TIGER

Journal Articles: 88 results
Control of Chemical Equilibrium by Solvent: A Basis for Teaching Physical Chemistry of Solutions  Oleg V. Prezhdo, Colleen F. Craig, Yuriy Fialkov, and Victor V. Prezhdo
The mechanisms by which solvent can be used to control chemical equilibria are analyzed from a thermodynamic perspective and illustrated with several examples. The solvent effect is described in terms of universal- and specific-solvation components, and the practical and pedagogical means of separating these components are discussed.
Prezhdo, Oleg V.; Craig, Colleen F.; Fialkov, Yuriy; Prezhdo, Victor V. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1348.
Equilibrium |
Reactions |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics
Quantitative Imaging in the Laboratory: Fast Kinetics and Fluorescence Quenching  Tanya Cumberbatch and Quentin S. Hanley
This article describes an experiment based on quantitative imaging in which students use the quenching of fluorescein dianion to measure rate constants.
Cumberbatch, Tanya; Hanley, Quentin S. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1319.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Kinetics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis
Study of Metal–NH3 Interfaces (Metal = Cu, Ni, Ag) Using Potentiostatic Curves  Nelson Nunes, Angela Martins, and Ruben Elvas Leitão
Students determine kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of different metalsolution interfaces obtained from potentiostatic curves using the Tafel and the Arrhenius equations.
Nunes, Nelson; Martins, Angela; Leitão, Ruben Elvas. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1017.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Kinetics |
Metals
Enthalpy of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures: An Inexpensive Apparatus  Rubin Battino, David A. Dolson, Michael R. Hall, and Trevor M. Letcher
Describes an inexpensive apparatus for the determination of the vapor pressure of a liquid as a function of temperature for the purpose of calculating enthalpy changes of vaporization. Also described are a simple air thermostat and an inexpensive temperature controller based on an integrated temperature sensor.
Battino, Rubin; Dolson, David A.; Hall, Michael R.; Letcher, Trevor M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 822.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Lipids |
Phenols |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A Pollutant Transformation Laboratory Exercise for Environmental Chemistry: The Reduction of Nitrobenzenes by Anaerobic Solutions of Humic Acid  Frank M. Dunnivant and Mark-Cody Reynolds
Presents a laboratory for advanced undergraduate- or graduate-level environmental chemistry in which students study the reduction of substituted nitrobenzenes by natural organic matter under anaerobic conditions. The exercise involves solution preparation, pH and EH buffers, organic reaction mechanisms, reaction kinetics, and instrumental analysis.
Dunnivant, Frank M.; Reynolds, Mark-Cody. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 315.
Instrumental Methods |
pH |
Solutions / Solvents |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction
Semiempirical and DFT Investigations of the Dissociation of Alkyl Halides  Jack R. Waas
Enthalpy changes corresponding to the gas phase heats of dissociation of 12 organic halides were calculated using two semiempirical methods, the HartreeFock method, and two DFT methods. All five methods agreed generally with the expected empirically known trends in the dissociation of alkyl halides.
Waas, Jack R. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1017.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Computational Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Modeling |
Reactions |
Reactive Intermediates |
Thermodynamics |
Elimination Reactions |
Nucleophilic Substitution
Theoretical Insights for Practical Handling of Pressurized Fluids  Alfonso Aranda and María del Prado Rodríguez
Introduces the basic considerations for managing pressurized fluids, mainly liquefied and compressed gases.
Aranda, Alfonso; Rodríguez, María del Prado. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 93.
Applications of Chemistry |
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
Simple and Inexpensive Computer Interface to a Durrum Stopped-Flow Apparatus Tested Using the Iron(III)–Thiocyanate Reaction  Craig M. Hoag
Describes a computer interface between a Durrum model 110 stopped-flow apparatus and a LabPro voltage probe using LoggerPro software from Vernier. This probe and software can be used to measure and record data from most instruments normally connected to an oscilloscope or chart recorder.
Hoag, Craig M. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1823.
