TIGER

Journal Articles: 623 results
Synthesis of Albendazole Metabolite: Characterization and HPLC Determination  Graciela Mahler, Danilo Davyt, Sandra Gordon, Marcelo Incerti, Ivana Núñez, Horacio Pezaroglo, Laura Scarone, Gloria Serra, Mauricio Silvera, and Eduardo Manta
In this laboratory activity, students are introduced to the synthesis of an albendazole metabolite obtained by a sulfide oxidation reaction. Albendazole as well as its metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide, are used as anthelmintic drugs. The oxidation reagent is H2O2 in acetic acid. The reaction is environmental friendly, fast, and proceeds with high yield. The crude reaction is analyzed by HPLC chromatography to determine purity. The simplicity of the experiment allows students to study chiral concepts, physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of the compounds, and HPLC determinations.
Mahler, Graciela; Davyt, Danilo; Gordon, Sandra; Incerti, Marcelo; Núñez, Ivana; Pezaroglo, Horacio; Scarone, Laura; Serra, Gloria; Silvera, Mauricio; Manta, Eduardo. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1652.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
HPLC |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Organosulfur Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis
The Synthesis of a Cockroach Pheromone  Patty L. Feist
This paper describes the synthesis of gentisyl quinone isovalerate or blattellaquinone, a sex pheromone of the German cockroach and a compound with real-world applications. The experiment also affords students practice in extraction as well as IR and NMR spectroscopy.
Feist, Patty L. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1548.
Esters |
IR Spectroscopy |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis
Experimental Design and Optimization: Application to a Grignard Reaction  Naoual Bouzidi and Christel Gozzi
This 5-week project, which systematically investigates optimizing the synthesis of benzyl-1-cyclopentan-1-ol, constitutes an initiation into research methodology and experimental design to prepare the student-engineer for an industry internship. Other pedagogical goals include experience in synthetic techniques, obtaining reproducible yields, and using quantitative analysis methods.
Bouzidi, Naoual; Gozzi, Christel. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1544.
Addition Reactions |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Chemometrics |
Gas Chromatography |
Organometallics |
Synthesis
Borohydride Reduction of Estrone  Animesh Aditya, David E. Nichols, and G. Marc Loudon
This experiment presents a guided-inquiry approach to the demonstration of diastereoselectivity using chiral hindered ketones that undergo facile reduction with sodium borohydride. The resulting diastereomeric estradiols can be analyzed and differentiated by thin-layer chromatography and melting point.
Aditya, Animesh; Nichols, David E.; Loudon, G. Marc. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1535.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Diastereomers |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
Stereochemistry |
Steroids |
Thin Layer Chromatography
A One-Pot, Asymmetric Robinson Annulation in the Organic Chemistry Majors Laboratory  Kiel E. Lazarski, Alan A. Rich, and Cheryl M. Mascarenhas
Describes a one-pot, enantioselective, Robinson annulation geared towards the second-year organic chemistry major and demonstrating aspects of green chemistry.
Lazarski, Kiel E.; Rich, Alan A.; Mascarenhas, Cheryl M. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1531.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Asymmetric Synthesis |
Catalysis |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Gas Chromatography |
HPLC |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Green Chemistry
Quantitative Analysis of Nail Polish Remover Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Revisited  Markus M. Hoffmann, Joshua T. Caccamis, Mark P. Heitz, and Kenneth D. Schlecht
Substantial modifications intended for a second- or third-year laboratory course in analytical chemistry are presented for a previously described procedure using NMR spectroscopy to quantitatively determine analytes in commercial nail polish remover. The revised experiment introduces student collaboration to critically interpret a relatively large set of data.
Hoffmann, Markus M.; Caccamis, Joshua T.; Heitz, Mark P.; Schlecht, Kenneth D. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1421.
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Consumer Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis
The Comparative Nucleophilicity of Naphthoxide Derivatives in Reactions with a Fast-Red TR Dye  Cheryl M. Mascarenhas
In this experiment, organic chemistry students perform reactions between three naphthyl acetate derivatives and the diazonium salt Fast-Red TR. Students discover under what conditions the hydrolysis and electrophilic aromatic substitution is fastest and slowest, allowing them to conclude that latter, rather than the former, is rate-limiting.
Mascarenhas, Cheryl M. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1271.
Alcohols |
Aromatic Compounds |
Dyes / Pigments |
Esters |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Frank Westheimer's Early Demonstration of Enzymatic Specificity  Addison Ault
Reviews one of the most significant accomplishments of one of the most respected chemists of the 20th centurya series of stereospecific enzymatic oxidation and reduction experiments that led chemists to recognize enantiotopic and diastereotopic relationships of atoms, or groups of atoms, within molecules.
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1246.
Asymmetric Synthesis |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Catalysis |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers |
Enzymes |
Isotopes |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stereochemistry
2-Propanol  Jay A. Young
Safe handling and laboratory use of 2-propanol are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1186.
Alcohols |
Laboratory Management
Construction of a Polyaniline Nanofiber Gas Sensor  Shabnam Virji, Bruce H. Weiller, Jiaxing Huang, Richard Blair, Heather Shepherd, Tanya Faltens, Philip C. Haussmann, Richard B. Kaner, and Sarah H. Tolbert
The objectives of this lab are to synthesize different diameter polyaniline nanofibers and compare them as sensor materials. Its advantages include simplicity and low cost, making it suitable for both high school and college students, particularly in departments with modest means.
Virji, Shabnam; Weiller, Bruce H.; Huang, Jiaxing; Blair, Richard; Shepherd, Heather; Faltens, Tanya; Haussmann, Philip C.; Kaner, Richard B.; Tolbert, Sarah H. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1102.
Acids / Bases |
Aromatic Compounds |
Conductivity |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State |
pH |
Polymerization |
Synthesis
Polymer-Supported Reagents and 1H–19F NMR Couplings: The Synthesis of 2-Fluoroacetophenone  Nicola Pohl and Kimberly Schwarz
Describes an experiment in which 2-bromoacetophenone is converted to 2-fluoroacetophenone using a solid-phase nucleophilic fluorine source. The experiment introduces students to the utility of solid-phase reagents in organic synthesis, to NMR-active nuclei other than 1H without the requirement of a special NMR probe, and to the unique uses of fluorine in molecular design.
Pohl, Nicola; Schwarz, Kimberly. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 834.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Synthesis
Acid-Catalyzed Enolization of β-Tetralone  Brahmadeo Dewprashad, Anthony Nesturi, and Joel Urena
This experiment allows students to use 1H NMR to compare the rates of substitution of benzylic and non-benzylic a hydrogens of -tetralone and correlate their findings with predictions made by resonance theory.
Dewprashad, Brahmadeo; Nesturi, Anthony; Urena, Joel. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 829.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Isotopes |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Reactive Intermediates |
Resonance Theory |
Synthesis
The Baeyer–Villiger Oxidation with Trifluoroacetic Acid and Household Sodium Percarbonate  Richard A. Kjonaas and Anthony E. Clemons
Reports a method for carrying out the BaeyerVilliger oxidation of cyclopentanone to d-valerolactone in a large-section introductory organic chemistry laboratory course.
Kjonaas, Richard A.; Clemons, Anthony E. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 827.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis
Converting Municipal Waste into Automobile Fuel: Ethanol from Newspaper  Mark Mascal and Richard Scown
In this experiment, waste newspaper is pulped with acid and its cellulose hydrolyzed to produce glucose syrup that is fermented and distilled to yield ethanol. In doing so, students are introduced to carbohydrate chemistry and the use of fermentation in organic synthesis.
Mascal, Mark; Scown, Richard. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 546.
Acids / Bases |
Alcohols |
Applications of Chemistry |
Biotechnology |
Carbohydrates |
Qualitative Analysis |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Synthesis and Characterization of 9-Hydroxyphenalenone Using 2D NMR Techniques  Benjamin Caes and Dell Jensen Jr.
The synthesis of 9-Hydroxyphenalenone produces a planar multicyclic beta-ketoenol, the tautomerization of which results in C2v symmetry on the NMR time scale, thus simplifying the spectra and providing a unique structure for teaching 2D NMR spectroscopy.
Caes, Benjamin; Jensen, Dell, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 413.
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Why Are 1H NMR Integrations Not Perfect? An Inquiry-Based Exercise for Exploring the Relationship Between Spin Dynamics and NMR Integration in the Organic Lab  Haim Weizman
When FT-NMR is used to collect data without a sufficient delay time between subsequent pulses, the integrated area under certain peaks may result in a lower value than should be observed under appropriate conditions. This exercise is designed to raise awareness of this issue in students and to serve as an inquiry-based stepping-stone into basic FT-NMR.
Weizman, Haim. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 294.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy
The Role of Water Chemistry in Marine Aquarium Design: A Model System for a General Chemistry Class  Jeffrey J. Keaffaber, Ramiro Palma, and Kathryn R. Williams
Water chemistry is central to aquarium design, and it provides many potential applications for discussion in undergraduate chemistry and engineering courses. This article uses a hypothetical tank to house ocean sunfish as a model to show students the calculations and other considerations that are needed when designing a marine aquarium.
Keaffaber, Jeffrey J.; Palma, Ramiro; Williams, Kathryn R. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 225.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry |
Water / Water Chemistry
Regioselectivity in Organic Synthesis: Preparation of the Bromohydrin of α-Methylstyrene  Brad Andersh, Kathryn N. Kilby, Meghan E. Turnis, and Drew L. Murphy
In the described experiment, the regiochemical outcome of the addition of "HOBr" to a-methylstyrene is investigated. Although both "classic" qualitative analysis and instrumental techniques are described, the emphasis of this experiment is on the utilization 13C and DEPT-135 NMR spectroscopy to determine the regiochemical outcome of the addition.
Andersh, Brad; Kilby, Kathryn N.; Turnis, Meghan E.; Murphy, Drew L. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 102.
Addition Reactions |
Alcohols |
Alkenes |
Constitutional Isomers |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
A Discovery-Based Experiment Involving Rearrangement in the Conversion of Alcohols to Alkyl Halides  Richard A. Kjonaas and Ryand J. F. Tucker
This article reports a discovery-based experiment in which students convert three alcohols to alkyl halides under acidic conditions and record the 13C NMR spectrum in each case. By comparing the number of resonances observed with the number of resonances predicted for each possible product, students draw several conclusions about the resulting rearrangement.
Kjonaas, Richard A.; Tucker, Ryand J. F. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 100.
Alcohols |
Carbocations |
Gas Chromatography |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Nucleophilic Substitution
tert-Amyl Alcohol  Jay A. Young
Safe handling of tert-amyl alcohol are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 43.
Alcohols |
Laboratory Management
n-Amyl Alcohol  Jay A. Young
Safe handling of n-amyl alcohol are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 42.
Alcohols |
Laboratory Management
Microwave-Assisted Organic Synthesis in the Organic Teaching Lab: A Simple, Greener Wittig Reaction  Eric Martin and Cynthia Kellen-Yuen
A microwave-assisted Wittig reaction has been developed for the organic teaching laboratory. Utilizing this technique, a variety of styrene derivatives have been synthesized from aromatic aldehydes in good yields. The mixture of cis and trans alkenes produced also provides instructors with opportunities to emphasize the spectroscopic analysis of product mixtures.
Martin, Eric; Kellen-Yuen, Cynthia. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 2004.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkenes |
Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Using Ozone in Organic Chemistry Lab: The Ozonolysis of Eugenol  Bruce M. Branan, Joshua T. Butcher, and Lawrence R. Olsen
This organic laboratory involves the ozonolysis of eugenol (clove oil) followed by a reductive workup that generates an aldehyde easily identified by its NMR and IR spectra.
Branan, Bruce M.; Butcher, Joshua T.; Olsen, Lawrence R. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1979.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Gases |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Determination of Solvent Effects on Keto—Enol Equilibria of 1,3-Dicarbonyl Compounds Using NMR  A. Gilbert Cook and Paul M. Feltman
Expands the classic physical chemistry experiment using of proton NMR to determine the equilibrium position of tautomeric 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds in various solvents.
Cook, A. Gilbert; Feltman, Paul M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1827.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Equilibrium |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics
Probing the Rate-Determining Step of the Claisen–Schmidt Condensation by Competition Reactions  Kendrew K. W. Mak, Wing-Fat Chan, Ka-Ying Lung, Wai-Yee Lam, Weng-Cheong Ng, and Siu-Fung Lee
This article describes a physical organic experiment to identify the rate-determining step of the ClaisenSchmidt condensation of benzaldehyde and acetophenone by studying the linear free energy relationship.
Mak, Kendrew K. W.; Chan, Wing-Fat; Lung, Ka-Ying; Lam, Wai-Yee; Ng, Weng-Cheong; Lee, Siu-Fung. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1819.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds |
Gas Chromatography |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis
Synthesis and Characterization of Aldol Condensation Products from Unknown Aldehydes and Ketones  Nicholas G. Angelo, Laura K. Henchey, Adam J. Waxman, James W. Canary, Paramjit S. Arora, and Donald Wink
Describes an experiment in which students perform the aldol condensation on an unknown aldehyde and ketone and make use of TLC, column chromatography, recrystallization, and characterization by 1H NMR, GCMS, and FTIR.
Angelo, Nicholas G.; Henchey, Laura K.; Waxman, Adam J.; Canary, James W.; Arora, Paramjit S.; Wink, Donald. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1816.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Hydration of Acetylene: A 125th Anniversary  Dmitry A. Ponomarev and Sergey M. Shevchenko
The discovery the hydration of alkynes catalyzed by mercury ions by Mikhail Kucherov made possible industrial production of acetaldehyde from acetylene and had a profound effect on the development of industrial chemistry in the 1920th centuries.
Ponomarev, Dmitry A.; Shevchenko, Sergey M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1725.
Addition Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkynes |
Catalysis |
Industrial Chemistry |
Reactions
Determination of the Rotational Barrier for Kinetically Stable Conformational Isomers via NMR and 2D TLC  Gregory T. Rushton, William G. Burns, Judi M. Lavin, Yong S. Chong, Perry Pellechia, and Ken D. Shimizu
After the synthesis of a N,N'-diaryl naphthalene diimide, students estimate the rotational barrier about a CarylNimidesingle bond by studying the reequilibration of the two resulting isomers using two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography, followed by a more accurate determination through a 1H NMR time study.
Rushton, Gregory T.; Burns, William G.; Lavin, Judi M.; Chong, Yong S.; Pellechia, Perry; Shimizu, Ken D. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1499.
Alcohols |
Chromatography |
Conformational Analysis |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Physical Properties |
Rate Law |
Thin Layer Chromatography
A Knoevenagel Initiated Annulation Reaction Using Room Temperature or Microwave Conditions  A. Gilbert Cook
The product of a Knoevenagel initiated annulation reaction is identified through a guided prelab exercise of the synthesis of the Hagemann ester, and then through the analysis of GCMS, NMR, and IR spectra. The stereochemistry of the product is determined through the NMR spectrum and Karplus curve, and the student is required to write a mechanism for the reaction.
Cook, A. Gilbert. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1477.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Conformational Analysis |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis
A Guided-Inquiry Approach to the Sodium Borohydride Reduction and Grignard Reaction of Carbonyl Compounds  Robert E. Rosenberg
Students teams identify unknowns and their reaction products and use their data to deduce that esters are less electrophilic than the other carbonyl compounds present, that Grignard reagents are more nucleophilic than sodium borohydride, and that carboxylic acid derivatives do not undergo the nucleophilic addition reactions that are characteristic of aldehydes and ketones.
Rosenberg, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1474.
Addition Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
Grignard Reagents |
IR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Student-Centered Learning
The Quartz-Crystal Microbalance in an Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment  Vladimir Tsionsky
Describes a typical student experiment on the determination of the viscosity of liquids using a quartz-crystal microbalance.
Tsionsky, Vladimir. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1337.
Alcohols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
Mercury Beating Heart: Modifications to the Classical Demonstration  Metodija Najdoski, Valentin Mirceski, Vladimir M. Petruševski, and Sani Demiri
The classic mercury beating heart demonstration is modified with various electrolytes.
Najdoski, Metodija; Mirceski, Valentin; Petruševski, Vladimir M.; Demiri, Sani. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1292.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Surface Science
Demonstration of the Fenton Reaction  Dean C. Luehrs and Alex E. Roher
Presents a lecture demonstration of the Fenton reaction with applications to medicine and environmental engineering.
Luehrs, Dean C.; Roher, Alex E. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1290.
Applications of Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactive Intermediates
Reaction-Map of Organic Chemistry  Steven Murov
The Reaction-Map of Organic Chemistry has been designed to provide an overview of most of the reactions needed for the organic chemistry course and should help students develop synthetic routes from one functional group to another.
Murov, Steven. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1224.
Addition Reactions |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Elimination Reactions |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Reactions |
Synthesis |
Enrichment / Review Materials
A Bioanalytical Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduate Students: Biosensors Based on Metal Nanoparticles  John Njagi, John Warner, and Silvana Andreescu
Describes a laboratory experiment on the development of a biosensor in which students apply electrochemical methods to deposit gold nanoparticles onto electrode surfaces, immobilize an enzyme using glutaraldehyde chemistry, and perform quantitative analysis of phenol using a biosensor with amperometric detection.
Njagi, John; Warner, John; Andreescu, Silvana. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1180.
Bioanalytical Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Enzymes |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Phenols
Vanillin Synthesis from 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde  Douglass F. Taber, Shweta Patel, Travis M. Hambleton, and Emma E. Winkel
Describes a simple and safe preparation of vanillin from 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde appropriate for undergraduate organic chemistry laboratories.
Taber, Douglass F.; Patel, Shweta; Hambleton, Travis M.; Winkel, Emma E. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1158.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Ethers |
Food Science |
Microscale Lab |
Natural Products |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Transition Elements
CARBOHYDECK: A Card Game To Teach the Stereochemistry of Carbohydrates  Manuel João Costa
This paper describes CARBOHYDECK, a card game that may replace or complement lectures identifying and differentiating monosaccharide isomers.
Costa, Manuel João. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 977.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Carbohydrates |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Student-Centered Learning
Oxidation of Aromatic Aldehydes Using Oxone  Rajani Gandhari, Padma P. Maddukuri, and Thottumkara K. Vinod
Describes an eco-friendly procedure for the oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids in water or a water-ethanol mixture using Oxone as the oxidant. The use of eco-friendly solvents, a non-toxic reagent, and the elimination of extraction solvents in the procedure demonstrate important green chemistry themes to students.
Gandhari, Rajani; Maddukuri, Padma P.; Vinod, Thottumkara K. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 852.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Carboxylic Acids |
Green Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction
Exploring Faraday's Law of Electrolysis Using Zinc–Air Batteries with Current Regulative Diodes  Masahiro Kamata and Miei Paku
Describes a new educational experiment using low-cost zincair batteries and current regulative diode arrays to quickly confirm Faraday's law of electrolysis.
Kamata, Masahiro; Paku, Miei. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 674.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Oxidation / Reduction
Using a Premade Grignard Reagent To Synthesize Tertiary Alcohols in a Convenient Investigative Organic Laboratory Experiment  Michael A. G. Berg and Roy D. Pointer
Describes the use of a commercially available Grignard reagent in a Grignard synthesis that avoided the failures typically associated with the Grignard reaction.
Berg, Michael A. G.; Pointer, Roy D. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 483.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Grignard Reagents |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Organometallics |
Synthesis
The Aldol Addition and Condensation: The Effect of Conditions on Reaction Pathway  R. David Crouch, Amie Richardson, Jessica L. Howard, Rebecca L. Harker, and Kathryn H. Barker
Describes an experiment offering the opportunity for students to observe the critical role that reaction temperature and base strength have in determining the product of the base-mediated addition of a ketone to an aldehyde.
Crouch, R. David; Richardson, Amie; Howard, Jessica L.; Harker, Rebecca L.; Barker, Kathryn H. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 475.
Addition Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Green Chemistry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Reactions |
Synthesis
A Pollutant Transformation Laboratory Exercise for Environmental Chemistry: The Reduction of Nitrobenzenes by Anaerobic Solutions of Humic Acid  Frank M. Dunnivant and Mark-Cody Reynolds
Presents a laboratory for advanced undergraduate- or graduate-level environmental chemistry in which students study the reduction of substituted nitrobenzenes by natural organic matter under anaerobic conditions. The exercise involves solution preparation, pH and EH buffers, organic reaction mechanisms, reaction kinetics, and instrumental analysis.
Dunnivant, Frank M.; Reynolds, Mark-Cody. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 315.
Instrumental Methods |
pH |
Solutions / Solvents |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Green Enantioselective Aldol Condensation for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory  George D. Bennett
The proline-catalyzed aldol condensation between acetone and isobutyraldehyde proceeds in good yield and with high enantioselectivity at room temperature. This multi-week experiment also illustrates a number of principles and trade-offs of green chemistry.
Bennett, George D. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1871.
Addition Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Asymmetric Synthesis |
Catalysis |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Green Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stereochemistry
Entropy and the Shelf Model: A Quantum Physical Approach to a Physical Property  Arnd H. Jungermann
A quantum physical approach relying on energy quantization leads to three simple rules which are the key to understanding the physical property described by molar entropy values.
Jungermann, Arnd H. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1686.
Alcohols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Carboxylic Acids |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Physical Properties |
Quantum Chemistry |
Thermodynamics
Photochemical Dimerization of Dibenzylideneacetone. A Convenient Exercise in [2+2] Cycloaddition Using Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry  G. Nageswara Rao, Chelli Janardhana, V. Ramanathan, T. Rajesh, and P. Harish Kumar
Presents a laboratory procedure for the photochemical dimerization of dibenzylideneacetone, a dienone. The dimerization is confirmed by chemical ionization mass spectrometry, and other spectroscopic techniques are used to establish the structure of the product.
Rao, G. Nageswara; Janardhana, Chelli; Ramanathan, V.; Rajesh, T.; Kumar, P. Harish. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1667.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkenes |
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Photochemistry |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Synthesis of meso-Diethyl-2,2′-dipyrromethane in Water. An Experiment in Green Organic Chemistry  Abilio J. F. N. Sobral
In this laboratory activity, students are introduced to the synthesis of dipyrromethanes important precursors for porphyrin and calix[4]pyrrolethrough the acid-catalyzed condensation of pyrrole and 3-pentanone to produce meso-diethyl-2,2'-dipyrromethane.
Sobral, Abilio J. F. N. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1665.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Green Chemistry |
Synthesis
A Discovery-Learning 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazone Experiment  Bruno M. Vittimberga and Ben Ruekberg
Selections of liquid aldehydes and ketones are proposed for students to determine what property is the best predictor of the color (yellow to red) of their 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone derivative. Students may use a computer (spreadsheet or word processor) to analyze their results.
Vittimberga, Bruno M.; Ruekberg, Ben. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1661.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Qualitative Analysis
Microwave-Mediated Synthesis of Lophine: Developing a Mechanism To Explain a Product   R. David Crouch, Jessica L. Howard, Jennifer L. Zile, and Kathryn H. Barker
Describes the microwave-mediated preparation of lophine (2,4,5-triphenylimidazole). The experiment also provides an opportunity for students to employ the principles of carbonyl chemistry in devising a mechanism to explain the formation of the product.
Crouch, R. David; Howard, Jessica L.; Zile, Jennifer L.; Barker, Kathryn H. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1658.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aromatic Compounds |
Microscale Lab |
Molecular Modeling |
Synthesis |
NMR Spectroscopy
Developing Critical Thinking Skills: The "Sabotaged" Synthesis of Methyl p-Bromobenzoate  Eric J. Mahan and Mary Alice Nading
Before beginning an experiment, students are told that someone might have sabotaged their experiment to produce other-than-expected results. The objective is to perform the experiment, determine if any sabotage has occurred, and, if so, identify the changes that were made to the reagents as well as the person responsible.
Mahan, Eric J.; Nading, Mary Alice. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1652.
Alcohols |
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Synthesis
Synthesis and Analysis of a Versatile Imine for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Jacqueline Bennett, Kristen Meldi, and Christopher Kimmell II
In this experiment students prepare and analyze N-p-methoxyphenyl (N-PMP) alpha-imino ethyl glyoxalate, an imine that has been used in the synthesis of biologically active molecules. The stability and versatility of this imine allow it to be used in subsequent reactions, offering a variety of possible multistep synthetic strategies.
Bennett, Jacqueline; Meldi, Kristen; Kimmell, Christopher, II. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1221.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Gas Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Methanol  Jay A. Young
The hazards of methanol are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1131.
Alcohols |
Laboratory Management
Enantioselective Reduction by Crude Plant Parts: Reduction of Benzofuran-2-yl Methyl Ketone with Carrot (Daucus carota) Bits  Silvana Ravía, Daniela Gamenara, Valeria Schapiro, Ana Bellomo, Jorge Adum, Gustavo Seoane, and David Gonzalez
Presents the enantioselective reduction of a ketone by crude plant parts, using carrot (Daucus carota) as the reducing agent.
Ravía, Silvana; Gamenara, Daniela; Schapiro, Valeria; Bellomo, Ana; Adum, Jorge; Seoane, Gustavo; Gonzalez, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1049.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Biotechnology |
Catalysis |
Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stereochemistry |
Separation Science
Reductive Amination: A Remarkable Experiment for the Organic Laboratory  Kim M. Touchette
The synthesis of N-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)-N-p-tolylacetamide is a fast, simple three-step sequence that serves as a useful example of the reductive amination reaction for the organic chemistry laboratory.
Touchette, Kim M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 929.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Green Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solids
A Simple Combinatorial Experiment Based on Fischer Esterification. An Experiment Suitable for the First-Semester Organic Chemistry Lab  Peter A. Wade, Susan A. Rutkowsky, and Daniel B. King
Describes a combinatorial experiment for the synthesis of esters by Fischer esterification in which a total of eight esters are prepared as six mixtures.
Wade, Peter A.; Rutkowsky, Susan A.; King, Daniel B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 927.
Alcohols |
Carboxylic Acids |
Combinatorial Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Esters |
Gas Chromatography |
Synthesis
n-Butyl Alcohol  Jay A. Young
The hazards of n-butyl alcohol are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 840.
Alcohols |
Laboratory Management
Ozonolysis Problems That Promote Student Reasoning  Ray A. Gross Jr.
The structural features inherent in acyclic monoterpenes that follow the isoprene rule often lead to unique sets of ozonolysis products from which their structures, excluding stereochemistry, can be determined from molecular formulas only. This article shows how students may elucidate the structures of these compounds by analysis of the oxidative and reductive workup products.
Gross, Ray A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 604.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Carboxylic Acids |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Student-Centered Learning
Synthesis of Methyl Diantilis, a Commercially Important Fragrance  William H. Miles and Katelyn B. Connell
Describes the synthesis of a family of fragrances, including the commercially important Methyl Diantilis, and provides an excellent introduction to intellectual property laws.
Miles, William H.; Connell, Katelyn B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 285.
Alcohols |
Food Science |
Catalysis |
Ethers |
Industrial Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis
Environmentally Responsible Redox Chemistry: An Example of Convenient Oxidation Methodology without Chromium Waste  Robyn L. Crumbie
This article describes a simple experiment that uses recyclable Magtrieve as the oxidant in a simple reaction sequence emphasizing the reciprocity of oxidation and reduction processes in organic synthesis.
Crumbie, Robyn L. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 268.
Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis
Diastereoselectivity in the Reduction of α-Hydroxyketones. An Experiment for the Chemistry Major Organic Laboratory  David B. Ball
Describes a research type, inquiry-based project where students synthesize racemic ahydroxyketones using umpolung, a polarity-reversal approach; investigate chelating versus non-chelating reducing agents; and determine the diastereoselectivity of these reducing processes by NMR spectroscopy.
