the standard sequence analysis of dipeptides by the Sanger method.
Rogers, Paul W. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 189.
Amino Acids |
Chromatography
Computer-Modelling of Metal Speciation in Human Blood Serum  Peter Letkeman
182. This paper briefly describes two computer programs, BEST and ECCLES, both available on disc, that can generate distribution diagrams for various metal-complexes in human blood plasma.
Letkeman, Peter. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 165.
Metals |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Amino Acids
In Focus. Protein Structure (Darb, N. J.; Creighton, T. E.; Rickwood, David; Male, David)  
Continuing series.
J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A94.
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Using Copper sulfate as a Classification Test for Amino Acids and Amines  Christine K. F. Hermann
Using copper sulfate to test for amino acids and amines that do not dissolve well in water.
Hermann, Christine K. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 940.
Amino Acids |
Laboratory Management |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Qualitative Analysis
Breaking Bonds versus Chopping Heads: The Enzyme as Butcher  Todd P. Silverstein
Analogy to help biochemistry students understand concepts of Michaelis-Menten kinetics; active site/binding site; activation energy; substrate saturation; cooperativity; allosteric effects; and inhibitors.
Silverstein, Todd P. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 645.
Catalysis |
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Proteins / Peptides |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions |
Rate Law
An Integrated Approach to the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory   James G. Harman, John A. Anderson, Richard A. Nakashima, and Robert W. Shaw
Plan to improve the undergraduate biochemistry laboratory curriculum, including list and brief description of tutorials and experiments.
Harman, James G.; Anderson, John A.; Nakashima, Richard A.; Shaw, Robert W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 641.
Enzymes |
Proteins / Peptides
Nucleophilic and Enzymic Catalysis of p-Nitrophenylacetate Hydrolysis  Head, Michael B.; Mistry, Kalpna S.; Ridings, Bernard J.; Smith, Christopher A.; Parker, Mark J.
Experimental procedure for determining the relative effectiveness of several amino acids and enzymes in catalyzing the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylacetate; sample data and analysis included.
Head, Michael B.; Mistry, Kalpna S.; Ridings, Bernard J.; Smith, Christopher A.; Parker, Mark J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 184.
Amino Acids |
Enzymes |
Proteins / Peptides |
Catalysis
A Ligand-Binding Study Based on a Protein Assay Method  Chial, H. J.; Congdon, R. W.; Splittgerber, A. G.
Experimental procedure for determining the protein concentration of an unknown solution, as well as the number of dye-binding sites on the protein; data and analysis included.
Chial, H. J.; Congdon, R. W.; Splittgerber, A. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 76.
Proteins / Peptides |
Coordination Compounds |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory
Determination of Ligand- Macromolcule Binding Constants by a Competative Spectrofluorometric Technique: Caffeine Binding to Human Serum Albumin  Inestal, J. J.; Gonzalez-Velasco, F.; Ceballos, A.
Through the use of a relatively simple procedure this laboratory experiment will give the student experience in an important subject in biomedical sciences: the binding of small molecules to proteins.
Inestal, J. J.; Gonzalez-Velasco, F.; Ceballos, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A297.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Proteins / Peptides |
Medicinal Chemistry
A Simple Competitive Protein-Binding Experiment  Anderson, Alexander J.
This experiment was developed for teaching the concept of competitive protein-binding assays, but with the use of inexpensive reagents and commonly available laboratory equipment in place of specialized immunoassay reagents and radiation counting equipment.
Anderson, Alexander J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 994.
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Proteins / Peptides
Use of Tangle Links To Show Globular Protein Structure  Marino, Francis
Using Tangle Links (a child's toy) to model the primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure of proteins.
Marino, Francis J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 741.
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Modeling
Gelatin-A Compound for All Reasons  Pal, Tarasankar
Gelatin may produce effective reagents for a wide variety of applications in chemistry, including pharmaceutical, environmental, and biomedical applications.
Pal, Tarasankar J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 679.
Proteins / Peptides |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Medicinal Chemistry
A family of hydrogen bonds in the model system salicylic acid-toluene-water: A biophysical experiment modeled on the distribution of the monomeric acid between two phases and on its dimerization in the organic phase  Worley, John D.
Hydrogen bonding is often studied using model systems: the system salicylic acid-tolune-water offers an interesting example for study by students in a physical or biophysical chemistry lab.
Worley, John D. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 417.