Instrumental Methods |
Kinetics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Coordination Compounds |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Rotational Mobility in a Crystal Studied by Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy. An Experiment for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory  Madalena S. C. Dionísio, Hermínio P. Diogo, J. P. S. Farinha, and Joaquim J. Moura-Ramos
In this article we present a laboratory experiment for an undergraduate physical chemistry course. The purpose of this experiment is the study of molecular mobility in a crystal using the technique of dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. The experiment illustrates important physical chemistry concepts. The background of the experimental technique deals with the concepts of orientational and induced polarization and frequency-dependent relative permittivity (or dielectric constant). The kinetic concepts of temperature-dependent relaxation time, activation energy, and activation entropy are involved in the concept of molecular mobility.
Dionísio, Madalena S. C.; Diogo, Hermínio P.; Farinha, J. P. S.; Moura-Ramos, Joaquim J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1355.
Kinetics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Crystals / Crystallography
Photocatalytic Oxidation of Sulfurous Acid in an Aqueous Medium  Alicia Romero, Guillermo Hernández, and Marco F. Suárez
The photooxidation process of sulfurous acid by molecular oxygen in the presence of TiO2 is described. The effect of some reaction parameters, such as initial concentration of sulfurous acid, oxygen, TiO2 crystalline structure, and quantity of TiO2, were investigated. The reactions were run in an inexpensive reactor. The experiments are ideal for second-year chemistry undergraduate students interested in photocatalysis and green chemistry.
Romero, Alicia; Hernández, Guillermo; Suárez, Marco F. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1234.
Catalysis |
Green Chemistry |
Kinetics
Automatic Low-Cost Data Acquisition from Old Polarimetric Instruments  Giuseppe Alibrandi, Santi D'Aliberti, Salvatore Coppolino, Antonino Villari, and Norberto Micali
This article describes the design of an apparatus that allows the digital acquisition of polarimetric data from a Lippich polarimeter. This apparatus consists of a low-cost telecamera applied to the ocular of a double-field polarimeter and connected to a PC. The camera is able to reveal with high sensibility the difference in brightness in the two fields allowing more accurate analytical data to be obtained, without need for the analyser to be rotated. This apparatus allows the execution of either single observations or kinetics, because it is able to save previously obtained analytical data.
Alibrandi, Giuseppe; D'Aliberti, Santi; Coppolino, Salvatore; Villari, Antonino; Micali, Norberto. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 442.
Instrumental Methods |
Kinetics |
Quantitative Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Keynotes in Organic Chemistry (Andrew F. Parsons)  Joel M. Karty
As a result of the trend towards modularization of chemistry courses, the text attempts to meet the need for smaller, highly focused and accessible organic chemistry textbooks, which complement the very detailed standard texts, to guide students through the key principles of the subject.
Karty, Joel M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 651.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Thermodynamics
The Solubility Product of PbCl2 from Electrochemical Measurements  Jimmy S. Hwang and Ghassan A. Oweimreen
Students obtain the solubility product, Ksp, of PbCl2 at various temperatures from practically simultaneous emf measurements on two electrochemical cells. One half-cell is common to both cells.
Hwang, Jimmy S.; Oweimreen, Ghassan A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1051.
Electrochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics |
Precipitation / Solubility
Chemical Applications of a Programmable Image Acquisition System  Paul J. Ogren, Ian Henry, Steven E. S. Fletcher, and Ian Kelly
A programmable imaging system for thin-layer and kinetics measurements; examples of applications include well plate analysis, TLC quantitative analysis of acetaminophen and aspirin, analysis of electrophoresis bands, and kinetics of toluidine blue reduction by sulfite.
Ogren, Paul J.; Henry, Ian; Fletcher, Steven E. S.; Kelly, Ian. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 699.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Kinetics |
Quantitative Analysis |
Electrophoresis
Rate Controlling Factors in a Bunsen Burner Flame  Julio Andrade-Gamboa, Hugo L. Corso, and Fabiana C. Gennari
Analysis of a Bunsen burner flame and the kinetics of its combustion.
Andrade-Gamboa, Julio; Corso, Hugo L.; Gennari, Fabiana C. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 524.
Transport Properties |
Kinetics |
Gases |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Thermal Analysis |
Thermodynamics |
Reactions |
Rate Law
Spontaneous Assembly of Soda Straws  D. J. Campbell, E. R. Freidinger, J. M. Hastings, and M. K. Querns
Demonstrating spontaneous assembly using soda straws.