Ball, David B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 101.
Addition Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Chromatography |
Conferences |
Constitutional Isomers |
Enantiomers |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis |
Conformational Analysis
A Solvent-Free Baeyer–Villiger Lactonization for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory: Synthesis of γ-t-Butyl-ε-caprolactone  John J. Esteb, J. Nathan Hohman, Diana E. Schlamadinger, and Anne M. Wilson
The BaeyerVilliger reaction provides an efficient method to convert ketones to esters or lactones. In this experiment, m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid and 4-tert-butylcyclohexanone are mixed together for under solvent-free conditions to produce ?-t-butyl-e-caprolactone.
Esteb, John J.; Hohman, J. Nathan; Schlamadinger, Diana E.; Wilson, Anne M. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1837.
Green Chemistry |
Synthesis |
Esters |
Oxidation / Reduction
The Discovery-Oriented Approach to Organic Chemistry. 6. Selective Reduction in Organic Chemistry: Reduction of Aldehydes in the Presence of Esters Using Sodium Borohydride  Ashvin R. Baru and Ram S. Mohan
Describes two discovery oriented lab experiments involving the chemoselective reduction of vanillin acetate and methyl 4-formylbenzoate in the presence of esters using sodium borohydride, followed by product identification using 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy.
Baru, Ashvin R.; Mohan, Ram S. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1674.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Synthesis
Laboratory Experiments on the Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 8. Microscale Simultaneous Photocatalysis  Jorge G. Ibanez, Rodrigo Mena-Brito, and Arturo Fregoso-Infante
In this article we describe a microscale experiment in which the simultaneous oxidation of an organic compound (citric acid) and the reduction of a metal ion (Cu2+) are photocatalytically performed in an aqueous slurry containing TiO2 irradiated with UV light. This produces electrons (capable of reducing the metal ions) and holes (capable of oxidizing the organic molecule) that can be used for environmental clean up. The experiment allows students to have a better comprehension of the different phenomena involved in a typical photocatalytic process.
Ibanez, Jorge G.; Mena-Brito, Rodrigo; Fregoso-Infante, Arturo. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1549.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Photochemistry |
Semiconductors |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Laboratory Experiments on the Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 7: Microscale Production of Ozone  Jorge G. Ibanez, Rodrigo Mayen-Mondragon, M. T. Moran-Moran, Alejandro Alatorre-Ordaz, Bruce Mattson, and Scot Eskestrand
Ozone, a powerful oxidizing and disinfecting agent, is produced electrochemically in the undergraduate laboratory with simple equipment and under very mild conditions. Tests are given to characterize it, to observe its action in simulated environmental applications, and to measure its rate of production.
Ibanez, Jorge G.; Mayen-Mondragon, Rodrigo; Moran-Moran, M. T.; Alatorre-Ordaz, Alejandro; Mattson, Bruce; Eskestrand, Scot. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1546.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
The Entrance and Exit Effects in Small Electrochemical Filter-Press Reactors Used in the Laboratory  Angel Frías-Ferrer, José González-García, Verónica Sáez, Eduardo Expósito, Carlos M. ánchez-Sánchez, Vicente Montiel, Antonio Aldaz, and Frank C. Walsh
An experiment has been designed to aid chemical engineering students in understanding the importance of size in small reactors in order to get suitable data for subsequent extrapolations to larger reactors and, therefore, for the scaleup of small systems. The experimental arrangement and procedures are described, and the theory needed to interpret the experimental results is discussed. Reactor geometry and size and experimental procedure are highlighted as key parameters in the study.
Frías-Ferrer, Angel; González-García, José; Sáez, Verónica; Expósito, Eduardo; ánchez-Sánchez, Carlos M.; Montiel, Vicente; Aldaz, Antonio; Walsh, Frank C. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1395.
Electrochemistry |
Industrial Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Transport Properties
Using Building-Block Puzzles To Practice Drawing Organic Mechanisms  Ender Erdik
This pencil-and-paper activity is designed to test the ability of students in writing intermediates and products in the reactions of ketones. An undergraduate student who is successful in organic chemistry at the sophomore level is expected to fill in empty boxes with the appropriate "building blocks", which are atoms and atom groups (neutral or ionic). Solving the puzzle will give the formulas of reactants, reactive intermediates, and products. Students test their understanding of reaction mechanisms while having fun.
Erdik, Ender. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1325.
Reactive Intermediates |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Mechanisms of Reactions
An Improved Preparation of 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine Reagent  Ben Ruekberg and Eric Rossoni
In the analysis of aldehydes and ketones (both for characterizing the functional group and identifying such compounds by the melting points of their derivatives), 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine reagent is often used. Of the several formulations of this reagent, the most popular uses sulfuric acid. The method involves making a paste of 2,4-dinitro-phenylhydrazine in concentrated sulfuric acid, dispersion of the paste in ethanol, addition of water, and the filtration of the reagent. This improvement uses milder conditions, which may obviate the need for the final filtration. Those responsible for preparation of stock reagent solutions for classes should note that this method facilitates scaling up the preparation.
Ruekberg, Ben; Rossoni, Eric. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1310.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
A Microwave-Assisted Reduction of Cyclohexanone Using Solid-State-Supported Sodium Borohydride  Lori L. White and Kevin W. Kittredge
We report a microwave-assisted reduction of cyclohexanone by sodium borohydride that is supported on SiO2. The reaction was completed in less than 3 minutes. Workup and analysis by GCMS, IR, and 1H NMR was possible in a two and half-hour laboratory session. This reduction was used successfully in a second-year organic chemistry laboratory. Students were exposed to a green chemistry reaction using solid-state-supported reactants in the absence of solvent.
White, Lori L.; Kittredge, Kevin W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1055.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solid State Chemistry |
Green Chemistry |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Circular Dichroism Investigation of Dess–Martin Periodinane Oxidation in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Nicole A. Reed, Robert D. Rapp, Christian S. Hamann, and Pamela G. Artz
Using circular dichroism, organic laboratory students investigated the change in absolute stereochemistry upon oxidation of menthol to menthone. In the first laboratory period, the oxidation was performed with DessMartin periodinane, which is a facile and less toxic oxidizing agent. Half the laboratory group performed the oxidation with ()-menthol and the other half used (+)-menthol to produce ()-menthone and (+)-menthone, respectively. The products were analyzed in the second laboratory period using infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to determine the fraction of starting alcohol converted to ketone. Comparison was made between CD spectra both for the menthol reactant and menthone product and for the (+)- and ()-menthone enantiomers.
Reed, Nicole A.; Rapp, Robert D.; Hamann, Christian S.; Artz, Pamela G. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1053.
Instrumental Methods |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Enantiomers
Menthol Stereoisomers  William F. Coleman
The JCE Featured Molecules for July come from the paper by Edward M. Treadwell and T. Howard Black on the use of commercially available stereoisomers of menthol to illustrate properties of enantiomers and diastereomers. The paper describes the use of four of the eight possible stereoisomers. Structures of all eight stereoisomers are included in this months molecule collection, labeled by the chirality of the three chiral atoms. In addition to the exercises described in the paper, students can be asked to match the appropriate structures to those shown in the paper, or to generate structures for the isomers that are not discussed.
Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1048.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Alcohols
Single-Molecule Electronic Measurements with Metal Electrodes  Stuart Lindsay
The process of transferring electrons from one metal electrode to another via an intervening molecule differs from electrochemically or optically-induced electron transfer in important ways. The simplest process of ballistic electron transport with no charge localization on the molecule (tunneling) should be easy to understand quantitatively, yet experimental reports and theoretical calculations can differ by orders of magnitude. Here, we show how many of the discrepancies are resolved with measurements carefully constructed to provide data on single molecules connected to electrodes in well-defined ways.
Lindsay, Stuart. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 727.
Electrochemistry |
Nanotechnology |
Oxidation / Reduction
Procedure for Decomposing a Redox Reaction into Half-Reactions  Ilie Fishtik and Ladislav H. Berka
The principle of stoichiometric uniqueness provides a simple algorithm to check whether a simple redox reaction may be uniquely decomposed into half-reactions in a single way. For complex redox reactions the approach permits a complete enumeration of a finite and unique number of ways a redox reaction may be decomposed into half-reactions. Several examples are given.
Fishtik, Ilie; Berka, Ladislav H. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 553.
Stoichiometry |
Equilibrium |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Thermodynamics
Catechol  Jay A. Young
The hazards of catechol are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 31.
Alcohols |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Analysis of Gold Ores by Fire Assay  Kristy M. Blyth, David N. Phillips, and Wilhelm van Bronswijk
This article describes a laboratory exercise for the analysis of gold using the fire-assay technique. This method of analysis not only provides students with an introduction to the technique of fire assay, but also covers some very interesting acidbase and redox chemistry. The gold is collected in a lead button while the remainder of the constituents find their way into a slag. The gold is recovered from the lead by absorption in a boneash cupel.
Blyth, Kristy M.; Phillips, David N.; van Bronswijk, Wilhelm. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1780.
Acids / Bases |
Industrial Chemistry |
Metals |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Volatile Organic Sulfur Compounds of Environmental Interest: Dimethyl Sulfide and Methanethiol. An Introductory Overview  Thomas G. Chasteen and Ronald Bentley
Volatile organic sulfur compounds and their degradation products play important environmental roles in global warming, acid precipitation, and cloud formation. Two important members of this group, dimethyl sulfide, DMS, and methanethiol, MT, are formed by living organisms as well as by abiotic processes. The chemical reactions responsible for the biosynthesis of DMS and MT are emphasized here, as well as means for their degradation. Since sulfur compounds are often ignored in normal course work, this article provides a basic foundation for an understanding of these interesting and environmentally significant compounds.
Chasteen, Thomas G.; Bentley, Ronald. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1524.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction
Solvent-Free Wittig Reaction: A Green Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  Sam H. Leung and Stephen A. Angel
In this experiment (E)- and (Z)-1-(4-bromophenyl)-2-phenylethene are synthesized by a solvent-free Wittig reaction. The reaction is effected by grinding the reactants in a mortar with a pestle. Both the E and Z isomers of the product are produced as evidenced by thin-layer chromatography and 1H NMR analysis. The E isomer is isolated by crystallization with ethanol in this experiment. In addition to learning about the Wittig reaction, students are also introduced to the ideas of mechanochemistry and green chemistry.
Leung, Sam H.; Angel, Stephen A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1492.
Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkenes
Studying Current–Potential Curves Using Bipotentiometric Iodometric Back-Titration for the Determination of Ascorbic Acid in Fruits and Vegetables  Roxana A. Verdini and Claudia M. Lagier
A method for the determination of the ascorbic acid content in fruits and vegetables was used to introduce the principles of voltammetry. The procedure combines an iodometric back-titration with voltammetric (bipotentiometric) end point detection, which minimizes the risk of ascorbic acid oxidation, allowing for a rapid and efficient quantification of vitamin C in fruits and vegetables. A better understanding of the titration curve is achieved by analyzing the schematic currentpotential curves of the anodic and cathodic half-cell reactions during the titration.
Verdini, Roxana A.; Lagier, Claudia M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1482.
Constitutional Isomers |
Electrochemistry |
Food Science |
Instrumental Methods |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Vitamins |
Consumer Chemistry
Ethyl Alcohol  Jay A. Young
The hazards of ethyl alcohol are described.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1414.
Laboratory Management |
Alcohols |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The Conversion of Carboxylic Acids to Ketones: A Repeated Discovery  John W. Nicholson and Alan Wilson
This article describes the history of the reaction converting carboxylic acids to ketones. The reaction has been rediscovered several times, yet has actually been known for centuries.
Nicholson, John W.; Wilson, Alan. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1362.
Synthesis |
Carboxylic Acids |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Catalytic Hydrogenation of Organic Compounds without H2 Supply: An Electrochemical System  Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz Navarro and Marcelo Navarro
A system for hydrogenation of organic compounds without a hydrogen gas supply is described. The process involves an electrochemical apparatus for the generation of hydrogen in situ. The simplicity of the experiment allows students to carry out easy experiments in the laboratory and the instructors to introduce the following concepts: electrochemical principles and catalytic and hydrogenation reactions. A sacrificial anode of nickel is used in the electrochemical system with a double function: to permit the use of an undivided cell and activate the cathode surface.
Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Navarro, Marcelo. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1350.
Catalysis |
Chromatography |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Simple Epoxide Formation for the Organic Laboratory Using Oxone  William C. Broshears, John J. Esteb, Jeremy Richter, and Anne M. Wilson
This experiment demonstrates a simple synthesis of an epoxide and formation of a secondary oxidizing agent.
Broshears, William C.; Esteb, John J.; Richter, Jeremy; Wilson, Anne M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1018.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis
A Reliable Homemade Electrode Based on Glassy Polymeric Carbon  André L. Santos, Regina M. Takeuchi, Herenilton P. Oliveira, Marcello G. Rodrigues, and Robert L. Zimmerman
The production of glassy polymeric carbon (GPC) through the thermal treatment of a phenolic resin is described.
Santos, André L.; Takeuchi, Regina M.; Oliveira, Herenilton P.; Rodrigues, Marcello G.; Zimmerman, Robert L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 842.
Electrochemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction
The Darzens Condensation: Structure Determination through Spectral Analysis and Understanding Substrate Reactivity  R. David Crouch, Michael S. Holden, and Candice A. Romany
The Darzens condensation involves two steps that are typically included in the sophomore organic curriculum: an aldol reaction followed by an intramolecular nucleophilic substitution.
Crouch, R. David; Holden, Michael S.; Romany, Candice A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 711.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Stereochemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Chlor–Alkali Industry: A Laboratory Scale Approach  C. M. Sánchez-Sánchez, E. Expósito, A. Frías-Ferrer, J. González-García, V. Montiel, and A. Aldaz
An experiment is described that approximates the industrial chloralkali process using a membrane cell.
Sánchez-Sánchez, C. M.; Expósito, E.; Frías-Ferrer, A.; González-García, J.; Montiel, V.; Aldaz, A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 698.
Electrochemistry |
Industrial Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Cautionary Comments  John J. Esteb and Anne M. Wilson
We never claimed that our procedure would work as written for any alcohol other than the three that we have included.
Esteb, John J.; Wilson, Anne M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 641.
Alcohols |
IR Spectroscopy
Cautionary Comments   R. G. Landolt
Im concerned about a safety factor in the paper, A Solvent-Free Oxidation of Alcohols in an Organic Laboratory".
Landolt, R. G. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 641.
Alcohols |
Synthesis
Methyl Ethyl Ketone  Jay A. Young
The hazards of methyl ethyl ketone are described.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 630.
Laboratory Management |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Variability of the Cell Potential of a Given Chemical Reaction  Ladislav H. Berka and Ilie Fishtik
It is demonstrated in this article that while the value of the free energy change for any chemical reaction is independent of path (a state function), the value of the standard cell potential of a reaction is dependent on the half-cell reactions used to carry out that reaction.
Berka, Ladislav H.; Fishtik, Ilie. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 584.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics |
Physical Properties |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Developing Investigation Skills in an Introductory Multistep Synthesis Using Fluorene Oxidation and Reduction  Mark G. Stocksdale, Steven E. S. Fletcher, Ian Henry, Paul J. Ogren, Michael A. G. Berg, Roy D. Pointer, and Barrett W. Benson
A two-step reaction sequence in the beginning organic laboratory provides a useful introduction to the importance of multistep synthesis. In addition to introducing several common synthetic methods and techniques, a two-step preparation can quickly establish the importance of testing alternative reactions in order to optimize intermediate yields.
Stocksdale, Mark G.; Fletcher, Steven E. S.; Henry, Ian; Ogren, Paul J.; Berg, Michael A. G.; Pointer, Roy D.; Benson, Barrett W. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 388.
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction
Laboratory Experiments on the Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 6: Microscale Production of Ferrate  Jorge G. Ibanez, Monica Tellez-Giron, Diana Alvarez, and Elizabeth Garcia-Pintor
Ferrate, a powerful oxidizing and disinfecting agent, is synthesized chemically and electrochemically in the undergraduate laboratory with simple equipment and under very mild conditions. Tests are given to characterize it and to observe its action in simulated environmental applications.
Ibanez, Jorge G.; Tellez-Giron, Monica; Alvarez, Diana; Garcia-Pintor, Elizabeth. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 251.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Green Chemistry |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction
Well Wishes. A Case on Septic Systems and Well Water Requiring In-Depth Analysis and Including Optional Laboratory Experiments  Mary M. Walczak and Juliette M. Lantz
This paper describes the use of a case study to teach introductory chemistry students the chemical principles of solution concentration (especially ppm) and dilution, aqueous redox reactions, and stoichiometric conversions between different solution species.
Walczak, Mary M.; Lantz, Juliette M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 218.
Consumer Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry
Comment on the Hazards of Peroxide Decomposition  J. C. Jones
The issue under discussionthe presence in ether of peroxides and their explosive decompositionis an important one, and the correspondence referred to is focused on laboratory safety. I believe however that an interesting point of pedagogic value can be gleaned from it.
Jones, J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 193.
Ethers |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Spectrophotometric Study of the Permanganate–Oxalate Reaction: An Analytical Laboratory Experiment  Gene E. Kalbus, Van T. Lieu, and Lee H. Kalbus
The experiment is divided into two parts. Part I involves the determination of an unknown oxalate. Part II of the experiment involves examination of the effect of sulfuric acid concentration and the effect of manganous ion concentration on the rate of and outcome of the permanganateoxalate reaction.
Kalbus, Gene E.; Lieu, Van T.; Kalbus, Lee H. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 100.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Acid–Base and Precipitation Equilibria in Wine  Miguel Palma and Carmelo G. Barroso
A simple but effective experiment demonstrates the interactions between simultaneous equilibria involving hydrogen tartrate and helps students realize the importance of multiple equilibria in real-world systems.
Palma, Miguel; Barroso, Carmelo G. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 94.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
Alcohols |
Carboxylic Acids
Triethanolamine  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for triethanolamine.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 24.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Physical Properties |
Alcohols
Photogalvanic Cells for Classroom Investigations: A Contribution for Ongoing Curriculum Modernization  Claudia Bohrmann-Linde and Michael W. Tausch
Laboratory experiments examining the fundamental processes in the conversion of light into electrical energy using photogalvanic cells have been developed. These simple cells are suitable for classroom investigations examining the operating principles of photogalvanic cells and the influence of different parameters on their efficiency.
Bohrmann-Linde, Claudia; Tausch, Michael W. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1471.
Electrochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Analytical Spectroscopy Using Modular Systems  Brian M. Patterson, Neil D. Danielson, Gary A. Lorigan, and André J. Sommer
This article describes the development of three analytical spectroscopy experiments that compare the determination of salicylic acid (SA) content in aspirin tablets. The experiments are based on UVvis, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopies and utilize modular spectroscopic components. Students assemble their own instruments, optimize them with respect to signal-to-noise, generate calibration curves, determine the SA content in retail aspirin tablets, and assign features in the respective spectra to functional groups within the active material.
Patterson, Brian M.; Danielson, Neil D.; Lorigan, Gary A.; Sommer, André J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1460.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis |
Raman Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds |
Esters |
Carboxylic Acids |
Alcohols
Measuring Breath Alcohol Concentrations with an FTIR Spectrometer  Adam Kneisel and Michael K. Bellamy
Students use aqueous ethanol solutions to make a calibration curve that relates absorbance signals of breath samples with blood alcohol concentrations. Students use their calibration curve to determine the time needed for their calculated blood alcohol levels to drop below the legal limit following use of a commercial mouthwash.
Kneisel, Adam; Bellamy, Michael K. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1448.
Forensic Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Alcohols
The Relative Explosive Power of Some Explosives  Marten J. ten Hoor
The efficiency of an explosive is measured by its relative explosive power, REP. This quantity is defined as REP = QVg/m2, where Q is the energy released in the explosion, Vg is the total volume (at STP) of gas produced, and m is the mass of the explosive that has reacted. These three quantities can be determined from the explosion equation of the explosive.
ten Hoor, Marten J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1397.
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction
Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production by Direct Sunlight: A Laboratory Experiment  Atif Koca and Musa Sahin
The experiment can be used to introduce students to the concept of a renewable and sustainable hydrogen energy system of the future, as well as its production techniques, and to demonstrate the use of a CdS/ZnS photocatalyst system for photocatalytic hydrogen production from direct sunlight.
Koca, Atif; Sahin, Musa. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1314.
Catalysis |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
The Base-Induced Reaction of Salicylaldehyde with 1-Bromobutane in Acetone: Two Related Examples of Chemical Problem Solving  Holly D. Bendorf and Chriss E. McDonald
Each student performs his or her own experimental work, running one of the two reactions, and acquiring the proton and carbon NMR, IR, and mass spectra. The students work in groups to propose structures for the products and mechanisms for their formation. The students are also asked to address why the reactions take different courses.
Bendorf, Holly D.; McDonald, Chriss E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1185.
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Ethers |
Phenols |
IR Spectroscopy
Demonstrating Corrosion Using Galvanic Cells (J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 747-748)   Algirdas Sulcius
Comments on and suggestions for improving the original experimental procedure.
Sulcius, Algirdas. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1138.
Microscale Lab |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
A Graphical Presentation of the Born–Haber Cycle for Estimating the Electrode Potentials of Metals  Michael Laing
The traditional BornHaber cycle for estimating E for Mn+/M is represented visually by plotting step-by-step the values of ?Hat, IEi, and ?Hhyd for the metal.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1057.
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction
Reproportionation of Copper(I)  Jan Malyszko and Maria Kaczor
Cu(I) is an example of an intermediate oxidation state that can undergo disproportionation or reproportionation reactions depending on the solvent and background electrolyte. A simple experiment to demonstrate the reproportionation of copper(I) from the reaction between copper metal and copper(II) in acidic aqueous solution containing an excess of chlorides is presented.
Malyszko, Jan; Kaczor, Maria. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1048.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Organic Functional Group Playing Card Deck  Michael J. Welsh
Organic functional group playing card deck used for review of the name and structure of organic functional groups that can be used to play any game that a normal deck of cards is used for.
Welsh, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 426.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmajor Courses |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Amides |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters |
Ethers |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis
Environmental Redox Potential and Redox Capacity Concepts Using a Simple Polarographic Experiment  Alejandro Pidello
Laboratory designed to enable students to distinguish clearly between redox potential and redox capacity concepts through results obtained in a complex natural system (soil).
Pidello, Alejandro. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 68.
Agricultural Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Potentiometry
Microscale Quantitative Analysis of Hard Water Samples Using an Indirect Potassium Permanganate Redox Titration  John N. Richardson, Mark T. Stauffer, and Jennifer L. Henry
A procedure for a microscale quantitative analysis of hard water samples using an indirect potassium permanganate redox titration.
Richardson, John N.; Stauffer, Mark T.; Henry, Jennifer L. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 65.
Microscale Lab |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry
The Flawed Nature of the Calibration Factor in Breath-Alcohol Analysis  Dominick A. Labianca
Analysis of factors that influence breath-alcohol tests.
Labianca, Dominick A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1237.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Forensic Chemistry |
Calibration |
Alcohols |
Gases |
Chemometrics |
Applications of Chemistry
DeLorenzo's Four Interesting Mysteries Verified  Josefina Ma. Ferriols-Pavico
Results of experiments testing why women become intoxicated more easily than men, why alcohol consumption might enhance cigarettes' carcinogenic effects, why latex condoms with oil-based lubricants work better than latex condoms with water-based lubricants, and why red meat goes better with red wine and white meat with white wine?
Ferriols-Pavico, Josefina Ma. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1217.
Lipids |
Learning Theories |
Alcohols |
Applications of Chemistry
CLIP: Acetic Anhydride  Jay A. Young
Boric acid is a mild oxidizing agent.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1202.
Oxidation / Reduction
CLIP: Acetic Anhydride  Charlie A. Crutchfield
Boric acid is not an oxidizing agent.
Crutchfield, Charlie A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1202.
Oxidation / Reduction
CLIP: Acetic Anhydride  Charlie A. Crutchfield
Boric acid is not an oxidizing agent.
Crutchfield, Charlie A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1202.
Oxidation / Reduction
Preparing Students for Research: Synthesis of Substituted Chalcones as a Comprehensive Guided-Inquiry Experience  James R. Vyvyan, Donald L. Pavia, Gary M. Lampman, and George S. Kriz Jr.
An aldol condensation of substituted benzaldehydes with substituted acetophones to produce substituted benzalacetophenones (chalcones) in a guided-inquiry approach.
Vyvyan, James R.; Pavia, Donald L.; Lampman, Gary M.; Kriz, George S., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1119.
Medicinal Chemistry |
Microscale Lab |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones
1H NMR Measurement of the Trans–Cis Photoisomerization of Cinnamic Acid Derivatives  Basil Danylec and Magdy N. Iskander
Procedure that illustrates trans-cis photoisomerization.
Danylec, Basil; Iskander, Magdy N. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1000.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Photochemistry |
Stereochemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alcohols |
Esters |
Alkenes |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Determining Oxidation–Reduction on a Simple Number Line  Amy L. Cox and James R. Cox
Using a simple number line to analyze oxidation-reduction reactions encountered in introductory/general chemistry, organic chemistry, and biochemistry.
Cox, Amy L.; Cox, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 965.
Oxidation / Reduction
Chiral Compounds and Green Chemistry in Undergraduate Organic Laboratories: Reduction of a Ketone by Sodium Borohydride and Baker's Yeast  Nicola Pohl, Allen Clague, and Kimberly Schwarz
Students compare biological and chemical means of introducing chirality into a molecule by investigating the reduction of a ketoester with two different reducing agents.
Pohl, Nicola; Clague, Allen; Schwarz, Kimberly. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 727.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis |
Green Chemistry
A New Approach to Understanding Oxidation-Reduction of Compounds in Organic Chemistry  Abdullah Menzek
Teaching oxidation-reduction in introductory organic chemistry.
Menzek, Abdullah. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 700.
Aromatic Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Redox Redux: Recommendations for Improving Textbook and IUPAC Definitions  Ed Vitz
Defining oxidation / reduction reactions as those in which oxidation states of the reactant(s) change.
Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 397.
Electrochemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
A Simple Student Experiment for Teaching Surface Electrochemistry: Adsorption of Polyoxometalate on Graphite Electrodes  David Martel, Neso Sojic, and Alexander Kuhn
Experiment that illustrates the electrochemical behavior of a surface-adsorbed redox species through cyclic voltametry.
Martel, David; Sojic, Neso; Kuhn, Alexander. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 349.
Catalysis |
Electrochemistry |
Surface Science |
Oxidation / Reduction
Integrating HPLC and Electrochemistry: A LabVIEW-Based Pulsed Amperometric Detection System  Mark B. Jensen
Using the voltametry of glucose to develop a method for the pulsed amperometric detection of carbohydrates (glucose, fructose, and sucrose) following their separation by liquid chromatography.
Jensen, Mark B. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 345.
Chromatography |
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
HPLC |
Carbohydrates |
Separation Science |
Oxidation / Reduction
Microscale Determination of Vitamin C by Weight Titrimetry  Gaston A. East and Erica C. Nascimento
Electroanalytical method for the microscale determination of vitamin C using a nontraditional oxidimetric titrant.
East, Gaston A.; Nascimento, Erica C. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 100.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Microscale Lab |
Quantitative Analysis |
Vitamins |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
An Efficient Composition for Bengal Lights  M. Comet, L. Schreyeck, and H. Fuzellier
Producing bengal lights (colored flames) using different mixtures of colorants to introduce the solid-phase redox theory in inorganic chemistry.