Hydrogen Bonding |
Proteins / Peptides |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Equilibrium
An inexpensive gel-filtration chromatography experiment: A simple biochemical laboratory exercise for high school and undergraduate students who make their own column and apply simple detection techniques  Rowe, H. Alan
The experiment described in this paper can be conducted with a minimum of supplies and equipment at the high school or undergraduate level thus lowering the usual barriers an exercise of this type presents.
Rowe, H. Alan J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 415.
Chromatography |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Carbohydrates |
Proteins / Peptides
Representation of the stereochemistry of amino acids in textbooks  Behrman, E. J.; Means, G. E.; Zhang, H.
Authors recommend either a return to the standard Fischer convention or the amino-carboxyl linear (AC linear) projection to represent amino acids. Current textbook conventions lead to confusion among readers.
Behrman, E. J.; Means, G. E.; Zhang, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 282.
Amino Acids
On the Formation of Peptide Bonds  Stojanoski, Kiro; Zdravkovski, Zoran
In an attempt to simplify the concept of peptide bond formation, many textbooks misrepresent the energy requirement that is necessary for peptide bonds to form.
Stojanoski, Kiro; Zdravkovski, Zoran J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 134.
Amino Acids |
Biosynthesis |
Equilibrium |
Bioenergetics
Identification of amino acids in unknown dipeptides: A derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate and HPLC   Clapp, Charles H.; Swan, James S.; Poechmann, James L.
This paper describes a biochemistry experiment in which students use HPLC to identify the amino acids in unknown dipeptides.
Clapp, Charles H.; Swan, James S.; Poechmann, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A122.
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides |
HPLC
Monitoring self-association of a hydrophobic peptide with high performance liquid chromatography: An undergraduate kinetic experiment using the antibiotic gramicidin A  Braco, Lorenzo; Ba, M. Carmen; Abad, Concepcin
The authors propose a kinetic experiment that uses high performance liquid chromatography to determine the rate and equilibrium constants in a very simple manner, and separate the molecular species under study.
Braco, Lorenzo; Ba, M. Carmen; Abad, Concepcin J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A113.
HPLC |
Kinetics |
Proteins / Peptides |
Rate Law |
Equilibrium
Amino acid discovery  Helser, Terry L.
A biochemical quotation rebus puzzle.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 970.
Amino Acids
Inclass interactive worksheets for organic chemistry  Ostercamp, Daryl L.
The author has designed two in-class worksheets for use near the end of a two semester organic chemistry course, one dealing with mono- and disaccharides and the second dealing with alpha-amino acids and dipeptides.
Ostercamp, Daryl L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 318.
Carbohydrates |
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides
Teaching bioorganic chemistry: An introductory course  Dugas, Hermann
Bioorganic chemistry could be defined as a discipline that is essentially concerned with using the tools of organic chemistry to understand biochemical processes.
Dugas, Hermann J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 268.
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Catalysis |
Biological Cells |
Proteins / Peptides |
Medicinal Chemistry
Methods for obtaining the midpoint potential E(m,pH) of a bacterial chromophore.  Rodriguez, Frdric; Prats, Michel.
The authors present a critical analysis of three methods that are used to determine the carotenoid midpoint potential of chromatophores extracted from Rhodobacter capsulatus.
Rodriguez, Frdric; Prats, Michel. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 245.
Proteins / Peptides |
Photochemistry |
Biological Cells |
Bioorganic Chemistry
The malonic ester synthesis in the undergraduate laboratory  Hoogenboom, Bernard E.; Ihrig, Phillip J.; Langsjoen, Arne N.; Linn, Carol J.; Mulder, Stephen D.
The versatile reactions of diethyl malonate represent an important lecture topic in introductory organic courses, but are only rarely performed in the lab because of several problems associated with performing these reactions. These authors present a lab the circumvents some of the typical problems.
Hoogenboom, Bernard E.; Ihrig, Phillip J.; Langsjoen, Arne N.; Linn, Carol J.; Mulder, Stephen D. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 689.
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amino Acids |
Heterocycles |
Amides
A less hazardous chromic acid substitute for cleaning glassware  Manske, Paul M.; Stimpfel, Teresa M.; Gershey, Edward L.
Evaluation of several common cleaning solutions for their ability to remove known amounts of baked-on lipid or protein from glassware.
Manske, Paul M.; Stimpfel, Teresa M.; Gershey, Edward L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A280.