Campbell, D. J.; Freidinger, E. R.; Hastings, J. M.; Querns, M. K. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 201.
Materials Science |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nanotechnology |
Surface Science |
Thermodynamics
The Importance of Non-Bonds in Coordination Compounds  Michael Laing
Significance of noncovalent interactions in determining the structure and behavior of coordination compounds.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1400.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Coordination Compounds |
Kinetics |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Developing an Intuitive Understanding of Free Energy  Hilton M. Weiss
Conceptual model illustrating the combination of entropy and enthalpy to explain the feasibility or spontaneity of processes.
Weiss, Hilton M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1362.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
An In-Depth Look at the Madelung Constant for Cubic Crystal Systems  Robert P. Grosso Jr., Justin T. Fermann, and William J. Vining
A simple, clear, and visual method by which the Madelung constant can be taught to students.
Grosso, Robert P., Jr.; Fermann, Justin T.; Vining, William J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1198.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Coordination Compounds |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solid State Chemistry |
Solids |
Thermodynamics |
X-ray Crystallography
A Simple Computer-Interfaced Calorimeter: Application to the Determination of the Heat of Formation of Magnesium Oxide  Sze-Shun Wong, Natasha D. Popovich, and Shelley J. Coldiron
Design, construction, and laboratory instructional application of a simple computer-controlled, constant-pressure calorimeter.
Wong, Sze-Shun; Popovich, Natasha D.; Coldiron, Shelley J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 798.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Thermodynamics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Determination of Ksp, ΔG0, ΔH0, and ΔS0 for the Dissolution of Calcium Hydroxide in Water: A General Chemistry Experiment  William B. Euler, Louis J. Kirschenbaum, and Ben Ruekberg
This exercise utilizes low-cost, relatively nonhazardous materials presenting few disposal problems. It reinforces the students' understanding of the interrelationship of solubility, Ksp, ΔG0, ΔH0, and ΔS0.
Euler, William B.; Kirschenbaum, Louis J.; Ruekberg, Ben. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1039.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Paradoxes, Puzzles, and Pitfalls of Incomplete Combustion Demonstrations  Ed Vitz
Paper is burned in a closed container containing sufficient oxygen to consume all the paper. Paradoxically, the flame expires while half of the paper remains. This demonstrates that thermodynamics or stoichiometry is insufficient to explain everyday chemical processes, and that kinetics is often necessary. The gases in the container are analyzed by GC before and after combustion, and the results are examined in detail.
Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1011.
Gases |
Kinetics |
Stoichiometry
Modeling Chemical Processes in Seawater Aquaria to Illustrate Concepts in Undergraduate Chemistry  Gordan Grguric
This paper describes three exercises which can be used in a variety of undergraduate chemistry curricula: (i) determining the salts and their amounts needed to prepare a given volume of artificial seawater, (ii) modeling aqueous carbonate equilibria, to calculate pH and alkalinity shifts through additions of chemicals, and (iii) modeling chemical kinetics involved in aqueous ozone-bromine reactions, to predict the type and extent of disinfection by-products.
Grguric, Gordan. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 495.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Applications of Chemistry
The Evolution of the Celsius and Kelvin Temperature Scales and the State of the Art  Julio Pellicer, M. Amparo Gilabert, and Ernesto Lopez-Baeza
A physical analysis is given of the evolution undergone by the Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales, from their definition to the present day.
Pellicer, Julio; Gilabert, M. Amparo; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 911.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Thermodynamics |
Learning Theories
A Simple Method To Demonstrate the Enzymatic Production of Hydrogen from Sugar  Natalie Hershlag, Ian Hurley, and Jonathan Woodward
In the experimental protocol described here, it has been demonstrated that the common sugar glucose can be used to produce hydrogen using two enzymes, glucose dehydrogenase and hydrogenase. No sophisticated or expensive hydrogen detection equipment is required-only a redox dye, benzyl viologen, which turns purple when it is reduced. The color can be detected by a simple colorimeter.