Comet, M.; Schreyeck, L.; Fuzellier, H. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 70.
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solid State Chemistry
Determination of Free Lime in Clinker and Cement by Iodometry. An Undergraduate Experiment in Redox Titrimetry  Oi-Wah Lau, Shiu-Fai Luk, Nina L. N. Cheng, and Hoi-Yin Woo
Experiment to determine the free lime in cement and clinker through iodometry.
Lau, Oi-Wah; Luk, Shiu-Fai; Cheng, Nina L. N.; Woo, Hoi-Yin. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1671.
Acids / Bases |
Industrial Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Separation Science
Demonstrations with Nitrocellulose: Possible Further Pedagogic Value (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1449)  Edward G. Senkbeil
Characteristic of explosives to have fuel and oxidizer in the same structure.
Senkbeil, Edward G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1596.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Rate Law
Demonstrations with Nitrocellulose: Possible Further Pedagogic Value (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1449)  J. C. Jones
Characteristic of explosives to have fuel and oxidizer in the same structure.
Jones, J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1596.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Rate Law
Moisture Analysis in Lotion by Karl Fischer Coulometry. An Experiment for Introductory Analytical Chemistry  Patricia Ann Mabrouk and Kristine Castriotta
Measuring moisture content in hand and body lotions using Karl Fischer coulometry.
Mabrouk, Patricia Ann; Castriotta, Kristine. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1385.
Consumer Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
The Joy of Color in Ceramic Glazes with the Help of Redox Chemistry  Allen A. Denio
The chemistry of pottery, ceramic glazes, and the firing process.
Denio, Allen A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1298.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Geochemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Metals
Discovery-Oriented Approach To Organic Synthesis: Tandem Aldol Condensation-Michael Addition Reactions. Identifying Diastereotopic Hydrogens in an Achiral Molecule by NMR Spectroscopy  Nanette Wachter-Jurcsak and Kendra Reddin
Procedure illustrating aldol condensation and Michael addition reactions.
Wachter-Jurcsak, Nanette; Reddin, Kendra. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1264.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Stereochemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Addition Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Was the Driver Drunk? An Instrumental Methods Experiment for the Determination of Blood Alcohol Content  Jennifer L. Zabzdyr and Sheri J. Lillard
Forensic-based experiment to motivate correct analytical procedures and careful interpretation of data by using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection.
Zabzdyr, Jennifer L.; Lillard, Sheri J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1225.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Applications of Chemistry |
Forensic Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis |
Alcohols |
Gas Chromatography
Ethanol Metabolism and the Transition from Organic Chemistry to Biochemistry  Richard D. Feinman
Introducing alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase reactions in organic chemistry to ease transition to biochemistry.
Feinman, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1215.
Metabolism |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Alcohols |
Carbohydrates
The TCICA Test for Distinguishing Aldehydes and Ketones  Gene A. Hiegel, Christine Juska, and Michelle Kim
Distinguishing aldehydes from ketones through their reaction with TCICA (trichloroisocyanuric acid).
Hiegel, Gene A.; Juska, Christine; Kim, Michelle. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1105.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Oxidation of Benzoin to Benzil Using Alumina-Supported Active MnO2  R. David Crouch, Michael S. Holden, and Jennifer S. Burger
Oxidation of benzoin to benzil using alumina-supported active MnO2; purification of the products using column chromatography.
Crouch, R. David; Holden, Michael S.; Burger, Jennifer S. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 951.
Chromatography |
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Combustion of White Phosphorus  Richard L. Keiter and Chaminda P. Gamage
The combustion of white phosphorus.
Keiter, Richard L.; Gamage, Chaminda P. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 908.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Photochemistry |
Main-Group Elements |
Oxidation / Reduction
Laboratory Experiments on Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 5: Indirect H2S Remediation  J. G. Ibanez
Experiment to introduce students in general chemistry, environmental chemistry, or electrochemistry to the concept of indirect electrolysis, its application in environmental remediation schemes, the role of a mediator, and the application of redox chemistry concepts.
Ibanez, J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 778.
Electrochemistry |
Gases |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry
Diastereoselective Synthesis of (+/-)-1,2-Diphenyl-1,2-propanediol. A Discovery-Based Grignard Reaction Suitable for a Large Organic Lab Course  James A. Ciaccio, Roxana P. Bravo, Antoinette L. Drahus, John B. Biggins, Rosalyn V. Concepcion, and David Cabrera
An experiment that probes the diastereoselectivity of the reaction between a Grignard reagent and a common, inexpensive alpha-chiral ketone; introduces students to pi-facial discrimination by having them establish the stereochemical course of kinetically controlled nucleophilic addition to a carbonyl.
Ciaccio, James A.; Bravo, Roxana P.; Drahus, Antoinette L.; Biggins, John B.; Concepcion, Rosalyn V.; Cabrera, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 531.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis |
Organometallics |
Stereochemistry |
Grignard Reagents |
Aldehydes / Ketones
The Oxidation of Alkylbenzenes: Using Data Pooling in the Organic Laboratory to Illustrate Research in Organic Chemistry  James C. Adrian Jr. and Leslie A. Hull
Student groups are assigned the task of oxidizing various substituted alkylbenzenes with potassium permanganate in basic solution; by pooling the results from all groups it is possible to illustrate how a research project in chemistry can be used to answer simple questions - What happens when your individual alkylbenzene is oxidized?
Adrian, James C., Jr.; Hull, Leslie A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 529.
Synthesis |
Chemometrics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds
The Household Chemistry of Cleaning Pennies  Laurence D. Rosenhein
Although it is well known that solutions of vinegar and table salt are effective in removing tarnish from pennies, chemical explanations of this behavior are not included in sources of this "household chemistry" and erroneous explanations have crept into popular literature on this subject; this article provides some relevant empirical information on the system.
Rosenhein, Laurence D. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 513.
Consumer Chemistry |
Coordination Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction
Organic-Solvent-Free Phase-Transfer Oxidation of Alcohols Using Hydrogen Peroxide  Martin Hulce and David W. Marks
Six representative alcohols are oxidized to the corresponding aldehyde or ketone, integrating the various techniques of extraction, drying, filtration, column chromatography, gas chromatography, NMR and IR spectroscopy, and reaction kinetics.
Hulce, Martin; Marks, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 66.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Phenols
It Says in the Books That Ethanol Burns with a Cool Flame  Jay A. Young
An alcohol lab fire with fatal results.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1488.
Alcohols
A Microscale Oxidation Puzzle  Michael W. Pelter, Rebecca M. Macudzinski, and Mary Ellen Passarelli
We have adapted oxidation of an alcohol with sodium hypochlorite solution to a "puzzle" approach by using a diol as the substrate for oxidation. The diols under investigation have both a primary and a secondary hydroxyl group. The assignment is to perform the reaction and determine the structure of the product through interpretation of the IR spectrum.
Pelter, Michael W.; Macudzinski, Rebecca M.; Passarelli, Mary Ellen. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1481.
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
Alcohols |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Combustion Demonstration Using Updated Flame Tornado  Edward G. Senkbeil
This demonstration uses the combustion of different forms of cellulose and an updated version of the "flame tornado" as an ignition source to illustrate the factors affecting the combustion process. The objectives of the experiment are to illustrate the factors affecting the rate of a combustion reaction and to demonstrate the factors affecting the production of a flame by using the flame tornado.
Senkbeil, Edward G. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1449.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Rate Law
Kinetic Isotope Effect in the Chromic Acid Oxidation of Secondary Alcohols  Charles E. Harding, Christopher W. Mitchell, and Jozsef Devenyi
The kinetic isotope effect is an invaluable tool in studying certain organic reaction mechanisms. Two activities involving the technique that are suitable for introductory organic laboratory students are described. A simple competition experiment utilizing the benzhydrol?benzhydrol-d1 system and chromic acid oxidation is used to demonstrate qualitatively that there is a kinetic isotope effect involved in this process.
Harding, Charles E.; Mitchell, Christopher W.; Devenyi, Jozsef. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1042.
Isotopes |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Alcohols |
Oxidation / Reduction
Letters  
Points out that solid NaHSO3 does not exist.
Tudela, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 830.
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Carbohydrates
Computational Investigations for Undergraduate Organic Chemistry: Modeling Markovnikov and anti-Markovnikov Reactions for the Formation of Alkyl Halides and Alcohols  Rita K. Hessley
This paper describes how the early introduction of molecular modeling for the study of reaction mechanisms leading to alcohols from alkenes can increase students' involvement in their own learning and can effectively challenge their misapprehension about memorization.
Hessley, Rita K. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 794.
Computational Chemistry |
Alcohols |
Molecular Modeling |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The Oxidation of Primary Alcohols to Esters: Three Related Investigative Experiments  Chriss E. McDonald

McDonald, Chriss E. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 750.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alcohols |
Esters |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The Thermodynamics and Kinetics of "HeaterMeals": An Exercise in Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry  William B. Jensen
The author traces his steps in unraveling the chemistry behind an innovative new commercial product called HeaterMeals, which makes use of an "inorganic oven" composed of magnesium metal, iron metal, and salt water as a way of heating prepackaged meals. The thermodynamic, kinetic, and structural roles played by each component are analyzed and correlated with various topics taught in a typical introductory inorganic course.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 713.
Electrochemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Applications of Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Comparative Study of Microscale and Standard Burets  Mono M. Singh, Cynthia B. McGowan, Zvi Szafran, and R. M. Pike
This paper describes a comparative study of the performance of microscale titrations using 2-mL microscale burets with those using Beral pipets and normal 50- and 10-mL burets. The usefulness of a microburet in general and analytical chemistry is demonstrated by presenting results from acid-base, oxidation-reduction, precipitation, complexometric, and pH titrations.
Singh, Mono M.; McGowan, Cynthia B.; Szafran, Zvi; Pike, Ronald M. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 625.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH |
Precipitation / Solubility
Introducing Chiroscience into the Organic Laboratory Curriculum  Kenny B. Lipkowitz, Tim Naylor, and Keith S. Anliker
"Chiroscience" is a young but robust industry linking science and technology with chemistry and biology; includes description of an asymmetric reduction of a ketone followed by an assessment of the enantiomeric excess by GC using a chiral stationary phase.
Lipkowitz, Kenny B.; Naylor, Tim; Anliker, Keith S. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 305.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Chromatography |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis |
Separation Science |
Stereochemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Catalytic Oxidation of Ammonia: A Sparkling Experiment  Vladimir A. Volkovich and Trevor R. Griffiths
A lecture demonstration experiment on the catalytic oxidation of ammonia using chromium(III) oxide as a catalyst is described.
Volkovich, Vladimir A.; Griffiths, Trevor R. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 177.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Synthesis of Derivatives of (1R)-(-)- and (1S)-(+)-10-Camphorsulfonic Acid  Steven C. Cermak and David F. Wiemer
The preparation of optically active (camphorsulfonyl)oxaziridines from commercially available (1R)-(-) and/or (1S)-(+)10-camphorsulfonic acid provides a clear demonstration of the lack of relationship between absolute configuration and optical rotation. The parent sulfonic acid can be converted to the corresponding acid chloride and then to the sulfonamide, sulfonylimine, and finally to an oxaziridine in a series of practical organic laboratory experiments.
Cermak, Steven C.; Wiemer, David F. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1715.
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Ethers |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Acids / Bases
A Simple and Efficient Ozone Generator  Debra J. Sponholtz, Michael A. Walters, Jimmy Tung, and Joseph J. BelBruno
We report on the construction of an inexpensive, efficient, and compact ozonolysis apparatus, suitable for use in oxidation chemistry, which is a convenient alternative to the more expensive generators currently on the market. The details, operating parameters, and application of the ozone generator to the oxidation of methylallyl oxazolidione are also presented.
Sponholtz, Debra J.; Walters, Michael A.; Tung, Jimmy; BelBruno, Joseph J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1712.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Reactive Intermediates |
Synthesis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Ascorbic Acid as a Standard for Iodometric Titrations: An Analytical Experiment for General Chemistry  Cesar R. Silva, Jose A. Simoni, Carol H. Collins, and Pedro L. O. Volpe
Ascorbic acid is suggested as the weighable compound for the standardization of iodine solutions in an analytical experiment in general chemistry. The experiment involves an iodometric titration in which iodine reacts with ascorbic acid, oxidizing it to dehydroascorbic acid.
Silva, Cesar R.; Simoni, Jose A.; Collins, Carol H.; Volpe, Pedro L. O. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1421.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases
Chemistry Comes Alive! Vol. 3: Abstract of Special Issue 23 on CD-ROM  Jerrold J. Jacobsen and John W. Moore
Volume 3 contains several related topics generally included in an introductory chemistry course. The general areas are Enthalpy and Thermodynamics, Oxidation-Reduction, and Electrochemistry.
Jacobsen, Jerrold J.; Moore, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1311.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Lemon Cells Revisited  Radhakrishnamurty, P.
Analysis of the reactions and nature of the electrodes in the lemon cell.
Radhakrishnamurty, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1190.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Oxidation / Reduction
The Discovery-Oriented Approach to Organic Chemistry 2. Selectivity in Alcohol Oxidation: An Exercise in 1H NMR Spectroscopy for Sophomore Organic Laboratories  Steven R. Shadwick and Ram S. Mohan
A simple oxidation experiment that presents the student with a puzzle and is a good exercise in 1H NMR spectroscopy. The experiment, which illustrates the important concept of selectivity in organic synthesis, involves selective oxidation of a mixture of 1-heptanol and 2-heptanol using commercial swimming pool chlorine.
Shadwick, Steven R.; Mohan, Ram S. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1121.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis
In Search of a Deep Understanding of Cu2+/0 and Zn2+/0 E° Values  Steven H. Strauss
This paper presents an example of an interesting way to introduce periodic trends in undergraduate inorganic chemistry courses. The student, guided by the instructor, "investigates" the significantly different M2+/0 E values for two adjacent period 4 elements, copper and zinc, as though the investigation were a research project.
Strauss, Steven H. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1095.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Spectrophotometric Method for Quantitative Determination of Bromine Using Tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine  Joan Han, Troy Story, and Grace Han
A simple spectrophotometric method for quantitative determination of bromine is described.
Han, Joan; Story, Troy; Han, Grace. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 976.
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
A Further Demonstration of Sulfite-Induced Redox Cycling of Metal Ions Initiated by Shaking  Horacio D. Moya, Eduardo Almeida Neves, and Nina Coichev
Details of a fascinating laboratory demonstration of the sulfite-induced redox cycling of Ni(II)/Ni(III), which is initiated by shaking the solution in the presence of air, are reported. The balance between the sulfite and oxygen concentration controls the direction of the overall reaction.
Moya, Horacio D.; Neves, Eduardo Almeida; Coichev, Nina. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 930.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Catalysis
An Analysis of College Chemistry Textbooks As Sources of Misconceptions and Errors in Electrochemistry  Michael J. Sanger and Thomas J. Greenbowe
The oxidation-reduction and electrochemistry chapters of 10 introductory college chemistry textbooks were reviewed for misleading or erroneous statements, using a list of student misconceptions. As a result of this analysis, we provide suggestions for chemistry instructors and textbook authors.
Sanger, Michael J.; Greenbowe, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 853.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Learning Theories
A Puzzling Alcohol Dehydration Reaction Solved by GC–MS Analysis  Michael W. Pelter and Rebecca M. Macudzinski
The reaction of 2-methyl-2-propanol with ~50% sulfuric acid at 100 C yields isobutylene, which reacts further by a "puzzling" reaction. By coupling the GC/MS analysis of the product mixture with their knowledge of the mechanism of alcohol dehydration and alkene reactivity, students are able to identify the major products of this reaction.
Pelter, Michael W.; Macudzinski, Rebecca M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 826.
Synthesis |
Microscale Lab |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Alcohols |
Alkenes
Redox Buffer Strength  Robert de Levie
The proper functioning of enzymes in bodily fluids requires that the pH be maintained within rather narrow limits. The first line of defense against large pH fluctuations in such fluids is the passive control provided by the presence of pH buffers. It is equally important for many enzymes that the redox potential is kept within a narrow range. In that case, stability of the potential is most readily achieved with a redox buffer. In this communication the redox buffer strength is defined by analogy with acid-base buffer strength.
de Levie, Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 574.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases |
Enzymes
A Simple, Safe Way To Prepare Halogens and Study Their Visual Properties at a Technical Secondary School  Domingo A. Liprandi, Orlando R. Reinheimer, José F. Paredes, and Pablo C. L'Argentière
In this paper we propose an easy-to-build apparatus to obtain chlorine, bromine, and iodine. The experiment was developed considering not only theoretical and safety conditions but simplicity and clarity as well.
Liprandi, Domingo A.; Reinheimer, Orlando R.; Paredes, José F.; L'Argentière, Pablo C. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 532.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Oxidation Numbers  Gion Calzaferri
Assigning oxidation numbers to organic compounds and Jrgensen's axioms.
Calzaferri, Gion. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 362.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Oxidation State
Is It Real Gold?  Harold H. Harris
The oxidation-reduction couples involved in the corrosion of gold alloys and the dissolution of "noble" metals are related to an inquiry to the newspaper columnist, Ann Landers. the origin of several contemporary phrases (touch stone, acid test, Hallmark) are found in the chemistry of gold.
Harris, Harold H. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 198.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Qualitative Analysis |
Applications of Chemistry
Reduction of 2,6-Dimethylcyclohexanone with Sodium Borohydride Revisited: A Correction on the Structural Assignments of the Products, and the Discovery of a Solvent Effect  Bruce A. Hathaway
Changing the solvent from methanol to ethanol produced a different ratio of cis-cis to trans-trans than was reported in the original work. Therefore, a short series of solvents was investigated to determine if there was a solvent effect. The results indicate that as the size and bulk of the solvent increase, the proportion of the trans alcohol product increases.
Hathaway, Bruce A. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1623.
Stereochemistry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols
Lead Globules  Francisco J. Arnáiz and Maria R. Pedrosa
Reaction of plumbate solutions with aluminum. A variety of lead films can be formed depending on the conditions. The method we describe permits obtaining a large lead globule in less than 1 minute.
Arnáiz, Francisco J.; Pedrosa, Maria R. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1431.
Qualitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
How To Learn and Have Fun with Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) and White Glue  V. de Zea Bermudez, P. Passos de Almeida, and J. Féria Seita
The general behavior of Newtonian, shear-thinning, shear-thickening, thixotropic, negative thixotropic, and viscoelastic fluids is characterized and briefly discussed in terms of existing theoretical models. Whenever possible, examples of these types of fluids taken from everyday life are given for better understanding.
de Zea Bermudez, Verónica; de Almeida, P. Passos; Seita, J. Féria. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1410.
Alcohols |
Liquids
A Simple, Transparent Fume Hood  John Fredericks
An inexpensive transparent fume hood can be constructed from a clear-plastic two-liter soft drink bottle that is cut just above the base. A length of vacuum tubing is secured to the opening of the bottle using black electrical tape. The tubing is then connected to a water aspirator.
Fredericks, John. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1299.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Laboratory Management
Vanillin (the author replies)  Hocking, Martin
Additional information regarding salicylic acid.
Hocking, Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1203.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Applications of Chemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Vanillin  Calloway, Dean
Incorrect structural formula for methyl salicylate.
Calloway, Dean J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1203.
Medicinal Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Letters  
Incorrect structural formula for methyl salicylate.
J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1203.
Medicinal Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Let's Dot Our I's and Cross Our T's  Leenson, Ilya A.

Leenson, Ilya A. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1088.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Laboratory Experiments on Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 4: Color Removal of Simulated Wastewater by Electrocoagulation-Electroflotation  Jorge G. Ibanez, M. M. Singh, and Z. Szafran
Due to the large production of aqueous waste streams from textile mills and dye production plants, several processes have been under intense study. Electrochemical processes offer some distinctive advantages, including effects due to: 1) the production of electrolysis gases, and 2) the production of polyvalent cations from the oxidation of corrodible anodes (like Fe and Al).
Ibanez, Jorge G.; Singh, Mono M.; Szafran, Zvi. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1040.
Microscale Lab |
Electrochemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Microscale Lab
Balancing Organic Reactions  Woolf, A.A.
Assigning oxidation numbers to atoms that change in the redox process.
Woolf, A.A. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 938.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction
The Clemmensen Reduction  Palacios, Juan C.; Cintas, Pedro
Clemmensen reduction does not involve the formation of alcohols.
Palacios, Juan C.; Cintas, Pedro J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 938.
Oxidation / Reduction
Letters  
Clemmensen reduction does not involve the formation of alcohols.
J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 938.
Oxidation / Reduction
Slide Projector Corrosion Cell  Silvia Tejada, Estela Guevara, and Esperanza Olivares
The process of corrosion can be demonstrated in a slide projector, since the cell is in the shape of a slide, or on the stage of an overhead projector by setting up a simple galvanic cell. Corrosion occurs as the result of a galvanic cell reaction, in which the corroding metal acts as the anode. Several simple demonstrations relating to corrosion are described here.
Tejada, Silvia; Guevara, Estela; Olivares, Esperanza. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 747.
Electrochemistry |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Applications of Chemistry
Why Do Alcoholic Beverages Have "Legs"?  Todd P. Silverstein
After a sip of wine, "legs" of liquid typically run up and down the inside of the glass for many minutes. This phenomenon stems from the dipole-dipole intermolecular forces that are so important in understanding the physical behavior of aqueous solutions.
Silverstein, Todd P. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 723.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Learning Theories |
Alcohols |
Hydrogen Bonding
A Simple Organic Microscale Experiment Illustrating the Equilibrium Aspect of the Aldol Condensation  Ernest A. Harrison Jr.
A simple microscale experiment has been developed that illustrates the equilibrium aspect of the aldol condensation by using two versions of the standard preparation of tetraphenylcyclopentadienone from benzil and 1,3-diphenyl- 2-propanone.
Harrison, Ernest A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 636.
Equilibrium |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Cinnamaldehyde by Steam Distillation of Cinnamon  Douglass F. Taber and Andrew J. Weiss
Powdered cinnamon foams badly on attempted steam distillation. It has been demonstrated that preliminary iterative evacuation of the aqueous mixture allows smooth distillation of cinnamaldehyde (I).
Taber, Douglass F.; Weiss, Andrew J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 633.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds
Demonstration Explosion  Lee, Charles "Skip"
A glass carboy containing methanol explodes.
Lee, Charles "Skip" J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 543.
Alcohols
Demonstration Explosion  Charles "Skip" Lee
A glass carboy containing methanol explodes.
Lee, Charles "Skip". J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 543.
Alcohols
The Chemical Adventures of Sherlock Holmes: The Baker Street Burning  Thomas G. Waddell and Thomas R. Rybolt
A chemical mystery featuring Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson.
Thomas G. Waddell and Thomas R. Rybolt. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 484.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Forensic Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alcohols |
Dyes / Pigments
An Aldehyde Derivative  J. Hodge Markgraf and Bo Yoon Choi
A system in which aldehydes are condensed with 1,2-benzenedimethylthiol in the presence of anhydrous ferric chloride on silica gel to give 3-substituted 1,5-dihyhdro-2,4-benzodithiepines. Melting points of the derivatives were taken as a means of identification of unknown compounds.
Markgraf, J. Hodge; Choi, Bo Yoon. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 222.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Synthesis
Nucleophilic Addition vs. Substituion: A Puzzle for the Organic Laboratory  Ernest F. Silversmith
The chemistry of beta-carbonyl compounds is studied. Beta-carbonyl compounds react with hydrazines to give products with a 5-membered ring containing two nitrogens. The experiment makes students determine whether ethyl 2-acetyl-3-oxobutanoate reacts like a beta-diketone or like a beta-keto ester.
Silversmith, Ernest F. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 221.
Learning Theories |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Grignard Synthesis of Various Tertiary Alcohols  T. Stephen Everett
A general Grignard procedure is presented for the synthesis of aliphatic, tertiary alcohols containing six to nine carbons. Without revealing the specific starting materials, students are challenged to identify their unknown products from physical (boiling points, refractive indices) and spectral (infrared O-H, C-H and fingerprint regions) data.
Everett, T. Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 86.
IR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis
A Grignard-like Organic Reaction in Water  Gary W. Breton and Christine A. Hughey
A known Grignard-like reaction between allyl bromide and benzaldehyde mediated by zinc metal in aqueous media. The procedure retains the desirable features of the traditional Grignard reaction, while eliminating some of the commonly encountered difficulties.
Breton, Gary W.; Hughey, Christine A. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 85.
Microscale Lab |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The Diels-Alder Reaction of 2,4-Hexadien-1-ol with Maleic Anhydride: A Novel Preparation for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Course  Keith F. McDaniel and R. Matthew Weekly
The reaction of 2,4-hexadien-1-ol with maleic anhydride provides an excellent exercise for undergraduate laboratory courses. In addition to the expected Diels-Alder reaction, which takes place readily in refluxing toluene, subsequent intramolecular cleavage of the resulting bicyclic anhydride by the pendant hydroxy group generates a lactone. Thus, two important organic reactions can be carried out in a single laboratory session.
McDaniel, Keith F.; Weekley, R. Matthew. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1465.
Synthesis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alcohols
Acetone and Ethyl Acetate in Commercial Nail Polish Removers: A Quantitative NMR Experiment Using an Internal Standard  David W. Clarke
The qualitative and quantitative analysis of commercial nail polish removers is performed on a 60 MHz NMR spectrometer. After taking NMR spectra of the polish removers, students can make peak assignments for the known components of acetone and ethyl acetate. Using these spectra, students are also able to identify the unknown alcohol present in the remover as ethanol.
Clarke, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1464.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Kinetics of p-Nitrophenol Degradation by Pseudomonas sp.: An Experiment Illustrating Bioremediation  Michelle H. Duong, Samuel L. Penrod, and Stanley B. Grant
This paper describes a simple experiment illustrating bioremediation which is well suited for undergraduate classes in environmental chemistry, microbiology, or engineering.
Duong, Michelle H.; Penrod, Samuel L.; Grant, Stanley B. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1451.
Biotechnology |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry
Laboratory Experiments on Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 2: Microscale Indirect Electrolytic Destruction of Organic Wastes  Jorge G. Ibanez, M. M. Singh, R. M. Pike, and Z. Szafran
The objective of this experiment is to destroy, at the microscale level, a sample of surrogate organic waste by generating a powerful oxidizer at the anode of an electrochemical cell. This generated species oxidizes the waste to harmless products. The oxidizer can then be regenerated and recycled.
Ibanez, Jorge G.; Singh M. M.; Pike, R. M.; Szafran, Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1449.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Microscale Lab |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Applications of Chemistry
Acid Rain Demonstration: The Formation of Nitrogen Oxides as a By-Product of High-Temperature Flames in Connection with Internal Combustion Engines  Jerry A. Driscoll
This demonstration illustrates the formation of nitrogen oxides resulting from a high temperature flame.
Driscoll, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1424.
Equilibrium |
Learning Theories |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Using Mathematica and Maple To Obtain Chemical Equations  William R. Smith and Ronald W. Missen
A straightforward stepwise procedure is described for each of Mathematica and Maple, applicable to systems of any complexity. The procedures are illustrated by two examples, one for a "difficult" redox system, and the other for a multi-equation inorganic system.
Smith, William R.; Missen, Ronald W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1369.