Laboratory Management |
Lipids |
Proteins / Peptides
Teaching biotechnology  Brooks, Helen B.; Brooks, David W.; Schuster, Sheldon M.; Wylie, Dwane E.
121. Bits and pieces, 45. HyperCard stack of the commonly used nucleic acid and protein techniques of biotechnology.
Brooks, Helen B.; Brooks, David W.; Schuster, Sheldon M.; Wylie, Dwane E. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1033.
Biotechnology |
Proteins / Peptides
Color reactions and thin-layer chromatography of amino acids: An undergraduate organic chemistry experiment for students in the allied health sciences  Hurst, Michael O.; Cobb, D. Keith
Students identify unknowns by determining Rf's and applying color reagents to the chromatograms.
Hurst, Michael O.; Cobb, D. Keith J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 978.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Amino Acids |
Qualitative Analysis
Amino acid chromatography: The "best" technique for student labs  Helser, Terry L.
Comparisons of linear, conical, and circular chromatograms, as well as media and elutants.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 964.
Amino Acids |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Effects of "crowding" in protein solutions  Ralston, G. B.
The effects of macromolecular nonideality and crowding on chemical equilibria, association reactions, and enzyme kinetics.
Ralston, G. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 857.
Proteins / Peptides |
Equilibrium |
Reactions |
Enzymes |
Kinetics
Selective ion transport across biological membranes: A simple experiment in bioinorganic chemistry  Adams, Paul A.; Black, Duncan
In this demonstration the intact human erythrocyte is utilized as a simple model with which to demonstrate the essential features of facilitated anion transport across biological membranes.
Adams, Paul A.; Black, Duncan J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 526.
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Proteins / Peptides |
Ion Exchange
Qualitative amino acid analysis of small peptides by GC/MS  Mabbott, Gary A.
Besides being appealing to students the exercise described here gives them experiences in derivation methods that are often necessary in order to make nonvolatile samples amenable to gas chromatography separation.
Mabbott, Gary A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 441.
Amino Acids |
Qualitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods
Ferrimyoglobin-fluoride: An undergraduate kinetics experiment  Russo, Steven O.; Hanania, George I. H.
The authors propose an experiment which concerns the reaction of the protein ferrimyoglobin with fluoride ion, in dilute aqueous solution.
Russo, Steven O.; Hanania, George I. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 352.
Kinetics |
Proteins / Peptides |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Isolation of the active site of cytochrome c by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography  Kenigsberg, Paul A.; Blanke, Steven R.; Hager, Lowell P.
To serve as an introduction to research, an advanced-level graduate laboratory course should be challenging, incorporate currently relevant techniques, offer more responsibility to students, and contain a minimum of technical pitfalls. The following experiment meets all the aforementioned criteria.
Kenigsberg, Paul A.; Blanke, Steven R.; Hager, Lowell P. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 177.
HPLC |
Proteins / Peptides
An enzyme immunoassay for human transferrin  Russo, Salvatore F.; Dahlberg, Judy Utter
The field of immunology provides a powerful method for detecting specific noncatalytic proteins.
Russo, Salvatore F.; Dahlberg, Judy Utter J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 175.
Enzymes |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Proteins / Peptides
Oxidation of cysteine to cystine using hydrogen peroxide  Hill, John W.; Coy, Robert B.; Lewandowski, Peter E.
This synthesis has several advantages as an undergraduate laboratory exercise.
Hill, John W.; Coy, Robert B.; Lewandowski, Peter E. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 172.
Amino Acids |
Oxidation / Reduction
Synthesis of an enkephalinase inhibitor, Gly-Gly-Phe-Leu, by continuous-flow peptide synthesizer  Iskander, Magdy N.; Jones, Paul A.
The assembly of the continuous flow peptide synthesizer was carried out in the author's laboratory with no difficulty and has generated great interest among their students.
Iskander, Magdy N.; Jones, Paul A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 170.
Synthesis |
Proteins / Peptides |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A game show approach to teaching peptide sequencing  Lemley, Paul V.
The game allows each group of students to propose experiments, report what results would have occurred, interpret results, and propose more experiments.
Lemley, Paul V. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1011.
Proteins / Peptides
Microscale synthesis and analysis of a dipeptide  Blatchly, Richard A.; Allen, Timothy R.; Bergstrom, Dirk T.; Shinozaki, Yuji
The synthesis of a dipeptide from its component amino acids and its analysis by chiral-phase thin-layer chromatography.