Hershlag, Natalie; Hurley, Ian; Woodward, Jonathan. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1270.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Carbohydrates |
Applications of Chemistry
A Simple Electrochemical Approach to Heterogeneous Reaction Kinetics  K. J. Drok, I. M. Ritchie, and G. P. Power
The system studied is the dissolution of a known amount of copper in a solution of iron(III). The reaction time is determined by measuring the potential of the copper, which has been electrodeposited on an inert electrode, as a function of time
Drok, K. J.; Ritchie, Ian M.; Power, G. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1145.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Kinetics
Limiting Reagent and Kinetics: Social Implications and Malthus' Prediction  L. H. Holmes Jr.
Robert Malthus predicted in the early 1800s that man would outstrip his food supply. The amount of carbon on earth is the ultimate limiting reagent for the number of people the earth can have and in the sense that carbon is our "food", Malthus was right. However, the land area of the earth is a "limiting reagent" that will limit our population before carbon does. These concepts are discussed in the context of limiting reagents and chemical kinetics to show that if the rate of increase of population remains at what it is now, we have less than a thousand years to "solve" the problem.
Holmes, L. H., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1004.
Kinetics
Thermodynamic and Kinetic Controlled Enolates: A Project for a Problem-Oriented Laboratory Course  Augustine Silveira Jr., Michael A. Knopp, and Jhong Kim
A microscale preparation of thermodynamic and kinetic enolates is given as an undergraduate research laboratory. This experiment provides student involvement and discussion.
Silveira, Augustine, Jr.; Knopp, Michael A.; Kim, Jhong. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 78.
Equilibrium |
Microscale Lab |
Stereochemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics
Kinetics of p-Nitrophenol Degradation by Pseudomonas sp.: An Experiment Illustrating Bioremediation  Michelle H. Duong, Samuel L. Penrod, and Stanley B. Grant
This paper describes a simple experiment illustrating bioremediation which is well suited for undergraduate classes in environmental chemistry, microbiology, or engineering.
Duong, Michelle H.; Penrod, Samuel L.; Grant, Stanley B. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1451.
Biotechnology |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry
Data Acquisition in the Chemistry Laboratory Using LabVIEW Software  Mark A. Muyskens, Samuel V. Glass, Thomas W. Wietsma, Terry M. Gray
Our application of LabVIEW software for computer data-acquisition using several techniques used across our curriculum is described. The techniques are gas chromatography, calorimetry, titrations and other volume-dependent techniques, spectrometry for kinetics using a Spectronic 20(R), and emission spectroscopy.
Muyskens, Mark A.; Glass, Samuel V.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Gray, Terry M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1112.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Gas Chromatography |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Spectroscopy |
Kinetics
Thermoelectric Devices: Solid-State Refrigerators and Electrical Generators in the Classroom  Edmund J. Winder, Arthur B. Ellis, George C. Lisensky
Thermoelectric devices provide an engaging high-tech demonstration suitable for illustrating thermodynamic principles in the classroom.
Winder, Edmund J.; Ellis, Arthur B.; Lisensky, George C. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 940.
Thermodynamics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Semiconductors |
Electrochemistry |
Conductivity |
Solid State Chemistry
Mass Transfer and Car Driving  Mukesh, D.
Explaining the concept of mass transfer using an analogy of driving a car.
Mukesh, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 436.
Kinetics |
Industrial Chemistry
Temperature Control for a Small-Scale Kinetics Experiment  Flash, Patrick
A microscale version of the iodine clock kinetics experiment with iodine and peroxydisulfate under temperature- controlled conditions that also permits calculating the activation energy.
Flash, Patrick J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A66.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Microscale Lab
A Perfect (Gas) Analogy for Kinetic versus Thermodynamic Control  Macomber, Roger S.
Physical analogy for giving students a better feel for the relationship between kinetic and thermodynamic control of a reaction.
Macomber, Roger S. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 311.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics
Galvanic Corrosion-A Kinetic Study  Randle, T. H.
A comprehensive investigation of the kinetics of galvanic corrosion and factors influencing the rate of such reactions.
Randle, T. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 261.
Kinetics |
Metals |
Electrochemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Cryophori, Hot Molecules, and Frozen Nitrogen  Hunter, Paul W. W.; Knoespel, Sheldon L.
Freezing water and nitrogen at low atmospheric pressure.
Hunter, Paul W. W.; Knoespel, Sheldon L. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 67.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Photodegradation of methylene blue: Using solar light and semiconductor (TiO2)  Nogueira, Raquel F. P.; Jardim, Wilson F.