Stoichiometry |
Learning Theories |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
Redox Balancing without Puzzling  Marten J. ten Hoor
Once it has been established by experiment that the given reactants can indeed be converted into the given products, chemistry has done its job. Balancing the equation of the reaction is a matter of mathematics only.
ten Hoor, Marten J. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1367.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Letter to the Editor about Letter to the Editor "Redox Challenges" from David M. Hart and Response from Roland Stout (J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A226-7)  Andrzej Sobkowiak
Examples of a variety of redox equations.
Sobkowiak, Andrzej. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1256.
Stoichiometry |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Determination of Formaldehyde in Cigarette Smoke  Jon W. Wong, Kenley K. Ngim, Jason P. Eiserich, Helen C. H. Yeo, Takayuki Shibamoto, and Scott A. Mabury
This experiment involves the collection, derivatization, extraction, and analysis of formaldehyde from cigarette smoke using two methods. Formaldehyde is extracted from smoke and derivitized with a solution of 2,4-DNPH with subsequent cleanup by solid-phase extraction and analysis of the hydrazone by HPLC with UV detection; additionally a solution of cysteamine yields the corresponding thiazolidine derivative that is liquid/liquid extracted and subsequently analyzed by either GC with NPD or FPD (sulfur mode).
Wong, Jon W.; Ngim, Kenley K.; Eiserich, Jason P.; Yeo, Helen C. H.; Shibamoto, Takayuki; Mabury, Scott A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1100.
Learning Theories |
Chromatography |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Applications of Chemistry
Microscale Dehydration of Cyclohexanol Using a Macroreticular Cation Exchange Resin as Catalyst  Harriet P. Moeur, Sharon A. Swatik, and Robert P. Pinnell
In this experiment, cyclohexanol is dehydrated to cyclohexene using Amberlyst 15 macroreticular resin as an acid catalyst. The procedure is carried out with partners, one student using phosphoric acid-sulfuric acid catalyst, the other student using the resin. Yields and ease of manipulation between the two options are compared.
Moeur, Harriet P.; Swatik, Sharon A. ; Pinnell, Robert P. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 833.
Microscale Lab |
Alcohols |
Catalysis
Free Radical Reactions in Aqueous Solutions: Examples from Advanced Oxidation Processes for Wastewater from the Chemistry in Airborne Water Droplets  N. Colin Baird
A common free radical reaction in aqueous solution is electron transfer, especially to the hydroxyl radical and to ozone. Hydrogen peroxide and free radicals related to it act as weak acids, so both their neutral and deprotonated forms must be considered in reactions. Free radical reactions also play an important role in the chemistry of water droplets suspended in air in clouds and fogs.
Baird, N. Colin. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 817.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Free Radicals |
Reactive Intermediates |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction
Old MacDonald Named a Compound: Branched Enynenynols  Dennis Ryan
An imaginary teacher of organic chemistry thinks up some whimsical compounds for his students to name using IUPAC nomenclature rules.
Ryan, Dennis. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 782.
Learning Theories |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Alcohols |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Double Redox Reactions
The authors reply:
  Claudio Giomini, Giancarlo Marrosu, and Mario E. Cardinali
Balancing redox equations.
Giomini, Claudio; Marrosu, Giancarlo; Cardinali, Mario E. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 744.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry
Double Redox Reactions  Zoltán Tóth
Balancing redox equations.
Tóth, Zoltán. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 744.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry
An Analysis of the Algebraic Method for Balancing Chemical Reactions  John A. Olson
A new aspect of this treatment is the mathematical formulation of a third condition involving a balance between oxidation and reduction. The treatment begins with the three general conditions that a balanced chemical reaction must satisfy. These conditions are then expressed in mathematical form that enables the stoichiometric coefficients to be determined.
Olson, John A. . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 538.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry
Valency  Peter G. Nelson
The concept of valency is refined and developed. Three types of valency are distinguished : primary or classical, coordinate, and nonclassical. The first relates to simple compounds and to the components of multiple ones, the second to coordination compounds, and the third to transition-metal carbonyls and similar species. Each type is defined, evaluated, and applied to the prediction of the atomic composition of compounds.
Nelson, Peter G. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 465.
Valence Bond Theory |
Coordination Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction
Catalytic Transfer Hydogenation Reactions for Undergraduate Practical Programs  R. W. Hanson
A brief review of catalytic transfer hydrogenation (CTH) reactions is given. Attention is drawn, particularly, to the utility of ammonium formate as the hydrogen donor in this type of reaction.
Hanson, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 430.
Catalysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Microburger Biochemistry: Extraction and Spectral Characterization of Myoglyobin from Hamburger  Sheri A. Bylkas and Laura A. Andersson
The protocol combines protein extraction, oxidation and reduction, and simple spectroscopic analysis, as well as gel filtration chromatography and generation/analysis of spectral scans. Mammalian myoglobin (Mb) is easily extracted from steak, to illustrate and address why fresh meat is red and aged meat is brown; the protein has unique spectral properties that are diagnostic for characterization of sample identity.
Bylkas, Sheri A.; Andersson, Laura A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 426.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Proteins / Peptides |
Oxidation / Reduction |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Chromatography
Identification of Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Alcohols: An Experiment in Spectrophotometry, Organic Chemistry, and Analytical Chemistry  I. A. Leenson
A simple method is presented that enables students to distinguish in a few minutes between primary, secondary and tertiary alkyl alcohols. This method is based on peculiarities of absorption spectra in the near-UV region of alkyl nitrites, the products of alcohol nitrosation.
Leenson, I. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 424.
Alcohols |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
The TCICA Test for Distinguishing Primary and Secondary Alcohols  Gene A. Hiegel and Afshin K. Chaharmohal
Simple primary and secondary alcohols can easily be distinguished by their rate of oxidation with trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCICA). The TCICA test is conducted by adding the unknown to a solution of TCICA in acetonitrile containing hydrochloric acid and measuring the time for a precipitate to form. Primary alcohols react slowly and secondary alcohols react rapidly.
Hiegel, Gene A.; Chaharmohal, Afshin K. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 423.
Alcohols |
Molecular Properties / Structure
An Experiment to Demonstrate Magnetic Nonequivalence in Proton NMR  Christopher J. Welch
The bicyclic compound, 3a,6a-diethoxycarbonyl-2,5-dimethyl-1,4-dioxo-octahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole, prepared by a literature procedure is used to demonstrate magnetic nonequivalence for methylene protons in the proton NMR experiment.
Welch, Christopher J. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 247.
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Aldehydes / Ketones
A -78°C Sequential Michael Addition for the Organic Lab  Michael W. Tanis
This paper introduces a cold-temperature enolate alkylation reaction that can be performed safely and inexpensively by undergraduate students in approximately two 3-hour lab sessions.
Tanis, Michael W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 112.
Addition Reactions |
Alkenes |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Synthesis
Reduction of Carboxylic Acids with Sodium Borohydride and an Electrophile  Jan William Simek, Thad Tuck, and Kelly Courter Bush
Integration of new reduction conditions into a procedure applicable to the first-year organic chemistry laboratory, where reduction of the carboxylic acid group has remained an obstacle, notwithstanding the use of borane or LiAlH4 (2) on the microscale. The NaBH4 method with either electrophile can be modified to any scale; in our hands, the use of I2 as the electrophile performed better at the semimicro scale than the H2SO4 method.
Simek, Jan William; Tuck, Thad; Bush, Kelly Courter . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 107.
Carboxylic Acids |
Aromatic Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction
The Acid Catalyzed Dehydration of an Isomeric 2-Methylcyclohexanol Mixture: A Kinetic and Regiochemical Study of the Evelyn Effect  John J. Cawley and Patrick E. Linder
This paper details an experiment which serves as an introduction to organic laboratory research. The reaction is the dehydration of a cis, trans mixture of 2-methylcyclohexanols. At intervals of times the reactant mixture is sampled for the cis and trans reactants. At those same intervals of times the receiver flasks of product cyclohexanes being collected are changed, such that sequential fractions of material are obtained.
Cawley, John J.; Linder, Patrick E. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 102.
Catalysis |
Kinetics |
Alcohols |
Stereochemistry
Understanding Oxidation - Reduction in Organic Chemistry  Jean-Pierre Anselme
Explanation of oxidation and reduction as applied to organic chemistry.
Anselme, Jean-Pierre. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 69.
Oxidation / Reduction
Following Microscale Organic Reactions Using FT-IR  Ems-Wilson, Janice
The progress of two microscale reactions, the reduction of cyclohexanone with sodium borohydride and the photochemical formation of benzopinacol, was monitored, qualitatively, using FT-IR.
Ems-Wilson, Janice J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A171.
Microscale Lab |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
IR Spectroscopy
Following Microscale Organic Reactions Using FT-IR  Janice Ems-Wilson
This article describes an experiment that encourages discussion of carbohydrate chemistry in terms of reaction mechanisms, conformational analysis, and spectroscopy. The specific experiment involves the preparation of the bis(acetonide) of D-(+)-mannose.
Ems-Wilson, Janice. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A170.
Microscale Lab |
Carbohydrates |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Conformational Analysis |
Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols
Carbonyl and Conjugate Additions to Cyclohexenone: Experiments Illustrating Reagent Selectivity  Michael G. Organ and Paul Anderson
Undergraduate students leaving an organic chemistry program should have exposure to these concepts and hands-on experience in dealing practically with the issue of selectivity. In this paper, selective addition of a nucleophile to either end of the enone moiety in cyclohexenone is examined.
Organ, Michael G.; Anderson, Paul. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1193.
Addition Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Mechanisms of Reactions
An Organoleptic Laboratory Experiment  John M. Risley
Compounds in ten different classes of organic molecules that are used in the fragrance and food industry are provided to students. Students whiff the vapors of each compound and describe the organoleptic properties using a set of terms utilized in the fragrance and food industry. A set of questions guides students to an understanding of the relationship between structure of molecules and smell.
Risley, John M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1181.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Consumer Chemistry |
Physical Properties |
Nonmajor Courses |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters |
Ethers |
Phenols
Mini-scale Oxidation/Reduction in Organic Laboratory Course: 4-Nitrobenzaldehyde/ 4-Nitrobenzyl Alcohol  Douglass F. Taber, Yanong Wang, Sebastian Liehr
Oxidation of an alcohol to the aldehyde or ketone, and corresponding reduction back to the alcohol, are two of the most common transformations of preparative organic chemistry. We have found a much more satisfactory combination in 4-nitrobenzyl alcohol and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde: both are crystalline, neither is volatile, and both are strongly UV-absorbing, so they visualize well on TLC.
Taber, Douglass F.; Wang, Yanong; Liehr, Sebastian. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1042.
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation State |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds
A Student-Designed Potentiometric Titration: Quantitative Determination of Iron(II) by Caro's Acid Titration  Joyce R. Powell, Sheryl A. Tucker, William E. Acree Jr., Jennifer A. Sees, Lindsey H. Hall
A laboratory experiment involving the feasibility of using Caro's acid, H2SO5, as a titrant in the potentiometric determination of iron(II) is presented.
Powell, Joyce R.; Tucker, Sheryl A.; Acree Jr., William E.; Sees, Jennifer A.; Hall, Lindsey H. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 984.
Potentiometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis
A Simple Method for Determining the Temperature Coefficient of Voltaic Cell Voltage  Alfred E. Saieed, Keith M. Davies
This article describes a relatively simple method for preparing voltaic cells, and through their temperature coefficient, ?E/?T, it explores relationships between ?G, ?H,and ?S for the cell reactions involved.
Saieed, Alfred E.; Davies, Keith M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 959.
Electrochemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Mnemonic for the Inositols   Terence J. Painter
The mnemonic derives from the mythical tale of Scylla and Charybdis in Homer's Odyssey. It takes the form of an imaginary headline in a newspaper: SCYLLA MEETS CHARYBDIS - EPIC NEWS MUCH ALARMS SICILY.
Painter, Terence J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 949.
Alcohols
Epoxidation of Alpha-Methylstyrene and its Lewis Acid Rearrangement to 2-Phenylpropanal  David L. Garin, Melissa Gamber, and Bradley J. Rowe
This undergraduate organic lab experiment includes procedures for the peracid epoxidation of an olefin and the Lewis acid rearrangement of an epoxide to a carbonyl compound.
Garin, David L.; Gamber, Melissa; Rowe, Bradley J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 555.
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Improved End Point Detection in the Redox Titration of Vitamin C in Green Peppers  S. Todd Deal and Sandi R. Pope
We have used E. R. Johnson's "infamous pepper lab" (titrimetric determination of vitamin C content in raw and cooked green peppers) in our introductory biochemistry course for years with varying success. Our solution to the problem discussed in this article has proven to be remarkably simple.
Deal, S. Todd; Pope, Sandi R. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 547.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Food Science
The Esterification of Trifluoroacetic Acid: A Variable Temperature NMR Kinetics Study  Thomas N. Gallaher, David A. Gaul, and Serge Schreiner
This paper describes an addition to a previously published experiment in which NMR is used to follow the kinetics of the reaction of trifluoroacetic acid with alcohols. A variable temperature accessory is used to determine the energy of activation and reaction order with respect to the alcohol concentration.
Gallaher, Thomas N.; Gaul, David A.; Schreiner, Serge. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 465.
Kinetics |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Esters
Bacterial Toxicity Assessment Using Resazurin Reduction Kinetics: An Undergraduate Toxicity Experiment for the Chemistry-Biology Major  S. Helliwell and T. J. Harden
An undergraduate toxicity experiment is described using the redox indicator resazurin as an indicator of dehydrogenase activity. Two types of bacteria are utilized, the Gram positive Streptococcus cremoris and a Gram negative bacterium, Escherichia coli, to demonstrate the potentially different toxicological responses to the same chemical.
Helliwell, S.; Harden, T. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 368.
Toxicology |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Kinetics
A Mixed Aldol Condensation-Michael Addition Experiment  Thomas P. Clausen, Beverly Johnson, and Jim Wood
This article describes the analysis of the recrystallized products of a mixed aldol condensation between symmetrical ketones and aromatic aldehydes.
Clausen, Thomas P.; Johnson, Beverly; Wood, Jim. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 266.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The Mechanism of NaBH4 Addition to Aldehydes: A Labeling Experiment  Rolland K. Robinson and Karl De Jesus
In order to determine the sources of hydrogens in NaBH4 reductions of aldehydes, a series of reductions were carried out using differentially deuterated reagents and solvents.
Robinson, Rolland K.; De Jesus, Karl. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 264.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction
Experimental Illustration of the Utility of Lewis Structures: An FTIR Experiment for Introductory Chemistry  James E. Swartz and Kurt Schladetzky
An experiment is described in which students record the FTIR spectra of a series of organic liquids which contain a carbonyl group and to predict the strength of the carbonyl bonds based upon drawing and examination of various Lewis structures.
Swartz, James E.; Schladetzky, Kurt. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 188.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Lewis Structures
Fundamental Issues of Thermodynamics Illuminated by Conspicuous Inorganic Chemistry: Oxidation of [Co(H2O)6]2+ to [Co(H2O)6]3+ by Hydrogen Peroxide: A Nonspontaneous Redox Reaction Made Feasible by Thermodynamic Coupling  Susan Cline Schäffer and Claus E. Schäffer
The thermodynamic properties of hydrogen peroxide as an oxidizing agent do not allow it to oxidize [Co(OH2)6]2+ to [Co(OH2)6]3+. However, if [Co(OH2)6]3+ is formed in two steps, hydrogen peroxide is able to do it.
Schäffer, Susan Cline; Schäffer, Claus E. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 180.
Thermodynamics |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Commercial Device Involving the Breathalyzer Test Reaction  Kathleen J. Dombrink
The breathalyzer test, formerly used by law-enforcement agencies to determine the percentage blood alcohol in suspected DUI cases, is still used in the device FINAL CALL, which is available commercially. The reaction involves the reduction of chromuim(VI) in the orange dichromate ion, Cr2O72- to the green chromium(III) ion, Cr3+ by ethyl alcohol.
Dombrink, Kathleen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 135.
Applications of Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Enzymatic Resolution of (+/-)-Menthol Using Transesterification with Methyl (2R)-(+)-2-Chloropropanoate: A Biocatalyzed Reaction Studied by NMR Spectroscopy and Polarimetry for an Advanced Undergraduate Project in Modern Organic Chemistry  C. Poiré, C. Rabiller, C. Chon, and P. Hudhomme
Lipase from Candida rugosa is used as an efficient biocatalyst for the kinetic resolution of (+/-)-Menthol. Methyl (2R)-(+)-2-chloropropanoate is chosen as an acyl donor for the transesterification reaction of menthol.
Poiré, C.; Rabiller, C.; Chon, C.; Hudhomme, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 93.
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Alcohols |
Catalysis |
Enzymes |
NMR Spectroscopy
Phase Transfer Catalysis Applied to Oxidation  Claude Amsterdamsky
Benzhydrol and cycloheptanol have been oxidized to ketones using commercial bleach as oxidizer and tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate as a phase transfer catalyst.
Amsterdamsky, Claude. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 92.
Alcohols |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Catalysis
An Efficient Microscale Procedure for the Preparation of 3,5-Dinitrobenzoates  Richard F. Smith and Gaetano M. Cristalli
A laboratory to introduce the concept and technique of mass spectroscopy to introductory organic students; sample data and analysis included.
Smith, Richard F.; Cristalli, Gaetano M. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A160.
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis |
Microscale Lab
Monitoring Oxidation of Bromocresol Green with a Diode Laser: A General Chemistry IBM Personal Science Laboratory (PSL) Experiment  Zimmer, John; Reeves, James; Jones, Rebecca; Cizerle, Kirk; Ward, Dick
Procedure for monitoring the oxidation of bromocresol green using a diode laser and a radiometric probe; includes data and analysis.
Zimmer, John; Reeves, James; Jones, Rebecca; Cizerle, Kirk; Ward, Dick J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A118.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Spectroscopy |
Kinetics |
Lasers
Discovery-Based Microscale Catalytic Decarbonylation of Aldehydes  Pearsall, Mary-Ann; Rosen, Alan M.; Conrad, Jennifer S.; Hendrickson, Carrie A.; Pacchia, Ann Marie L.; Schantz, Daniel J.
Experimental procedure for decarbonylation of aldehydes by heating over a palladium/carbon catalyst.
Pearsall, Mary-Ann; Rosen, Alan M.; Conrad, Jennifer S.; Hendrickson, Carrie A.; Pacchia, Ann Marie L.; Schantz, Daniel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A29.
Synthesis |
Catalysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Microscale Lab
Baeyer-Villiger Oxidation of Indane-1-ones: Monitoring of the Reaction by VPC and IR Spectroscopy  Elie Stephan
Procedure for the Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of indane-1-ones.
Stephan, Elie. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1142.
IR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Redox Challenges: Good Times for Puzzle Fanatics  Roland Stout
Three difficult to balance redox equations.
Stout, Roland. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1125.
Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Enrichment / Review Materials
A Ternary Phase Diagram for a Less Hazardous System  Barbara A. Udale and John D. Wells
Using a n-propanol-n-heptane-water system to generate data for construction of a ternary phase diagram.
Udale, Barbara A.; Wells, John D. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1106.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Alcohols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Solutions / Solvents
"Double Unknown " Microscale Preparation and COSY Analysis of an Unknown Ester:
An Introductory 2D-NMR Experiment
  Stephen E. Branz, Robert G. Miele, Roy K. Okuda, and Daniel A. Straus
Proton NMR activity designed to highlight the power of the technique to analyze structures and not merely confirm the identity of known substances.
Branz, Stephen E.; Miele, Robert G.; Okuda, Roy K.; Straus, Daniel A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 659.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Alcohols |
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters
A Centenary Synthesis of Carone and Dicarvelone  Armstead, D. E. F.
Procedure for synthesizing carone and dicarvelone.
Armstead, D. E. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 550.
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Resistance Measurement as a Tool for Corrosion Studies  Singh, N. P.; Gupta, S. C.; Sood, B. R.
Procedure for determining the rate of corrosion by measuring changes in the resistance of a thin wire or strip of metal; sample data and analysis included.
Singh, N. P.; Gupta, S. C.; Sood, B. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 465.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Rate Law |
Reactions |
Electrochemistry
Corrosion Inhibitors for Aluminum: Student Experiments  Muller, Bodo
Investigation of the effect different chelating agents have on inhibiting the corrosion of aluminum flakes in paint (metallic basecoats).
Muller, Bodo J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 350.
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Industrial Chemistry |
Coordination Compounds
Baker's Yeast Reduction of alpha-Diketones: A Four-Hour Experiment for Undergraduate Students  Besse, Pascale; Bolte, Jean; Veschambre, Henri
Procedure for quickly and efficiently reducing alpha-diketones using bakers' yeast.
Besse, Pascale; Bolte, Jean; Veschambre, Henri J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 277.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Preparation of (S)-(+)-5,8a-Dimethyl-3,4,8,8a-tetrahydro-1,6(2H,7H)-naphthalenedione: An Undergraduate Experiment in Asymmetric Synthesis  Markgraf, J. Hodge; Fei, John F.; Ruckman, Robert E.
An asymmetric Robinson annelation suitable for the undergraduate organic laboratory.
Markgraf, J. Hodge; Fei, John F.; Ruckman, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 270.
Synthesis |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Hydrogen-Bonding Equilibrium in Phenol Analyzed by NMR Spectroscopy  Lessinger, Leslie
Experimental procedure for determining the equilibrium constant for the hydrogen-bonding equilibrium of phenol in carbon tetrachloride solution; data and analysis included.
Lessinger, Leslie J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 85.
Equilibrium |
Noncovalent Interactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alcohols
The Distribution of Cyclohexanone between Cyclohexane and Water  Worley, John D.
A microscale experiment that may be used to demonstrate extraction, spectrophotometric analysis, and the determination of a distribution constant.
Worley, John D. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A145.
Microscale Lab |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Separation Science |
Spectroscopy
A More Affordable Undergraduate Experiment on the Reduction of Acetophenone by Yeast  Lee, Moses; Huntington, Martha
Preparation of Mosher's esters through the reduction of acetophenone with baker's yeast.
Lee, Moses; Huntington, Martha J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A62.
Microscale Lab |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stereochemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Esters |
Synthesis
Synthesis and Spectroscopic Study of Plant Growth Regulators Phenylpyridylureas: An "Agrorganic" Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment  Hocquet, Alexandre; Tohier, Jacques; Fournier, Josette
This lab could represent an undergraduate comparative synthesis and analysis of biologically active molecules, suitable for an introductory lab session.
Hocquet, Alexandre; Tohier, Jacques; Fournier, Josette J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1092.
Agricultural Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds |
Synthesis
A Simple and Safe Catalytic Hydrogenation of 4-Vinylbenzoic Acid  De, Shantanu; Gambhir, Geetu; Krishnamurty, H. G.
An alternative procedure to catalytic hydrogenation is catalytic transfer hydrogenation. In this technique, the reduction of an organic compound is achieved with the aid of a donor substance in the presence of a catalyst.
De, Shantanu; Gambhir, Geetu; Krishnamurty, H. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 992.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes
A Fascinating Demonstration of Sulfite Induced Redox Cycling of Metal Ions Initiated by Shaking  Coichev, Nina; van Eldik, Rudi
A complete redox cycle with the net oxidation of sulfite and reduction of oxygen.
Coichev, Nina; van Eldik, Rudi J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 767.
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction
Vanadium Ions as Visible Electron Carriers in a Redox System  Bare, William D.; Resto, Wilfredo
Demonstration using a column to display the four, differently colored, oxidation states of vanadium simultaneously.
Bare, William D.; Resto, Wilfredo J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 692.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Oxidation State
Acid-Base Titration Curves in Disproportionating Redox Systems  Michalowski, Tadeusz; Lesiak, Andrzej
Titrations for disproportioning systems with two bromine compounds (Br2 and HBrO) and iodine (I2) as examples.
Michalowski, Tadeusz; Lesiak, Andrzej J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 632.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis
Photometric Determination of the Rate Expression for MnO4- Mediated Organic Oxidations  Crouch, R. David
Photometric procedure for studying the kinetics of the MnO4- mediated oxidation of mandelic acid in KOH.
Crouch, R. David J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 597.
Rate Law |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Photochemistry |
Kinetics
Chemical Magic: Polymers from a Nonexistent Monomer  Seymour, Raymond B.; Kauffman, George B.
Synthesis, properties, and applications of polyvinyl alcohol and related polymers.
Seymour, Raymond B.; Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 582.
Polymerization |
Alcohols
Calculation of pH and Potential E for Bromine Aqueous Solution  Michalowski, Tadeusz
The electron prebalance concept applied to the pH calculation of an aqueous solution of Br2 (bromine water) as an example.
Michalowski, Tadeusz J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 560.
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
The Hydration of 1-Hexene and 1-Hexyne  Touchette, Kim M.; Weiss, Hilton M.; Rozenberg, Daniel
The sulfuric acid-catalyzed hydration of 1-hexene and 1-hexyne.
Touchette, Kim M.; Weiss, Hilton M.; Rozenberg, Daniel J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 534.
Alkynes |
Alkenes |
Alcohols |
Catalysis |
Synthesis
A Warning for Frost Diagrams Users  Martinez de llarduya, Jesus M.; Villafane, Fernando
How the use of the correct diagram prevents wrong conclusions, and how some predictions depend on the use of each type of basic-solution diagram.
Martinez de llarduya, Jesus M.; Villafane, Fernando J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 480.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The Dehydration of 2-Methylcyclohexanol Revisited: The Evelyn Effect  Todd, David
Modification to an earlier procedure that allows students to observe the results of a hydride shift mechanism.
Todd, David J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 440.
Alcohols |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Gas Chromatography |
Alkenes |
Elimination Reactions
A Handy Reagent for Testing the Reducing Power of Sugars  Sandell, Arvid
Using the reduction of copper(II) as a semi-quantitative test for reducing sugars.
Sandell, Arvid J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 346.
Carbohydrates |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Coordination Compounds
Pyrotechnic Reactions Without Oxygen  Wright, Stephen W.
Reaction of K3FeF6 with Al and poly(tetrafluoroethylene) with Mg.
Wright, Stephen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 251.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
The Blue Bottle Experiment Revisited: How Blue? How Sweet?  Cook, A. Gilbert; Tolliver, Randi M.; Williams, Janelle E.
Determining whether other colors and carbohydrates are possible with the "Blue Bottle" reaction.
Cook, A. Gilbert; Tolliver, Randi M.; Williams, Janelle E. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 160.
Aromatic Compounds |
Reactions |
Rate Law |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Carbohydrates |
Oxidation / Reduction
Classroom Demonstration of Chromium(VI)/Chromium(III) in the Breathalyzer Test Reaction  Jones, Rebecca B.; Dreisbach, Joseph H.
Demonstrating the breathalyzer reaction.
Jones, Rebecca B.; Dreisbach, Joseph H. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 158.
Nonmajor Courses |
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction
Conversion Reactions in Inorganic Chemistry  Habashi, Fathi.
Liberation of metals from their sulfides through reaction with oxygen.
Habashi, Fathi. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 130.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Models of 2-Butanone: Using Graphics To Illustrate Complementary Approaches to Molecular Structure and Reactivity  Hanks, T. W.
157. Ways in which a graphics workstation can be used to illustrate various concepts of molecular structure.
Hanks, T. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 62.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Stereochemistry |
Quantum Chemistry |
MO Theory
The stereochemistry of commercial 2,6-dimethylcyclohexanone: An application of capillary gas chromatography   Garner, Charles M.
One example of how capillary gas chromatography can be employed in undergraduate organic laboratories.
Garner, Charles M. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A310.
Gas Chromatography |
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Diastereomers |
Stereochemistry
Separation of methylene blue and fluorescein: A microscale undergraduate experiment in column chromatography   Svoronos, Paris; Sarlo, Edward
A simple microscale column chromatography experiment that offers a student-friendly introduction to the procedure.