Blatchly, Richard A.; Allen, Timothy R.; Bergstrom, Dirk T.; Shinozaki, Yuji J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 965.
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Proteins / Peptides |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Amino Acids
Azosulfonamides: Preparation and binding to carbonic anhydrase: A bioorganic chemistry experiment  Manalang, Mary G.; Bundy, Hallie F.
Preparation of azosulfonamide, visible absorption analysis of free and enzyme-bond azosulfonamide, and titration of BCA with azosulfonamide.
Manalang, Mary G.; Bundy, Hallie F. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 609.
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Synthesis |
Proteins / Peptides |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Enzymes
Lecture demonstrations for organic/ biochemistry allied health courses  Deavor, James P.
Simple demonstrations on enantiomeric pairs and protein structure.
Deavor, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 622.
Enantiomers |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Proteins / Peptides |
Nonmajor Courses |
Amino Acids
Analysis of aspartame and its hydrolysis products by thin-layer chromatography  Conklin, Alfred R.
Separating and identifying the amino acids found in aspartame.
Conklin, Alfred R. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1065.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Amino Acids |
Food Science |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
A convenient synthesis of aspartame  Lindeberg, Gunnar
The one tube, enzymatic synthesis of the dipeptide sweetener aspartame.
Lindeberg, Gunnar J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1062.
Synthesis |
Enzymes |
Proteins / Peptides
A project lab for an advanced general chemistry course featuring the amino acid, glycine  Dudek, Emily P.
Synthesis of glycine, measurement of its nitrogen content by eudiometry, and the estimation of its Rf value as compared to other amino acids using paper chromatography.
Dudek, Emily P. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 899.
Amino Acids |
Synthesis
Protein structure prediction in color  Davis, Lawrence C.; Radke, Gary A.
84. Implementing the Chuo and Faslar method for prediction of secondary structure and the Kyte and Doolittle method for predicting "hydropathic character" on an Apple IIe computer with color graphics.
Davis, Lawrence C.; Radke, Gary A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 582.
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The enzymatic resolution of aromatic amino acids  Sheardy, Riehard; Liotta, L.; Steinhart, E.; Champion, R.; Rinker, J.; Planutis, M.; Salinkas, J.; Boyer, T.; Carcanague, D.
This article presents an experiment that can demonstrate as many principles of steroisomersim as possible and is also efficient in terms of time and preparation.
Sheardy, Riehard; Liotta, L.; Steinhart, E.; Champion, R.; Rinker, J.; Planutis, M.; Salinkas, J.; Boyer, T.; Carcanague, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 646.
Stereochemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amino Acids |
Enzymes
An inexpensive molecular model  Brickley, Meredith; Silva, R. A.
An inexpensive, space-filling model to help students understand the structure of proteins.
Brickley, Meredith; Silva, R. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1077.
Molecular Modeling |
Proteins / Peptides
Use of the "cubic snake" as a molecular model  Gilon, Chaim
Using a "cubic snake" to model macromolecules.
Gilon, Chaim J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1074.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Proteins / Peptides |
Enzymes
The catalytic function of enzymes  Splittgerber, Allan G.
Review of the structure, function, and factors that influence the action of enzymes.
Splittgerber, Allan G. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1008.
Catalysis |
Enzymes |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Zinc enzymes  Bertini, I.; Luchinat, C.; Monnanni, R.
The role played by catalytic and noncatalytic zinc in biochemical systems. From the "State of the Art Symposium: Bioinorganic Chemistry", held at the ACS meeting, Miami, 1985.
Bertini, I.; Luchinat, C.; Monnanni, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 924.
Enzymes |
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Proteins / Peptides
Bomb calorimetry: The energy content of pizza  Stout, Roland P.; Nettleton, Faith E.; Price, Lynn M.
Determining the energy content and percent protein of pizza using bomb calorimetry.
Stout, Roland P.; Nettleton, Faith E.; Price, Lynn M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 438.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Food Science |
Proteins / Peptides |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Methemoglobinemia: An illness caused by the ferric state  Senozan, N. M.
Hemoglobin's ability to carry oxygen depends on the iron being in the +2 state; methemoglobinemia involves the oxidation of hemoglobin iron to the +3 state.
Senozan, N. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 181.