An experiment that can be used to introduce or explore concepts such as photochemistry, semiconductors, and kinetics.
Nogueira, Raquel F. P.; Jardim, Wilson F. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 861.
Semiconductors |
Photochemistry |
Kinetics |
Catalysis |
MO Theory
Polymer spherulites: II. Crystallization kinetics  Marentette, J. M.; Brown, G. R.
A commonplace polarized light microscope equipped with a hot stage permits examination of crystallization kinetics in addition to morphology and birefringence.
Marentette, J. M.; Brown, G. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 539.
Kinetics |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Polymerization
Determining the thermal expansion coefficient of gases  Lehmann, Jochen K.
The authors improved the design of the apparatus and extended the experimental task on a recently published experiment for determining the zero point of the absolute temperature scale.
Lehmann, Jochen K. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 943.
Thermodynamics |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Kinetic study of the reaction between ethanol and chloroacetyl chloride in chloroform: A laboratory experiment using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy  Garcia, M. V.; Tiemblo, P.
Using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to study the reaction between ethanol and chloroacetyl chloride in chloroform.
Garcia, M. V.; Tiemblo, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 841.
Kinetics |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
IR Spectroscopy |
Reactions
Chelate ring size and metal ion selection: The basis of selectivity for metal ions in open-chain ligands and macrocycles.  Hancock, Robert D.
The thermodynamic chelate effect for an n-dentate chelating ligand.
Hancock, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 615.
Coordination Compounds |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Thermodynamics
The synthesis of E-beta-bromostyrene: An experiment illustrating the use of IR bending modes to distinguish E and Z isomers and the concept of kinetic and thermodynamic controlled reactions.  Strom, Laura A.; Anderson, James R.; Gandler, Joseph R.
An experiment illustrating the concept of thermodynamic and kinetically controlled reactions to produce E and Z isomers (respectively); the use of IR to distinguish E and Z isomers; and the different properties of E and Z isomers (only the E isomer has a pleasant odor).
Strom, Laura A.; Anderson, James R.; Gandler, Joseph R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 588.
Synthesis |
IR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics |
Alkenes |
Diastereomers |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Flash photochemical measurements in the physical chemistry laboratory: Kinetics of deactivation of electronically excited aromatic molecules by oxygen  Clark, Lisa M.; Hayes, Susan E.; Hayes, David M.; McFarland, Jeffrey M.; Miller, Robin L.; Shalmi, Craig L.; Soltis, Marabeth G.; Susnow, Roberta; Strong, Robert L.
In this experiment, students examine the kinetics by which molecular oxygen deactivates the electronically excited triplet states of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phenanthrene in hexane solution.
Clark, Lisa M.; Hayes, Susan E.; Hayes, David M.; McFarland, Jeffrey M.; Miller, Robin L.; Shalmi, Craig L.; Soltis, Marabeth G.; Susnow, Roberta; Strong, Robert L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 336.
Aromatic Compounds |
Photochemistry |
Kinetics |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Studying odd-even effects and solubility behavior using alpha, omega-dicarboxylic acids  Burrows, Hugh D.
Odd-even effect provides a satisfying way of introducing students to a large area of chemistry that encompasses both classical thermodynamics and applied aspects.
Burrows, Hugh D. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 69.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics
A simple second-order kinetics experiment  Weiss, Hilton M.; Touchette, Kim
The reaction studied in this experiment is the (reversible) dimerization of 2,5-dimethyl-3,4-diphenylcyclopentadienone; the monomer is colored while the dimer is not, so monitoring the reaction with a simple spectrophotometer provides the concentration of the monomer and therefore the rate of its disappearance.
Weiss, Hilton M.; Touchette, Kim J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 707.
Kinetics |
Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds
Binding energy and enzymatic catalysis  Hansen, David E.; Raines, Ronald T.
The authors discuss the fundamental role that the favorable free energy of binding of the rate-determining transition state plays in catalysis and review the principle that many catalytic factors are realized by the use of this binding energy.
Hansen, David E.; Raines, Ronald T. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 483.
Enzymes |
Catalysis |
Thermodynamics
Photohydration of pyridine: Modification of an undergraduate kinetics experiment  Morine, Gerald H.
In a previous article in this Journal an undergraduate experiment on photochemical kinetics was presented. This author is offering modifications to the original experiment.
Morine, Gerald H. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 266.
Photochemistry |
Kinetics |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Heterocycles
Boltzmann's H theorem applied to simulations of polymer interchange reactions  Pojman, John
The mathematical complexity of the Boltzmann theory seems to preclude undergraduate consideration. In this paper the author considers a system of condensation polymers whose interactions are analogous to those of a hard-sphere gas.
Pojman, John J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 200.
Thermodynamics
A dedicated educational expert system coupled to a simulator in chemical kinetics  Cachet, C.; Cabrol, D.; Milleliri, A.
104. Design of a computer-based learning environment that allows students the maximum freedom to design and execute simulated laboratory experiments.
Cachet, C.; Cabrol, D.; Milleliri, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 553.
Kinetics
Some models of chemical oscillators   Noyes, Richard M.
This review concentrates on models of chemical oscillations, which constitute the self-organization of a system in time without any accompanying organization in space.
Noyes, Richard M. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 190.
Thermodynamics
The language of dynamics  Field, Richard J.
For a reacting chemical system, there exists a set of polynomial differential equations that describes the dynamics of how the concentrations of all chemical species change with time.
Field, Richard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 188.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
Laboratory applications of the vortex tube  Bruno, Thomas J.
A brief explanation of the function of the vortex tube and some heating and cooling applications for the chemistry laboratory.
Bruno, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 987.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thermodynamics
A low-cost laboratory experiment using a nephelo-turbidity meter  Das, Ishwar; Das, S. S.; Pushkarna, Anal
Principle of the nephelo-turbidity meter, description of the apparatus, and application to the kinetic study of the decomposition of sodium thiosulfate by mineral acid.
Das, Ishwar; Das, S. S.; Pushkarna, Anal J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 729.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Kinetics
Coupled oscillations  Onwood, D. P.
Demonstrating coupled oscillations using pendulums.
Onwood, D. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 351.
Kinetics
Kinetics and mechanism of the iodine azide reaction: A videotaped experiment  Haight, Gilbert P.; Jones, Loretta L.
A clock reaction suitable for videotaping and presenting to a large lecture class of general chemistry for analysis.
Haight, Gilbert P.; Jones, Loretta L. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 271.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Rate Law
Kinetics of oxidation of bromcresol green  Pickering, Miles; Heiler, David
Study of the bleaching of bromcresol green by hypochlorite.
Pickering, Miles; Heiler, David J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 81.
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Dyes / Pigments |
Acids / Bases |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The NBS reaction: A simple explanation for the predominance of allylic substitution over olefin addition by bromine at low concentrations  Wamser, Carl C.; Scott, Lawrence T.
What factors govern the reaction of Br2 with an alkene to give either allylic substitution or double bond addition?
Wamser, Carl C.; Scott, Lawrence T. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 650.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Free Radicals |
Kinetics |
Alkenes
A simple low-cost device for temperature control in nonisothermic chemical kinetics in solution  Salvador, F.; Gonzalez, J. L.; Tel, L. M.
Design and operation of a temperature controller capable of reproducing a desired temperature / time heating curve.
Salvador, F.; Gonzalez, J. L.; Tel, L. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 613.
Kinetics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Kinetic stability, kinetic control, and descriptive inorganic chemistry  Webb, Michael J.
Examples, demonstrations, and laboratory work involving kinetic stability and kinetic control in inorganic chemistry.
Webb, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 988.
Kinetics |
Descriptive Chemistry
Cooking with chemistry  Grosser, Arthur E.
Two demonstrations involving cooking eggs and suggestions for many more examples of cooking that illustrate important principles of chemistry. From the "State-of-the-Art Symposium for Chemical Educators: Chemistry of the Food Cycle".
Grosser, Arthur E. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 362.
Food Science |
Gases |
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics
Organic lecture demonstrations of common-ion effect, ionizing power of solvents, and first-order reaction kinetics  Danen, Wayne C.; Blecha, Sr. M. Therese
The hydrolysis of tert-butyl chloride is the basis of three demonstrations which each illustrate an important principle of organic chemistry: the common-ion or mass law effect, the effect of changing the ionizing power of a solvent on a solvolysis reaction, and the collecting and plotting of data to illustrate a first-order reaction.
Danen, Wayne C.; Blecha, Sr. M. Therese J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 659.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Chemical energy: A learning package  Cohen, Ita; Ben-Zvi, Ruth
Problems associated with the teaching of chemical energy and an instructional package designed to overcome those difficulties.
Cohen, Ita; Ben-Zvi, Ruth J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 656.
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
An introductory level kinetics investigation  McGarvey, J. E. B.; Knipe, A. C.
A kinetic study of the hydrolysis of 3-bromo-3-phenylpropanoic acid.
McGarvey, J. E. B.; Knipe, A. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 155.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Project for problem-oriented undergraduate organic or integrated undergraduate laboratory  Silveira, Augustine, Jr.
This paper reports on an open-ended project which allows a great degree of flexibility in the laboratory. The project provided about a 6-week study for groups of 24 students each.
Silveira, Augustine, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 57.
Synthesis |
Undergraduate Research |
Spectroscopy |
Diastereomers |
Addition Reactions |
MO Theory |
Elimination Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics
Approach to teaching some of the principles of environmental chemistry  Klehr, Edwin H.
Indicates how a few concepts from systems analysis can be used to integrate some of the principles of environmental chemistry.
Klehr, Edwin H. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 658.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Kinetics
The determination of the pK of the dihydrogen phosphate ion. A student experiment  Davies, I. R.; Serjeant, E. P.; Warner, A. G.
In this experiment the cell glass electrode | aqueous solution in 0.01 M NaCl | AgCl; Ag is used for the direct determination of the acidity function.
Davies, I. R.; Serjeant, E. P.; Warner, A. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 649.
Electrochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Fading of bromophenol blue. A combined synthesis and spectrophotometric kinetics experiment  Winans, Randall; Brown, Charles Allan
An experimental sequence involving the synthesis of phenosulfonphthalein, bromination of this to give bromophenol blue, and study of the fading of the latter in a strongly alkaline medium.
Winans, Randall; Brown, Charles Allan J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 526.
Dyes / Pigments |
Synthesis |
Kinetics |
Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis
Content and context. Entropy principle experiments in a course for non- science students  Bell, Jerry A.
An approach that aims to give students a feel for the concept of entropy and how to analyze natural events to see entropic control.
Bell, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 182.
Thermodynamics |
Nonmajor Courses
The mercury-water system. A deviation from Raoult's Law  Sanders, M. L.; Beckett, R. R.
Mercury covered with a layer of water will continue to vaporize and escape as if the water were not even there.
Sanders, M. L.; Beckett, R. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 117.
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
A stabilized linear direct reading conductance apparatus. The solvolysis of t-butyl chloride  Cyr, T.; Prudhomme, J.; Zador, M.
A simple ac conductivity apparatus for experiments in chemical kinetics is described; the instrument is sufficiently reliable that it can be used by first year students and assembled in a few hours.
Cyr, T.; Prudhomme, J.; Zador, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 572.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Kinetics
Kinetic versus thermodynamic control. An organic chemistry experiment  McGrew, LeRoy A.; Kruger, T. L.
The authors report an experiment which does not involve the competition of different starting materials for a common reagent, but rather one in which a kinetically-controlled and a thermodynamically-controlled products may be obtained from exactly the same starting materials. The experiment has the added advantage of illustrating certain principles of the use of infrared and ultraviolet spectra for the identification of compounds of similar structures.
McGrew, LeRoy A.; Kruger, T. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 400.
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics
Fast reactions: Rapid mixing and concentration jump experiments  Patel, Ramesh C.; Atkinson, Gordon; Boe, R. J.
Describes three experiments: the rate determination of dehydration of carbonic acid, the concentration jump experiment on carbonic acid, and the concentration jump experiment on pyruvic acid.
Patel, Ramesh C.; Atkinson, Gordon; Boe, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 800.
Rate Law |
Kinetics
Biological oxidations and energy conservation  Kirschbaum, Joel
Examines the oxidative steps leading to the synthesis of ATP in living organisms and their metabolic control.
Kirschbaum, Joel J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 28.
Bioenergetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics |
Metabolism
Reaction rate analysis and instrumentation: An experiment for the analytical laboratory  Pardue, Harry L.; Burke, Michael F.; Jones, David O.
This experiment exemplifies the use of operational amplifiers for measurement and analog computation in determining the glucose utilizing glucose enzyme.
Pardue, Harry L.; Burke, Michael F.; Jones, David O. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 684.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Catalysis |
Enzymes |
Carbohydrates
Analytical chemistry: A kinetic viewpoint. A new approach to undergraduate instruction  Rechnitz, Garry A.
Identifies analytical topics and laboratory experiments suited to consideration from a kinetic perspective.
Rechnitz, Garry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 317.
Kinetics
Bromination of alkanes: Experiment illustrating relative reactivities and synthetic utility  Warkentin, J.
The radical halogenation of alkanes lend themselves well to the teaching of basic material such as bond dissociation energies, potential energy profiles, enthalpy of reaction, activation energy, and reaction rate.
Warkentin, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 331.
Electrochemistry |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Synthesis |
Alkenes |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Free Radicals
Reaction mechanisms in organic chemistry. I. The experimental approach  Caserio, Marjorie C.
Reviews a variety of method that may be employed to determine the mechanism of organic reactions.
Caserio, Marjorie C. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 570.
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactive Intermediates |
Kinetics |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Addition Reactions |
Elimination Reactions
Device for measuring instantaneous rates of gas-evolving reactions  Steiner, Edwin C.; Hartzell, Gordon E.
Presents a device for measuring instantaneous rates of gas-evolving reactions that relies on a hypodermic syringe capable of responding to extremely small pressure changes.
Steiner, Edwin C.; Hartzell, Gordon E. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 559.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Reactions |
Rate Law |
Kinetics
Applying a steady state approach to polarography  Mason, John G.
The application of a simple steady-state rate treatment requires very little mathematics and offers much insight into polargraphic processes in particular and electrochemical processes in general.
Mason, John G. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 333.
Quantitative Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Introduction to computer use: Programs for first order rate constants  Casanova, Joseph, Jr.; Weaver, E. R.
This article presents a simple but versatile computer program for the calculation of first order and pseudo-first order rate constants and least squares.
Casanova, Joseph, Jr.; Weaver, E. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 137.
Kinetics |
Chemometrics
The effect of structure on chemical and physical properties of polymers  Price, Charles C.
Suggests using polymers to teach the effect of changes in structure on chemical reactivity, the effect of structure on physical properties, the role of catalysts, and the basic principles of a chain reaction mechanism.
Price, Charles C. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 13.
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Polymerization |
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Catalysis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Teaching the entropy concept  Plumb, Robert C.
Presents a macroscopic lecture demonstration illustrating both potential energy and entropy driving forces and showing their interrelationship.
Plumb, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 254.
Thermodynamics |
Statistical Mechanics
Principles of chemical reaction  Sanderson, R. T.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature of chemical change in the hope of recognizing and setting forth the basic principles that help us to understand why they occur.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 13.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics |
Synthesis |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
Letters to the editor  Day, Jesse H.
The author suggests how the importance of thermodynamics might be demonstrated to students.
Day, Jesse H. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 229.
Thermodynamics
Cryogenic calorimetric contributions to chemical thermodynamics  Westrum, Edgar F., Jr.
It is the purpose of this paper to review current areas of research in cryogenic calorimetry.
Westrum, Edgar F., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 443.
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solid State Chemistry
Reaction kinetics from conductivity data: An apparatus for the student laboratory  Greenberg, David B.
In this paper a conductivity experiment in chemical reaction kinetics is described using an indicating type electrical instrument of simple circuit design.
Greenberg, David B. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 140.
Conductivity |
Kinetics
Crystal field theory and substitution reactions of metal ions  Pearson, Ralph G.
This article illustrates crystal field theory in studying substitution reactions of compounds of the metal ions.
Pearson, Ralph G. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 164.
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Metals |
Kinetics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A constant temperature reaction vessel for the thermal decomposition of solids  Prout, E. G.; Herley, P. J.
Describes an apparatus suitable for studying the thermal decomposition of potassium permanganate in high vacuum.
Prout, E. G.; Herley, P. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 643.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solids |
Rate Law |
Kinetics