Svoronos, Paris; Sarlo, Edward J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A158.
Chromatography |
Alcohols |
Microscale Lab
Microscale yeast mediated enantiospecific reduction of vanillin, and the absolute configuration of (-)-(R)-[alpha]-deuteriovanillyl alcohol: A bioorganic chemistry experiment   Lee, Moses
An experiment is introduced to a sophomore chemistry course that demonstrates the effeciency and enantiospecificity of microbial/enzyme-mediated reactions and the use of NMR methods in determining the optical activity and absolute configuration of chiral alcohols.
Lee, Moses J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A155.
Enantiomers |
Alcohols |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab
GC/MS experiments for the organic chemistry laboratory: I. E2 elimination of 2-bromo-2-methyloctane   Novak, Michael; Heinrich, Julie; Martin, Kristy A.; Green, John; Lytle, Scott
Two capillary GC/MS experiments that were designed for and tested in a sophomore organic laboratory course.
Novak, Michael; Heinrich, Julie; Martin, Kristy A.; Green, John; Lytle, Scott J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A103.
Gas Chromatography |
Alkenes |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alcohols |
Elimination Reactions |
Synthesis
A kinetic study of the isomerization of eugenol: The quantitative use of NMR, GC, and HPLC in a single organic laboratory experiment that demonstrates alternative approaches to solving a problem   Peterson, Thomas H.; Bryan, James H.; Keevil, Thomas A.
Description of an experiment that allows students to be aware that there is often more than one approach to designing an experiment,and that the quality of the experimental results often depend on the proper choice of instrument(s).
Peterson, Thomas H.; Bryan, James H.; Keevil, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A96.
Aromatic Compounds |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Kinetics
Climbing a potential ladder to understanding concepts in electrochemistry  Runo, James R.; Peters, Dennis G.
An introduction of a unified approach that makes use of a potential latter in order to assist students in overcoming and clarifying the problems encountered when learning electrochemistry.
Runo, James R.; Peters, Dennis G. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 708.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Products of aldol addition and related reactions: Notation for their prediction  Nwaukwai, Stephen O.
A simple method that can be used to predict products of aldols and aldol-tye addition reactions.
Nwaukwai, Stephen O. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 626.
Addition Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Liquid chromatographic determination of malic and lactic acids in wine following malolactic fermentation  Brogley, John; Mullick, Joydip; Quigley, Michael N.
This lab takes advantage of wine's unique position in society to invite students to participate in an engaging actvity.
Brogley, John; Mullick, Joydip; Quigley, Michael N. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 507.
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
Acids / Bases |
Chromatography |
Quantitative Analysis |
Alcohols |
Applications of Chemistry
Kinetics of the reaction of p-nitrobenzyl chloride with cyanide ion: An undergraduate organic chemistry experiment  Hurst, Michael O.; Hill, John W.
The title reaction is used to develop an undergraduate organic kinetics experiment in which the student determines the order and rate constant of the reaction, as well as the effect of solvent upon the rate of the reaction.
Hurst, Michael O.; Hill, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 429.
Reactions |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alcohols |
Solutions / Solvents |
Organosulfur Compounds
Is This Reaction a Substitution, Oxidation-Reduction, or Transfer?  Imyanitov, Naum S.
Author argues that separation of chemical reaction types based on convention do not always follow objective and consistent rules. This leads to confusion among students and artificial borders within the various sub-disciplines in chemistry.
Imyanitov, Naum S. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 14.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Microscale elimination reactions: Experiments for organic chemistry using the small scale approach  Gilow, Helmuth M.
Procedure illustrating E1 and E2 reactions.
Gilow, Helmuth M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A265.
Microscale Lab |
Reactions |
Elimination Reactions |
Alcohols |
Alkenes |
Catalysis
The microscale synthesis and the structure determination of endo-9-methoxycarbonyl-3-oxatricyclo[4,2,1,0 4,5]-2-nonanone.  Lee, Moses.
The microscale synthesis and the structure determination of endo-9-methoxycarbonyl-3-oxatricyclo[4,2,1,0 4,5]-2-nonanone.
Lee, Moses. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A172.
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods
Microscale reactions of vanillin   Fowler, Rosemary G.
In this paper five microscale experiments which allow first-year organic student sot study the properties and reactions of vanillin are presented.
Fowler, Rosemary G. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A43.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds |
Phenols |
Microscale Lab |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
Preparing and purifying 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones: Alternatives to the Brady procedure  Zhang, Juan; Hertzler, Russell L.; Eisenbraun, E. J.
Problems with and an alternative to the Brady procedure for preparing 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone; using a sulfonic acid ion-exchange resin in refluxing toluene.
Zhang, Juan; Hertzler, Russell L.; Eisenbraun, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1037.
Synthesis |
Catalysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Synthesis of a heteropolytungstate and its use in outer-sphere redox kinetics  Walmsley, Frank
An inorganic chemistry experiment has been developed combining two topics usually included in inorganic chemistry: heteropoly ions and mechanisms of oxidation-reduction reactions of transition metal ions.
Walmsley, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 936.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Kinetics |
Synthesis |
Coordination Compounds
A more environmentally acceptable determination of iron in an ore  Byars, Jeffrey; McCreary, Terry W.
The method for titrimetric determination of iron in which zinc is used as the reactant in situ rather that as a Jones reductor, has several advantages over conventional determination of iron.
Byars, Jeffrey; McCreary, Terry W. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 935.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis
Solubility of alcohols  Corkern, Walter H.; Munchausen, Linda L.
A very visible demonstration of a gradual progression of a range of solubility, using an alcohol, a dye, and water in a petri dish.
Corkern, Walter H.; Munchausen, Linda L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 928.
Alcohols |
Precipitation / Solubility
Identification of methylcyclohexanones by NMR  Gurst, Jerome E.
Distinguishing between three isomeric methylcyclohexanones using NMR.
Gurst, Jerome E. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 774.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Diastereomers
Pinacol rearrangement of cyclopentylcyclohexane-1,1'-diol revisited.  Sands, Richard D.
Two cyclic diols are treated with ice-cold boron trifluoride etherate to make rearrangement instead of diene formation the major product.
Sands, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 667.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Estimation of blood-alcohol concentration.  Labianca, Dominick A.
This article focuses on the answers to questions regarding blood alcohol levels, including estimates of % BAC, effects of beverage type and food consumption, and biochemical considerations.
Labianca, Dominick A. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 628.
Alcohols |
Applications of Chemistry
Three methods for studying the kinetics of the halogenation of acetone.  Birk, James P.; Walters, David L.
Three methods for carrying out a kinetic study of the reaction between propanone and elemental iodine.
Birk, James P.; Walters, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 585.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Kinetics |
Spectroscopy |
Rate Law
Schiff base puzzle project.  Todd, David.
Students pick an unknown substituted aniline and a substituted benzaldehyde, produces the corresponding Schiff base from them, and compares its melting point to those of 25 possible Schiff bases (their structures and melting points being given).
Todd, David. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 584.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Corn chip aroma: A classroom demonstration on the preparation of a Schiff base  Sartori, Antony T.; Wood, William F.
Preparing 3-methylimino-2-butanone.
Sartori, Antony T.; Wood, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 572.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Synthesis |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The importance of temperature control in the preparation of phencyclone (1,3-diphenyl-2-H-cyclopenta[I]phenanthrene-2-one).  Harrison, Ernest A., Jr.
The addition of a methanolic alkali solution to the reactant mixture increases yields to 80%.
Harrison, Ernest A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 571.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Phenol and the importance of dose.  Crute, Thomas D.
Phenol is highly toxic, but the active ingredient in Chloraseptic lozenges.
Crute, Thomas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 553.
Phenols |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alcohols |
Toxicology |
Consumer Chemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry
Frost diagrams: A tool for predicting redox reactions.  Birk, James P.; Hocker, Heidi.
A HyperCard stack that provides an easily used format for making redox reaction predictions for one or two elements by comparing slopes of the lines connecting two oxidation states.
Birk, James P.; Hocker, Heidi. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 509.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
A source of isomer-drawing assignments  Kjonaas, Richard A.
A comprehensive source from which instructors can choose a wide variety of good isomer drawing examples to use as homework assignments and exam questions.
Kjonaas, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 452.
Stereochemistry |
Alcohols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Ethers |
Esters |
Alkynes
The chemical logic of life and the earth's biosphere: A simple, one-diagram outline  Ochiai, Ei-Ichiro
This diagram is intended to give a compact overall picture of the chemical logic of life and of the earth's biosphere.
Ochiai, Ei-Ichiro J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 356.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction
Algorithm for plotting titration curves (author response).  Rodrigues de Moura, Daniel.
Our model, contrary to Jackman's statement, can be applied to redox systems that are pH-dependant.
Rodrigues de Moura, Daniel. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 257.
pH |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Algorithm for plotting titration curves.  Jackman, Donald C.
de Moura's algorithm for plotting redox titration curves seems to be good for systems that are not dependent on pH or product concentration, but is not applicable to those situations that is student is more likely to encounter.
Jackman, Donald C. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 257.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH
Electrochemistry of proton-coupled redox reactions: Role of the electrode surface.  Thorp, H. Holden.
In this article examples of the effects of the surface properties on a working electrode are explored.
Thorp, H. Holden. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 250.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
pH
When the barking dog bites the hand that feeds it: A safety caution.  Worley, John D.
Plastic gloves should not be used at any point during the barking dog demonstration.
Worley, John D. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 241.
Oxidation / Reduction
A new method for the oxidation of 4-phenylurazole to 4-phenyltriazolinedione.  Mallakpour, Shadpour E.
The procedures describe the synthesis of 4-phenyl-urazole from ethyl carbazate and then the oxidation of the urazole with NO2-N2O4 to yield 4-phenyl-1,2,4-trizoline-3,5-dione.
Mallakpour, Shadpour E. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 238.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds
Enhancing interest in organic chemistry. Part I. Relating redolence in organic chemistry class.  Smith, Terrill D.
The author supplies a list of compounds that can be passed around in class for students to guess their origin from an odor.
Smith, Terrill D. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 233.
Esters |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols |
Phenols
Redox equations with an infinite number of balanced solutions  Riley, Jeremy; Richmond, Thomas G. R.
Some mathematically minded students prefer to use various algebraic methods to solve oxidation/reduction problems instead of the half-reaction method. This can lead to redox reactions in which the reactants actually yield a family of balanced equations rather than a unique solution.
Riley, Jeremy; Richmond, Thomas G. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 114.
Oxidation / Reduction
Beta-keto esters from tin(II) chloride catalyzed reactions of aldehydes with ethyl diazoacetate: An undergraduate laboratory experiment drawn from the current literature  Brockwell, Joyce C.; Holmquist, Christopher R.
This is an experimental procedure for producing longer-chain keto esters from unconjugated aldehydes on reaction with ethyl diazoacetate catalyzed by Lewis acids for use in an undergraduate laboratory.
Brockwell, Joyce C.; Holmquist, Christopher R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 68.
Catalysis |
Synthesis |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters
The bird-scarer (combustion) demo   Battino, Rubin; Arehart, James D.; Foot, Neville W.; Stott, James B.
This is a demonstration version of a device used to scare birds with loud noises occurring at regular intervals.
Battino, Rubin; Arehart, James D.; Foot, Neville W.; Stott, James B. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 64.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
A mild and convenient oxidation of alcohols: Benzoin to benzil and borneol to camphor  Straub, Thomas S.
A traditional organic chemistry laboratory poses threat to both student safety and the environment: this author provides an alternative procedure.
Straub, Thomas S. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1048.
Heterocycles |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alcohols
A novel ketone derivative  Melamedi, Dan; Pickering, Miles
The authors propose the use of thioketals as derivatives as a safer alternative that also illustrates an interesting but rarely visited corner of undergraduate organic chemistry.
Melamedi, Dan; Pickering, Miles J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1046.
Aldehydes / Ketones
The water solubility of 2-butanol: A widespread error  Alger, Donald B.
There seems to be widespread misreporting of the solubility of 2-butanol. This misreporting is an example of the importance of consulting original sources.
Alger, Donald B. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 939.
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Precipitation / Solubility
A simple preparation of 1,4-di-tert-butylbenzene without AICI3: An undergraduate organic chemistry experiment  Castrillon, Jose
Alkylation of benzene with tert-butyl chloride and aluminum chloride has been very popular in first year organic chemistry courses, but it releases HCl gas fumes. This problem has lead to a replacement preparation using tert-butyl acetate, which provides better yield and eliminated the fumes.
Castrillon, Jose J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 793.
Alkylation |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alcohols |
Microscale Lab
A study of the Lucas test  Kjonaas, Richard A.; Riedford, Bernie A.
These authors performed the Lucas test on a number of alcohols and discuss the problems associated with the Lucas test's detection of secondary alcohols.
Kjonaas, Richard A.; Riedford, Bernie A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 704.
Alcohols |
Qualitative Analysis
Synthetic applications of aromatic metabolites  Armstead, D. E. F.
A sequel lab to clove oil extraction.
Armstead, D. E. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 698.
Aromatic Compounds |
Alcohols |
Natural Products |
Synthesis
Hydroboration-oxidation of (1R)-(+)-alpha-pinene to isopinocampheol: A microscale experiment that displays regio- and stereochemistry using NMR spectroscopy and molecular mechanics calculations  Blankespoor, Ronald L.; Piers, Kenneth
The hydroboration-oxidation of alkenes is an important route to alcohols and therefore receives considerable treatment in standard organic textbooks. These authors present their findings of an example (an alkene that undergoes the hydroboration oxidation process) that displays both regiochemistry and stereochemistry.
Blankespoor, Ronald L.; Piers, Kenneth J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 693.
Alkenes |
Oxidation / Reduction |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols
The malonic ester synthesis in the undergraduate laboratory  Hoogenboom, Bernard E.; Ihrig, Phillip J.; Langsjoen, Arne N.; Linn, Carol J.; Mulder, Stephen D.
The versatile reactions of diethyl malonate represent an important lecture topic in introductory organic courses, but are only rarely performed in the lab because of several problems associated with performing these reactions. These authors present a lab the circumvents some of the typical problems.
Hoogenboom, Bernard E.; Ihrig, Phillip J.; Langsjoen, Arne N.; Linn, Carol J.; Mulder, Stephen D. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 689.
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amino Acids |
Heterocycles |
Amides
Recovery of silver from and some uses for waste silver chloride  Murphy, J. A.; Ackerman, A. H.; Heeren, J. K.
Procedures for conversion to silver nitrate, using waste AgCl as an oxidizing agent, and electrodepositon experiments.
Murphy, J. A.; Ackerman, A. H.; Heeren, J. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 602.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
An internal comparison of the intermolecular forces of common organic functional groups: A thin-layer chromatography experiment  Beauvais, Robert; Holman, R. W.
Due to the latest trends in organic chemistry textbook content sequences, it has become desirable to develop an experiment that is rapid, simple, and general, that would compare and contrast the various functional group classes of organic molecules in terms of their relative polarities, dipole moments, and intermolecular forces of attraction.
Beauvais, Robert; Holman, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 428.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alcohols |
Carboxylic Acids |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
Qualitative Analysis |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Experimental demonstration of corrosion phenomena: Part II. corrosion phenomena of steel in aqueous media  Arce, Elsa M.; Ramirez, Roman; Cortes, Felipe; Ibanez, Jorge G.
A description of an experiment that uses a sample of carbon steel to show the effect of aggressive ions and inhibiting ions upon it corrosion behavior.
Arce, Elsa M.; Ramirez, Roman; Cortes, Felipe; Ibanez, Jorge G. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 351.
Metals |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
A convenient synthesis of 3,4-pentadien-1-ol from 3-butyn-1-ol: Spectral analysis and unusual durability of the allene moiety  Price, William A.; Patten, Timothy E.
Description of a convenient synthesis of 3,4-pentadien-1-ol from 3-butyn-1-ol: Spectral analysis and unusual durability of the allene moiety.
Price, William A.; Patten, Timothy E. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 256.
Synthesis |
Alcohols |
Alkenes |
NMR Spectroscopy
Redox demonstrations and descriptive chemistry: Part 3. Copper (I)-copper(II) equilibria   Ophardt, Charles E.
The unusual redox properties of copper (I) and copper (II) ions explained and illustrated.
Ophardt, Charles E. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 248.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction
The synthesis of 2-methyl-4-heptanone  de Jong, Elma A.; Feringa, Ben L.
2-methyl-4-heptanone is an ant pheromone used to alarm fellow ants. The synthesis described in this article is greeted with interest by students.
de Jong, Elma A.; Feringa, Ben L. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 71.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Natural Products |
Synthesis |
Grignard Reagents
Superoxide dismutase and the Briggs-Rauscher reaction  Franz, David A.
Oxygen-derived species provide chemistry teachers with excellent examples for discussion of molecular-orbital theory, bond order and reactivity, redox potentials, radical reactivity, disproportionation, and enzyme activity.
Franz, David A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 57.
Enzymes |
Biophysical Chemistry |
MO Theory |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Covalent Bonding
Design of corrosion inhibitors: Use of the hard and soft acid-base (HSAB) theory  Walters, Frederick H.
Using hard and soft acid-base theory to understand corrosion.
Walters, Frederick H. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 29.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Electrochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A One-Step Synthesis of Cinnamic Acids Using Malonic Acid: The Verley-Doebner Modification of the Knoevenagel Condensation  Kolb, Kenneth E.; Field, Kurt W.; Schatz, Paul F.
With this procedure malonic acid itself, rather than its diester, can be effectively condensed with benzaldehyde to produce trans-cinnamic acid.
Kolb, Kenneth E.; Field, Kurt W.; Schatz, Paul F. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A304.
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Acids / Bases |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Carboxylic Acids
Organic Nomenclature (Lampman, Gary)  Damey, Richard F.
An interactive tutorial / drill for naming organic compounds.
Damey, Richard F. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A220.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Ethers |
Alcohols |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Phenols
Sherlock Holmes and the fraudulent ketone  Waddell, Thomas G.; Rybolt, Thomas R.
A chemical mystery featuring Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson.
Waddell, Thomas G.; Rybolt, Thomas R. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1006.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Versed and reversed: A meter for mobile equilibrium  Vemulapalli, G. K.
The principle of mobile equilibrium in verse.
Vemulapalli, G. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1003.
Equilibrium |
Oxidation / Reduction
Synthesis of 5-nitrofurfural diacetate and 5-nitrofurfural semicarbazone: An undergraduate laboratory experiment  Li, Xiaorong; Liu, Qianguang; Chang, James C.
Demonstrates how to nitrate an aromatic compound having an aldehyde group that can be oxidized by nitrating agents.
Li, Xiaorong; Liu, Qianguang; Chang, James C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 986.
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
Ethers |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Aromatic Compounds |
NMR Spectroscopy
Preparation of 1-phenyl-3-phenylaminopyrrolidine-2,5-dione: An organic laboratory experiment on the Michael addition  Ram, Ram N.; Varsha, Kiran
Acylation of aniline with maleic anhydride to give maleanilic acid followed by Michael addition of aniline and cyclization to yield 1-phenyl-3-phenylaminopyrrolidine-2,5-dione.
Ram, Ram N.; Varsha, Kiran J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 985.
Addition Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Synthesis
Synthesis of a phenol-formaldehyde thermosetting polymer  Bedard, Y.; Riedl, B.
Procedure that allows for the synthesis of a 50% aqueous solution of a prepolymer that, with the proper application of heat and pressure, can be used to bind together wood or other materials.
Bedard, Y.; Riedl, B. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 977.
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Phenols |
Polymerization
An operationally simple hydroboration-oxidation experiment  Kabalka, George W.; Wadgaonkar, Prakash P.; Chatla, Narayana
The reactions involve the use of in situ generated diborane as the hydroborating reagent and sodium perborate as the oxidizing agent to convert cyclopentene to cyclopentanol.
Kabalka, George W.; Wadgaonkar, Prakash P.; Chatla, Narayana J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 975.
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Alkenes |
Alcohols
Redox ion exchanger fuel cell  Rawat, Jagdish Prasad; Ansari, Abdul Aziz
Study of the usefulness of a redox reaction between Fe 3+ and Zn on an ion-exchanger bed for the preparation of a fuel cell.
Rawat, Jagdish Prasad; Ansari, Abdul Aziz J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 808.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Ion Exchange |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Calculation of equilibrium constant in esterification reactions  Sarlo, Edward; Svoronos, Paris; Kulas, Patricia
Procedure for measuring the equilibrium constant in esterification reactions.
Sarlo, Edward; Svoronos, Paris; Kulas, Patricia J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 796.
Esters |
Alcohols |
Carboxylic Acids |
Equilibrium
A simple procedure for the base-catalyzed cleavage of benzopinacolone to triphenylmethane: An undergraduate experiment  Stranberg, Michael; Anselme, J. -P.
A simple procedure for the base-catalyzed cleavage of benzopinacolone to triphenylmethane: An undergraduate experiment.
Stranberg, Michael; Anselme, J. -P. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 616.
Catalysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis
A bromate clock reaction: The formation of purple tris(diphosphato)manganate(III)  Rich, Ronald L.; Noyes, Richard M.
Bromate is used to oxidize nearly colorless Mn(II) to a deep purple complex of Mn(III).
Rich, Ronald L.; Noyes, Richard M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 606.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Kinetics
A syllabus for a two-semester chemistry course for health professions (author response)  Daly, John M.; Sarquis, Jerry L.
While oxidation-reduction is not given a major heading, it is included in several different places in the syllabus.
Daly, John M.; Sarquis, Jerry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 540.
Nonmajor Courses |
Oxidation / Reduction
A syllabus for a two-semester chemistry course for health professions   Bosch, E.; Prat, M. D.
The author believes that the main criticism of the proposed program is the lack of a redox section.
Bosch, E.; Prat, M. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 539.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Nonmajor Courses
Hydroboration for the large organic laboratory  Pickering, Miles
This paper reports an experiment in hydroboration without large hood space requirements, without special glassware requirements, and without inert atmospheric precautions.
Pickering, Miles J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 436.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alkenes |
Alcohols |
Qualitative Analysis
From cyclohexanol to diethyl hexanedioate (diethyl adipate): A two-step synthetic sequence for microscale organic laboratory   Wintner, Claude E.; Gray, Christina A.
The authors have developed a two-step microscale sequence from cyclohexanol through adipic acid to diethyl adipate that has proved to be successful in the first year organic laboratory.
Wintner, Claude E.; Gray, Christina A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 341.
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Alcohols
The palladium-catalyzed oxidation of 2-vinylnaphthalene: A microscale organic synthesis experiment   Byers, Jeffrey H.; Ashfaq, Aalla; Morse, Wendy R.
The Wacker oxidation experiment as described is cost-efficient due to the small scale employed, and is a valuable addition to the undergraduate organic curriculum.
Byers, Jeffrey H.; Ashfaq, Aalla; Morse, Wendy R. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 340.
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Alkynes |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction
The subjection of glutaraldehyde to the Tollens test  Hill, William D., Jr.
Redox equations have been established for the Tollens test with respect to compounds containing two aldehyde groups such as glutaraldehyde.
Hill, William D., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 329.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction
Laboratory experiments on phase-transfer-catalyzed reactions of neutral molecules  Mathur, Nawal K.; Narang, Chander K.
In order to illustrate the application of a phase transfer catalyst (PTC), the preparation of benzophenone oxime was attempted under different conditions.
Mathur, Nawal K.; Narang, Chander K. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 273.
Catalysis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Steric course of lactonization in the deamination of glutamic acid: An organic mechanism experiment  Markgraf, J. Hodge; Davis, Howard A.
The stereochemical consequences of a reaction at a chiral center offer a unique way to distinguish among mechanistic hypothesis.
Markgraf, J. Hodge; Davis, Howard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 173.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stereochemistry |
Alcohols
Oxidation of cysteine to cystine using hydrogen peroxide  Hill, John W.; Coy, Robert B.; Lewandowski, Peter E.
This synthesis has several advantages as an undergraduate laboratory exercise.
Hill, John W.; Coy, Robert B.; Lewandowski, Peter E. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 172.
Amino Acids |
Oxidation / Reduction
In praise of thiosulfate  Tykodi, R. J.
The reactions of thiosulfate make impressive lecture demonstrations and worthwhile laboratory experiments.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 146.
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Stoichiometry
g-Nonanoic lactone: Synthesis of a fragrance and flavor enhancer in the undergraduate laboratory  Bunce, Richard A.; Reeves, Henry D.
The experiment describes the synthesis of ?-nonanoic lactone, an un-natural compound having the odor and flavor of coconuts.
Bunce, Richard A.; Reeves, Henry D. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 69.
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Drying ethanol by azeotropic distillation  Mattson, Guy; Hertel, George R.
The commercial process for producing absolute ethanol can be used as a basis for an unusual homework or take-home exam problem.
Mattson, Guy; Hertel, George R. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 46.
Separation Science |
Alcohols
Chemical Reactions, Reactions in Aqueous Solution, and Oxidation Reduction Reactions, Review II (Weyh, J. A.; Crook, J. R.; Hauge, L. N.)  Coleman, William F.
Programs intended to provide students with drill and practice in equation writing (including formula writing), equation balancing, and reaction predicting.
Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A172.
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Chemical Reactions, Reactions in Aqueous Solution, and Oxidation Reduction Reactions, Review I (Weyh, J. A.; Crook, J. R.; Hauge, L. N.)  Balahura, Robert J.
Programs intended to provide students with drill and practice in equation writing (including formula writing), equation balancing, and reaction predicting.
Balahura, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A172.
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Oxidation of cyclohexanol - An amoebalike reaction  Kolb, Kenneth E.; Kolb, Doris
Cyclohexanol is oxidized to cyclohexanone.
Kolb, Kenneth E.; Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 955.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alcohols |
Reactions
The corrosion inhibition of a metal: Student corrosion experiment III  Onuchukwu, A. I.
Presents the principles and an investigation of the corrosion inhibition of a metal.
Onuchukwu, A. I. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 681.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals
Getting away from the cookbook in the organic laboratory  Potter, Neil H.; McGrath, Thomas F.
An organic laboratory program in which students perform traditional experiments during the first semester followed by intensive independent work the second semester.
Potter, Neil H.; McGrath, Thomas F. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 666.
Synthesis |
Alcohols
Selective reductions in the teaching laboratory  Jones, Alan G.
Reductions of nitrophenylethanone, aminophenylethanone, and nitrophenylethanol.
Jones, Alan G. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 611.
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
IR Spectroscopy
A laboratory procedure for the reduction of chromium(VI) to chromium(III)  Lunn, George; Sansone, Eric B.
The authors describe work aimed at reducing the hazards associated with the disposal of Cr(VI) compounds.
Lunn, George; Sansone, Eric B. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 443.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Laboratory Management
Interaction between scientific research and chemical education: Development of a corrosion experiment  Higa, Claudio O.; da Costa, Sylvia L. F. A.; Agostinho, Silvia M. L.
This work presents the results of an investigation of the effect of the corrosion inhibitor benzotriazole on copper corrosion through weight-loss experiments.
Higa, Claudio O.; da Costa, Sylvia L. F. A.; Agostinho, Silvia M. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 441.
Oxidation / Reduction
Reduction of Indigo: Sodium Hydrosulfite as a Reducing Agent  Williamson, Kenneth L.
The confusion between sodium hydrogen sulfite, sodium bisulfite, and sodium hydrosulfite is a common one.