Proteins / Peptides |
Enzymes |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Gel filtration chromatography: A laboratory experiment  Hurlbut, Jeffrey A.; Schonbeck, Niels D.
A rapid, visual demonstration of protein separation by gel filtration chromatography.
Hurlbut, Jeffrey A.; Schonbeck, Niels D. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1021.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Proteins / Peptides
Perspectives in biochemistry: Methods for DNA sequencing  Wood, Anne T.
Describes how DNA is sequenced.
Wood, Anne T. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 886.
Proteins / Peptides |
Biotechnology |
Electrophoresis
Using the protein alpha-helix in teaching  Van Woert, Howard C., Jr.
Application of the cited article in a molecular models laboratory.
Van Woert, Howard C., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 565.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Modeling |
Hydrogen Bonding
An experiment on isomerism in metal-amino acid complexes: Preparation and characterization of cobalt(III) complexes containing N-bonded monodentate, O-bonded monodentate and N,O-chelated glycine ligands  Harrison, R. Graeme; Nolan, Kevin B.
Synthesis of three cobalt(III) complexes that illustrate three possible modes of bonding of glycine to a metal ion, as well as methods for distinguishing among the products.
Harrison, R. Graeme; Nolan, Kevin B. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 1054.
Stereochemistry |
Amino Acids |
Coordination Compounds |
Synthesis |
Diastereomers |
IR Spectroscopy |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory
The synthesis of a dipeptide from its component amino acids: Protecting groups in the elementary organic laboratory  Young, Paul E.; Campbell, Andrew
A three-step procedure for synthesizing a dipeptide from its component amino acids.
Young, Paul E.; Campbell, Andrew J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 701.
Synthesis |
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides
Protein denaturation: A physical chemistry project lab  Pickering, Miles; Crabtree, Robert H.
This experiment links physical chemistry with biology and can be done with in advanced freshman course.
Pickering, Miles; Crabtree, Robert H. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 513.
Proteins / Peptides |
Biophysical Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Confusion over D and L Nomenclature  Yuan, Sun-Shine
The use of the (R,S) convention will eliminate (D,L) confusion.
Yuan, Sun-Shine J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 528.
Amino Acids |
Stereochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Glutamic acid in pheromone synthesis: A useful chiral synthon  Smith, Leverett R.; Williams, Howard J.
Outlines synthetic routes for the formation of various pheromones from glutamic acid.
Smith, Leverett R.; Williams, Howard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 696.
Synthesis |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Natural Products |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers |
Amino Acids
Fractionation of gels following electrophoresis  Racusen, David
A simple and inexpensive technique for slicing electrophoresis gels.
Racusen, David J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 628.
Separation Science |
Electrophoresis |
Proteins / Peptides |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Biotechnology
Isoenzymes  Daugherty, N. A.
The separation, identification, and measurement of isoenzymes is an appropriate topic for a special lecture in general chemistry.
Daugherty, N. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 442.
Enzymes |
Proteins / Peptides |
pH |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Electrochemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Compact Compacts  Huebner, Jay S.; Shiflett, R. B.; Blanck, Harvey F.
A collection of three suggestions regarding demonstrating the oxidation of hydrocarbons and the primary, secondary, and tertiary structure of proteins and the first law of thermodynamics as applied to air conditioning.
Huebner, Jay S.; Shiflett, R. B.; Blanck, Harvey F. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 389.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Proteins / Peptides |
Thermodynamics
The separation of chymotrypsin and chymotrypsinogen: An affinity chromatography experiment for biological chemistry students  Branchini, Bruce; Ziolkowski, Rodney
An experiment that can be used as either a demonstration or a laboratory illustrating the principles of affinity chromatography to purify an enzyme.
Branchini, Bruce; Ziolkowski, Rodney J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 281.
Separation Science |
Chromatography |
Proteins / Peptides
Compact compact  Nelson, Gregory V.
Using a cardboard mailing tube to demonstrate the rigidity of the folding pattern and the flexibility of a non-helical region in a protein.
Nelson, Gregory V. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 578.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Proteins / Peptides
Molecular membrane model  Huebner, J. S.
Making a model of a lipid bilayer using polystyrene balls and pipe cleaners.
Huebner, J. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 171.
Membranes |
Lipids |
Molecular Modeling |
Proteins / Peptides |
Dyes / Pigments
Amino acid sequence diversity in proteins  Blackman, David
The number of unique proteins that can be generated from a small number of amino acids is truly enormous.