Williamson, Kenneth L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 359.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Laboratory Management
Safety Warning: Uncontrolled Reaction  Smith, David H.
An experimental procedure published recently led to a potentially serious accident.
Smith, David H. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 359.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Alcohols
Chemically induced pulsations of interfaces: The mercury beating heart  Avnir, David
When an iron needle just touches a mercury drop submerged in a pool of an acidic solution of an oxidizer, it pulsates rapidly in a mode that resembles a beating heart.
Avnir, David J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 211.
Oxidation / Reduction
A series of synthetic organic experiments demonstrating physical organic principles  Sayed, Yousry; Ahlmark, Chris A.; Martin, Ned H.
The sequence of reactions described here incorporates several common synthetic organic transformations involving alkenes, alcohols, alkyl halides, and ketones that demonstrate some important principles of physical organic chemistry.
Sayed, Yousry; Ahlmark, Chris A.; Martin, Ned H. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 174.
Synthesis |
Alkenes |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Reactions
Ion association, solubilities, and reduction potentials in aqueous solution  Russo, Steven O.; Hanania, George I. H.
It is the author's belief that a combined approach to ionic activity and ion association presents to the student a realistic and more quantitative view of electrolyte solutions than is otherwise possible.
Russo, Steven O.; Hanania, George I. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 148.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Ionic Bonding |
Oxidation / Reduction
Trifluoroacetylation of unknown alcohols: An integrated microscale organic experiment using spectroscopic methods  Piers, Kenneth; Hsung, Richard
The authors have found that trifluoroacetylation of unknown alcohols is a fast, clean, easily performed microscale experiment that integrates a number of aspects of laboratory work, viz. synthesis, isolation, characterization, spectroscopic measurement, and interpretation, and unknown identification.
Piers, Kenneth; Hsung, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 90.
Alcohols |
Microscale Lab |
Qualitative Analysis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy
Photochemistry of phenyl alkyl ketones: The "Norrish type II" photoreaction: An organic photochemistry experiment   Marciniak, Bronislaw
In this paper a student laboratory experiment is described aimed to study the "Norrish type II" reception of valerophenone. The advantage of this experiment is that it can be performed with a simple irradiation system and with a gas chromatograph and it brings students into contact with some problems of organic photochemistry.
Marciniak, Bronislaw J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 832.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Photochemistry |
Phenols |
Chromatography
The preparation of 4-hydroxy-2,3,4,5-tetraphenyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one and its base catalyzed conversion into 2,3,4,5-tetraphenycyclopentadienone: An organic laboratory experiment   Harrison, Ernest A., Jr.
An organic laboratory experiment that permits direct observation of a pedagogically interesting transformation.
Harrison, Ernest A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 828.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Phenols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
IR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Example of the Robinson annulation procedure via phase transfer catalysis a beginning organic synthesis experiment  Soriano, D. S.; Lombardi, A. M.; Persichini, P. J.; Nalewajek, D.
A brief description of the procedure.
Soriano, D. S.; Lombardi, A. M.; Persichini, P. J.; Nalewajek, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 637.
Catalysis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
A conversion of methyl ketones into acetylenes: A project for a problem oriented or microscale organic chemistry course  Silveira, Augustine, Jr.; Orlando, Steven C.
The authors present their adaptation of an open-ended project on the conversion of methyl ketones into acetylenes for the microscale lab and describe its pedagogic utility.
Silveira, Augustine, Jr.; Orlando, Steven C. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 630.
Microscale Lab |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Synthesis |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Gas Chromatography
Undergraduate experiments with a long-lived radical (Fremy's salt): Synthesis of 1,4-benzoquinones by degradative oxidation of p-hydroxybenzyl alcohols  Morey, J.
The long-lived, stable radical described in this article can be prepared and stored for several months and therefore is an excellent basis for a series of experiments that the author designed for his class.
Morey, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 627.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Free Radicals |
Alcohols |
Aromatic Compounds
The SHOP process: An example of industrial creativity  Reuben, Bryan; Wittcoff, Harold
The Shell Higher Olefins Process is probably the most remarkable industrial chemical process to have been developed in the past decade; this article highlights the process.
Reuben, Bryan; Wittcoff, Harold J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 605.
Industrial Chemistry |
Surface Science |
Alcohols |
Polymerization |
Applications of Chemistry |
Fatty Acids
The biochemistry of brewing   Bering, Charles L.
There are few topics that hold the attention of students as much as the one presented in this paper.
Bering, Charles L. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 519.
Biological Cells |
Carbohydrates |
Applications of Chemistry |
Alcohols |
Metabolism |
Enzymes |
Biotechnology |
Molecular Biology |
Consumer Chemistry
Incorporation of consumer products in the teaching of analytical chemistry   Lieu, Van T.; Kalbus, Gene E.
A development and selection of a number of experiments involving the use of common consumer products for incorporation into quantitative and instrumental analysis laboratories.
Lieu, Van T.; Kalbus, Gene E. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 207.
Applications of Chemistry |
Alcohols |
Acids / Bases |
Food Science |
Consumer Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
Organic lecture demonstrations  Silversmith, Ernest F.
Organic chemistry may not be known for its spectacular, attention getting chemical reactions. Nevertheless, this author describes a few organic chemistry reactions that put points across and generate interest. This article provides a convenient sources of demonstrations and urges others to add to the collection. Demonstrations concerning: carbohydrates, spectroscopy, proteins, amines, carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, and much more.
Silversmith, Ernest F. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 70.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Acids / Bases |
Physical Properties |
Alkenes |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols
Oxidation numbers and their limitations  Woolf, A. A.
An in-depth look at oxidation numbers of various elements in a number of different compounds.
Woolf, A. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 45.
Organometallics |
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction
Stable organic oxidants: Paradox or possibility  Bretherick, Leslie
Thermal instability of organic oxidant salts and the possibility of producing safer analogs.
Bretherick, Leslie J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A43.
Oxidation / Reduction
Determination of methanol in gasoline by gas chromatography: A laboratory experiment  Tackett, Stanford L.
Determining the methanol in gasoline by gas chromatography without pretreating the samples.
Tackett, Stanford L. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1059.
Quantitative Analysis |
Alcohols |
Gas Chromatography
A problem involving organic qualitative analysis  Silvert, D. J.
Five different organic compounds are to be identified from the result of three simple qualitative tests on each unknown (dichromate, DNPH, and iodoform tests).
Silvert, D. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 971.
Qualitative Analysis |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones
The kinetic rate law for autocatalytic reactions  Mata-Perez, Fernando; Perez-Benito, Joaquin F.
A method for obtaining accurate rate constants for autocatalytic reactions.
Mata-Perez, Fernando; Perez-Benito, Joaquin F. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 925.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Preparation of lead compounds: An exercise in applied chemistry  Laing, Michael; Williams-Wynn, David; Suhramoney, Saroj
Uses and synthesis of Pb(NO3)2, PbO2, PbCrO4, PbS, PbO, lead carbonate, lead acetate, and lead metal itself.
Laing, Michael; Williams-Wynn, David; Suhramoney, Saroj J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 811.
Synthesis |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State |
Reactions |
Descriptive Chemistry
Redox demonstrations and descriptive chemistry: Part 2. Halogens  Ophardt, Charles E.
Oxidation states of bromine and iodine.
Ophardt, Charles E. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 807.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation State
The stepwise reduction of permanganate in alkaline conditions: A lecture demonstration  Ruoff, Peter
Demonstrates the +VII, +VI, +V, and +IV oxidation states of manganese and their characteristic colors.
Ruoff, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 624.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Molecular structure: Property relationships  Seybold, Paul G.; May, Michael; Bagal, Ujjvala A.
How molecular structure can be represented mathematically and how this can lead to a better understanding of the connection between molecular structures and properties.
Seybold, Paul G.; May, Michael; Bagal, Ujjvala A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 575.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alcohols
Recent advances in the concept of hard and soft acids and bases  Pearson, Ralph G.
The hard / soft acids / bases principle has been justifiably criticized because of the lack of a precise definition of hardness and the inability to quantify this property; recent developments have overcome these objections, however.
Pearson, Ralph G. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 561.
Acids / Bases |
Coordination Compounds |
MO Theory |
Oxidation / Reduction
Spectroscopic analysis using the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum  Crandall, Elbert W.
Review of the use of near-IR to study simple compounds (amines, hydroxyl, and carbonyl compounds) and polymers.
Crandall, Elbert W. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 466.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Alcohols |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Passivation of copper in acid medium  Alonso, C.; Ocon, P.
Determining and explaining the polarization curve of copper in a 70% solution of phosphoric acid.
Alonso, C.; Ocon, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 459.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
The induction by iron(II) of the oxidation of iodide by dichromate  Jolly, William L.
A surprising mechanism for an inorganic reaction in aqueous solution.
Jolly, William L. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 444.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Catalysis
On a common graphical flaw in the carboxylic acid/alcohol relative acidity argument  McClard, Ronald W.
Why are carboxylic acids so much more acidic than aliphatic alcohols?
McClard, Ronald W. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 416.
Carboxylic Acids |
Alcohols |
Acids / Bases
An aldol condensation experiment using a number of aldehydes and ketones  Hathaway, Bruce A.
Four aldehydes and four ketones can be used to synthesize sixteen different products via an aldol condensation reaction.
Hathaway, Bruce A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 367.
Aldehydes / Ketones
Thioxanthone sulfone radical anion: A relatively stable ketyl  Castrillon, Jose
Thioxanthone sulfone is induced to produce a deep blue color upon standing that disappears on shaking.
Castrillon, Jose J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 352.
Free Radicals |
Oxidation / Reduction
Introduction to overhead projector demonstrations  Kolb, Doris
General suggestions for using the overhead projector and 21 demonstrations. [Debut]
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 348.
Rate Law |
Reactions |
Catalysis |
Equilibrium |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases
Concerning dehydration of 2-methycyclohexanol  Feigenbaum, A.
One half of class dehydrates 2-methycyclohexanol, the other half dehydrates 1-methycyclohexanol; gas chromatography retention times are then compared for the two product mixtures.
Feigenbaum, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 273.
Alcohols |
Alkenes |
Stereochemistry |
Constitutional Isomers |
Gas Chromatography
A cyclic voltammetry experiment using a mercury electrode  Brillas, Enrique; Garrido, Jose A.; Rodriquez, Rosa M.; Domenech, Javier
An easy and inexpensive experiment designed to illustrate cyclic voltammetry in the study of a simple reversible reaction.
Brillas, Enrique; Garrido, Jose A.; Rodriquez, Rosa M.; Domenech, Javier J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 189.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Tollens's test, fulminating silver, and silver fulminate  Jenkins, Ian D.
Preparation, application, and misinformation regarding Tollens's test for aldehydes and reducing sugars.
Jenkins, Ian D. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 164.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Carbohydrates |
Qualitative Analysis |
Laboratory Management
A visual manifestation of the Norrish Type I reaction: The cyclohexanone sunburn dosimeter  Carroll, Felix A.; Strouse, Geoffrey F.; Hain, Jon M.
Irradiation of aqueous cyclohexanone solutions produces hex-5-enal and butylketene; the latter reacts with water to form caproic acid, which lowers the pH of the solution and thus can be used to measure the progress of the reaction.
Carroll, Felix A.; Strouse, Geoffrey F.; Hain, Jon M. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 84.
Photochemistry |
pH |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Kinetics of oxidation of bromcresol green  Pickering, Miles; Heiler, David
Study of the bleaching of bromcresol green by hypochlorite.
Pickering, Miles; Heiler, David J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 81.
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Dyes / Pigments |
Acids / Bases |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The energy relationships of corn production and alcohol fermentation  Van Koevering, Thomas E.; Morgan, Michael D.; Younk, Thomas J.
The production of alcohol from corn lends itself well to illustrating the practical applications of scientific principles that deal with energy transformations and inefficiencies.
Van Koevering, Thomas E.; Morgan, Michael D.; Younk, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 11.
Natural Products |
Applications of Chemistry |
Plant Chemistry |
Green Chemistry |
Alcohols |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Photosynthesis
Comparison of chemical oxidation of alkanes, alkenes, and alcohols on the overhead projector  Kolb, Kenneth E.
This overhead projector demonstration utilizes two classical oxidants, permanganates and dichromate, to distinguish between alkanes, alkenes, and primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols.
Kolb, Kenneth E. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 977.
Alcohols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Qualitative Analysis
Microscale organic laboratory: IV: A simple and rapid procedure for carrying out Wittig reactions  Pike, R. M.; Mayo, D. W.; Butcher, D. W.; Butcher, S. S.; Hinkle, R. J.
This paper offers two examples that illustrate a new synthetic method. This synthesis is the first feasible preparation of a particular group available for the introductory organic laboratory.
Pike, R. M.; Mayo, D. W.; Butcher, D. W.; Butcher, S. S.; Hinkle, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 917.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Heterocycles |
Alkenes |
Alcohols
An experiment in forensic chemistry: The Breathalyzer  Timmer, William C.
This note describes a simple experiment, suitable for a quantitative analysis course, that illustrates the chemistry of the breath alcohol test.
Timmer, William C. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 897.
Forensic Chemistry |
Alcohols |
Applications of Chemistry
Electrochemical cell conventions in general chemistry   West, Allen C.
This author argues that conventions make electrochemistry harder for students to learn and much harder to remember. For this reason, instructors must connect our presentation of galvanic cells more closely with the physical world of galvanic cells than "conventional" electrochemistry does.
West, Allen C. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 609.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Oxidation / Reduction
Determination of reaction stoichiometries by flow injection analysis: A laboratory exercise  Rios, Angel; Castro, Dolores Luqne de; Valcarcel, Miguel
These authors took advantage of the features of Flow Injection Analysis and developed an easy and simple photometric method intended for calculation of complex-formation and redox reaction stoichiometries.
Rios, Angel; Castro, Dolores Luqne de; Valcarcel, Miguel J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 552.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Instrumental Methods |
Photochemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Coordination Compounds
Michael addition and aldol condensation: A simple teaching model for organic laboratory  Garcia-Raso, A.; Garcia-Raso, J.; Sinisterra, J. V.; Mestres, R.
Three experiments are presented in this paper: Michael addition; Michael addition followed by aldol addition; and Michael addition followed by aldol condensation.
Garcia-Raso, A.; Garcia-Raso, J.; Sinisterra, J. V.; Mestres, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 443.
Addition Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols
Selective oxidation in the presence of a heterocycle  Bowles, K. Dean; Quincy, David A.; McKenna, John I.; Natale, N. R.
The process of weighing the advantages and disadvantages of various oxidation methods are presented in this paper.
Bowles, K. Dean; Quincy, David A.; McKenna, John I.; Natale, N. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 358.
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Heterocycles |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Carboxylic Acids
Optical projection experiments to demonstrate new curricula contents   Perina, Ivo
Demonstration of experiments by optical projection compared with classic demonstration of experiments has a number of advantages.
Perina, Ivo J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 344.
Alcohols |
Enzymes |
Atmospheric Chemistry
Number of oxidations relative to methylene: A convenient method of recognizing and quantifying organic oxidation-reduction  Kjonaas, Richard A.
This paper describes the use of a type of molecular oxidation number called "Number of oxidations relative to methylene".
Kjonaas, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 311.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Qualitative Analysis |
Alkenes
Reduction of cyclohexanone with sodium borohydride in aqueous alkaline solution: a beginning organic chemistry experiment  Hudak, Norman J.; Sholes, Anne H.
A beginning organic chemistry experiment that involves the reduction of cyclohexanone with sodium borohydride in aqueous alkaline solution.
Hudak, Norman J.; Sholes, Anne H. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 161.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Alcohols
Molten salt techniques for students: Attacking hematite with pyrosulfate  Atkinson, George F.
This experiment teaches students molten salt techniques.
Atkinson, George F. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 88.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Computer-assisted quantitative infrared conformational analysis of alpha, beta-unsaturated ketones  Tisnes, P.; Perry, M.
Investigates the s-cis <> s-trans conformational equilibrium of alpha, beta-unsaturated ketones.
Tisnes, P.; Perry, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 903.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Conformational Analysis |
IR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantitative Analysis
Acetylation of an unknown alcohol: An introductory 1H-NMR experiment  Branz, Stephen E.
Students use NMR analysis to identify the acetylation product of an unknown alcohol.
Branz, Stephen E. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 899.
Alcohols |
NMR Spectroscopy
New stoichiometry for copper dissolution in nitric acid  El-Cheikh, F. M.; Khalil, S. A.; El-Manguch, M. A.; Omar, Hadi A.
NO2 does not appear to be a primary product in the oxidation of copper metal by nitric acid.
El-Cheikh, F. M.; Khalil, S. A.; El-Manguch, M. A.; Omar, Hadi A. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 761.
Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction
The design of laboratory experiments in the 1980's: A case study on the oxidation of alcohols with household bleach  Mohrig, Jerry R.; Nienhuis, David M.; Linck, Catherine F.; Van Zoeren, Carol; Fox, Brian G.; Mahaffy, Peter G.
Improved safety by replacing chromium(VI) with bleach in the oxidation of an alcohol.
Mohrig, Jerry R.; Nienhuis, David M.; Linck, Catherine F.; Van Zoeren, Carol; Fox, Brian G.; Mahaffy, Peter G. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 519.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alcohols |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Estimating the one electron reduction potential for vanadium (V) by chemical techniques: An experiment for general chemistry  Wentworth, R. A. D.
Procedure requires no electrochemical equipment because the method depends solely upon observations of the spontaneity of the reactions of V(V) with a series of potential reducing agents and V(IV) with a series of potential oxidizing agents.
Wentworth, R. A. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 440.
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Drug stabilization against oxidative degradation  Akers, Michael J.
Describes the process of oxidation and ways in which pharmaceutical preparations can be protected from oxidative degredation.
Akers, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 325.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Nonmajor Courses
Methemoglobinemia: An illness caused by the ferric state  Senozan, N. M.
Hemoglobin's ability to carry oxygen depends on the iron being in the +2 state; methemoglobinemia involves the oxidation of hemoglobin iron to the +3 state.
Senozan, N. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 181.
Proteins / Peptides |
Enzymes |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Atmospheric formaldehyde levels in an academic laboratory  Clausz, John C.; Maclntyre, Bruce A.; Malone, Elizabeth S.; Twelmeyer, John M.
Study to determine whether improved ventilation and use of "formaldehyde-free" specimens could reduce the levels of formaldehyde in laboratory air.
Clausz, John C.; Maclntyre, Bruce A.; Malone, Elizabeth S.; Twelmeyer, John M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, A121.
Laboratory Management |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Oxidation of alcohols using calcium hypochlorite and solid/liquid phase-transfer catalysis  Hill, John W.; Jenson, Jeffrey A.; Henke, Charles F.; Yaritz, Joseph G.; Pedersen, Richard L.
Includes synthesis of an aldehyde from a primary alcohol as well as several ketones from secondary alcohols.
Hill, John W.; Jenson, Jeffrey A.; Henke, Charles F.; Yaritz, Joseph G.; Pedersen, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1118.
Alcohols |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Catalysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Synthesis
Preparation and analysis of potassium tris(oxalato)ferrate(III)trihydrate: A general chemistry experiment  Olmsted, John, III
The analysis of this compound combines gravimetric and titrimeric methods and includes a unique and colorful photoredox reaction.
Olmsted, John, III J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1098.
Synthesis |
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
The subjection of glutaraldehyde to the Fehling test and to the corrected Benedict test  Hill, William D., Jr.
The molecular and ionic redox equations with respect to the Fehling and Benedict tests (corrected with respect to glutaraldehyde).
Hill, William D., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1085.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
The Fe(II)-Cr(VI) reaction without using mercury  Klett, Lee D.; Black, Arthur H.; Parker, Gordon A.
Procedure that employs titanium rather than mercury in the oxidation-reduction titration of iron(II) with chromium(VI).
Klett, Lee D.; Black, Arthur H.; Parker, Gordon A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1020.
Reactions |
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals
How to get the most from the dichromate volcano demonstration: Aluminothermy  Trogler, William C.
Reducing the green ash produced by the dichromate volcano (Cr2O3) with aluminum in a thermite-like display.
Trogler, William C. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 908.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Explosive isopropanol  Bonafede, Julio Dante
Relates an explosion due to the formation of peroxides.
Bonafede, Julio Dante J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 652.
Alcohols
The extraction of gold and its simulation with copper  Bradley, J. D.; Brand, M.; Louli, J. A. M.
The simulation of the extraction of gold by the use of its analog, copper, makes it possible to capitalize on the glamor of gold without sacrificing any chemical principles.
Bradley, J. D.; Brand, M.; Louli, J. A. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 634.
Separation Science |
Metallurgy |
Industrial Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals
Butanol safety hazard  Sharpless, T. W.
Distillation of an aged sample of 2-butanol led to an explosion resulting from the presence of hydroperoxide.
Sharpless, T. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 476.
Alcohols
Analysis of alcohols  McCullough, Brother Thomas
Identifying unknown alcohols using boiling point and viscosity measurements.
McCullough, Brother Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 68.
Alcohols |
Physical Properties |
Qualitative Analysis
The determination of the stereochemistry of erythro-1,2-diphenyl-1,2-ethanediol: an undergraduate organic experiment  Rowland, Alex T.
The author describes a successful experiment that has been conducted by first-year organic chemistry students which illustrates the power of H NMR spectroscopy in a configuration determination.
Rowland, Alex T. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 1084.
Phenols |
Alcohols |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers
The determination of 1-octanol/water partition ratios: an organic chemistry laboratory experiment  Umland, Jean B.
An organic chemistry laboratory experiment in the determination of 1-octanol/water partition ratios.
Umland, Jean B. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 1081.
Alcohols
Acetaldehyde: a chemical whose fortunes have changed  Wittcoff, Harold A.
Acetaldehyde is an example of a chemical whose use is declining because chemists have replaced it with superior chemicals.
Wittcoff, Harold A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 1044.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Applications of Chemistry
Ethanol from corn: one route to gasohol  Maslowsky, Edward, Jr.
The experiment in this article illustrates the preparation of ethanol through the action of enzymes and yeast in whole kernel corn. The purpose is to illustrate as closely as practical the method used either industrially or on the farm to convert corn into ethanol, while a second is to illustrate distillation.
Maslowsky, Edward, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 752.
Applications of Chemistry |
Green Chemistry |
Alcohols |
Separation Science
A quantitative gas chromatographic ethanol determination: a contemporary analytical experiment  Leary, James J.
This note describes a gas chromatographic experiment for the quantitative determination of volume percent ethanol in water ethanol solutions.
Leary, James J. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 675.
Gas Chromatography |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Alcohols
Prediction of the appearance of non-first-order proton NMR spectra   Macomber, Roger S.
Undergraduates generally become equipped only to handle only first-order coupling patterns. This means that they have a hard time understanding a real spectra. By scaffolding students through the synthesis level of Bloom's taxonomy, students can work toward a more expert level of understanding.
Macomber, Roger S. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 525.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Learning Theories
A phase transfer catalyzed permanganate oxidation: preparation of vanillin from isoeugenol acetate  Lampman, Gary M.; Sharpe, Steven D.
There are several attractive features in this reaction sequence for the undergraduate laboratory. These include (1) use of a protecting acetate group, (2) use of a familiar "textbook" oxidant, potassium permanganate, (3) use of phase transfer catalyst, (4) preparing of an aldehyde, (5) short reaction period, and (6) the laboratory has a pleasant aroma.
Lampman, Gary M.; Sharpe, Steven D. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 503.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Catalysis |
Natural Products |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols |
Aromatic Compounds
A chemistry laboratory project to develop thinking and writing skills  Goodman, W. Daniel; Bean, John C.
The "Ester Project" requires students to carry out an independent investigation of the synthesis of one or more alphatic esters and to present their research in the form of professional papers. The students, as a group, judge each paper for the quality of research and the quality of writing according to criteria and methods devised jointly by the students and the instructor.
Goodman, W. Daniel; Bean, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 483.
Alcohols |
Esters
Electrochemistry of the Hall-Heroult process for aluminum smelting  Haupin, W. E.
A discussion of aluminum holds great pedagogical value on many fronts: discussion of the Bayer process, electrolysis of alumina, electrolyte chemistry, dissolution of alumina, electrode reactions, current efficiency, cell voltage, and other topics for advanced graduate study. From State-of-the-Art Symposium: Electrochemistry, ACS meeting, Kansas City, 1982.
Haupin, W. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 279.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Applications of Chemistry |
Industrial Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
3-Ketoesters by malonic synthesis  Pollet, Patrick L.
This essay reviews a synthesis strategy.
Pollet, Patrick L. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 244.
Synthesis |
Carboxylic Acids |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkylation
Solvent increment not solvent correction: a suggested modification in the procedure of calculating wavelength of maximum ultraviolet absorption of alpha, beta-unsaturated aldehydes and ketones  Qureshi, Mohammad Ismail
This article describes a procedure for calculating the ? solvent max that removes an unnecessary, but typical source of confusion.
Qureshi, Mohammad Ismail J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 149.
Spectroscopy |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
On the Nernst equations of mercury-mercuric oxide half-cell electrodes  Kam, T. T.
The purpose of this paper is to present the derivation of the Nernst equation and the standard potential of the mercury-mercuric oxide electrodes, together with the comparison between the experimentally measured electrode potentials and the theoretical values obtained by the Nernst equations.
Kam, T. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 133.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Oxidation / Reduction
A reinvestigation of the synthesis of 4-methyl-3-heptanol  Hoffman, Robert V.; Alexander, M. D.; Buntain, Gregory; Hardenstein, Richard; Mattox, Cynthia; McLaughlin, Susan; McMinn, Denise; Spray, Scott; White, Steven
A previously reported laboratory may have reported gas chromatographic separation of the 4-methyl-3-heptanol diastereomiers in error. The side reactions in the Grignard reaction account for the observed results.
Hoffman, Robert V.; Alexander, M. D.; Buntain, Gregory; Hardenstein, Richard; Mattox, Cynthia; McLaughlin, Susan; McMinn, Denise; Spray, Scott; White, Steven J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 78.
Hormones |
Alcohols |
Grignard Reagents |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Gas Chromatography |
Synthesis |
Natural Products
A modification of the copper catalysis demonstration apparatus  Olsen, Edwin S.; Ashmore, R. E.
A modification to an earlier device for illustrating the oxidation of alcohols to carbonyl compounds over a copper catalyst.
Olsen, Edwin S.; Ashmore, R. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 1042.
Catalysis |
Alcohols |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Ketone synthesis using household bleach  Perkins, Robert A.; Chau, Felix
Household bleach is used to synthesize several different ketones from alcohols.
Perkins, Robert A.; Chau, Felix J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 981.
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols
Oxidation by Mn207: An impressive demonstration of the powerful oxidizing property of dimanganeseheptoxide  Koch, Klaus R.
Demonstrates the formation of Mn2O7 and its powerful oxidation of simple alcohols.
Koch, Klaus R. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 973.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Reduction potentials and hydrogen overvoltage: An overhead projector demonstration  Ramette, Richard W.
Relates the scale of standard reduction potentials to the observed behavior of metals in their reactions with hydrogen ion to produce hydrogen gas.
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 866.
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction
How students reconcile discordant data: A study of lab report discussions  Pickering, Miles; Monts, David L.
A study conducted to determine how students deal with experimental results that seem to violate chemical laws.
Pickering, Miles; Monts, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 794.
Chemometrics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry
Spontaneous combustion of familiar substances in chlorine  Briggs, Thomas S.
Reacting chlorine generated from liquid bleach with red phosphorus (from a match book) and iron from steel wool.
Briggs, Thomas S. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 788.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Student preparation of alkanols from alkenes  McKee, J. R.; Kauffman, J. M.
The hydration of 1-hexene to form 2-hexanol demonstrates Markovnikov addition, produces a higher yield of alcohol, and starts with a less expensive alkene than cyclohexene hydrations.
McKee, J. R.; Kauffman, J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 695.
Alcohols |
Alkenes |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Addition Reactions
Some tungsten oxidation-reduction chemistry: A paint pot titration  Pickering, Miles; Monts, David L.
Mild reducing agents reduce WO3 to a nonstoichiometric blue oxide, "mineral blue," whose approximate formula is WO2.2-3.0.
Pickering, Miles; Monts, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 693.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry
Demonstration of electrochemical cell properties by a simple, colorful oxidation-reduction experiment  Hendricks, Lloyd J.; Williams, John T.
The color of a solution close to an electrode is changed from that of the bulk solution to either of two contrasting colors, depending on whether the electrode reaction is a reduction or oxidation.
Hendricks, Lloyd J.; Williams, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 586.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
The direct electrochemical synthesis of [(C6H5)3Ph]2[CoCl4]: An example of the use of anodic oxidation in the preparation of metal ion complexes  Oldham, Colin; Tuck, Dennis G.
Uses a 6 V lantern battery and a simple voltmeter / ammeter.
Oldham, Colin; Tuck, Dennis G. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 420.
Electrochemistry |
Synthesis |
Coordination Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction
An undergraduate laboratory program project involving photocyclizations in independent syntheses of novel chrysenes and phenanthrenes  Letcher, R. M.
This experiment attempts to fulfill such objectives as providing meaningful and viable preparative reactions, providing an opportunity for independent laboratory work within a project framework and under conditions of nearly equal opportunity and experience.
Letcher, R. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 1020.
Undergraduate Research |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Photochemistry |
Diastereomers |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Oxidation of cyclohexanol to cyclohexanone by sodium hypochlorite  Zuczek, Norbert M; Furth, Paul S.
A laboratory that was previously published is modified for a smaller scale in this note.
Zuczek, Norbert M; Furth, Paul S. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 824.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alcohols |
Aromatic Compounds
Conjugate and nonconjugate reduction with LiAlH4 and NaBH4  Meyer, G. Richard
Most organic textbooks present a limited consideration of the action of lithium aluminum hydride and sodium borohydride. This paper explores the topic in greater depth.
Meyer, G. Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 628.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Preparation of solid derivatives by differential scanning calorimetry  Crandall, E. W.; Pennington, Maxine
Derivatives of alcohols, amines, phenols, aldehydes, ketones, and haloalkanes are prepared and their phase transitions observed using a differential scanning calorimeter.
Crandall, E. W.; Pennington, Maxine J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 824.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Phenols |
Physical Properties |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Preparation of 1,1-Diphenyl-1-hydroxy-3-butanone  Rivett, D. E. A.
Exemplifies the use of a protecting group in organic synthesis.
Rivett, D. E. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 751.
Synthesis |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Stoichiometry of redox reactions  Parker, Gordon A.
A question involving an amplification reaction sequence and the balancing of oxidation-reduction reactions.
Parker, Gordon A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 721.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Ion exchange separation of the oxidation states of vanadium  Cornelius, Richard
An experiment designed to emphasize the discrete nature of the different oxidation states of vanadium by giving students an opportunity to separate the four species by ion exchange chromatography.
Cornelius, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 316.
Ion Exchange |
Separation Science |
Oxidation State |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction
Gas chromatographic determination of methyl salicylate in rubbing alcohol: An experiment employing standard addition  Van Atta, Robert E.; Van Atta, R. Lewis
Provides an exercise in standard addition as applied to the gas chromatographic analysis of the methyl salicylate in wintergreen rubbing alcohol.
Van Atta, Robert E.; Van Atta, R. Lewis J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 230.
Alcohols |
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods
Allyl alcohol plant stream analysis: Relating industrial chemistry to the undergraduate laboratory  Bard, James R.; Sandoval, Antonio A.
Exercise that seeks to familiarize students with an industrial chemical process using a reaction not normally found in undergraduate textbooks and to broaden appreciation of NMR spectroscopy to include its analytical capabilities and limitations by showing how NMR could be used for analysis of a typical plant stream.
Bard, James R.; Sandoval, Antonio A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 218.
Alcohols |
Industrial Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
NMR Spectroscopy
Diphenylbutadienes syntheses by means of the Wittig reaction: Experimental introduction to the use of phase transfer catalysis  Gillois, J.; Guillerm, G.; Stephen, E.; Vo-Quang, L.
Intended as a project carried out by students at the end of introductory organic chemistry.
Gillois, J.; Guillerm, G.; Stephen, E.; Vo-Quang, L. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 161.
Synthesis |
Catalysis |
Alkenes |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Stereochemistry
Steam distillation of essential oils - Anethole from anise followed by permanganate oxidation to anisic acid  Garin, David L.
Provides the procedure for the oxidation step to this experiment.
Garin, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 138.
Separation Science |
Oxidation / Reduction
Oxidation-reduction: An example of chemical sophistry  Sisler, Harry H.; VanderWerf, Calvin A.
Examines the common definition for oxidation - reduction found in most introductory textbooks and specific examples of oxidation - reduction reactions.
Sisler, Harry H.; VanderWerf, Calvin A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 42.
Oxidation / Reduction
Drugs in the chemistry laboratory: The conversion of acetaminophen into phenacetin  Volker, Eugene J.; Pride, Ernest; Hough, Charles
The phenolic alcohol group of acetaminophen is alkylated with ethyl iodide using the basic catalyst K2CO3.
Volker, Eugene J.; Pride, Ernest; Hough, Charles J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 831.
Nonmajor Courses |
Applications of Chemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Synthesis |
Catalysis |
Phenols |
Alcohols
The second year course in inorganic chemistry at the free university of Amsterdam  Bolster, M. W. G.
Includes an outline of the experiments used in the course.
Bolster, M. W. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 734.
Coordination Compounds |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
IR Spectroscopy |
Magnetic Properties |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Catalysis
The thermite lecture demonstration  Bozzelli, Joseph W.; Barat, Robert B.
Glycerine plus KMnO4 are used to ignite the thermite in a clay flower pot.
Bozzelli, Joseph W.; Barat, Robert B. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 675.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
An improved method in the redox titration of oxalic acid by permanganate  Datta, M.; Ameta, Suresh C.; Pande, P. N.; Gupta, H. L.; Bokadia, M. M.
To avoid heating, the authors have introduced this reaction with ascorbic acid.
Datta, M.; Ameta, Suresh C.; Pande, P. N.; Gupta, H. L.; Bokadia, M. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 659.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Stoichiometry
The precipitation of ferrous hydroxide: A lecture demonstration  Lau, O. W.
This demonstration can illustrate such topics as the solubility of ionic compounds, electrode potentials of transition elements and their modification by formation of either an insoluble compound of a complex ion, and mixed valence compounds.
Lau, O. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 474.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Compact Compacts  Huebner, Jay S.; Shiflett, R. B.; Blanck, Harvey F.
A collection of three suggestions regarding demonstrating the oxidation of hydrocarbons and the primary, secondary, and tertiary structure of proteins and the first law of thermodynamics as applied to air conditioning.
Huebner, Jay S.; Shiflett, R. B.; Blanck, Harvey F. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 389.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Proteins / Peptides |
Thermodynamics
Chemical toxicology. Part I. Organic compounds  Carter, D. E.; Fernando, Quintus
General principles of toxicology, and particular consideration of aliphatics, aromatic, and halogenated hydrocarbons; alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ethers, and ketones; sulfides, mercaptans, and carbon disulfide; nitrogen-containing compounds; and carcinogens.
Carter, D. E.; Fernando, Quintus J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 284.
Toxicology |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
Ethers |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Lipids
Acid-base half-reactions - A useful formalism for review lessons  Atkinson, G. F.
An effective way to draw analogies between acid-base and redox effects while reviewing both.
Atkinson, G. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 238.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Aqueous chromic acid oxidation of secondary alcohols in diethyl ether: A convenient undergraduate organic chemistry experiment  Thompson, Kerry L.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Nylund, Thomas; Ravindranathan, M.
A two-phase procedure for the oxidation of secondary alcohols to ketones that is applicable to a wide variety of substrates.
Thompson, Kerry L.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Nylund, Thomas; Ravindranathan, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 203.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alcohols |
Ethers |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
A chemiluminescence demonstration - Oxalyl chloride oxidation  Bramwell, Fitzgerald B.; Goodman, Sidney; Chandross, Edwin A.; Kaplan, Martin
An effective chemiluminescence demonstration requiring minimal preparation based on the oxidation of oxalyl chloride by hydrogen peroxide.
Bramwell, Fitzgerald B.; Goodman, Sidney; Chandross, Edwin A.; Kaplan, Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 111.
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Double scales for equilibria  Chaston, S. H. H.
The acid / base, oxidant / reductant, and solid / solute scales described here can be used as visual representations of equilibria expressions.
Chaston, S. H. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 24.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solutions / Solvents |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
A new synthesis of tertiary alkyl N-aryl-carbamates from isocyanates  Bailey, William J.; Griffith, James R.
A simple, convenient, and fast procedure has been developed for the synthesis of tertiary alkyl N-acrylcarbamate from phenyl and 1-naphthyl isocyanates as solid derivatives of tertiary alcohols by the use of lithium tertiary alkoxides as catalysts.
Bailey, William J.; Griffith, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 809.
Catalysis |
Alcohols |
Synthesis
Synthesis of chrysanthemic acid: A multistep organic synthesis for undergraduate students  Schatz, Paul F.
This laboratory is geared toward intermediate organic chemistry laboratory courses that will acquaint students, predominantly chemistry majors, with the strategies and techniques in carrying out a multistep synthesis.
Schatz, Paul F. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 468.
Synthesis |
Acids / Bases |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Stereochemistry
Why green? More chemistry in the student synthesis of tris(ethylenediamine) cobalt(III) chloride  Krause, Ronald A.
What began as a "failure" in this laboratory exercise turned into a great opportunity for inquiry.
Krause, Ronald A. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 453.
Coordination Compounds |
Alcohols |
Equilibrium |
Oxidation / Reduction
Phase transfer catalysis. Part II: Synthetic applications  Gokel, George W.; Weber, William P.
In this month's continuation of an article, the authors have catalogued a number of illustrative examples so that the range of applicability of phase transfer catalysis will be.
Gokel, George W.; Weber, William P. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 429.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Catalysis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Organometallics |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Synthesis |
Esters |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alkylation
Oxidation of primary alcohols to aldehydes with pyridinium chlorochromate. An organic chemistry experiment  Glaros, George
This organic chemistry experiment addresses a common misconception about aldehyde reactions.
Glaros, George J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 410.
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Reactions
Balloon models for organic molecules  Niac, G.
A balloon model can be used to demonstrate properties of small, organic molecules.
Niac, G. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 303.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alcohols |
Alkenes |
VSEPR Theory
Favorskii rearrangement in bridged polycyclic compounds  Chenier, Philip J.
Favorskii rearrangement in bridged polycyclic compounds: This can be classified as an intramolecular rearrangement from carbon to carbon, involving a migrating group Z moving without its electrons from migrating origin A to an electron-rich terminus B.
Chenier, Philip J. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 286.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Carboxylic Acids |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds
Classification test for aldehydes involving phase transfer catalysis  Durst, H. Dupont; Gokel, George W.
Although common spectroscopic methods have largely supplanted the more classical methods for distinguishing aldehydes from ketones in many applications, aldehyde classification tests remain very useful in actual laboratory practice as well as important pedagogical device in qualitative organic chemistry.
Durst, H. Dupont; Gokel, George W. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 206.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Qualitative Analysis
Oxidative coupling of phenols. A biomimetic undergraduate organic laboratory experiment  Hart, Harold; Reilly, James L.
It is the purpose of this paper to describe a laboratory experiment suitable for undergraduates which illustrates the oxidative coupling of phenols. To place the experiment in proper context, the authors briefly review general features of the reaction.
Hart, Harold; Reilly, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 120.
Phenols |
Oxidation / Reduction
Stoichiometric calculations   Parker, Gordon A.
The question presented here is designed for a sophomore or junior level quantitative analysis course, illustrates, calculations based upon oxidation-reduction reactions as applied to a common environmental problem and requires cognitive skill at the application level.
Parker, Gordon A. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 102.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis
Preparation of vanillin from eugenol and sawdust  Lampman, Gary M.; Andrews, Jennifer; Bratz, Wayne; Hanssen, Otto; Kelley, Kenneth; Perry, Dana; Ridgeway, Anthony
Two procedures are described for the conversion of eugenol to vanillin.
Lampman, Gary M.; Andrews, Jennifer; Bratz, Wayne; Hanssen, Otto; Kelley, Kenneth; Perry, Dana; Ridgeway, Anthony J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 776.
Synthesis |
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction
Industrial analytical procedure for undergraduate analytical chemistry  Hurtubise, Robert J.
A procedure for determining the amount of BHA in cooking oil.
Hurtubise, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 651.
Industrial Chemistry |
Food Science |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis
Low-cost methanol for HPLC in the educational laboratory  Wolfhagen, James L.; Soltes, Ed J.
Method for purifying methanol for use in HPLC.
Wolfhagen, James L.; Soltes, Ed J. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 619.
HPLC |
Chromatography |
Laboratory Management |
Alcohols
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
309-314. Six questions involving practical applications of chemistry.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 437.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Toxicology |
Alcohols |
Gases |
Natural Products
Synthesis of 4-methyl-3-heptanol and 4-methyl-3-heptanone. Two easily synthesized insect pheromones  Einterz, Robert M.; Ponder, Jay W.; Lenox, Ronald S.
A two step reaction sequence involving the Grignard synthesis of an alcohol followed by oxidation of this alcohol to the corresponding ketone.
Einterz, Robert M.; Ponder, Jay W.; Lenox, Ronald S. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 382.
Natural Products |
Synthesis |
Applications of Chemistry |
Grignard Reagents |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stereochemistry |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Winemaking in the chemistry laboratory  Horn, David E.
Outlines a short course on the chemistry of winemaking and provides a procedure for making red wine from grape juice,
Horn, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 375.
Alcohols |
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry
A demonstration in solid state chemistry: The nonstoichiometry of nickel oxide, NiO  Perrino, Charles T.; Johnson, Robert
A simple experiment to demonstrate the nonstoichiometric synthesis of nickel oxide.
Perrino, Charles T.; Johnson, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 367.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solid State Chemistry |
Metals
White to rose and return: A multipurpose demonstration  Olson, Edwin S.
This demonstration is useful for illustrations of reversible redox reactions and for relative reduction potentials.
Olson, Edwin S. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 366.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Dyes / Pigments
Lecture demonstration of the various oxidation states of manganese  Arora, C. L.
Showing the colors associated with seven different oxidation states of magnesium and methods for preparing each.
Arora, C. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 302.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State |
Transition Elements |
Metals
The scope of the Haworth synthesis  Agranat, Israel; Shih, Yu-Shan
The duality of the Haworth synthesis as revealed most conspicuously in the preparation of both anthracene and phenanthrene, widens the scope of the method. On the basis of the reversibility of Friedel-Crafts acylation in PPA, the Haworth synthesis may serve as a route to linearly annelated-as well as to angularly annelated polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons.
Agranat, Israel; Shih, Yu-Shan J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 488.
Synthesis |
Catalysis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Syntheses and rearrangements of cage molecules related to cubane  Jefford, Charles W.
This article looks at the synthesis of cubane, basketene, miscellaneous homocubane chemistry, snoutene, triqunacene, hypostrophene, tris-homocubane, and catalysis by transition metals.
Jefford, Charles W. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 477.
Catalysis |
Transition Elements |
Alkenes |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Heterocycles |
Alcohols
An undergraduate electroanalytical experiment  Janata, Jiri
This article presents a determination of vanillin and of other aromatic aldehyde can easily be accomplished by amperometric titration with a standard solution of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydazine.
Janata, Jiri J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 399.
Electrochemistry |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Natural Products
Preparation of phenanthridone. A multipurpose experiment for the organic laboratory  Hawbecker, Byron L.; Radovich, David A.; Tillotson, Loyal G.
It is desirable to have a series of multipurpose reactions available which can illustrate a variety of reaction types within a single, three hour lab period.
Hawbecker, Byron L.; Radovich, David A.; Tillotson, Loyal G. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 398.
Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones
The hydroboration-oxidation of alkenes. A convenient anti-Markownikoff hydration experiment  Kabalka, George W.; Hedgecock, Herbert C., Jr.
A hydroboration-oxidation sequence that relies on the borane dimethylsulfide complex as the hydroborating agent and trimethylamine-N-oxide dihydrate as the oxidizing agent.
Kabalka, George W.; Hedgecock, Herbert C., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 745.
Alkenes |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Addition Reactions
Conversion of black and white prints to color in daylight. A demonstration lecture for general and organic courses  Wheeler, Thomas N.
A black and white print is converted to a full color print with the lights on; includes a detailed discussion of the chemical processes involved in the demonstration.
Wheeler, Thomas N. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 607.
Photochemistry |
Reactions |
Consumer Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Oxidation / Reduction
Illustrating gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. An undergraduate experiment  Gross, Michael L.; Olsen, Virgil K.; Forc, R. Ken
One lab period is used to separate and collect the components of a ketone mixture; the second lab period is used to explain and demonstrate the MS instrumentation and the interpretation of ketone spectra; and in part three the spectra of the separated ketones are analyzed by individual students.
Gross, Michael L.; Olsen, Virgil K.; Forc, R. Ken J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 535.
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Microbial oxidation of alkenes. An integrated organic-biology experiment  Kumler, Philip L.; DeJong, Peter J.
The conversion of an appropriate terminal alkene to a 1,2-epoxyalkane by Pseudomonas oleovorans introduces students to the techniques used in carrying out chemical conversions employing microorganisms.
Kumler, Philip L.; DeJong, Peter J. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 475.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alkenes |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Biotechnology |
Natural Products
The determination of alcohol content of beer: A general and analytical experiment with high student interest value  Lokken, D. A.
Procedure that uses gas chromatography to determine the alcohol content of beer.
Lokken, D. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 329.
Gas Chromatography |
Alcohols |
Quantitative Analysis
A new chemistry program for nursing and allied health students  Stanitski, Conrad L.; Sears, Curtis T., Jr.
Outlines and discusses the topics considered in a chemistry program for nursing and allied health students.
Stanitski, Conrad L.; Sears, Curtis T., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 226.
Nonmajor Courses |
Applications of Chemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Catalysis |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Metabolism |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
Synthesis of sulfuric acid by the contact process. A student laboratory experiment  Martin, J. A.; Baudot, P.; Monal, J. L.; Lejaille, M. F.
Experimental apparatus and details for the synthesis of sulfuric acid by the contact process.
Martin, J. A.; Baudot, P.; Monal, J. L.; Lejaille, M. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 188.
Synthesis |
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Industrial Chemistry
Conversion of a primary alcohol to an alkyl halide via a tosylate intermediate  Wiseman, Park A.; Betras, Steve; Lindley, Barry
The experiment in this article was designed primarily for and has been performed successfully by sophomore chemistry majors.
Wiseman, Park A.; Betras, Steve; Lindley, Barry J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 348.
Alcohols |
Alkylation |
Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds |
NMR Spectroscopy
The photoisomerization of cyclic ketones: An experiment in organic chemistry  Haas, J. W., Jr.
This experiment deals with parameters such as the nature of the excited state, effect of triplet quenchers on product formation, chemical structure and reaction rate and quantum yield when cyclopentanone and cyclohexanone are irradiated at 254nm. These cyclic ketones provide a variety of photolysis information in a short time span, are conveniently analyzed by gas chromatography, and are readily available at the requisite levels of purity.
Haas, J. W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 346.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds |
Photochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Gas Chromatography
Preparative reduction of benzil: Use of a polarographic analyzer and simple current booster  Carney, J. H.; Mullis, O. J.
The authors report a simple laboratory experiment which demonstrates some of the preparative and mechanistic electrochemistry of ketones in acid solution. The also describe a simple and inexpensive apparatus for preparative scale electrochemistry.
Carney, J. H.; Mullis, O. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 343.
Electrochemistry |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A crossed aldol condensation for the undergraduate laboratory  Angres, Isaac; Zieger, Herman E.
This two-step experiment for undergraduate organic chemistry students illustrates three basic ideas: organic chemistry students illustrate three basic ideas (1) crossed aldol condensation; (2) the acidity of benzylic hydrogen in hydrocarbons; and (3) reduction of a double bond in hydride transfer.
Angres, Isaac; Zieger, Herman E. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 64.
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Acids / Bases |
Alcohols
Some reactions of tungsten: A lecture demonstration  Nelson, D. L.; Reeves, R. R.; Richtol, H. H.
Several demonstrations involving reactions of tungsten.
Nelson, D. L.; Reeves, R. R.; Richtol, H. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 810.
Metals |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Analysis of commercial vitamin C tablets by iodometric and coulometric titrimetry  Marsh, Daniel G.; Jacobs, Deborah L.; Veening, Hans
The ascorbic acid content of vitamin C tablets is determined iodometrically using a back titration with standard thiosulfate; ascorbic acid is then titrated coullometrically by direct oxidation to dehydroascorbic acid using electrolytically generated bromine.
Marsh, Daniel G.; Jacobs, Deborah L.; Veening, Hans J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 626.
Vitamins |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Saving a life with alcohol  Scala, A. A.
Using alcohol as a treatment for ethylene glycol poisoning.
Scala, A. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 365.
Alcohols |
Toxicology |
Metabolism |
Constitutional Isomers
Drinking too fast can cause sudden death  Plumb, Robert C.; Eskelson, C. D.
Examines the metabolism of alcohol.
Plumb, Robert C.; Eskelson, C. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 365.
Alcohols |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Metabolism
Drinking too fast can cause sudden death  Plumb, Robert C.; Eskelson, C. D.
Examines the metabolism of alcohol.
Plumb, Robert C.; Eskelson, C. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 365.
Alcohols |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Metabolism
Molecular weight determination of aldehydes and ketones. A quantitative organic experiment  Steinhaus, Ralph K.
The reaction between semicarbazide and an unknown ketone is used to determine molecular weight.
Steinhaus, Ralph K. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 293.
Physical Properties |
Quantitative Analysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction
Determination of the relative and absolute configurations of (-)menthol and (+)neomenthol. An introductory stereochemistry experiment  Barry, J.
This activity serves to familiarize students with stereochemistry and the conformational analysis of cyclohexane systems.
Barry, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 292.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alcohols |
Conformational Analysis
Commercial gas replaces hydrogen in general chemistry laboratory  Ehlert, Thomas C.
Methane can be used in place of hydrogen to reduce metal oxides.
Ehlert, Thomas C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 162.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Laboratory Management |
Gases |
Metals
Use of a new chemical reducing agent in the undergraduate organic laboratory  Kushner, Arthur S.; Vaccariello, Terry
Using sodium bis(2-methoxy-ethoxy)aluminum hydride as a reducing agent in the undergraduate organic laboratory.
Kushner, Arthur S.; Vaccariello, Terry J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 154.
Laboratory Management |
Oxidation / Reduction
The difference in oxidizing strength of dilute and concentrated nitric acid  Glasoe, Paul K.
H2S gas is bubbled through dilute and concentrated HNO3.
Glasoe, Paul K. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A644.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction
Furfural - Ubiquitous natural product  McCullough, CSC, Thomas
Procedure for obtaining 2-furaldehyde from citrus peelings, banana skins, gourd rinds, corn cobs, dried leaves, and other organic wastes.
McCullough, CSC, Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 836.
Natural Products |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
The bombardier beetle  Plumb, Robert C.; Erickson, Karen L.
The chemistry behind the bombardier beetle's chemical defenses illustrates the principles of reaction rates, catalysis, and laboratory safety.
Plumb, Robert C.; Erickson, Karen L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 705.
Applications of Chemistry |
Natural Products |
Rate Law |
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aromatic Compounds
Durable chrome plating  Plumb, Robert C.; Saur, Roger L.
How chrome plating works to protect bumpers from corrosion.
Plumb, Robert C.; Saur, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 626.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry |
Kinetics
Durable chrome plating  Plumb, Robert C.; Saur, Roger L.
How chrome plating works to protect bumpers from corrosion.
Plumb, Robert C.; Saur, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 626.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry |
Kinetics
Visualization of molecular orbitals. Formaldehyde  Olcott, Richard J.
Using a computer to generate three dimensional charge density distributions of the formaldehyde molecule.
Olcott, Richard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 614.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The presentation of electrode potentials using an energy level diagram  Pinfold, T. A.
The tabular form in which standard electrode potentials are usually presented often leads to confusion that can be diminished by representing the electrochemical series on an energy diagram like that provided.
Pinfold, T. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 506.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Computer evaluation of titrations by Gran's method. An analytical chemistry experiment  MacDonald, Timothy J.; Barker, Barbara J.; Caruso, Joseph A.
A computer program has been developed for the evaluation of potentiometric redox titration data by Gran's method.
MacDonald, Timothy J.; Barker, Barbara J.; Caruso, Joseph A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 200.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry |
Acids / Bases
Beer, acetone, and diabetes: A story and a demonstration  Isenberg, Norbert
Acetone causes the collapse of beer foam.
Isenberg, Norbert J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 151.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Medicinal Chemistry
Catalytic hydrogenation of ketones at moderate pressures. An organic demonstration-experiment  Kaye, Irving Allan
This procedure requires a moderate pressure hydrogenator and can be completed as a demonstration or a laboratory with a small number of students.
Kaye, Irving Allan J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 131.
Catalysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Alkylations in organic chemistry  Mundy, Bradford P.
Examines some of the subtle factors involved in alkylations, including alkylations via enolates, alkylations via enamines, and alkylation of enolates derived from reduction of enone systems.
Mundy, Bradford P. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 91.
Synthesis |
Alkylation |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
Six questions requiring an application of basic principles of chemistry. [Debut]
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 5.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Vitamins |
Alcohols |
Oxidation / Reduction
Conversions from cyclohexanol. An undergraduate laboratory project  Hanna, Samir B.; Wrobleski, James T.; Bohanon, Joseph T.; Peace, Bab W.
A procedure for a laboratory in conversions from cyclohexanol.
Hanna, Samir B.; Wrobleski, James T.; Bohanon, Joseph T.; Peace, Bab W. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 556.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alcohols
Preparation of 2,3-diphenyl-1-indenone and related compounds  Clark, Thomas J.
The author describes a series of preparative experiments which students in organic chemistry have found enjoyable and instructive.
Clark, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 554.
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds
Oxymercuration-demercuration. An organic experiment involving the Markovnikov hydration of olefins  Gibbs, R.; Weber, William P.
While acid catalyzed hydration of olefins to yield alcohol's is important in organic chemistry, it is seldom performed by students for practical reasons. The authors contribute a laboratory that can be particularly performed by organic chemistry students.
Gibbs, R.; Weber, William P. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 477.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Lipids
A color indicating time reaction  Chen, Philip S.
Combining solutions of sodium thoisulfate and ferric chloride produces a dramatic color change.
Chen, Philip S. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A784.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Catalysis demonstrations with Cr2O3  Briggs, Thomas S.
Cr2O3 is used as a catalyst in the oxidation of nonflammable substances such as glycerine and glacial acetic acid.
Briggs, Thomas S. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A206.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Catalysis
Autoxidation of benzoin  Chen, Philip S.