Blackman, David J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 170.
Proteins / Peptides |
Amino Acids
Photooxidation of methionine. An integrated organic-analytical-biochemistry laboratory experiment  Lewis, Catherine; Scouten, William H.
The experiments presented here familiarize the student with the organic reactions necessary to prepare the starting material; introduces the use of glass beads for immobilizing a catalyst; demonstrates the use of light and methylene blue as oxidizers; requires the implementation of an important analytical technique, thin layer chromatography; provides the student with a good example of the reactivity of one amino acid, methionine.
Lewis, Catherine; Scouten, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 395.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Amino Acids |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Catalysis
Bromolain. Experiments illustrating proteolytic enzyme action  Reigh, Darryel L.
The following set of exercises provides a simple visual method of demonstrations some of the characteristics of enzymes in general, such as heat and pH lability and inhibition, as well as some specific properties of bromelain intide hydrolysis. These experiments can be used with freshman in introductory courses and juniors in biochemistry.
Reigh, Darryel L. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 386.
Enzymes |
pH |
Food Science |
Natural Products |
Proteins / Peptides
Non-covalent interactions: Key to biological flexibility and specificity  Frieden, Earl
Summarizes the types of non-covalent interactions found among biomolecules and how they facilitate the function of antibodies, hormones, and hemoglobin.
Frieden, Earl J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 754.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Proteins / Peptides |
Amino Acids |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Hormones
A space-filling model of the active site region of carboxypeptidase A  Sebastian, John F.; Butkus, John C.
A three-dimensional CPK space-filling model of the active site of carboxypeptidase A.
Sebastian, John F.; Butkus, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 660.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Enzymes |
Amino Acids
Allied health chemistry laboratory. Amino acids, insulin, proteins, and skin  Dever, David F.
Describes an allied health chemistry laboratory involving amino acids, insulin, proteins and skin that begins with the construction of molecular models of amino acids and proteins.
Dever, David F. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 338.
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Nonmajor Courses |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Applications of Chemistry
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
184-187. Four chemistry questions and their answers.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 327.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Metabolism |
Gases |
Amino Acids
A simple application device for paper chromatography and electrophoresis  Barbeau, Donald L.
The application holder presented eliminates the awkwardness of handling filter paper strips while applying either large quantities of unknown samples or smaller quantities of amino acid standards.
Barbeau, Donald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 391.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Chromatography |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Amino Acids
Hemoglobin. Isolation and chemical properties  Russo, Salvatore F.; Sorstokke, Ralph B.
Summarizes the properties of hemoglobin and demonstrates the colors of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, methemoglobin, nitrosylhemoglobin; examines their visible absorption spectra; follows the rate of reaction of oxyhemoglobin with nitrite spectrophotometrically; and the effect of salt concentration on the integrity of red blood cells.
Russo, Salvatore F.; Sorstokke, Ralph B. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 347.
Proteins / Peptides
Sulfur compounds. Pollution, health effects, and biological function  Leh, F.; Chan, K. M.
Reviews the role of sulfur and its compounds in pollution and adverse health effects as well as biological functions.
Leh, F.; Chan, K. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 246.
Nonmetals |
Proteins / Peptides
Photochemical reactions of natural macromolecules. Photoreactions of proteins  Neckers, Douglas C.
Reviews salient features of protein destruction by ultraviolet radiation.
Neckers, Douglas C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 164.
Photochemistry |
Proteins / Peptides |
Amino Acids
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
Five questions requiring an application of chemical principles and their solutions.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 128.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Proteins / Peptides |
pH |
Carbohydrates |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Quick paper chromatography of amino acids  Heimer, E. P.
Applies acetonitrile-buffer systems for the relatively rapid separation of amino acids.
Heimer, E. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 547.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Amino Acids
A unified apparatus for paper and gel electrophoresis  Racusen, David; White, Lee
Presents an apparatus that can be used for either paper and gel electrophoresis.
Racusen, David; White, Lee J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 439.
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides
The chlorophyll cat  Hardcastle, J. E.
A short poem and cartoon representation of the chlorophyll structure.
Hardcastle, J. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 364.
Plant Chemistry |
Photosynthesis |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Proteins / Peptides
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
Five questions requiring an application of basic chemical principles.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 269.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Agricultural Chemistry |
Metabolism |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Proteins / Peptides
Sickle-cell anemia, hemoglobin solubility and resistance to malaria  Martin, David L.; Huheey, James E.
The phenomenon of erythrocytic sickling is of considerable pedagogical usefulness since it provides a bridge of relevance between chemistry and biology.
Martin, David L.; Huheey, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 177.
Proteins / Peptides |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Separation of leucine and isoleucine by thin-layer chromatography  Gatto, Karen L.; Borders, C. L., Jr.
This experiment involves the separation of leucine and isoleucine through continuous ascending thin layer chromatography.
Gatto, Karen L.; Borders, C. L., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 840.
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Amino Acids |
Constitutional Isomers
Simple method for demonstrating an enzymatic reaction  Tang, Chung-Shih
Uses taste sensations of papaya seeds under varying conditions to demonstrate an enzymatic reaction.
Tang, Chung-Shih J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 692.
Enzymes |
Proteins / Peptides |
Food Science |
Reactions |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Preparation of the proteins by micro-organisms  Dieteren, H. M. L.; Schouteten, A. P. H.
Yeast are used to generate proteins from tetradecane in a controlled vessel.
Dieteren, H. M. L.; Schouteten, A. P. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 663.
Proteins / Peptides |
Synthesis
Hydrogen sulfide under any other name still smells. A poisonous story  Brasted, Robert C.
The chemistry of hydrogen sulfide affords an excellent opportunity to integrate descriptive inorganic and coordination chemistry with biochemistry.
Brasted, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 574.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Coordination Compounds |
Enzymes |
Proteins / Peptides
Models for tertiary structures: Myoglobin and lysozyme  Smith, Ivor; Smith, Margaret J.; Roberts, Lynne
Presents the design details for constructing three dimensional models of proteins, including myoglobin and lysozyme.
Smith, Ivor; Smith, Margaret J.; Roberts, Lynne J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 302.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Proteins / Peptides |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
A short, intensive experiment in paper chromatography  McCullough, Thomas; Lechtenberg, Andre
A paper chromatographic system capable of separating a challenging mixture of components (amino acids) in less than three hours.
McCullough, Thomas; Lechtenberg, Andre J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 141.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Amino Acids
The resolution of DL-histidine: An organic chemistry experiment using an ion exchange resin  Bosch, Arthur J.
This experiment involves the isolation of the amino acid, D-histidine, from DL-histidine, and gives a product with high optical purity while demonstrating the use of an ion exchange resin and mixed solvent recrystallization.
Bosch, Arthur J. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 691.
Ion Exchange |
Amino Acids |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers
Disposable macromolecular model "kits"  Nicholson, Isadore
A brief note suggesting the use of colored pipe cleaners for the construction of three dimensional models of polymers, particularly enzymes and other proteins.
Nicholson, Isadore J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 671.
Molecular Modeling |
Enzymes |
Proteins / Peptides
Disc electrophoresis  Brewer, John M.; Ashworth, Raymond B.
Describes the procedures involved in separating proteins or nucleic acids through disc electrophoresis.
Brewer, John M.; Ashworth, Raymond B. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 41.
Electrochemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Proteins / Peptides |
Separation Science
Simple construction to determine protein molecular weights by the osmotic pressure method  Candlish, John K.
This short note presents a simple device to determine protein molecular weights through osmotic pressure.
Candlish, John K. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 93.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Proteins / Peptides |
Physical Properties
Errors in representing structures of proteins and nucleic acids  Day, Richard A.; Ritter, Edmond J.
It is the exceptional modern textbook in biochemistry or organic chemistry that consistently represents the structures of proteins and nucleic acids as they are found to exist in nature.
Day, Richard A.; Ritter, Edmond J. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 761.
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The use of talc as a tlc adsorbent  Walsh, Brother Joseph M.
Describes the use of talc as a thin layer chromatography adsorbent, particularly with respect to the separation of flavonoids, sugars, and proteins.
Walsh, Brother Joseph M. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 294.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Proteins / Peptides |
Carbohydrates
Polyethylene and pipecleaner models of biological polymers  Pollard, Harvey Bruce
An accurate method for modeling polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and proteins involves the use of pipecleaners, polyethylene tubing, and proteins.
Pollard, Harvey Bruce J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 327.
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Carbohydrates
Models illustrating the helix-coil transition in polypeptides  Hayman, H. J. G.
Describes modifications of the Fisher-Hirschfelder-Taylor atom models whereby a model of a polypeptide molecule in the form of a random chain can easily be rolled up to give the alpha-helix configuration and then unrolled again to give once more a random chain.
Hayman, H. J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 561.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Proteins / Peptides
Demonstration of radioautography and paper chromatography using a Polaroid camera  Towne, Jack C.; Gatti, Bonnie M.
Presents a simple combined demonstration of paper chromatography and radioautography illustrating the separation of two C-14 labeled amino acids.
Towne, Jack C.; Gatti, Bonnie M. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 243.
Chromatography |
Isotopes |
Separation Science |
Amino Acids
Ribonucleic acid: The simplest information-transmitting molecule  Fraenkel-Conrat, H.
Examines the chemical structure of nucleic acids, chemical modification of RNA and mutagenesis, role of RNA in protein structure, the mechanism of information transfer from RNA to protein, and mutants and coding.
Fraenkel-Conrat, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 216.
Proteins / Peptides
Protein nitrogen in fruits, vegetables, and meats by a modified Kjeldahl method: A quantitative analysis experiment  Meloan, Clifton E.
This "research" type experiment involves the quantitative determination of nitrogen in such foods as fruits, vegetables, and meats.
Meloan, Clifton E. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 365.
Quantitative Analysis |
Proteins / Peptides
Structural variety of natural products  Roderick, William R.
Classes of natural products examined includes alkynes; quinones; benzpyrones; small and large rings; sulfur, nitrogen, and halogen-containing compounds; and new amino acids.
Roderick, William R. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 2.
Natural Products |
Amino Acids |
Alkynes |
Aromatic Compounds
Ion exchange paper chromatography  Thomas, Alan T.; Phillips, J. P.
Describes an experiment/demonstration in ion exchange paper chromatography separating amino acids.
Thomas, Alan T.; Phillips, J. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 406.
Qualitative Analysis |
Ion Exchange |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Amino Acids
Identification of amino acids in a protein hydrolysate by paper chromatography  Clapp, L. B.; Hansch, Corwin
By varying the number of amino acids to be identified, the difficulty of this procedure can be easily controlled.
Clapp, L. B.; Hansch, Corwin J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 293.
Amino Acids |
Qualitative Analysis |
Proteins / Peptides |
Chromatography
The geometry of giant molecules  Price, Charles C.
The author examines a variety of specific examples of natural and synthetic polymer molecules and describes how their geometric molecular arrangements influence their properties.
Price, Charles C. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 160.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Proteins / Peptides |
Carbohydrates
Schematic models of biochemical polymers  Blackwell, R. Quentin
Demonstrates the use of plastic necklace beads to represent polysaccharides, peptides and proteins, and nucleotides.
Blackwell, R. Quentin J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 500.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Proteins / Peptides |
Carbohydrates
Multiple chromatograms for detection of amino acids in blood serum  Ven Horst, Sister Helene; Carstens, Yolanda
A simple piece of equipment was constructed whereby 2 to 16 chromatograms could be run simultaneously and under identical conditions.
Ven Horst, Sister Helene; Carstens, Yolanda J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 576.
Chromatography |
Amino Acids |
Qualitative Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Potentialities of protein isomerism  Asimov, Isaac
The permutations generated by structural isomerism in proteins could be demonstrated more convincingly and realistically if the amino acid compositions of actual proteins were taken into consideration.
Asimov, Isaac J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 125.
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Amino Acids |
Constitutional Isomers
Quantitative paper chromatography for students  Patton, A. R.
Students learn the elementary principles of quantitative paper chromatography by producing a standardized curve for alanine.
Patton, A. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 629.
Chromatography |
Quantitative Analysis |
Amino Acids
A scheme for the qualitative identification of amino acids  Dunn, Max S.; Drell, William
This scheme of analysis has been used to successfully identify seventeen of the naturally occurring amino acids distributed in mixtures containing from two to five components.
Dunn, Max S.; Drell, William J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 480.
Qualitative Analysis |
Amino Acids
Osmotic pressure and molecular weight  Hitchcock, David I.
Discusses the use of osmotic pressure to establish the molecular weights of proteins and synthetic polymers.
Hitchcock, David I. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 478.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chemometrics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Proteins / Peptides
Teaching amino acid formulation  Patton, A. R.
Presents a device that aids in explaining the concept of dipolar ions necessary to an understanding of the behavior of amino acids and proteins.
Patton, A. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 471.
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides |
Acids / Bases |
pH