Benzoin in its enediol form undergoes autoxidation in alkaline solution in the presence of air.
Chen, Philip S. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A67.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Recrystallization and melting point determination  Kaye, Irving Allan; Yuska, Henry
This experiment is essentially an exercise in recrystallization and identification, by melting point and mixed melting point determination, an unknown ketone that has been transformed into either its 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone or semicarbazone derivative.
Kaye, Irving Allan; Yuska, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 703.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Qualitative Analysis
Preparation of 6-aminosaccharin  Rose, Norman C.; Rome, Sanford
This synthesis involves the substitution of a chlorosulfonyl group onto an aromatic ring at a position predictable on the basis of the directing ability of the groups already present, the oxidation of a methyl group, a cyclization that is an example of the ease with which five-membered rings are formed, and the reduction of a nitro group.
Rose, Norman C.; Rome, Sanford J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 649.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction
A chemiluminescence reaction  Slabaugh, W. H.
A dramatic demonstration of chemiluminescence can be made with the oxidation of the vat dye violanthrone.
Slabaugh, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 522.
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Dyes / Pigments
Organic nomenclature, I  Liotta, Charles
It is the purpose of this article to call attention to errors and misconceptions in the application of IUPAC Rules of Organic Nomenclature.
Liotta, Charles J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 471.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alcohols |
Heterocycles
Controlled potential electrolysis: An experiment for elementary quantitative analysis  Kennedy, John H; Adams, Frank
Iron(II), iodide, and arsenic(III) are oxidized and data recorded using the E-cell Data-Stor Unit, a small silver coulometer.
Kennedy, John H; Adams, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 461.
Quantitative Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
The equivalent weight of the iodate ion in oxidimetric titrations  Pantani, Francesco
Titrations with potassium iodate can not only solve many analytical problems but are also of educational importance, since iodate ions are involved in numerous redox systems; this paper explains the analysis of these types of titrations and the determination of equivalent weight.
Pantani, Francesco J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 309.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Indene reactions: An organic chemistry laboratory problem  Garrison, James A.
Students are given a problem in which they are to determine which of two published accounts of reaction products involving derivatives of idene is correct.
Garrison, James A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 300.
Alkenes |
Alcohols
Equivalence point potential in redox titrations  Heyn, Arno H. A.
Many analytical chemistry textbooks ignore or mistake the effect of [H+] on the equivalence point potential.
Heyn, Arno H. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 240.
Electrochemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases |
Solutions / Solvents
A simple cell for preparation of electrolytes  Penzes, S.
Design of a simple electrolytic cell that can produce a high concentration of the anodically dissolved metal.
Penzes, S. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 138.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Synthesis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals
The oxidation of hydrazine by basic iodine solutions: A stoichiometric study  Cooper, J. N.; Ramette, R. W.
This experiment relies on an oxidation-reduction reaction for which a variety of products is energetically possible.
Cooper, J. N.; Ramette, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 872.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
The dehydration of 3,3-dimethyl-2-butanol  Taber, Richard L.; Grantham, Gary D.; Champion, William C.
Presents an experiment that demonstrates the usefulness of gas chromatography as an analytical technique, emphasizes structural rearrangement, makes use of elementary thermodynamics, and gives the student some experience in the original literature.
Taber, Richard L.; Grantham, Gary D.; Champion, William C. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 849.
Alcohols |
Alkenes |
Gas Chromatography
Identification of an unknown ester: An analytical-organic experiment  Grob, Robert L.; Husk, G. Ronald
It is the student's challenge to hydrolyze an ester, separate and purify the resultant alcohol and acid, determine several physical and chemical characteristics, and arrive at a logical choice for its identity.
Grob, Robert L.; Husk, G. Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 769.
Quantitative Analysis |
Esters |
Alcohols |
Carboxylic Acids
A unique laboratory-lecture in organic chemistry  Nienhouse, Everett J.
The laboratory-lecture considered centers about the products obtained from the dehydration of 4-methyl-2-pentanol.
Nienhouse, Everett J. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 765.
Alcohols |
Alkenes
The Hantzsch pyridine synthesis: A factorial design experiment for the introductory organic laboratory  Norcross, B. E.; Clement, G.; Weinstein, M.
Students carry out the two-step Hantzsch pyridine synthesis; students are required to select the oxidizing agent and conditions for the second reaction step.
Norcross, B. E.; Clement, G.; Weinstein, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 694.
Synthesis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Heterocycles |
Mechanisms of Reactions
A simple amperostat for coulometric titration  Vincent, Colin A.; Ward, J. G.
Describes the circuit, assembly, and performance of a simple amperostat for coulometric titration.
Vincent, Colin A.; Ward, J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 613.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
A simple method for the analysis of cobalt in Co(III) complexes  Hughes, R. Graham; Endicott, John F.; Hoffman, Morton Z.; House, D. A.
Presents two direct chemical methods for effecting the Co(III) to Co2+ reduction.
Hughes, R. Graham; Endicott, John F.; Hoffman, Morton Z.; House, D. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 440.
Coordination Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Laboratory Management
Group VI. The Sulfur Family D. Sulfur Dioxide  Alyea, Hubert N.
Seven demonstrations involving sulfur dioxide.
Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A977.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Reactions |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Oxidation / Reduction
Nitrogen chemistry. E. Nitrites and nitrates  Mancuso, Carl J.; Alyea, Hubert N.; Slabaugh, W. A.
Demonstrations include nitric acid + H2S, sodium nitrate + carbon, fire-writing with KNO3, nitrate ring test, nitrate versus nitrite, and micro-analysis for nitrogen compounds.
Mancuso, Carl J.; Alyea, Hubert N.; Slabaugh, W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A607.
Qualitative Analysis |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction
Hazardous chemicals data  National Fire Protection Association
Explains aspects of chemical hazard data and presents hazards associated with acetaldehyde.
National Fire Protection Association J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A115.
Chemometrics |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Laboratory Management
Dermatometry for coeds  Adamson, Arthur W.; Kunichika, K.; Shirley, F.; Orem, M.
It is possible to estimate the alcohol content of a drink from the contact angle of a drop on human skin.
Adamson, Arthur W.; Kunichika, K.; Shirley, F.; Orem, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 702.
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Alcohols
The kinetics of oxidation-reduction reactions: An alternate derivation of Marcus' cross relation  Newton, T. W.
The purpose of this article is to show how Marcus' cross relation can be derived from a simple, essentially mechanical model.
Newton, T. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 571.
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Acids as derivatives of aldehydes prepared with silver oxides  Thomason, Sandra C.; Kubler, Donald G.
Examines the use of silver(i) and silver(II) oxide to convert aldehydes into acid derivatives.
Thomason, Sandra C.; Kubler, Donald G. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 546.
Acids / Bases |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis
Effect of complexing agents on oxidation potentials  Helsen, Jef
A short note on a simple experiment to demonstrate the effect of complexing agents on the oxidation-reduction properties of redox couples such as Fe3+/Fe2+.
Helsen, Jef J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 518.
Coordination Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry
Mechanisms of oxidation-reduction reactions  Taube, Henry
Examines the mechanisms of oxidation-reduction reactions.
Taube, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 452.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Oxidation State |
Coordination Compounds
Why does methane burn?  Sanderson, R. T.
A thermodynamic explanation for why methane burns.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 423.
Thermodynamics |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
Chromic acid oxidation of alcohols: A simple experiment on reaction rates  Lanes, Rose M.; Lee, Donald G.
In this experiment, students determine the relative rates of oxidation by adding quantities of several different alcohols to a solution of chromium(VI) in dilute sulfuric acid and visually monitoring the course of the reaction.
Lanes, Rose M.; Lee, Donald G. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 269.
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Acids / Bases |
Alcohols
Using TLC to follow the oxidation of a secondary alcohol to a ketone  Davis, Michael
A short note regarding a simple procedure involving the use of thin layer chromatography to follow the oxidation of a secondary alcohol to a ketone.
Davis, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 192.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Biological oxidations and energy conservation  Kirschbaum, Joel
Examines the oxidative steps leading to the synthesis of ATP in living organisms and their metabolic control.
Kirschbaum, Joel J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 28.
Bioenergetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics |
Metabolism
Metallurgy C. Reducton of Ore  Rogers, Crosby U.
Demonstrations include the reduction of Cu2O with charcoal, heating zinc carbonate, and zinc sulfide heated in air.
Rogers, Crosby U. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A717.
Metallurgy |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction
Reaction rates and equilibria. D. Redox  Klug, Evangeline B.
Sugar + chlorate + acid produces an exothermic reaction using a violent oxidizing agent.
Klug, Evangeline B. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A545.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Equilibrium
Energy C. Electrical Energy  Soule, Dean; Hornbeck, Leroy G.; Jackson, Kenneth V.; Barnard, Robert; Noerdin, Isjrin
Demonstrations include aluminum flashed in oxygen; photo-bromination of cinnamic acid, hexane, tartaric acid, toluene; photochemical H2+Cl2 explosion and the slow photochemical H2+Cl2 into 2HCl.
Soule, Dean; Hornbeck, Leroy G.; Jackson, Kenneth V.; Barnard, Robert; Noerdin, Isjrin J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A83.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Photochemistry
Dehydration of 2-methylcyclohexanol  Taber, Richard L.; Champion, William C.
This short article describes a simple alcohol dehydration that illustrates the Saytzeff Rule.
Taber, Richard L.; Champion, William C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 620.
Alcohols |
Gas Chromatography |
Alkenes
The stoichiometry of an oxidation-reduction reaction  Latimer, George W., Jr.
A short note on the titration of hydrazine sulfate with standard bromate in the presence of sodium molybdate that requires students to identify the products through the use of some elementary qualitative analysis.
Latimer, George W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 537.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis
The photochemical oxidation of aqueous iodide solutions: An experiment demonstrating the competitive reactions of the hydrated electron  Ayscough, P. B.; Burchill, C. E.; Ivin, K. J; Logan, S. R.
Hydrated electrons are formed by the photochemical method referred to in the cited article.
Ayscough, P. B.; Burchill, C. E.; Ivin, K. J; Logan, S. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 349.
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Alcohols to alkyl halides: A kinetics experiment for elementary chemistry courses  Cooley, J. H.; McCown, J. D.; Shill, R. M.
The rate measurement in this procedure is accomplished by direct observation of the change in length or volume of the insoluble layer of an alkyl bromide that is formed from a mixture of alcohol, hydrobromic acid, and sulfuric acid.
Cooley, J. H.; McCown, J. D.; Shill, R. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 280.
Alcohols |
Synthesis |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
VII - Combustion and flame  Anderson, Robbin C.
Presents and describes an extensive bibliography on the study of combustion and flames.
Anderson, Robbin C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 248.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Gases
The martini as an alcoholic solution  Kauffman, George B.
Addresses the question, "How many time stronger in alcohol content is a 'strong' martini than the standard variety?"
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 199.
Alcohols |
Solutions / Solvents
Stereochemical correlations in the camphor series  Markgraf, J. Hodge
This paper presents a series of experiments that require the student to interpret the effect of structure on the steric course of an oxidation and a reduction in a bicyclic system.
Markgraf, J. Hodge J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 36.
Stereochemistry |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A simple potentiostat for controlled potential electrolysis  Tackett, Stanford L.; Knowles, John A.
Present a circuit diagram and describes typical applications of a simple potentiostat for controlled potential electrolysis.
Tackett, Stanford L.; Knowles, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 428.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Instrumental Methods
Use of KMnO4, to oxidize interfering organic anions in qualitative analysis  Poonia, N. S.; Bhagwat, W. V.
A simple procedure is presented here that is based upon the oxidation of organic material by permanganate ion in acidified medium.
Poonia, N. S.; Bhagwat, W. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 424.
Qualitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Selective reduction of dinitro compounds  Weiss, Hilton M.
The selective reduction of aromatic dinitro compounds by ammonium sulfide is an opportunity to consider an open-ended question.
Weiss, Hilton M. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 384.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aromatic Compounds |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Hydration of an alkyne: Undergraduate organic chemistry experiment  Rose, Norman C.
The hydration of 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol to yield 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-butanone is a very suitable reaction for undergraduates who have had little prior experience in the organic laboratory.
Rose, Norman C. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 324.
Alkynes |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols
The use of oxidation potentials in inorganic chemistry  Jolly, William L.
This paper attempts to show, using a minimum of thermodynamics, how oxidation potentials can be used to predict the products and driving forces of oxidation-reduction reactions.
Jolly, William L. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 198.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Thermodynamics
Combustion versus biological oxidation  Asenjo, Conrado F.
Describes a simple toy that can be used to illustrate the difference between combustion and biological oxidation.
Asenjo, Conrado F. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 558.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Qualitative test for ketones, aromatic aldehydes, and aliphatic aldehydes  Morrison, James D.
The Bordwell-Wellman solution of chromic anhydride in aqueous sulfuric acid is an excellent reagent for distinguishing aldehydes from ketones.
Morrison, James D. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 554.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds
Kinetics of corrosion of metals  Habashi, Fathi
It is the purpose of this paper to report that all corrosion processes that produce no insoluble end products and evolve hydrogen follow a single kinetic law.
Habashi, Fathi J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 318.
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Kinetics
Continuous process for catalytic oxidation of ammonia  Olmsted, Michael P.
A heated platinum coil catalyzes the oxidation of ammonia.
Olmsted, Michael P. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A973.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Effect of liquid NH3 on wood: A demonstration of the alcohol structure of cellulose  Hirsch, Phillis R.
A lecture demonstration of the plasticization of wood with liquid ammonia can be a very effective tool for teaching the alcohol structure of cellulose to any class studying basic organic chemistry.
Hirsch, Phillis R. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 605.
Carbohydrates |
Alcohols |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The oxidation of iodide ion by persulfate ion  Moews, P. C., Jr.; Petrucci, R. H.
Presents the oxidation of iodide ion by persulfate ion as an ideal reaction to study as part of an experiment on kinetics.
Moews, P. C., Jr.; Petrucci, R. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 549.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Signs of tensions in electrochemistry  Van Rysselberghe, Pierre
Discusses conventions and definitions for electrochemical terms and relationships.
Van Rysselberghe, Pierre J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 486.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Oxidation / Reduction
The decolorization of Baeyer's reagent by primary and secondary alcohols  Swinehart, James A.
The results of testing a large number of primary and secondary alcohols with Baeyer's reagent .
Swinehart, James A. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 392.
Alcohols
Rocket propulsion: The chemical challenge  Dafler, James R.
Examines the chemistry of rocket fuels and engines.
Dafler, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 58.
Reactions |
Applications of Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Demonstration notes: Chemiluminescence in electrolysis  Villarreal, Fidel; Garcia, Octavio
Suggests a modification to the usual chemiluminescence demonstration with luminol.
Villarreal, Fidel; Garcia, Octavio J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A477.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
The pyrolytic decomposition of carboxylate salts to ketones  Schultz, H. P.; Sichels, J. P.
Suggestions for research to accompany a previously published article.
Schultz, H. P.; Sichels, J. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A463.
Undergraduate Research |
Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones
The use of the Perkin reaction in organic chemistry classes  Buckles, R. E.
Provides suggestions for student research based on an earlier article published in the Journal.
Buckles, R. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A139.
Undergraduate Research |
Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
The theory of the formaldehyde clock reaction  Jones, P.; Oldham, K. B.
Presents a theory for the formaldehyde clock reaction.
Jones, P.; Oldham, K. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 366.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Aldehydes / Ketones
The stereochemistry of (-) menthol: An organic laboratory experiment  Dunathan, H. C.
This experiment determines the relative configuration of (-) menthol in which students measure optical rotations, follows the rate of a mutarotation, evaluates rate constants, and carries out a reaction involving asymmetric induction.
Dunathan, H. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 205.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Oxidation / Reduction
Inorganic reaction mechanisms by volumetric analysis: Oxidation of iodide ion  Moody, G. J.; Thomas, J. D. R.
Uses the Andrews' method of titration as a simple means of exposing the two-step oxidation of the iodide ion to iodine in concentrated hydrochloric acid with a variety of oxidizing agents.
Moody, G. J.; Thomas, J. D. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 151.
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
The formation of acetone from acetates  Young, Jay A.; Taylor, John K.
Suggests some research activities based on an article published previously in the Journal.
Young, Jay A.; Taylor, John K. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A962.
Undergraduate Research |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Reactions
Demonstration notes: Spontaneous combustion of H2S  Thomas, P. M.
Hydrogen sulfide passed over lead(IV) oxide bursts into flame.
Thomas, P. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A839.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
A rapid test to distinguish tertiary from primary or secondary alcohols  Bordwell, Frederick C.; Wellman, Keith M.
Describes a protocol for distinguishing tertiary from primary or secondary alcohols and its application to a specific problem.
Bordwell, Frederick C.; Wellman, Keith M. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 308.
Alcohols |
Qualitative Analysis
The acylation of aliphatic unsaturated hydrocarbons  Sharefkin, Jacob G.
Introductory organic chemistry textbooks discuss the Friedel-Crafts synthesis of aromatic ketones but usually do not treat the corresponding reaction in the aliphatic series.
Sharefkin, Jacob G. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 206.
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Reactions |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Periodate cleavage of glycols: A quantitative organic analysis experiment  Schenk, George H.
This reaction is much used by organic chemists and uses the familiar standard solutions of iodine and sodium arsenite, common buffers, and stable organic glycols, such as ethylene glycol and pinacol.
Schenk, George H. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 32.
Quantitative Analysis |
Alcohols |
Reactions
Letters  Smith, W. B.
The author suggests two experiments for determining the best method for preparing cyclopentanone from adipic acid.
Smith, W. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 638.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Synthesis
Oxidation-reduction mechanisms  Duke, F. R.
Summarizes various types of oxidation-reduction mechanisms.
Duke, F. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 161.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Letters  Taylor, D. A. H.
Tollens reagent is not an infallible test for aldehydes.
Taylor, D. A. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 102.
Quantitative Analysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
The Corrosion and Oxidation of Metals: Scientific Principles and Practical Applications (Evans, Ulick R.)  Goldstein, Ernst M.

Goldstein, Ernst M. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 662.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals
The Fehling and Benedict tests  Daniels, Ralph; Rush, Clyde C.; Bauer, Ludwig
The commonly cited interpretation of the Fehling and Benedict tests are not in accord with experimental facts.
Daniels, Ralph; Rush, Clyde C.; Bauer, Ludwig J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 205.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
A separation and identification experiment for elementary organic chemistry laboratory  Laughton, Paul M.
The student selects a test tube containing two unknowns and is told only that they have been selected from two of three possible groups: a primary or tertiary amine, an aldehyde or ketone, and an acid or phenol. The components are to be separated, their physical properties determined, their categories assigned, and one specific derivative prepared for each.
Laughton, Paul M. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 133.
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Acids / Bases |
Phenols |
Physical Properties |
Synthesis
Oxidation of hydrogen sulfide in inorganic qualitative analysis  Stock, John T.; Shinozuka, Fujiko
Presents the results of an investigation into the sulfate-forming tendencies of various oxidizing agents.
Stock, John T.; Shinozuka, Fujiko J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 385.
Qualitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Balancing organic redox equations  Burrell, Harold P. C.
This paper presents a method for balancing organic redox equations based on the study of structural formulas and an artificial device - the use of hypothetical free radicals.
Burrell, Harold P. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 77.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Free Radicals
Explosive hazard of aluminum-liquid oxygen mixtures  Austin, Calvin M.; Rohrer, Charles S.; Seifert, Ralph L.
Details the serious explosive hazards and ignition properties of aluminum-liquid oxygen mixtures; this demonstration should NEVER be used for classroom or public viewing purposes.
Austin, Calvin M.; Rohrer, Charles S.; Seifert, Ralph L. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 54.
Oxidation / Reduction
EDTA and complex formation  Johnston, M. B.; Bernard, A. J., Jr.; Flaschka, H. A.
It is the purpose of this paper to fill the void in chemistry texts regarding EDTA and its application to titrations in analytical chemistry, and to present some integrated experiments designed to serve as a general introduction to water-soluble chelates.
Johnston, M. B.; Bernard, A. J., Jr.; Flaschka, H. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 601.
Coordination Compounds |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Precipitation / Solubility
The stability of solutions for the iodine clock reaction  Kauffman, George B.; Hall, Charles R.
The results of attempts to stabilize solutions needed for the iodine clock reaction to allow long-term storage.
Kauffman, George B.; Hall, Charles R. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 577.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Systematic detection of anions through their parent elements  Caldas, Alcides; Gentil, Vicente
Presents an analysis scheme that aims at the detection of the parent elements of the anions, no matter what their state of combination.
Caldas, Alcides; Gentil, Vicente J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 545.
Qualitative Analysis |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The reduction of carbon dioxide  Hollander, Jerome; Spialter, Leonard
Examines the reduction of carbon through a variety of processes, including catalytic hydrogenation, reduction by metals and complex metal hydrides, electrochemical reduction, and reduction under the influence of radiation.
Hollander, Jerome; Spialter, Leonard J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 446.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Catalysis |
Metals |
Electrochemistry |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
The use of N-chlorosuccinimide for identification of bromide and iodide ions  Filler, Robert
Describes the use of N-chlorosuccinimide as an oxidizing agent in preference to "chlorine water" for the identification of bromide and iodide ions.
Filler, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 407.
Qualitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Reduction with complex metal hydrides  Gaylord, Norman G.
Focusses on the use of lithium aluminum hydride, aluminum hydride, magnesium aluminum hydride, sodium aluminum hydride, sodium borohydride, potassium borohydride, lithium borohydride, and lithium gallium hydride as analytical reducing reagents.
Gaylord, Norman G. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 367.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Reactions
The glycol centenary  Farber, Eduard
Describes the original synthesis of glycol by Adolphe Wurtz in 1856 and traces its subsequent production.
Farber, Eduard J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 117.
Synthesis |
Alcohols
Textbook errors: V. The reaction of the Leclanche dry cell  Mysels, Karol J.
Most textbooks do not completely and accurately describe the chemistry of the Leclanche dry cell.
Mysels, Karol J. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 638.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Lecture demonstrations of incendiaries. II  Antelman, Marvin
Demonstrations described involve gunpowder, the combustion of sulfur dioxide, zirconium, nitric acid, sodium peroxide, hot iron, ammonium nitrate, organic chlorates and nitrates, and zinc stearate.
Antelman, Marvin J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 273.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
A laboratory exercise in catalytic dehydrogenation  Allison, Elizabeth; Gorsich, Richard; Binder, L. O.
Presents an apparatus that uses a copper catalyst to prepare aldehydes and ketones from alcohols through catalytic dehydrogenation.
Allison, Elizabeth; Gorsich, Richard; Binder, L. O. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 209.
Catalysis |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Synthesis
Letters to the editor  Hendricks, B. Clifford
Questions what happens to the cryolite needed in the reduction of aluminum from its ore.
Hendricks, B. Clifford J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 52.
Industrial Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
A sequence of synthesis in the general organic laboratory class  Lange, Erwin F.; Teranishi, Roy; Christensen, Bert E.
This synthesis involves the oxidation of p-xylene, nitration and esterfication of terephthalic acid, reduction of nitroterephthalic acid, and the preparation of 4-quinazolone-7-carboxylic acid.
Lange, Erwin F.; Teranishi, Roy; Christensen, Bert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 40.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
A cell for the preparation of small quantities of alkali metals  Baker, Philip S.; Wells, G. F.; Rathkamp, W. R.
The work described here deals with the development of a miniature cell designed for the preparation of alkali metals (particularly lithium) from small amounts of their salts.
Baker, Philip S.; Wells, G. F.; Rathkamp, W. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 515.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
An oxidation-reduction diagram  Tarsey, Alexandre R.
Describes the construction and properties of a chart capable of providing a visual approach to correlating the various concepts pertaining to oxidation and reduction potentials.
Tarsey, Alexandre R. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 375.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Material balances and redox equations  Bennett, George W.
It is the purpose of this paper to remind teachers of a third method of balancing redox equations that does not depend on rule-of-thumb empiricism but relies on the conservation of matter.
Bennett, George W. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 324.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
A synthesis of bis(p-aminophenyl) sulfone for laboratory classes  Buckles, Robert E.
A three-step synthesis of bis(p-aminophenyl) sulfone from p-chloronitrobenzene has been devised on a fairly small scale for laboratory classes in beginning organic chemistry.
Buckles, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 36.
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Investigation of complex metal ions by the polarographic method  Gayer, Karl H.; Demmler, Anita; Elkind, Michael J.
The purpose of this paper is to present in a simplified and readily understandable manner the outline of one of the instrumental methods that, in recent years, has become an increasingly prominent tool in the investigation of complex metal ions.
Gayer, Karl H.; Demmler, Anita; Elkind, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 557.
Coordination Compounds |
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Letters  Davidson, David
Responds to comments made in a related letter.
Davidson, David J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 534.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Letters  Ricci, John E.
Discusses the question of teaching students how to "solve" problems requiring more than one equilibrium constant.
Ricci, John E. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 532.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Differentiating between primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols  Ritter, Frank O.
A primary or secondary aliphatic alcohol dissolved in pure glacial acetic acid decolorizes a water solution of KMnO4, while a tertiary alcohol fails to do so; a secondary alcohol will continue to react with KMnO4 solution if a little concentrated sulfuric acid is added, while a primary alcohol does not.
Ritter, Frank O. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 395.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alcohols |
Quantitative Analysis
Demonstration of the intermediate position of cobalt between iron and nickel  Goldstein, Ernst M.
The different oxidizability of ferrous, cobaltous, and nickelous hydroxides, together with increasing color deepness of the oxidation products, can be used to demonstrate that cobalt is intermediate in its properties between iron and nickel.
Goldstein, Ernst M. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 387.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Qualitative Analysis
Letters  Swinehart, D. F.
The author responds to questions raised regarding his earlier article on oxidation states.
Swinehart, D. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 265.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Letters  Miranda, Bienvenido T.
Commmentary on two earlier Journal articles.
Miranda, Bienvenido T. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 264.
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
The algebra of simultaneous equilibria  Davidson, David; Geller, Kenneth
Presents a series of rules for dealing with simultaneous equilibria using simple algebra.
Davidson, David; Geller, Kenneth J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 238.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
The Friedel-Crafts reaction in elementary organic laboratories  Wright, Oscar L.; Fuhlhage, Donald; Sheridan, Earl
Presents a modification of the Perrier ketone synthesis.
Wright, Oscar L.; Fuhlhage, Donald; Sheridan, Earl J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 620.
Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Synthesis
Redox diagrams  Sillen, Lars Gunnar
Develops redox diagrams that portray redox equilibria for a variety of species.
Sillen, Lars Gunnar J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 600.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State |
Metals
Letters  Hackney, J. C.
The author elaborates on the source of a fallacy in the calculation of an overall redox potential by combination of two half-cell potentials.
Hackney, J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 472.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Letters  Angus, L. H.
Briefly describes the use of ferroxyl gels to demonstrate the oxidation of iron.
Angus, L. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 556.
Oxidation / Reduction
Letters  Hackney, J. C.
Discusses pitfalls in the construction of "objective" examinations.
Hackney, J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 556.
Oxidation / Reduction
The effect of nitrous acid on the oxidizing power of nitric acid  Brasted, Robert C.
this demonstration illustrates that the oxidizing action of nitric acid may be considerably enhanced by small quantities of nitrous acid which are usually present.
Brasted, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 442.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The use of starch-iodate paper in qualitative analysis  Lundin, John A.
Describes the preparation of starch-iodate paper and its use in detecting sulfur dioxide and reducing anions.
Lundin, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 122.
Qualitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction