TIGER

Journal Articles: 358 results
Identification of Secondary Metabolites in Citrus Fruit Using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectroscopy  Jean-Michel Lavoie, Esteban Chornet, and André Pelletier
Using a simple extraction and a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer, this protocol allows students in analytical or organic chemistry to quantify and qualify monoterpenes from the peels of limes, grapefruits, and oranges.
Lavoie, Jean-Michel; Chornet, Esteban; Pelletier, André. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1555.
Alkenes |
Food Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Natural Products |
Plant Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
The Synthesis of N-Benzyl-2-azanorbornene via Aqueous Hetero Diels–Alder Reaction  Xavier Sauvage and Lionel Delaude
Characterization of the product of this organic synthesis through IR and NMR data analysis provides valuable material to familiarize students with different types of protonproton coupling patterns and their typical ranges, serves to illustrate the concepts of green chemistry and atom efficiency, and can be used to exemplify structural analysis and computational studies.
Sauvage, Xavier; Delaude, Lionel. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1538.
Alkenes |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Conformational Analysis |
Green Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Modeling |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis
The Iodochlorination of Styrene: An Experiment That Makes a Difference  R. Gary Amiet and Sylvia Urban
This purpose of this laboratory exercise is to determine the various substitution and elimination products generated in the iodochlorination of styrene and their relative proportions through the application of mechanistic principles and a basic knowledge of GCMS and NMR.
Amiet, R. Gary; Urban, Sylvia. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 962.
Alkenes |
Constitutional Isomers |
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Student-Centered Learning
Evaluating Mechanisms of Dihydroxylation by Thin-Layer Chromatography  Benjamin T. Burlingham and Joseph C. Rettig
Presents a microscale experiment in which cyclohexene is dihydroxylated under three sets of conditions and the products determined through thin-layer chromatography. Teams of students evaluate proposed mechanisms for each dihydroxylation in light of the data collected.
Burlingham, Benjamin T.; Rettig, Joseph C. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 959.
Addition Reactions |
Alkenes |
Diastereomers |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Pyrolysis of Aryl Sulfonate Esters in the Absence of Solvent: E1 or E2? A Puzzle for the Organic Laboratory  John J. Nash, Marnie A. Leininger, and Kurt Keyes
An aryl sulfonate ester is synthesized and then pyrolyzed at reduced pressure. The volatile products are analyzed using gas chromatography to determine whether the thermal decomposition occurs via an E1 or E2 mechanism.
Nash, John J.; Leininger, Marnie A.; Keyes, Kurt . J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 552.
Alkenes |
Carbocations |
Elimination Reactions |
Gas Chromatography |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis
Regioselectivity in Organic Synthesis: Preparation of the Bromohydrin of α-Methylstyrene  Brad Andersh, Kathryn N. Kilby, Meghan E. Turnis, and Drew L. Murphy
In the described experiment, the regiochemical outcome of the addition of "HOBr" to a-methylstyrene is investigated. Although both "classic" qualitative analysis and instrumental techniques are described, the emphasis of this experiment is on the utilization 13C and DEPT-135 NMR spectroscopy to determine the regiochemical outcome of the addition.
Andersh, Brad; Kilby, Kathryn N.; Turnis, Meghan E.; Murphy, Drew L. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 102.
Addition Reactions |
Alcohols |
Alkenes |
Constitutional Isomers |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Microwave-Assisted Organic Synthesis in the Organic Teaching Lab: A Simple, Greener Wittig Reaction  Eric Martin and Cynthia Kellen-Yuen
A microwave-assisted Wittig reaction has been developed for the organic teaching laboratory. Utilizing this technique, a variety of styrene derivatives have been synthesized from aromatic aldehydes in good yields. The mixture of cis and trans alkenes produced also provides instructors with opportunities to emphasize the spectroscopic analysis of product mixtures.
Martin, Eric; Kellen-Yuen, Cynthia. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 2004.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkenes |
Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Computational Analysis of Stereospecificity in the Cope Rearrangement  Laura Glish and Timothy W. Hanks
Experimental product distributions from the Cope rearrangement of disubstituted 1,5-hexadienes can be readily understood by computer modeling of the various possible transitions states. Visual analysis of these geometries allow students to interpret the computational results by analogy to the familiar chair and boat conformations of substituted cyclohexanes.
Glish, Laura; Hanks, Timothy W. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 2001.
Alkenes |
Computational Chemistry |
Conformational Analysis |
Medicinal Chemistry |
MO Theory |
Molecular Modeling |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Catalytic Hydrogenation of Maleic Acid at Moderate Pressures  Kwesi Amoa
This article demonstrates the reduction of maleic acid in about 90 minutes using moderate-pressure catalytic hydrogenation.
Amoa, Kwesi. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1948.
Alkenes |
Catalysis |
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Spectroscopy |
Thin Layer Chromatography
The Aromaticity of Pericyclic Reaction Transition States  Henry S. Rzepa
Presents an approach that combines two fundamental concepts in organic chemistry, chirality and aromaticity, into a simple rule for stating selection rules for pericyclic reactions in terms of achiral Hckel-aromatic and chiral Mbius-aromatic transition states.
Rzepa, Henry S. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1535.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stereochemistry
Quantitative Measurement of Trans-Fats by Infrared Spectroscopy  Edward B. Walker, Don R. Davies, and Mike Campbell
FTIR-ATR spectroscopy provides an efficient analytical tool to measure the percentage of trans-fat in several commercially available lipids and the degree of alkene isomerization induced by brominationdebromination chemical reactions.
Walker, Edward B.; Davies, Don R.; Campbell, Mike. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1162.
Alkenes |
Calibration |
Food Science |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Lipids |
Quantitative Analysis |
Fatty Acids
The Origin of the Names Malic, Maleic, and Malonic Acid  William B. Jensen
Explores the origins of the terms malic, maleic, and malonic acid.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 924.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Teaching Mathematics to Chemistry Students with Symbolic Computation  J. F. Ogilvie and M. B. Monagan
The authors explain how the use of mathematical software improves the teaching and understanding of mathematics to and by chemistry students while greatly expanding their abilities to solve realistic chemical problems.
Ogilvie, J. F.; Monagan, M. B. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 889.
Chemometrics |
Computational Chemistry |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A Short History of Three Chemical Shifts  Shin-ichi Nagaoka
Regrettably, the term "chemical shift" to designate the position of a spectral signal has a poor reputation as a technical term. Nevertheless, the "chemical" environment around an atom of interest influences the electronic environment and hence, leads to spectral shifts, making the prefix "chemical" appropriate.
Nagaoka, Shin-ichi. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 801.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Sudoku Puzzles as Chemistry Learning Tools  Thomas D. Crute and Stephanie A. Myers
Sudoku puzzles that use a mixture of chemical terms and symbols serve as a tool to encourage the necessary repetition and attention to detail desired for mastering chemistry. The classroom-ready examples provided use polyatomic ions, organic functional groups, and strong nucleophiles. Guidelines for developing additional puzzles are described.
Crute, Thomas D.; Myers, Stephanie A. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 612.
Learning Theories |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Student-Centered Learning
Electronic Structure Principles and Aromaticity  P. K. Chattaraj, U. Sarkar, and D. R. Roy
Electronic structure principles dictate that aromatic molecules are associated with low energy, polarizability, and electrophilicity but high hardness values, while antiaromatic molecules possess the opposite characteristics. These relationships are demonstrated through B3LYP/6-311G** calculations on benzene and cyclobutadiene.
Chattaraj, P. K.; Sarkar, U.; Roy, D. R. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 354.
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantitative Analysis |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Alkenes |
Quantum Chemistry
Precision in Stereochemical Terminology  LeRoy G. Wade, Jr.
This article recommends that instructors use the precise terms asymmetric carbon atom and chirality center when they apply, and use the broader term stereocenter only when there is a need to include stereogenic atoms that are not chirality centers.
Wade, LeRoy G., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1793.
Chemical Technicians |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers |
Stereochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Polar Addition to C=C Group: Why Is Anti-Markovnikov Hydroboration–Oxidation of Alkenes Not "Anti-"?  Predrag-Peter Ilich, Lucas S. Rickertsen, and Erienne Becker
The authors redefine Markovnikov or anti-Markovnikov regioselectivity and propose that the teaching of organic chemistry should be based on robust and portable concepts such as energy difference and atomic charge rather than historical labels.
Ilich, Predrag-Peter; Rickertsen, Lucas S.; Becker, Erienne. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1681.
Addition Reactions |
Alkenes |
Computational Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Modeling
Photochemical Dimerization of Dibenzylideneacetone. A Convenient Exercise in [2+2] Cycloaddition Using Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry  G. Nageswara Rao, Chelli Janardhana, V. Ramanathan, T. Rajesh, and P. Harish Kumar
Presents a laboratory procedure for the photochemical dimerization of dibenzylideneacetone, a dienone. The dimerization is confirmed by chemical ionization mass spectrometry, and other spectroscopic techniques are used to establish the structure of the product.
Rao, G. Nageswara; Janardhana, Chelli; Ramanathan, V.; Rajesh, T.; Kumar, P. Harish. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1667.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkenes |
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Photochemistry |
Thin Layer Chromatography
The IUPAC Rules for Naming Organic Molecules  Stanislaw Skonieczny
A systematic approach to naming polyfunctional organic compounds is presented. Latest IUPAC rules are incorporated and the table of order of precedence for the major functional groups is assembled.
Skonieczny, Stanislaw. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1633.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
3,5-Diarylisoxazoles: Individualized Three-Step Synthesis and Isomer Determination Using 13C NMR or Mass Spectroscopy  Chad E. Stephens and Reem K. Arafa
Describes the three-step synthesis and definitive characterization of a 3,5-diarylisoxazole via the chalcone and chalcone dibromide. The project is individualized with regard to compound purification, characterization, and literature searches as each student prepares a differently substituted chalcone.
Stephens, Chad E.; Arafa, Reem K. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1336.
Alkenes |
Heterocycles |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Spectroscopy
Rapid and Stereoselective Conversion of a trans-Cinnamic Acid to a β-Bromostyrene  Thomas A. Evans
The stereoselective synthesis of an aryl vinyl bromide is accomplished in a rapid microscale reaction of trans-4-methoxycinnamic acid with N-bromosuccinimide in dichloromethane. This guided-inquiry experiment links reactivity, stereochemistry, and mechanism in electrophilic addition reactions of alkenes and in E1 and E2 elimination reactions that form alkenes.
Evans, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1062.
Alkenes |
Carbocations |
Gas Chromatography |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry
Regiospecific Epoxidation of Carvone: A Discovery-Oriented Experiment for Understanding the Selectivity and Mechanism of Epoxidation Reactions  Kendrew K. W. Mak, Y. M. Lai, and Yuk-Hong Siu
Peroxy acids and alkaline H2O2 are two commonly used reagents for alkene epoxidation. The former react preferentially with electron-rich alkenes while the latter works better with a,-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. The selectivity of these two reagents on carvone, a naturally occurring compound that contains both types of C=C bonds, is investigated.
Mak, Kendrew K. W.; Lai, Y. M.; Siu, Yuk-Hong. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1058.
Alkenes |
Chromatography |
Epoxides |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Stereospecific Synthesis of the Geometrical Isomers of a Natural Product  T. Grove, D. DiLella, and E. Volker
Presents an experiment for the synthesis of (Z) and (E) isomers that is presented to students as a puzzle in which they must determine the identity of the major component in anise oil. A necessary part of the analysis is the preparation the (E) and (Z) isomers of anethole. Molecular modeling is used to explore the conformation of and energy difference between isomers.
Grove, T.; DiLella, D.; Volker, E. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1055.
Alkenes |
Computational Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis
A Sequence of Linked Experiments, Suitable for Practical Courses of Inorganic, Organic, Computational Chemistry, and NMR Spectroscopy  Grigoriy A. Sereda
A sequence of investigations associated with the iodochlorination of styrene and 1-hexene is described. The sequence is flexible enough to be used in inorganic, organic, computational, and instrumental courses.
Sereda, Grigoriy A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 931.
Alkenes |
Computational Chemistry |
Constitutional Isomers |
MO Theory |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Iodolactonization of 4-Pentenoic Acid   R. David Crouch, Alexander Tucker-Schwartz, and Kathryn Barker
Describes an experiment in which 4-pentenoic acid is converted into a lactone via iodolactonization.
Crouch, R. David; Tucker-Schwartz, Alexander; Barker, Kathryn. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 921.
Alkenes |
Carboxylic Acids |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Reactions |
Synthesis
Valence, Oxidation Number, and Formal Charge: Three Related but Fundamentally Different Concepts  Gerard Parkin
The purpose of this article is to clarify the terms valence, oxidation number, coordination number, formal charge, and number of bonds and illustrate how the valence of an atom in a molecule provides a much more meaningful criterion for establishing the chemical reasonableness of a molecule than does the oxidation number.
Parkin, Gerard. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 791.
Coordination Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Lewis Structures |
Oxidation State |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The Vocabulary and Concepts of Organic Chemistry, Second Edition (Milton Orchin, Roger S. Macomber, Allan R. Pinhas, R. Marshall Wilson)  R. David Crouch
As the title implies, this book serves as a reference for someone who needs to answer a question such as What is a carbene? or Whats the difference between a sulfenate and a sulfinate?
Crouch, R. David. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 706.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Ozonolysis Problems That Promote Student Reasoning  Ray A. Gross Jr.
The structural features inherent in acyclic monoterpenes that follow the isoprene rule often lead to unique sets of ozonolysis products from which their structures, excluding stereochemistry, can be determined from molecular formulas only. This article shows how students may elucidate the structures of these compounds by analysis of the oxidative and reductive workup products.
Gross, Ray A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 604.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Carboxylic Acids |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Student-Centered Learning
Electrophilic Additions to Alkenes  Thomas M. Bertolini and Phuc D. Tran
A worksheet of 18 reactions is presented as a learning aid to comprehend the regiochemistry and stereochemistry of alkene electrophilic addition.
Bertolini, Thomas M.; Tran, Phuc D. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 590.
Addition Reactions |
Alkenes |
Reactions
Grubbs's Cross Metathesis of Eugenol with cis-2-Butene-1,4-diol To Make a Natural Product. An Organometallic Experiment for the Undergraduate Lab   Douglass F. Taber and Kevin J. Frankowski
Describes the ruthenium catalyzed cross metathesis of eugenol with cis-1,4-butenediol. The experiment is an excellent example of the powerful selectivity possible with the Grubbs' catalyst, demonstrating the preference for trans over cis alkene formation and for cross metathesis over homodimerization.
Taber, Douglass F.; Frankowski, Kevin J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 283.
Alkenes |
Catalysis |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Organometallics |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Transition Elements
A Template-Controlled Solid-State Reaction for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Tomislav Friscic, Tamara D. Hamilton, Giannis S. Papaefstathiou, and Leonard R. MacGillivray
Describes a laboratory experiment that employs linear hydrogen-bond templates to direct [2 + 2] photodimerization in the solid state. The experiment introduces undergraduates to supramolecular and solid-state chemistry, as well as aspects of green chemistry.
Friscic, Tomislav; Hamilton, Tamara D.; Papaefstathiou, Giannis S.; MacGillivray, Leonard R. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1679.
Green Chemistry |
Solid State Chemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Alkenes |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Materials Science |
NMR Spectroscopy
Diels–Alder Synthesis of endo-cis-N-Phenylbicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2,3-dicarboximide  Marsha R. Baar and Kristin Wustholz
endo-cis-N-Phenylbicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2,3-dicarboximide was synthesized by a DielsAlder cycloaddition of 1,3-cyclohexadiene and N-phenylmaleimide in ethyl acetate. 1,3-Cyclohexadiene and N-phenylmaleimide were selected to illustrate the Alder rule, which reflects a preference for endo products and to overcome the difficulties associated with the traditional combination of 1,3-cyclopentadiene and maleic anhydride.
Baar, Marsha R.; Wustholz, Kristin. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1393.
Asymmetric Synthesis |
Microscale Lab |
Stereochemistry |
Addition Reactions |
Alkenes |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
Cis and Trans Isomers of Cycloalkenes  Susan E. Barrows and Thomas H. Eberlein
The purpose of this article is to provide that analysis. In order for a cycloalkene to accommodate a trans double bond one or more of the following nonideal geometries must occur: a twisted p bond; pyramidal sp2-carbon atoms; nonideal sp3 bond angles; or longer than normal CC single and double bonds. This article provides a list of experimentally determined relative energies of the cis and trans isomers within the series cycloheptenecycloundecene, along with computationally derived energies at several levels of theory. It also examines the geometric distortions through which cycloalkenes relieve the strain introduced by a trans double bond.
Barrows, Susan E.; Eberlein, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1334.
Computational Chemistry |
Molecular Modeling |
Alkenes |
Diastereomers
Understanding Rotation about a C=C Double Bond  Susan E. Barrows and Thomas H. Eberlein
We present a simple method of introducing the concept of a flexible C=C pi bond into beginning organic chemistry courses. We report the energetic demands of partial twisting about the C=C bond in 2-butene as calculated using DFT, LMP2, and MCSCF methods. Finally, using the results of these calculations, we assessed the degree of strain introduced by the twisted nature of the C=C bond in trans cycloalkenes.
Barrows, Susan E.; Eberlein, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1329.
Computational Chemistry |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Molecular Modeling |
Alkenes
The Addition of Bromine to 1,2-Diphenylethene   Judith C. Amburgey-Peters and LeRoy W. Haynes
We investigated the reaction of (Z)-1,2-diphenylethene (cis-stilbene) with various brominating reagents and solvents following directions in standard organic chemistry manuals. We were particularly interested in learning which combination of brominating reagent and solvent gave the best yield of (d,l)-1,2-dibromo-1,2-diphenylethane without the formation of significant amounts of meso-1,2-dibromo-1,2-diphenylethane, which is essentially the sole product from the reaction of bromine with (E)-1,2-diphenylethene (trans-stilbene). Based on the results from the standard preparatory methods, some permutations of solvent and brominating reagent were tried.
Amburgey-Peters, Judith C.; Haynes, LeRoy W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1051.
Addition Reactions |
Alkenes |
Carbocations |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stereochemistry
Introducing JCE ChemInfo: Organic  Hans J. Reich
JCE ChemInfo: Organic is a collection of Web pages containing information useful to teachers, researchers, and students in organic chemistry, biochemistry, and medicinal chemistry. The pages have been selected for ease of use, broad applicability, and quality of coverage. Topics will include structural information, organic reactions, nomenclature, physical properties, and spectroscopic data. These Web pages will be updated when possible and additional Web pages will be added as they become available.
Reich, Hans J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 495.
Medicinal Chemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
NMR Spectroscopy
The Evolution of a Green Chemistry Laboratory Experiment: Greener Brominations of Stilbene  Lallie C. McKenzie, Lauren M. Huffman, and James E. Hutchison
We describe two new greener alkene bromination reactions that offer enhanced laboratory safety and convey important green chemistry concepts, in addition to illustrating the chemistry of alkenes. The two alternative reactions, one involving pyridinium tribromide and a second using hydrogen peroxide and hydrobromic acid, are compared to the traditional bromination of stilbene through the application of green metrics, including atom economy, percent experimental atom economy, E factor, and effective mass yield.
McKenzie, Lallie C.; Huffman, Lauren M.; Hutchison, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 306.
Synthesis |
Green Chemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Addition Reactions |
Alkenes
A Substitute for “Bromine in Carbon Tetrachloride”  Joshua M. Daley and Robert G. Landolt
Benzotrifluoride (BTF) is a suitable solvent substitute for carbon tetrachloride in experiments requiring application of bromine (Br2) in free radical or addition reactions with organic substrates. A 1 M solution of Br2 in BTF may be used to distinguish hydrocarbons based on the ease of abstraction of hydrogen atoms in thermally or light-induced free radical substitutions. Efficacy of minimization of solvent use, by aliquot addition to neat samples, has been established.
Daley, Joshua M.; Landolt, Robert G. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 120.
Alkenes |
Free Radicals |
Green Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Reactions
The Sharpless Asymmetric Dihydroxylation in the Organic Chemistry Majors Laboratory  Christopher J. Nichols and Melissa R. Taylor
A six-period laboratory exercise has been developed that uses the convenient Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation (AD) to illustrate the principles of a chiral synthesis. Using one particular alkene, students perform a racemic dihydroxylation, an AD using a commercially available AD-mix, and then an AD using an ester derivative of dihydroquinidine that they synthesized themselves. The structures of the products are confirmed with 1H NMR spectroscopy and the enantiomeric excesses of the diols are determined using a chiral GC column.
Nichols, Christopher J.; Taylor, Melissa R. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 105.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Alkenes |
Addition Reactions
Cis and Trans Isomerization in Cyclic Alkenes: A Topic for Discovery Using the Results of Molecular Modeling  Susan E. Barrows and Thomas H. Eberlein
This article describes an activity in which students are led to discover the fundamental reasons behind the unusual instability of the trans isomers in medium-sized cycloalkenes by using the results of molecular modeling. Notably, students will make the unexpected discovery that twisting about p bonds is perhaps more facile than they had been led to believe.
Barrows, Susan E.; Eberlein, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1529.
Covalent Bonding |
Computational Chemistry |
Molecular Modeling |
Alkenes |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Solvent-Free Wittig Reaction: A Green Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  Sam H. Leung and Stephen A. Angel
In this experiment (E)- and (Z)-1-(4-bromophenyl)-2-phenylethene are synthesized by a solvent-free Wittig reaction. The reaction is effected by grinding the reactants in a mortar with a pestle. Both the E and Z isomers of the product are produced as evidenced by thin-layer chromatography and 1H NMR analysis. The E isomer is isolated by crystallization with ethanol in this experiment. In addition to learning about the Wittig reaction, students are also introduced to the ideas of mechanochemistry and green chemistry.
Leung, Sam H.; Angel, Stephen A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1492.
Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkenes
Etymology as an Aid to Understanding Chemistry Concepts  Nittala S. Sarma
Recognition of word roots and the pattern of evolution of scientific terms can be helpful in understanding chemistry concepts (gaining knowledge of new concepts represented by related terms). The meaning and significance of various etymological roots, occurring as prefixes and suffixes in technical terms particularly of organic chemistry, are explained in a unified manner in order to show the connection of various concepts vis  vis the terms in currency. The meanings of some special words and many examples are provided.
Sarma, Nittala S. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1437.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Regioselective Synthesis of a Stereodefined Heterocyclic Push–Pull Alkene. 1H NMR Studies and Two-Dimensional TLC Illustrating Z/E Isomerization  Rade Markovi, Marija Baranac, Vesna Jovanovi, and Zdravko Dambaski
Facile and direct regioselective synthesis of the 4-oxothiazolidine derivative from inexpensive chemicals as an example of kinetic versus thermodynamic control is described.
Markovi, Rade; Baranac, Marija; Jovanovi, Vesna; Dambaski, Zdravko. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1026.
Heterocycles |
Alkenes |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis |
NMR Spectroscopy
SI for Chemists: A Modification  Robert D. Freeman
To correct my original blunder, I recommend that the name "amount of substance" be replaced by "quant" (rather than posos). The word "quant" is in standard dictionaries and has a single meaning related to boating.
Freeman, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 802.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
SI for Chemists: Another Position  Tomislav Cvitas
I must say that I agree neither with what was said in the original commentary by R. D. Freeman, nor with the letter by P. Karol.
Cvitas, Tomislav. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 801.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
SI for Chemists: Persistent Problems, Solid Solutions; SI Basic Units: The Kilogram and the Mole  Robert D. Freeman
Karols letter is a prime example of the type of article about which he complains in his first paragraph. There are four major flaws in Karols suggestions.
Freeman, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 800.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
SI for Chemists: Persistent Problems, Solid Solutions. SI Basic Units: The Kilogram and the Mole  Paul J. Karol
The persistent perceived problem with the base units kilogram and mole addressed in those journal articles is resolvable once it is finally recognized that we have been using a double standard: the international platinumiridium kilogram prototype and 12C.
Karol, Paul J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 800.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Quantitative Analysis |
Stoichiometry
SI for Chemists: Persistent Problems, Solid Solutions. SI Basic Units: The Kilogram and the Mole  Paul J. Karol
The persistent perceived problem with the base units kilogram and mole addressed in those journal articles is resolvable once it is finally recognized that we have been using a double standard: the international platinumiridium kilogram prototype and 12C.
Karol, Paul J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 800.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Quantitative Analysis |
Stoichiometry
Functional Group Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
This puzzle contains 24 names and terms from organic chemistry in a 12 ? 12 letter matrix. A descriptive narrative with underlined spaces to be filled gives clues to the terms students need to find.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 517.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Organic Chemistry Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
This puzzle contains 27 names and terms from organic chemistry in a 13 ? 13 letter matrix. A descriptive narrative with underlined spaces to be filled gives clues to the terms students need to find.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 515.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Reactions (→) vs Equations (=)  S. R. Logan
A recent chemical kinetics text uses an equals sign for an overall reaction, whereas an arrow is used in each of the reaction steps that are proposed to constitute the mechanism, and for any elementary process.
Logan, S. R. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1258.
Kinetics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Organic Nomenclature  David B. Shaw and Laura R. Yindra
Organic Nomenclature is a drill-and-practice exercise in naming organic compounds (using both common and IUPAC names) and identifying structural formulas. It consists of multiple-choice questions where a name or formula is given and the correct formula or name is chosen from a list of five possible answers.
Shaw, David B.; Yindra, Laura R. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1223.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The Study of Elimination Reactions Using Gas Chromatography: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory  Devin Latimer
This article describes an investigation of elimination reactions of alkyl halides. 1-Bromopentane or 2-bromopentane are reacted with either sodium ethoxide or potassium tert-butoxide. Gas chromatography is used to monitor the relative amounts of 1-pentene, (E)-2-pentene, and (Z)-2-pentene produced.
Latimer, Devin. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1183.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Synthesis |
Gas Chromatography |
Elimination Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Alkenes |
Stereochemistry
Organic Functional Group Playing Card Deck  Michael J. Welsh
Organic functional group playing card deck used for review of the name and structure of organic functional groups that can be used to play any game that a normal deck of cards is used for.
Welsh, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 426.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmajor Courses |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Amides |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters |
Ethers |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis
Electron Transport Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Wordsearch puzzle containing 30 words that describe electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 419.
Metabolism |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Genetic Code Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Wordsearch puzzle containing 30 words that describe the nucleotide sequences used to produce proteins.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 417.
Biotechnology |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Nucleic Acids / DNA / RNA
What's in a Name?   Robert M. Hanson
Quiz that asks questions that are helpful in determining what is happening in an aqueous solution.
Hanson, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1380.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
1H NMR Measurement of the Trans–Cis Photoisomerization of Cinnamic Acid Derivatives  Basil Danylec and Magdy N. Iskander
Procedure that illustrates trans-cis photoisomerization.
Danylec, Basil; Iskander, Magdy N. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1000.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Photochemistry |
Stereochemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alcohols |
Esters |
Alkenes |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Chemistry Formatter Add-ins for Microsoft Word and Excel  Christopher King
MS Word and Excel add-ins that automatically convert chemistry symbols and notations.
King, Christopher. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 896.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Fractional Distillation and GC Analysis of Hydrocarbon Mixtures  Craig J. Donahue
Separating and identifying the components of a three-hydrocarbon mixture through fractional distillation and gas chromatography.
Donahue, Craig J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 721.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Aromatic Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
Colorful Azulene and Its Equally Colorful Derivatives  Robert S. H. Liu
Analysis of azulene and related compounds for an explanation of their respective colors.
Liu, Robert S. H. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 183.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
MO Theory |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkenes
Correctly Expressing Atomic Weights (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1438)  Moreno Paolini, Giovanni Cercignani, and Carlo Bauer
Alternative units in which to express atomic weight.
Paolini, Moreno; Cercignani, Giovanni; Bauer, Carlo. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 163.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Learning Theories
Correctly Expressing Atomic Weights (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1438)  George Gorin
Alternative units in which to express atomic weight.
Gorin, George. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 163.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Learning Theories
Effect of Anisotropy on the Chemical Shift of Vinyl Protons in trans- and cis-1,2-Dibenzoylethylenes. A Small-Group or Recitation Activity  Roosevelt Shaw, David Roane, and Sean Nedd
Procedure to help students explain chemical shift differences for vinyl protons in alkene diastereomers.
Shaw, Roosevelt; Roane, David; Nedd, Sean. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 67.
Magnetic Properties |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Undergraduate Research |
Diastereomers |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkenes |
Photochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Preparation of a D-Glucose-Derived Alkene. An E2 Reaction for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Peter Norris and Andrew Fluxe
Synthesis of four carbohydrate derivatives that highlight techniques such as inert atmosphere work, rotary evaporators, and flash column chromatography.
Norris, Peter; Fluxe, Andrew. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1676.
Carbohydrates |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Alkenes |
Elimination Reactions |
Chromatography
Synthesis and Analysis of a Solvatochromic Dye, 1-(p-Dimethylaminophenyl)-2-nitroethylene. An Advanced Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment  Dana L. Richter-Egger, Aaron Tesfai, Spencer J. Flamm, and Sheryl A. Tucker
Synthesis and analysis of 1-(p-dimethylaminophenyl)-2-nitroethylene.
Richter-Egger, Dana L.; Tesfai, Aaron; Flamm, Spencer J.; Tucker, Sheryl A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1375.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Undergraduate Research |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Dyes / Pigments |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkenes
Moving Past Markovnikov's Rule  E. Eugene Gooch
Extension of the Markovnikov Rule for addition reactions across a carbon-carbon double bond.
Gooch, E. Eugene. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1358.
Synthesis |
Reactions |
Alkenes |
Addition Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Learning the Functional Groups: Keys to Success  Shannon Byrd and David P. Hildreth
Classification activity and scheme for learning functional groups.
Byrd, Shannon; Hildreth, David P. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1355.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Looking beyond the endo Rule in a Diels-Alder Discovery Lab  Ronald M. Jarret, Jamie New, Rebecca Hurley, and Laura Gillooly
Procedure to introduce preference for generation of the endo product and the stereochemistry of alkene addition of the Diels-Alder reaction.
Jarret, Ronald M.; New, Jamie; Hurley, Rebecca; Gillooly, Laura. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1262.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Stereochemistry |
Alkenes
Krebs Cycle Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Puzzle with 46 names, terms, prefixes, and acronyms that describe the citric acid (Krebs) cycle.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 515.
Metabolism |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Glycolysis Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Puzzle with 30 names, terms, prefixes, and acronyms that describe glycolysis and fermentation.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 503.
Metabolism |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Carbohydrates
b-Oxidation Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Puzzle with 36 names, terms, prefixes, and acronyms that describe lipid metabolism.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 483.
Metabolism |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Lipids
Protein Structure Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Puzzle with 37 names, terms, prefixes, and acronyms that describe protein structure.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 474.
Proteins / Peptides |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The Discovery-Oriented Approach to Organic Chemistry. 5. Stereochemistry of E2 Elimination: Elimination of cis- and trans-2-Methylcyclohexyl Tosylate  Marcus E. Cabay, Brad J. Ettlie, Adam J. Tuite, Kurt A. Welday, and Ram S. Mohan
A discovery-oriented lab that illustrates the stereochemistry of the E2 elimination reaction and is a good exercise in 1H NMR spectroscopy. The added element of discovery insures that student interest and enthusiasm are retained.
Cabay, Marcus E.; Ettlie, Brad J.; Tuite, Adam J.; Welday, Kurt A.; Mohan, Ram S. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 79.
IR Spectroscopy |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Elimination Reactions |
Reactions |
Alkenes
The Discovery-Oriented Approach to Organic Chemistry. 4. Epoxidation of p-Methoxy-trans-b-methylstyrene: An Exercise in NMR and IR Spectroscopy for Sophomore Organic Laboratories  Rebecca S. Centko and Ram S. Mohan
Illustrates epoxidation of alkenes as well as the reactivity of epoxides toward acids. The experiment involves reaction of p-methoxy-trans-beta-methylstyrene (trans-anethole) with m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (MCPBA), in both the absence and presence of a buffer, followed by product identification using 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and IR spectroscopy
Centko, Rebecca S.; Mohan, Ram S. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 77.
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Epoxides |
Alkenes
Periplanar or Coplanar?  Saul Kane and William H. Hersh
The prefix peri, derived from the Greek for "near", was chosen to make the meaning "approximately planar". However, the current common usage of syn and antiperiplanar is planar, which is incorrect. In the interests of proper language, we suggest that future authors instead use "syn-coplanar" and "anti-coplanar".
Kane, Saul; Hersh, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1366.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Are We Taking Symbolic Language for Granted?   Paul Marais and Faan Jordaan
This study formed part of a broader investigation into the role of language in teaching and learning chemical equilibrium. Students were tested for their understanding of 25 words and five symbols commonly used in connection with chemical equilibrium. This test showed that most of the students had an inadequate grasp of the meaning of all five symbols. It also showed that, on the average, their understanding of symbols was more problematic than their understanding of words.
Marais, Paul; Jordaan, Faan. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1355.
Equilibrium |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Organic Acids without a Carboxylic Acid Functional Group  G. V. Perez and Alice L. Perez
This paper presents several organic molecules that have been labeled as acids but do not contain a carboxylic acid functional group. Various chemical principles such as pKa, tautomerization, aromaticity, conformation, resonance, and induction are explored.
Perez, G. V.; Perez, Alice L. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 910.
Acids / Bases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Phenols |
Carboxylic Acids |
Aromatic Compounds
The R/S System: A New and Simple Approach to Determining Ligand Priority and a Unified Method for the Assignment and Correlation of Stereogenic Center Configuration in Diverse Stereoformulas  Dipak K. Mandal
A new approach providing an "at-a-glance" priority order of ligands attached to a stereogenic center in organic molecules and a unified method for assigning and correlating stereogenic center absolute configuration in diverse stereochemical representations is presented.
Mandal, Dipak Kumar. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 866.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
News from Online: Learning Communities  Carolyn Sweeney Judd
Summary of a variety of online, chemistry resources.
Judd, Carolyn Sweeney. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 808.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Sugar Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Wordsearch puzzle containing 29 names, terms, prefixes and acronyms that describe sugars and their polymers.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 480.
Carbohydrates |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Lipid Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Wordsearch puzzle containing 37 names, terms, prefixes and acronyms that describe lipids.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 479.
Lipids |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Amino Acids, Aromatic Compounds, and Carboxylic Acids: How Did They Get Their Common Names?  Sam H. Leung
This article provides a brief survey of the origins of the common names of some amino acids, aromatic compounds, and carboxylic acids.
Leung, Sam H. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 48.
Amino Acids |
Aromatic Compounds |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Carboxylic Acids
The Evolution of the Celsius and Kelvin Temperature Scales and the State of the Art  Julio Pellicer, M. Amparo Gilabert, and Ernesto Lopez-Baeza
A physical analysis is given of the evolution undergone by the Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales, from their definition to the present day.
Pellicer, Julio; Gilabert, M. Amparo; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 911.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Thermodynamics |
Learning Theories
Letters  
Extending the rule for rounding significant figures of products and quotients.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 897.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A Puzzling Alcohol Dehydration Reaction Solved by GC–MS Analysis  Michael W. Pelter and Rebecca M. Macudzinski
The reaction of 2-methyl-2-propanol with ~50% sulfuric acid at 100 C yields isobutylene, which reacts further by a "puzzling" reaction. By coupling the GC/MS analysis of the product mixture with their knowledge of the mechanism of alcohol dehydration and alkene reactivity, students are able to identify the major products of this reaction.
Pelter, Michael W.; Macudzinski, Rebecca M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 826.
Synthesis |
Microscale Lab |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Alcohols |
Alkenes
Calculating Units with the HP 48G Calculator  Matthew E. Morgan
The HP 48G's units function can make simple calculations, such as converting grams to moles, or more complex unit analysis, such as gas law calculations. Examples and calculator keystrokes for both of these examples are included in this article.
Morgan, Matthew E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 631.
Learning Theories |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Using Games To Teach Chemistry. 2. CHeMoVEr Board Game  Jeanne V. Russell
A board game similar to Sorry or Parcheesi was developed. Students must answer chemistry questions correctly to move their game piece around the board. Card decks contain questions on balancing equations, identifying the types of equations, and predicting products from given reactants.
Russell, Jeanne V. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 487.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
How Thermodynamic Data and Equilibrium Constants Changed When the Standard-State Pressure Became 1 Bar  Richard S. Treptow
In 1982 the IUPAC recommended that the pressure used to define the standard state of a substance be changed from 1 atm to 1 bar. The principal effect of the change is a slight increase in the entropy and a slight decrease in the free energy of any gas.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 212.
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
CHEMiCALC (4000161) and CHEMiCALC Personal Tutor (4001108), Version 4.0 (by O. Bertrand Ramsay)  Scott White and George Bodner
CHEMiCALC is a thoughtfully designed software package developed for use by high school and general chemistry students, who will benefit from the personal tutor mode that helps to guide them through unit conversion, empirical formula, molecular weight, reaction stoichiometry, and solution stoichiometry calculations.
White, Scott; Bodner, George M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 34.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
Photodimerization of Maleic Anhydride  Zhang, Zhijun
Why the photodimerization of maleic anhydride produces the cis, tans, cis product.
Zhang, Zhijun J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1515.
Photochemistry |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkenes
A Very Simple Method Way to Convert Haworth Representation to Zigzag Representation  Janine Cossy and Véronique Bellosta
A very simple method to convert Haworth representation of hexoses and pentoses to zigzag representation is proposed
Cossy, Janine; Bellosta, Véronique. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1307.
Carbohydrates |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Oxygen vs Dioxygen: Diatomic/Monatomic Usage  Sharon, Jared B.
Using the name dioxygen for O2.
Sharon, Jared B. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1089.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Quantity Calculus: Unambiguous Designation of Values and Units in Graphs and Tables  Mary Anne White
This paper gives some background to quantity calculus and shows examples, suitable for teaching to undergraduate students, of its use to provide unambiguous representations of physical quantities in tables and graphs.
White, Mary Anne. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 607.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
S. M. Tanatar and His Contribution to the Field of Thermal Rearrangements  Ludmila Birladeanu
Thermal rearrangements constitute an important chapter in organic chemistry. Surprisingly, the name of its discoverer remains unknown. The present article is meant to remedy this situation by describing some of the work of the 19th century Russian chemist S. M. Tanatar (1849 - 1917) who, based on the thermochemical data provided by Berthelot, envisaged the possibility of transforming cyclopropane into propene under the influence of heat alone.
Birladeanu, Ludmila. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 603.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Synthesis |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes
A History of the Double-Bond Rule  Bernard E. Hoogenboom
From his experience as an industrial chemist, Otto Schmidt recognized the bond weakening in hydrocarbons and in 1932 postulated the "Double-Bond Rule," stating that the presence of a double bond in a hydrocarbon has an alternating strengthening and weakening effect on single bonds throughout the molecule, diminishing with distance from the double bond.
Hoogenboom, Bernard E. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 596.
Learning Theories |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Alkenes
Incorporating Organic Name Reactions and Minimizing Qualitative Analysis in an Unknown Identification Experiment  Claire Castro and William Karney
The authors have developed a new type of unknown identification experiment for the introductory organic chemistry laboratory. The unknown sample the student is provided with is the product of an organic name reaction. The student is only informed of the starting material and conditions used in the compound's synthesis, and must then: (1) deduce the compound's structure, (2) determine the name reaction and corresponding mechanism that yields the compound, and (3) present his/her results to the class.
Claire Castro and William Karney. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 472.
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
On the Disproportionations of Cyclohexene and Related Compounds  Alex Bunjes, Ingo Eilks, Manfred Pahlke, and Bernd Ralle*
The catalytic hydrogenation of liquid hydrocarbons is easy to realize in a simple laboratory experiment using a palladium catalyst. In the case of hydrogenation cyclohexen or cyclohexadiene in addition to the expected finding of cyclohexane among the hydrogenation products, the formation of benzene can be observed. In absence of hydrogen, the disproportionation of both starting materials to cyclohexane and benzene takes place.
Bunjes, Alex; Eilks, Ingo; Pahlke, Manfred; Ralle, Bernd. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1323.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkenes |
Synthesis
A Note on the Term "Chalcogen"  William B. Jensen
It is argued that the best translation of the term "chalcogen" is "ore former." It is further suggested that the term chalcogenide should be replaced with the term chalcide in order to maintain a parallelism with the terms halogen and halide.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1063.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Descriptive Chemistry
The Dimensions of Logarithmic Quantities (re J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 467)  Robert D. Freeman
Proposal to introduce logarithms of dimensioned quantities.
Freeman, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 900.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Ionization or Dissociation?  Emeric Schultz
The use of the terms Dissociation and Ionization in the teaching of chemistry is discussed. It is suggested that the term dissociation, and what it suggests in terms of ordinary language, is inappropriate when used in certain contexts. Since an alternate and more physically correct term, specifically ionization, is available for these contexts, it is argued that this term be used consistently in these contexts.
Schultz, Emeric. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 868.
Equilibrium |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Old MacDonald Named a Compound: Branched Enynenynols  Dennis Ryan
An imaginary teacher of organic chemistry thinks up some whimsical compounds for his students to name using IUPAC nomenclature rules.
Ryan, Dennis. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 782.
Learning Theories |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Alcohols |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A -78°C Sequential Michael Addition for the Organic Lab  Michael W. Tanis
This paper introduces a cold-temperature enolate alkylation reaction that can be performed safely and inexpensively by undergraduate students in approximately two 3-hour lab sessions.
Tanis, Michael W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 112.
Addition Reactions |
Alkenes |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Synthesis
Preparation and Solution Polymerization of Diacetylenes  Bruce A. Hathaway and Angela M. Scates
Most published student laboratory syntheses of symmetrical diacetylenes follow Hay's procedure, with some modifications for using air as a source of oxygen. We report a simpler procedure, which has been useful in preparing a variety of diacetylenes. In addition, we have developed conditions suitable for solution polymerization of these diacetylenes to PDA's, using short-wave UV light.
Hathaway, Bruce A.; Scates, Angela M. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 111.
Synthesis |
Alkenes
Exponential Notation  Gavin D Peckham
Suggestion for streamlined typing of exponential notation.
Peckham, Gavin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 64.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Displaying Chemical Formulas in Microsoft Excel  E. Joseph Billo
An Excel macro which automates the entry of subscripts in Excel spreadsheets is described. The macro is assigned to a custom button on Excel's standard toolbar, so that, after typing a text label containing a chemical formula, clicking the button automatically formats the text as a chemical formula.
Billo, E. Joseph. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A40.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Amyl: A Misunderstood Word  Richard A. Kjonaas
There is much confusion associated with the word amyl. When younger chemists are taught to use the words propyl, butyl, and pentyl in place of n-propyl, n-butyl, and n-pentyl, they then incorrectly assume that this practice also applies to the word amyl.
Kjonaas, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1127.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Playing with the Soccer Ball-an Experimental Introduction to Fullerene Chemistry  Achim Hildebrand, Uwe Hilgers, Rudiger Blume, Dagmar Wiechoczek,
For the first time a selection of simple experiments with C60 on high-school and university level are presented: the bromination with Winkler's solution, hydroxylation with an alkaline permanganate solution, cycloadditions of dichlorcarbene and cyclopentadiene and the formation of a molecular complex with o-dimethoxybenzene.
Hildebrand, Achim; Hilgers, Uwe; Blume, Rudiger; Wiechoczek, Dagmar. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1066.
Alkenes
Inorganic Nomenclature  ten Hoor, Marten J.
Inorganic naming schemes should be brought in line with IUPAC recommendations.
ten Hoor, Marten J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 825.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
An Excel 4.0 Add-in Function to Calculate Molecular Mass  Christian Hauck
185. In this paper, a Microsoft Excel 4.0 add-in function is presented, which consists of a parser to interpret molecular formulas and a database containing three values for the atomic masses for every element: the mass number of the most abundant isotope, the mass of the most abundant isotope, and the atomic weight.
Hauck, Christian. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 433.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Relative Stabilities and Reactivities of Isolated Versus Conjugated Alkenes: Reconciliation Via a Molecular Orbital Approach  Chariklia Sotiriou-Leventis, Samir B. Hanna, and Nicholas Leventis
The well-accepted practice of generating a pair of molecular orbitals, one of lower energy and another of higher energy than the original pair of overlapping atomic orbitals, and the concept of a particle in a one-dimensional box are implemented in a simplified, nonmathematical method that explains the relative stabilities and reactivities of alkenes with conjugated versus isolated double bonds.
Sotiriou-Leventis, Chariklia; Hanna, Samir B.; Leventis, Nicholas. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 295.
Alkenes |
MO Theory
Olefin Metathesis Polymerization: The Unexpected Role of Carbenoid Species in Formation of Macromolecules  Donald M. Snyder
One particularly interesting topic still rarely seen outside of the research literature is the subject of metathesis polymerization. This article is intended to present the interested reader with a brief introduction to the mechanism of this unique process, its historical background, and some recent developments in the field.
Snyder, Donald M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 155.
Polymerization |
Alkenes |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Nitroalkenes: Conjugate Nitro Compounds (Perekalin, V. V.; Lipina, E. S.; Berestovitskaya, V. M.; Efremov, D. A.)  
Monograph.
J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A93.
Alkenes
Diastereospecific Synthesis of an Epoxide: An Introductory Experiment in Organic Synthetic and Mechanistic Chemistry  James A. Ciaccio
A two-step epoxide synthesis that can be presented to students in the form of two mechanistic "puzzles" that probe the stereoselectivity of two important reactions: halohydrin formation from alkenes and epoxide formation via intramolecular Williamson ether synthesis.
Ciaccio, James A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1037.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis |
Epoxides |
Alkenes
Dimensions of Logarithmic Quantities (the author replies)  Molyneux, Philip
Reply to Mills' letter.
Molyneux, Philip J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 955.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters  
Examples in physical chemistry where it seems that we take the logarithm of quantities that are not dimensionless.
J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 954.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography to Determine the C60:C70 Ratio in Fullerene Soot: An Undergraduate Chemistry Lab  Michael C. Zumwalt and M. Bonner Denton
Apparatus for producing fullerene soot and procedure for determining its C60-C70 ratio.
Zumwalt, Michael C.; Denton, M. Bonner. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 939.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Main-Group Elements |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Alkenes |
HPLC |
Quantitative Analysis
Those Baffling Subscripts  Arthur W. Friedel and David P. Maloney
Study of the difficulties students have in interpreting subscripts correctly and distinguishing atoms from molecules when answering questions and solving problems.
Friedel, Arthur W.; Maloney, David P. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 899.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Paper Models for Fullerenes C60-C84   John M. Beaton
Photocopyable patterns to construct C60-C84.
J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 863.
Main-Group Elements |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkenes
The Addition of Hydrogen Bromide to Simple Alkenes  Hilton M. Weiss
Synthesis of 1-bromohexane.
Weiss, Hilton M. . J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 848.
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Addition Reactions |
Alkenes
Determination of the R or S Configuration of Tetrahedral Stereocenters: A Graphical Flowchart Approach  Starkey, Ronald
Using graphical flowcharts to determine R or S configurations through higher shell comparisons for long-chain, highly branched, and cyclic organic structures.
Starkey, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 315.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Which Organic Molecule Should I Pick?  Perkins, Robert
Examples of questions requiring students to demonstrate their understanding of organic structures, nomenclature, isomerism, and chemical reactivity.
Perkins, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 124.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enantiomers |
Diastereomers
Hydrochlorination of (R)-Carvone  Miles, William H.; Nutaitis, Charles F.; Berreth, Christina L.
This paper describes the hydrochlorination of (R)-carvone that illustrates the concepts of regioselectivity and chemoselectivity.
Miles, William H.; Nutaitis, Charles F.; Berreth, Christina L. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1097.
Laboratory Management |
Alkenes |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
A Simple and Safe Catalytic Hydrogenation of 4-Vinylbenzoic Acid  De, Shantanu; Gambhir, Geetu; Krishnamurty, H. G.
An alternative procedure to catalytic hydrogenation is catalytic transfer hydrogenation. In this technique, the reduction of an organic compound is achieved with the aid of a donor substance in the presence of a catalyst.
De, Shantanu; Gambhir, Geetu; Krishnamurty, H. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 992.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes
An Advanced Inorganic Laboratory Experiment Using Synthesis and Reactivity of a Cycloheptatriene Molybdenum Complex  Timmers, Francis J.; Wacholtz, William F.
The reactions in the laboratory experiment described herein involve the synthesis, reactivity, and characterization of cycloheptatriene molybdenum.
Timmers, Francis J.; Wacholtz, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 987.
Synthesis |
Organometallics |
Alkenes
The Hydration of 1-Hexene and 1-Hexyne  Touchette, Kim M.; Weiss, Hilton M.; Rozenberg, Daniel
The sulfuric acid-catalyzed hydration of 1-hexene and 1-hexyne.
Touchette, Kim M.; Weiss, Hilton M.; Rozenberg, Daniel J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 534.
Alkynes |
Alkenes |
Alcohols |
Catalysis |
Synthesis
The Dehydration of 2-Methylcyclohexanol Revisited: The Evelyn Effect  Todd, David
Modification to an earlier procedure that allows students to observe the results of a hydride shift mechanism.
Todd, David J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 440.
Alcohols |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Gas Chromatography |
Alkenes |
Elimination Reactions
Basic Principles of Scale Reading  Peckham, Gavin D.
Steps and basic principles of reading the scales of laboratory instruments.
Peckham, Gavin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 423.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Organic Nomenclature  Shaw, David B.
Drill-and-practice exercise in naming organic compounds and identifying structural formulas.
Shaw, David B. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 421.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Grasping the Concepts of Stereochemistry  Barta, Nancy S.; Stille, John R.
An alternative procedure for the determination of R or S configuration for chiral molecules.
Barta, Nancy S.; Stille, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 20.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chirality / Optical Activity
GC/MS experiments for the organic chemistry laboratory: I. E2 elimination of 2-bromo-2-methyloctane   Novak, Michael; Heinrich, Julie; Martin, Kristy A.; Green, John; Lytle, Scott
Two capillary GC/MS experiments that were designed for and tested in a sophomore organic laboratory course.
Novak, Michael; Heinrich, Julie; Martin, Kristy A.; Green, John; Lytle, Scott J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A103.
Gas Chromatography |
Alkenes |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alcohols |
Elimination Reactions |
Synthesis
A fast, easy-to-run and safe ene reaction between benzyne and [beta]-pinene  Drouin, Jacques; Jacq, Philippe
A fast, easy-to-run and safe ene reaction between benzyne and [beta]-pinene.
Drouin, Jacques; Jacq, Philippe J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 863.
Alkenes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkynes |
Reactions
Hydrochlorination of 1-propynylbenzene on alumina: A demonstration of kinetic and thermodynamic control using HCl produced in situ and molecular modeling  Pienta, Norbert J.; Crawford, Scott D.; Kropp, Paul J.
A hydrochlorination experiment that provides sufficient latitude in choice of conditions.
Pienta, Norbert J.; Crawford, Scott D.; Kropp, Paul J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 682.
Molecular Modeling |
Alkynes |
Alkenes |
Gas Chromatography |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab
Products of aldol addition and related reactions: Notation for their prediction  Nwaukwai, Stephen O.
A simple method that can be used to predict products of aldols and aldol-tye addition reactions.
Nwaukwai, Stephen O. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 626.
Addition Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The correct von Baeyer name for (Buckminster)fullerane  Eckroth, David
The goal of this paper is to show the usefulness of a Hamiltonian line in the derivation of the correct von Baeyer name of a bridged hydrocarbon.
Eckroth, David J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 609.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Example of the Wolff-Kishner reduction procedure suitable for an undergraduate organic lab experiment: Preparation of oxindole  Soriano, David S.
Example of the Wolff-Kishner reduction procedure suitable for an undergraduate organic lab experiment.
Soriano, David S. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 332.
Alkenes
Alkimers  Hiatt, Richard R.
Tutorial and practice program for isomerism and nomenclature.
Hiatt, Richard R. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 125.
Diastereomers |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Microscale elimination reactions: Experiments for organic chemistry using the small scale approach  Gilow, Helmuth M.
Procedure illustrating E1 and E2 reactions.
Gilow, Helmuth M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A265.
Microscale Lab |
Reactions |
Elimination Reactions |
Alcohols |
Alkenes |
Catalysis
Quantitative analysis by FTIR: Thin films of copolymers of ethylene and vinyl acetate.  Mathias, Lon J.; Hankins, Marie G.; Bertolucci, Craig M.; Grubb, Tina L.; Muthiah, Jeno.
Quantitation of coploymers of ethylene and vinyl acetate using FTIR.
Mathias, Lon J.; Hankins, Marie G.; Bertolucci, Craig M.; Grubb, Tina L.; Muthiah, Jeno. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A217.
IR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Quantitative Analysis |
Alkenes |
Carboxylic Acids
The centennial of systematic organic nomenclature  Smith, Homer A., Jr.
This article outlines the development of the Geneva Rules, sketches the history of important modifications over the years, discusses the recent advances under auspices of IUPAC, and speculates about future developments.
Smith, Homer A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 863.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
New recrystallization solvent for synthesis of a bicyclo[2.2.1]heptene  Harrison, Ernest A., Jr.
Toluene/hexane shown to be superior to EtOAc/MeOH as recrystallization solvent.
Harrison, Ernest A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 860.
Synthesis |
Alkenes |
Solutions / Solvents |
Laboratory Management
Benzene isomers? (the author replies)  Potgieter, J. H.
Additional isomers of benzene.
Potgieter, J. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 859.
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkenes |
Diastereomers
Benzene isomers?  Reinecke, Manfred G.
Additional isomers of benzene.
Reinecke, Manfred G. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 859.
Aromatic Compounds |
Diastereomers |
Alkenes
Imprecise numbers and incautious safety procedure mar experiment.  Nelson, Robert N.
Problems with significant figures and safety concerns regarding two published experiments.
Nelson, Robert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 688.
Reactions |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
C60 and C70 made simply.  Craig, Norman C.; Gee, Gilbert C.; Johnson, Adam R.
Procedure and apparatus for synthesizing C60 and C70.
Craig, Norman C.; Gee, Gilbert C.; Johnson, Adam R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 664.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Synthesis |
Alkenes
Simple generation of C60 (Buckminsterfullerene).  Iacoe, David A.; Potter, William T.; Teeters, Dale.
A simple means for the production of fullerene-enhanced graphitic soot using equipment commonly found in most undergraduate chemistry and physics laboratories.
Iacoe, David A.; Potter, William T.; Teeters, Dale. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 663.
Synthesis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Alkenes
The anode and the sunrise.  Mierzecki, Roman.
Etymology of the terms anode and cathode.
Mierzecki, Roman. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 657.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
An introduction to fullerene structures: Geometry and symmetry.  Boo, W. O. J.
The formidable task of organizing the fullerenes can be simplified greatly by categorizing them by their symmetries.
Boo, W. O. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 605.
Alkenes |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers
The synthesis of E-beta-bromostyrene: An experiment illustrating the use of IR bending modes to distinguish E and Z isomers and the concept of kinetic and thermodynamic controlled reactions.  Strom, Laura A.; Anderson, James R.; Gandler, Joseph R.
An experiment illustrating the concept of thermodynamic and kinetically controlled reactions to produce E and Z isomers (respectively); the use of IR to distinguish E and Z isomers; and the different properties of E and Z isomers (only the E isomer has a pleasant odor).
Strom, Laura A.; Anderson, James R.; Gandler, Joseph R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 588.
Synthesis |
IR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics |
Alkenes |
Diastereomers |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Views of nursing professionals on chemistry course content for nursing education  Walhout, Justine S.; Heinschel, Judie.
Analysis of survey conducted of deans of schools of nursing, chairs of nursing departments, and registered nurses regarding courses required of nursing students and the importance of different units of measure and 39 chemistry topics to the nursing profession.
Walhout, Justine S.; Heinschel, Judie. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 483.
Medicinal Chemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A source of isomer-drawing assignments  Kjonaas, Richard A.
A comprehensive source from which instructors can choose a wide variety of good isomer drawing examples to use as homework assignments and exam questions.
Kjonaas, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 452.
Stereochemistry |
Alcohols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Ethers |
Esters |
Alkynes
Toward the consistent use of regiochemical and stereochemical terms in introductory organic chemistry.  Adams, David L.
Proposes consistency and clarity in the use of definitions for regioselective, stereoselective, and stereospecific in introductory organic chemistry.
Adams, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 451.
Stereochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Ethylene-An unusual plant hormone  Ainscough, Eric W.; Brodie, Andrew M.; Wallace, Anna L.
This article discusses some of the early historical observations about this ethylene, the production and concentration of ethylene in plants, the ethylene biosynthesis pathway, and the possible site of ethylene action.
Ainscough, Eric W.; Brodie, Andrew M.; Wallace, Anna L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 315.
Alkenes |
Plant Chemistry |
Biosynthesis
The addition of hydrogen bromide to unsymmetrical alkenes   Weiss, Hilton M.
The original article was valuable in pointing out the utility of HBr in acetic acid for the addition of HBr to alkenes.
Weiss, Hilton M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 172.
Alkenes
Higher order cycloaddition reactions of adamantyl isobenzofulvene and isobenzofuran: A microscale synthesis illustrating the involvement of highly reactive intermediates and a simple FMO treatment of their cycloaddition periselectivities  Russell, Richard A.; Longmore, Robert W.; Warrener, Ronald N.
The authors have developed an undergraduate laboratory experiment to illustrate a cycloaddition reaction using a simple mathematical approach.
Russell, Richard A.; Longmore, Robert W.; Warrener, Ronald N. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 164.
Microscale Lab |
Alkenes |
Synthesis |
MO Theory
Addition of IBr to fatty acids on the overhead projector   Solomon, Sally; Fulep-Poszmik, Annamaria; Kulp, Gary; Yu, Heung
The interhalogen compound IBr dissolved in CCl4 is added to petroleum ether solutions of fatty acids to test for unsaturation.
Solomon, Sally; Fulep-Poszmik, Annamaria; Kulp, Gary; Yu, Heung J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 66.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes
The Wittig synthesis of alkenes by phase-transfer catalysis: The syntheses of 4,4'-dichlorostilbenes and of E, E-1,4 -diphenylbutadiene   Breuer, Stephen W.
The syntheses of 4,4'-dichlorostilbenes and of E, E-1,4 -diphenylbutadiene.
Breuer, Stephen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A58.
Synthesis |
Microscale Lab |
Alkenes |
Aromatic Compounds
A quick and effective demonstration of anti-Markovnikov addition to alkenes  Brown, Trevor M.; Dronsfield, Alan T.; Hitchcock, Ian
This reaction can be performed in less then 10 minutes and the product is easily identifiable.
Brown, Trevor M.; Dronsfield, Alan T.; Hitchcock, Ian J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 785.
Alkenes |
Addition Reactions
Hydroboration-oxidation of (1R)-(+)-alpha-pinene to isopinocampheol: A microscale experiment that displays regio- and stereochemistry using NMR spectroscopy and molecular mechanics calculations  Blankespoor, Ronald L.; Piers, Kenneth
The hydroboration-oxidation of alkenes is an important route to alcohols and therefore receives considerable treatment in standard organic textbooks. These authors present their findings of an example (an alkene that undergoes the hydroboration oxidation process) that displays both regiochemistry and stereochemistry.
Blankespoor, Ronald L.; Piers, Kenneth J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 693.
Alkenes |
Oxidation / Reduction |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols
Decarboxylative elimination of 2,3-dibromo-3-phenylpropanoic acid to E or Z 1-bromo-2-phenylethylene (Beta-Bromostyrene): An experiment illustrating solvent effect on the stereochemical course of a reaction  Mestdagh, Helene; Puechberty, Anne
An experiment illustrating solvent effect on the stereochemical course of a reaction.
Mestdagh, Helene; Puechberty, Anne J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 515.
Elimination Reactions |
Alkenes |
Stereochemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
An internal comparison of the intermolecular forces of common organic functional groups: A thin-layer chromatography experiment  Beauvais, Robert; Holman, R. W.
Due to the latest trends in organic chemistry textbook content sequences, it has become desirable to develop an experiment that is rapid, simple, and general, that would compare and contrast the various functional group classes of organic molecules in terms of their relative polarities, dipole moments, and intermolecular forces of attraction.
Beauvais, Robert; Holman, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 428.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alcohols |
Carboxylic Acids |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
Qualitative Analysis |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Synthesis of a bicyclo[2.2.1]heptene Diels-Alder adduct: An organic chemistry experiment utilizing NMR spectroscopy to assign endo stereochemistry  Harrison, Ernest A., Jr.
An organic chemistry experiment utilizing NMR spectroscopy to assign endo stereochemistry via synthesis of a bicyclo[2.2.1]heptene Diels-Alder adduct.
Harrison, Ernest A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 426.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Synthesis |
Alkenes |
Aromatic Compounds |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Thin Layer Chromatography
The diverse nature of the C6H6 molecule  Potgeiter, J. H.
The purpose of this discussion is to show that C6H6 describes more than just one kind of benzene.
Potgeiter, J. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 280.
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkenes |
Reactions |
Constitutional Isomers
A convenient synthesis of 3,4-pentadien-1-ol from 3-butyn-1-ol: Spectral analysis and unusual durability of the allene moiety  Price, William A.; Patten, Timothy E.
Description of a convenient synthesis of 3,4-pentadien-1-ol from 3-butyn-1-ol: Spectral analysis and unusual durability of the allene moiety.
Price, William A.; Patten, Timothy E. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 256.
Synthesis |
Alcohols |
Alkenes |
NMR Spectroscopy
The synthesis of 2'-bromostyrene  Corvari, Linda; McKee, James R.; Zanger, Murray
Organic chemistry laboratories need not be the repositories of foul smells. This synthesis produces an aroma akin to hyacinth.
Corvari, Linda; McKee, James R.; Zanger, Murray J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 161.
Synthesis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Alkenes
Organic Nomenclature (Lampman, Gary)  Damey, Richard F.
An interactive tutorial / drill for naming organic compounds.
Damey, Richard F. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A220.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Ethers |
Alcohols |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Phenols
Terminology: Helping students cope with name reactions in organic chemistry  Ganem, Bruce
Using limericks to help students understand and remember name reactions in organic chemistry.
Ganem, Bruce J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1009.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Mechanisms of Reactions
An operationally simple hydroboration-oxidation experiment  Kabalka, George W.; Wadgaonkar, Prakash P.; Chatla, Narayana
The reactions involve the use of in situ generated diborane as the hydroborating reagent and sodium perborate as the oxidizing agent to convert cyclopentene to cyclopentanol.
Kabalka, George W.; Wadgaonkar, Prakash P.; Chatla, Narayana J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 975.
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Alkenes |
Alcohols
Pop-up units converter  Filby, Gordon; Klusmann, Martin
Program that provides conversion factors and calculations among a variety of units.
Filby, Gordon; Klusmann, Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 770.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Binary representation in carbohydrate nomenclature  McGinn, Clifford J.; Wheatley, William B.
A binary notation is used to indicate the structure of carbohydrates.
McGinn, Clifford J.; Wheatley, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 747.
Carbohydrates |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stereochemistry
Keeping track of directions of atomic orbitals: A useful device in organic chemistry  Talaty, Erach R.
The usefulness of keeping track of the directions of atomic orbitals.
Talaty, Erach R. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 655.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Alkenes |
Alkynes
The stereochemistry of additions to trans-anethole  McGahey, Lawrence
Trans-anethole is brominated with pyridinium bromide perbromide in dichloromethane.
McGahey, Lawrence J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 554.
Addition Reactions |
Stereochemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Alkenes |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers
The addition of hydrogen bromide to unsymmetrical alkenes: Introductory experiments in NMR spectroscopy and mechanistic chemistry  Brown, Trevor M.; Dronsfield, Alan T.; Ellis, Robert
As an introduction to NMR the authors center their work around the addition of hydrogen bromide to unsymmetrical alkenes and use the coupling patterns in the proton NMR spectra to establish whether the addition product is consistent with the Markovnikov rule.
Brown, Trevor M.; Dronsfield, Alan T.; Ellis, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 518.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alkenes |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Hydroboration for the large organic laboratory  Pickering, Miles
This paper reports an experiment in hydroboration without large hood space requirements, without special glassware requirements, and without inert atmospheric precautions.
Pickering, Miles J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 436.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alkenes |
Alcohols |
Qualitative Analysis
Please, no angstrometer!  Gorin, George
Instead of urging the adoption of more prefixes, there is good reason to propose that some of them be eliminated.
Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 277.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The preparation of Indanthrene Scarlet GG: A vat dye experiment for the introductory organic chemistry laboratory  Lutz, Wilson B.
The vat dye Indanthrene Scarlet GG can easily be synthesized and applied to cloth within a single two hour laboratory period.
Lutz, Wilson B. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 71.
Synthesis |
Dyes / Pigments |
Alkenes
Quantities, Units, and Symbols in Physical Chemistry (Mills, Ian; Cvitas, Tomislav; Homann, Klaus; Kallay, Nikola; Kuchitsu, Kozo)  Freeman, Robert D.
Everything you ever wanted to know about physical quantities, symbols, and units.
Freeman, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A188.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Organic Reaction Chemistry, Review II (Flash, P.; Bendall, V.)  Chipman, Wilmon B.
Six different programs which allow the user to identify functional groups, supply the missing reagent necessary to complete a given reaction, deduce the product of a given reaction, ascertain whether a given reaction will go, search the reaction database for functional group conversions, and search for the utility of a certain reagent.
Chipman, Wilmon B. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A171.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Organic Reaction Chemistry, Review I (Flash, P.; Bendall, V.)  Hargis, J. H.
Six different programs which allow the user to identify functional groups, supply the missing reagent necessary to complete a given reaction, deduce the product of a given reaction, ascertain whether a given reaction will go, search the reaction database for functional group conversions, and search for the utility of a certain reagent.
Hargis, J. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A170.
Reactions |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Amending the IUPAC Green Book  Tykodi, R. J.
Suggested amendments to the IUPAC Green Book regarding standardized chemical terminology and units of measure.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1064.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A Diels-Alder reaction for the overhead projector  Kolb, Kenneth E.
Reacting the strong dienophile tetracyanothylene with anthracene as the diene.
Kolb, Kenneth E. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 955.
Alkenes |
Mechanisms of Reactions
A valence isomer trapping procedure for introductory organic laboratory: Synthesis of a homobarrelene derivative  Kurtz, David W.; Johnson, Richard P.
Norcaradiene is trapped out of its cycloheptatriene valence isomer in a Diels-Alder reaction with maleic anhydride.
Kurtz, David W.; Johnson, Richard P. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 873.
Alkenes |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Isomerization of dimethyl maleate to dimethyl fumarate: An undergraduate experiment utilizing high performance liquid chromatography  Ledlie, David B.; Wenzel, Thomas J.; Hendrickson, Susan M.
Introduces students to liquid chromatography, the stereoisomerization of alkenes, certain aspects of free radical chemistry, and thermodynamics.
Ledlie, David B.; Wenzel, Thomas J.; Hendrickson, Susan M. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 781.
HPLC |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Esters |
Stereochemistry |
Free Radicals |
Alkenes |
Thermodynamics
A query on the etymology of the symbols, R and S  Koga, Gen
Confusion regarding the etymology of the stereochemical symbols, R and S.
Koga, Gen J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 534.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stereochemistry
The catalytic hydrogenation of methyl oleate by in situ hydrogen generation  Plummer, Ben
Modification of the catalytic hydrogenation of methyl oleate into methyl stearate.
Plummer, Ben J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 518.
Catalysis |
Alkenes |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The interconversion of cis and trans isomers  McGinn, Clifford J.; Wheatley, William B.
Trans-alkene oxides are converted to cis-alkenes on treatment with tributylphosphine, yet this reaction does not appear in most organic textbooks.
McGinn, Clifford J.; Wheatley, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 486.
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Alkenes |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Different Choices (author response)  Kemp, H.R.
Ronald Rich discusses the use of descriptive units in the problem of calculating the concentration of a 96% sulfuric acid solution of a known density.
Kemp, H.R. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 271.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Physical Properties
Different Choices  Rich, Ronald L.
Kemp wisely advocates that the values of physical quantities be treated as independent of the units used.
Rich, Ronald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 271.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Physical Properties
Concerning Units (author response)  Wadlinger, Robert
Strobel's additional comments are most welcome, especially his electron-volt argument.
Wadlinger, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 271.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Concerning Units  Strobel, Pierre
Wadlinger rightly pointed out a number of traps and misunderstandings resulting from an omission of such descriptive units as atom or wave. Here are some more examples, which any chemist dealing with some physics is likely to encounter.
Strobel, Pierre J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 270.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A series of synthetic organic experiments demonstrating physical organic principles  Sayed, Yousry; Ahlmark, Chris A.; Martin, Ned H.
The sequence of reactions described here incorporates several common synthetic organic transformations involving alkenes, alcohols, alkyl halides, and ketones that demonstrate some important principles of physical organic chemistry.
Sayed, Yousry; Ahlmark, Chris A.; Martin, Ned H. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 174.
Synthesis |
Alkenes |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Reactions
Searching Chemical Abstracts Online in undergraduate chemistry: Part 2. Registry (structure) File: molecular formulas, names, and name fragments  Krumpolc, Miroslav; Trimakas, Diana; Miller, Connie
This data base, essentially a subject index, consists of substance names, their Registry Numbers and characteristics, and actual structural representations.
Krumpolc, Miroslav; Trimakas, Diana; Miller, Connie J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 26.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Markownikoff's rule: What did he say and when did he say it?  Tierney, John
The author traces the origin of this important rule.
Tierney, John J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1053.
Alkenes |
Synthesis
Organic lecture demonstrations  Silversmith, Ernest F.
Organic chemistry may not be known for its spectacular, attention getting chemical reactions. Nevertheless, this author describes a few organic chemistry reactions that put points across and generate interest. This article provides a convenient sources of demonstrations and urges others to add to the collection. Demonstrations concerning: carbohydrates, spectroscopy, proteins, amines, carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, and much more.
Silversmith, Ernest F. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 70.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Acids / Bases |
Physical Properties |
Alkenes |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols
Mnemonic for Z and E nomenclature  Thomas, C. W.
A visual reminder that makes it unnecessary to memorize the German terms.
Thomas, C. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 44.
Diastereomers |
Alkenes |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A very brief, rapid, simple, and unified method for estimating carbon-13 NMR chemical shifts: The BS method  Shoulders, Hen; Welch, Steven C.
The "BS" method is so brief and simple that students can memorize and use it to interpret 13C NMR spectra with ease.
Shoulders, Hen; Welch, Steven C. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 915.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Instrumental Methods
"Correct" methods for naming inorganic compounds  Fernelius, W. Conard
Summary of nomenclature rules and their historical development.
Fernelius, W. Conard J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 901.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Naming inorganic compounds  Lancashire, Robert J.
Textbook survey regarding inconsistencies in systems for the order of naming ligands when using prefixes.
Lancashire, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 900.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Preparation of cyclopentadiene from its dimer  Dickson, Ronald S.; Dobney, Bruce J.; Eastwood, Frank W.
Procedure for preparing cyclopentadiene from its dimer.
Dickson, Ronald S.; Dobney, Bruce J.; Eastwood, Frank W. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 898.
Alkenes |
Synthesis
Outmoded terminology: The normal hydrogen electrode  Ramette, R. W.
As educators, we should not confuse the "normal hydrogen electrode" with the "standard hydrogen electrode".
Ramette, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 885.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Questionable word usage in analytical chemistry  Mellon, M. G.
The use of imprecise, uninformative, inappropriate or even wrong terms; and the lack of clarity in imprecise or uninformative names for methods of chemical analysis.
Mellon, M. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 735.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
One more view on assigning absolute configurations  Todd, David
Etymology of the R, S convention.
Todd, David J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 732.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Generation of cyclopentadiene  Ruekberg, Benjamin P.
Procedure and apparatus for generating cyclopentadiene.
Ruekberg, Benjamin P. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 726.
Alkenes |
Synthesis
The many chemical names for H2O  Treptow, Richard S.
"Inventing" names for water to illustrate the limitations of any naming system.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 697.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The chemists' delta  Craig, Norman C.
Thermodynamic quantities such as ?G and ?S are intensive functions and derivatives that depend on instantaneous values of the partial molar forms of various thermodynamic properties of reactions and products; they are not simple finite differences.
Craig, Norman C. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 668.
Thermodynamics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Allotropes and polymorphs  Sharma, B. D.
Definitions and examples of allotropes and polymorphs.
Sharma, B. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 404.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A safe, convenient method of generating bromine for qualitative analysis  Slayden, Suzauee W.; Do, Thuy H.; Smiley, Kimberly Y.; Nelson, Donna J.
A safe, convenient method of generating bromine used as a qualitative test for unsaturation, active methylene groups, phenols, and amines.
Slayden, Suzauee W.; Do, Thuy H.; Smiley, Kimberly Y.; Nelson, Donna J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 368.
Qualitative Analysis |
Alkenes |
Phenols |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Laboratory Management
The official rules for organic chemical nomenclature: Emergence, evolution, emphasis, and errors  Traynham, James G.
Historical development of the official rules for organic chemical nomenclature.
Traynham, James G. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 325.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Concerning dehydration of 2-methycyclohexanol  Feigenbaum, A.
One half of class dehydrates 2-methycyclohexanol, the other half dehydrates 1-methycyclohexanol; gas chromatography retention times are then compared for the two product mixtures.
Feigenbaum, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 273.
Alcohols |
Alkenes |
Stereochemistry |
Constitutional Isomers |
Gas Chromatography
Addition of iodine to alkenes: A pseudo-first-, second-, or third-order kinetics experiment  Field, Kurt W.; Wilder, Deborah; Utz, Arthur; Kolb, Kenneth E.
A simple, inexpensive, class-tested experiment for determining the kinetics of iodine addition to various alkenes in several solvents.
Field, Kurt W.; Wilder, Deborah; Utz, Arthur; Kolb, Kenneth E. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 269.
Alkenes |
Kinetics
The nomenclature of relative stereochemistry: Choosing between likes and preferences  Brook, Michael A.
The commonly used descriptors for relative stereochemistry are introduced and compared.
Brook, Michael A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 218.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Voltammetric monitoring of Br- and Br3- concentrations during the bromination of styrene by Br3-: A laboratory experiment  Desbene Monvernay, Annie; Berthelot, Jacques; Desbene, Paul-Louis
Electrochemical titration of Br- and Br3- and voltammetric monitoring of styrene bromination by TBEBr3.
Desbene Monvernay, Annie; Berthelot, Jacques; Desbene, Paul-Louis J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 86.
Electrochemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Alkenes |
Reactions
Comparison of chemical oxidation of alkanes, alkenes, and alcohols on the overhead projector  Kolb, Kenneth E.
This overhead projector demonstration utilizes two classical oxidants, permanganates and dichromate, to distinguish between alkanes, alkenes, and primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols.
Kolb, Kenneth E. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 977.
Alcohols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Qualitative Analysis
Microscale organic laboratory: IV: A simple and rapid procedure for carrying out Wittig reactions  Pike, R. M.; Mayo, D. W.; Butcher, D. W.; Butcher, S. S.; Hinkle, R. J.
This paper offers two examples that illustrate a new synthetic method. This synthesis is the first feasible preparation of a particular group available for the introductory organic laboratory.
Pike, R. M.; Mayo, D. W.; Butcher, D. W.; Butcher, S. S.; Hinkle, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 917.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Heterocycles |
Alkenes |
Alcohols
Illustrating Newman projection formulas in large classes  Elakovich, Stella D.
An overhead projector demonstration can help students better understand Newman projections.
Elakovich, Stella D. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 570.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Modeling
Stress the twofold axis of the threo isomer  Tavernier, D.
The author weighs in on the the controversy of the threo and erythro nomenclature.
Tavernier, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 511.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers |
Diastereomers
Number of oxidations relative to methylene: A convenient method of recognizing and quantifying organic oxidation-reduction  Kjonaas, Richard A.
This paper describes the use of a type of molecular oxidation number called "Number of oxidations relative to methylene".
Kjonaas, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 311.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Qualitative Analysis |
Alkenes
Elemental etymology: What's in a name?  Ball, David W.
Summarizes patterns to be found among the origins of the names of the elements.
Ball, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 787.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Conversion of standard thermodynamic data to the new standard state pressure  Freeman, Robert D.
Analyzes the changes that will be required to convert standard thermodynamic data from units of atmospheres to the bar.
Freeman, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 681.
Thermodynamics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The NBS reaction: A simple explanation for the predominance of allylic substitution over olefin addition by bromine at low concentrations  Wamser, Carl C.; Scott, Lawrence T.
What factors govern the reaction of Br2 with an alkene to give either allylic substitution or double bond addition?
Wamser, Carl C.; Scott, Lawrence T. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 650.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Free Radicals |
Kinetics |
Alkenes
A short set of 13C-NMR correlation tables  Brown, D. W.
The object of these tables is to enable a student to calculate rapidly approximate d values for 13C nuclei in as wide a variety of compounds as possible.
Brown, D. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 209.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amides |
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters
Some improper terms in coordination chemistry  Syamal, A.
A listing of terms recommended to replace those employing "complex" in coordination chemistry.
Syamal, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 143.
Coordination Compounds |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A new meaning of the terms acid and base hydrolysis  Milic, Nikola B.
Suggestions for distinguishing between solvation, hydration, and solvolysis, and hydrolysis reactions that produce hydroxo and protonated complexes.
Milic, Nikola B. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1066.
Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
The emergence of stochastic theories: What are they and why are they special?  Freeman, Gordon R.
Examines the word stochastic and its opposite, deterministic, and points out why stochastic models are receiving new emphasis of late.
Freeman, Gordon R. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 944.
Kinetics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Metallo complexes: An experiment for the undergraduate laboratory  Kauffman, George B.; Karbassi, Mohammad; Bergerhoff, Gunter
Theory, nomenclature, structure, and preparative methods of metallic complexes; the experiment prepares several metallo complexes according to procedures modified from the literature and their properties are observed.
Kauffman, George B.; Karbassi, Mohammad; Bergerhoff, Gunter J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 729.
Coordination Compounds |
Metals |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Synthesis
Use of the world "eager" instead of "spontaneous" for the description of exergonic reactions  Hamori, Eugene; Muldrey, James E.
Difficulties with the word spontaneous and why eager is a better term.
Hamori, Eugene; Muldrey, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 710.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Thermodynamics
Natural sources of ionizing radiation  Bodner, George M.; Rhea, Tony A.
Units of radiation measurement, calculations of radiation dose equivalent, sources of ionizing radiation and its biological effects.
Bodner, George M.; Rhea, Tony A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 687.
Natural Products |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
To space or not to space- that is the question  Hurd, Charles D.
The use of spaces in the words "chloro acids" and "keto esters".
Hurd, Charles D. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 667.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases |
Esters
Who is anti-Markovnikov?  Tedder, J. M.
What are the factors that control the rate and orientation of free radical addition to alkenes?
Tedder, J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 237.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Addition Reactions |
Free Radicals |
Alkenes
The evaluation of strain and stabilization in molecules using isodesmic reactions  Fuchs, Richard
The stabilities of cyclic hydrocarbons are analyzed using isodesmic and metathetical isodesmic reactions.
Fuchs, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 133.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Aromatic Compounds
Oil shale - Heir to the petroleum kingdom   Schachter, Y.
A discussion of oil shale provides students with real-world problems that require chemical literacy.
Schachter, Y. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 750.
Applications of Chemistry |
Alkenes |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Green Chemistry
Organic nomenclature: Making it a more exciting teaching and learning experience  Hambly, Gordon F.
The author shares a game that he has used with great success to help students understand organic nomenclature.
Hambly, Gordon F. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 553.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Correct representation of conformational equilibria  Fulop, F.; Bernath, G.; Szabo, J. A.; Dombi, Gy
This article draws attention to a recurring error in representations of conformations of carbocyclic compounds in the literature.
Fulop, F.; Bernath, G.; Szabo, J. A.; Dombi, Gy J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 95.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Degas' dancers: an illustration for rotational isomers  Hargittai, Istvan
Two drawings by Degas provide an opportunity to introduce the concepts of staggered and eclipsed conformations of A2B-BC2 molecules in a concrete, interesting, and aesthetic way.
Hargittai, Istvan J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 94.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Constitutional Isomers |
Diastereomers
Numbers in chemical names  Fernelius, W. Conard
Discusses the various ways that numbers are used in the formulas and names of chemical compounds.
Fernelius, W. Conard J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 964.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Oxidation State
Isobutylene revisited: An experiment introducing both qualitative and quantitative application of NMR spectroscopy  Tremelling, Michael J.; Hammond, Christina N.
The product distribution is a contradiction to the general rule that the more highly substituted alkene is more stable.
Tremelling, Michael J.; Hammond, Christina N. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 697.
Alkenes |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Addition Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Student preparation of alkanols from alkenes  McKee, J. R.; Kauffman, J. M.
The hydration of 1-hexene to form 2-hexanol demonstrates Markovnikov addition, produces a higher yield of alcohol, and starts with a less expensive alkene than cyclohexene hydrations.
McKee, J. R.; Kauffman, J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 695.
Alcohols |
Alkenes |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Addition Reactions
Pi bonding without tears  Akeroyd, F. Michael
A non-mathematical treatment of sigma-pi bonding applied to conjugation, hyperconjugation, Markovnikoff addition, aromaticity, and aromatic substitution.
Akeroyd, F. Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 371.
Alkenes |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Addition Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds
The problem of syn- versus anti-addition: An organic chemistry laboratory experiment  Silversmith, Ernest F.
An experiment that allows a student to determine whether an addition to a carbon-carbon double bond proceeds in syn- or anti-fashion.
Silversmith, Ernest F. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 346.
Addition Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis |
Alkenes
How much cholesterol is in your body?  Chamizo G., Jose Antonio
Calculations involving the size and proportion of the body consisting of cholesterol.
Chamizo G., Jose Antonio J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 151.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Lipids
The extinction coefficient: S.I. and the dilemma of its units-six options  Wigfield, Donald C.
Six options for dealing with units in regards to the extinction coefficient.
Wigfield, Donald C. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 27.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Groups and subgroups in the periodic table of the elements: A proposal of modification in the nomenclature  Araneo, Antonio
A proposal to eliminate the "A" and "B" designations of subgroups and replace them with letters referring directly to the electronic structures of atoms.
Araneo, Antonio J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 784.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Atomic Properties / Structure
An applied exam in coordination chemistry  Pantaleo, Daniel C.
Students draw from a pool of stock chemicals and answer questions based on its formula and observed properties.
Pantaleo, Daniel C. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 669.
Coordination Compounds |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Bent-bond models using framework molecular models  Sund, Eldon H.; Suggs, Mark W.
Using tubing to represent double and triple bonds.
Sund, Eldon H.; Suggs, Mark W. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 638.
Molecular Modeling |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Covalent Bonding
Confusion over D and L Nomenclature  Yuan, Sun-Shine
The use of the (R,S) convention will eliminate (D,L) confusion.
Yuan, Sun-Shine J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 528.
Amino Acids |
Stereochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Bent bonds and multiple bonds  Robinson, Edward A.; Gillespie, Ronald J.
Considers carbon-carbon multiple bonds in terms of the bent bond model first proposed by Pauling in 1931.
Robinson, Edward A.; Gillespie, Ronald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 329.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Alkenes |
Alkynes
Diphenylbutadienes syntheses by means of the Wittig reaction: Experimental introduction to the use of phase transfer catalysis  Gillois, J.; Guillerm, G.; Stephen, E.; Vo-Quang, L.
Intended as a project carried out by students at the end of introductory organic chemistry.
Gillois, J.; Guillerm, G.; Stephen, E.; Vo-Quang, L. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 161.
Synthesis |
Catalysis |
Alkenes |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Stereochemistry
Response to Comments on "SI Units? A Camel is a Camel"  Adamson, Arthur W.
Comments on an earlier article regarding SI units.
Adamson, Arthur W. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 665.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters on SI Units  Dingledy, David
Comments on an earlier article regarding SI units.
Dingledy, David J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 665.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters on SI Units  Heslop, R. B.
Comments on an earlier article regarding SI units.
Heslop, R. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 665.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
An apologia for accepting at least an approximation to SI  Wright, P. G.
Comments on earlier articles regarding SI units.
Wright, P. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 663.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
On finding a middle ground for SI  Nelson, Robert A.
Comments on an earlier article regarding SI units.
Nelson, Robert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 661.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A topical alkene preparation and oxidation  Mitchell, Reginald H.; Hawkins, Blaine F.; West, Paul R.
Thermally depolymerizing polystyrene to styrene followed by an investigation of the properties of the flammable monomer produced.
Mitchell, Reginald H.; Hawkins, Blaine F.; West, Paul R. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 526.
Alkenes |
Synthesis |
Polymerization
Ethylene: The organic chemical industry's most important building block  Fernelius, Condrad W.; Wittcoff, Harold; Varnerin, Robert E.
The sources, chemistry, and industrial uses of ethylene.
Fernelius, Condrad W.; Wittcoff, Harold; Varnerin, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 385.
Alkenes |
Industrial Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Polymerization
Hey, watch your language!  Herron, J. Dudley
If we do not use our words with care, we introduce and reinforce confusion.
Herron, J. Dudley J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 330.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The ambit of chemistry  Vitz, Edward W.
Proposal to revise the standard definition of chemistry to one that focusses on atoms and molecules rather than simply matter.
Vitz, Edward W. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 327.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Computer-assisted instruction in stereochemical configuration analysis  Bishop, Marvin; Nowak, Maria

Bishop, Marvin; Nowak, Maria J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 318.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Conformational Analysis |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Use of hand models for assigning configurational nomenclature  Garrett, James M.
A subject which often produces consternation in a beginning student in organic chemistry is that of sequential nomenclature involving chiral centers. After having studied the Cahn-Ingold-Prelog rules of nomenclature a student may be asked to examine a structure as shown in this article.
Garrett, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 493.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers
Stoichiometric study in the gas phase: Bromination of unsaturated hydrocarbons  Charlson, A. J.; Shapiro, J. S.; Ware, G. W.; Watton, E. C.
Many college and high school manuals describe an experiment involving bromine addition to carbon-carbon double bonds. This experiment leaves many questions unanswered and may lead to confusion with the photo-bromination of hydrocarbons where decoloration of bromine occurs. This experiment leads students to many misconceptions regarding this reaction.
Charlson, A. J.; Shapiro, J. S.; Ware, G. W.; Watton, E. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 338.
Stoichiometry |
Alkenes
Balloon models for organic molecules  Niac, G.
A balloon model can be used to demonstrate properties of small, organic molecules.
Niac, G. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 303.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alcohols |
Alkenes |
VSEPR Theory
Basic organic nomenclature  Breneman, G. L.
A series of three computer programs have been developed in the Basic Language to give students practice in naming branched alkanes, compounds with various functional groups, and benzene derivatives.
Breneman, G. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 224.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Derivatives of oxo acids III. Functional derivatives  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy
The authors consider some general aspects of nomenclature for the so-called functional derivatives of the inorganic oxo acids.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 30.
Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Selectivity and specificity in organic reactions  Ault, Addison
Distinguishes between various forms of selectivity and specificity (e.g. the us of and differences between stereoselective and stereospecific).
Ault, Addison J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 614.
Reactions |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Equations of electromagnetism from CGS to SI  Cvitas, T.; Kallay, N.
A general procedure for changing any CGS formula into SI.
Cvitas, T.; Kallay, N. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 530.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A convenient notation for powers of ten and logarithms  Oesterreicher, H.
A convenient notation for powers of ten and logarithms that does not require superscripts.
Oesterreicher, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 367.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Organic derivatives of oxo acids. Part I. Acids, salts, and esters of group VIA elements / Knowledge is ready cash  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy
Nomenclature of organic derivatives of oxo acids and their salts and esters that are derived from the polybasic acids of the nonmetallic elements of Group IIIA through Group VIA.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 299.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases |
Esters
Ethylene by naphtha cracking. Free radicals in action  Wiseman, Peter
Ethylene manufacture, the mechanism of ethylene formation, maximizing ethylene yield, the effect of feedstock composition, and secondary reactions.
Wiseman, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 154.
Free Radicals |
Industrial Chemistry |
Alkenes |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions |
Applications of Chemistry
Lower valent oxo acids of phosphorus and sulfur  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy
Reviews current practice and some of the problems with partial solutions.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 30.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Isomerism about a double bond: Use of cis and trans   Fernelius, W. Conard; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Limitations of the cis and trans nomenclature.
Fernelius, W. Conard; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 727.
Diastereomers |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Syntheses and rearrangements of cage molecules related to cubane  Jefford, Charles W.
This article looks at the synthesis of cubane, basketene, miscellaneous homocubane chemistry, snoutene, triqunacene, hypostrophene, tris-homocubane, and catalysis by transition metals.
Jefford, Charles W. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 477.
Catalysis |
Transition Elements |
Alkenes |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Heterocycles |
Alcohols
Grignard dehydration reactions. An undergraduate organic experiment.  Duty, Robert C.; Ryder, Bernard L.
In this laboratory, the authors have incorporated the Grignard reaction in a step-wise synthesis that has been successful in demonstrating several experimental and instrumental techniques.
Duty, Robert C.; Ryder, Bernard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 457.
Grignard Reagents |
Reactions |
Synthesis |
Alkenes
The hydroboration-oxidation of alkenes. A convenient anti-Markownikoff hydration experiment  Kabalka, George W.; Hedgecock, Herbert C., Jr.
A hydroboration-oxidation sequence that relies on the borane dimethylsulfide complex as the hydroborating agent and trimethylamine-N-oxide dihydrate as the oxidizing agent.
Kabalka, George W.; Hedgecock, Herbert C., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 745.
Alkenes |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Addition Reactions
Names for elements  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
System for naming new, heavy elements.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 583.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Calculation of the number of cis-trans isomers in a "symmetric" polyene  Har-zvi, Ron; Wittes, Janet Turk
A problem in which students are to derive a general expression for the number of cis-trans isomers in a "symmetric" straight chain polyene when there are n double bonds.
Har-zvi, Ron; Wittes, Janet Turk J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 545.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Diastereomers |
Alkenes
Microbial oxidation of alkenes. An integrated organic-biology experiment  Kumler, Philip L.; DeJong, Peter J.
The conversion of an appropriate terminal alkene to a 1,2-epoxyalkane by Pseudomonas oleovorans introduces students to the techniques used in carrying out chemical conversions employing microorganisms.
Kumler, Philip L.; DeJong, Peter J. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 475.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alkenes |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Biotechnology |
Natural Products
A series of related organic experiments with optional structure determinations  Fairless, Billy J.; Ragsdale, Gary; Kerby, Claudia
The authors wish to report three related experiments that have been received with enthusiasm by organic students.
Fairless, Billy J.; Ragsdale, Gary; Kerby, Claudia J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 61.
Phenols |
Alkenes |
NMR Spectroscopy
Computer program for identifying alkane structures  Davidson, Scott
A Fortran IV computer program to identify and name alkane structure having C1-C16 main chains and C1-C4 side chains is available.
Davidson, Scott J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 707.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
What mean these words?  Mellon, M. Guy
Examines inconsistent and questionable usage of terms and names in analytical chemistry.
Mellon, M. Guy J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 690.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Dihalocarbene addition reaction  Goh, S. H.
This experiment illustrates the synthetic utility of carbenes and that of phase transfer catalysis.
Goh, S. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 678.
Alkenes |
Addition Reactions |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Catalysis |
Synthesis
The boat form of cyclohexane as viewed by Midwestern sailors  Lyle, Gloria; Lyle, Robert E.
Possible confusion regarding the boat analogy in describing the positions of hydrogens in cyclohexane.
Lyle, Gloria; Lyle, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 655.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Structures containing cationic carbon  Dermer, O. C.; Traynham, James C.
Reviews nomenclature conventions for structures containing cationic carbon.
Dermer, O. C.; Traynham, James C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 545.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Carbocations
Electron affinity. The zeroth ionization potential  Brooks, David W.; Meyers, Edward A.; Sicilio, Fred; Nearing, James C.
It is the purpose of this article to present the merits of adopting the terminology zeroth ionization potential to describe the energy change that occurs when a gaseous anion loses an electron.
Brooks, David W.; Meyers, Edward A.; Sicilio, Fred; Nearing, James C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 487.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Derivatives of oxo acids. IUPAC Publications on Nomenclature. Other International Reports. SI Units  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Summarizes the nomenclature of oxo acid derivatives.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 341.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases
Demonstrating the nomenclature for absolute configurations in octahedral complexes  Alexander, M. Dale
Using cardboard octahedral and transparent cylinders to help students visualize the nomenclature for absolute configurations in octahedral complexes.
Alexander, M. Dale J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 125.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Coordination Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Oxoacids and their salts  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Reviews the conventions for naming oxoacids and their salts.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 123.
Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Positive ions and binary compounds  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Guidelines for the names of positive ions and binary compounds; also errata from past articles in this series.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 844.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
How Should Abbreviations be Used? / The Second Edition of the "Red Book"  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Presents IUPAC rules regarding the use of abbreviations. New IUPAC publication.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 488.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Use Of Punctuation Marks and Spaces. Order of Constituents  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Summarizes how punctuation marks and spaces are used in nomenclature.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 333.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Use of enclosing marks and letters  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Summarizes how parentheses, brackets, braces, and letters are used in nomenclature.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 253.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Magnetochemistry in SI units  Quickenden, Terence I.; Marshall, Robert C.
Explains the conversion of magnetochemical formulas from the frequently used CGS-EMU system to the International System of Units (SI).
Quickenden, Terence I.; Marshall, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 114.
Magnetic Properties |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Numbers in nomenclature  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Examines how multiplying affixes are used, particularly in inorganic nomenclature.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 49.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
SI units in physico-chemical calculations  Norris, A. C.
This article demonstrates how the adoption of SI units affects some of the more important physico-chemical calculations found at the undergraduate level.
Norris, A. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 797.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Organic nomenclature, I  Liotta, Charles
It is the purpose of this article to call attention to errors and misconceptions in the application of IUPAC Rules of Organic Nomenclature.
Liotta, Charles J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 471.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alcohols |
Heterocycles
Indene reactions: An organic chemistry laboratory problem  Garrison, James A.
Students are given a problem in which they are to determine which of two published accounts of reaction products involving derivatives of idene is correct.
Garrison, James A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 300.
Alkenes |
Alcohols
The dehydration of 3,3-dimethyl-2-butanol  Taber, Richard L.; Grantham, Gary D.; Champion, William C.
Presents an experiment that demonstrates the usefulness of gas chromatography as an analytical technique, emphasizes structural rearrangement, makes use of elementary thermodynamics, and gives the student some experience in the original literature.
Taber, Richard L.; Grantham, Gary D.; Champion, William C. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 849.
Alcohols |
Alkenes |
Gas Chromatography
A unique laboratory-lecture in organic chemistry  Nienhouse, Everett J.
The laboratory-lecture considered centers about the products obtained from the dehydration of 4-methyl-2-pentanol.
Nienhouse, Everett J. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 765.
Alcohols |
Alkenes
A modern look at Markovnikov's rule and the peroxide effect  Isenberg, Norbert; Grdinic, Marcel
Presents a "carbonium ion" definition of Markovnikov's Rule and examines the peroxide effect.
Isenberg, Norbert; Grdinic, Marcel J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 601.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Free Radicals |
Alkenes |
Addition Reactions
Organic chemistry  Dolbier, William R., Jr.
Presents an explanation that encompasses all electrophilic additions to alkenes within a single, unifying picture.
Dolbier, William R., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 342.
Addition Reactions |
Alkenes |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stereochemistry
Mole fraction versus molality  Creak, G. Alan
Mole fractions are not always unambiguous when used in the context of ionic solutions.
Creak, G. Alan J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 622.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Substitution products in the Hofmann elimination  Baumgarten, Ronald J.
Textbooks often state or imply that alkenes are the only products formed when tetra- alkylammonium hydroxides are heated.
Baumgarten, Ronald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 122.
Alkenes
3-Sulfolene: A butadiene source for a Diels-Alder synthesis: An undergraduate laboratory experiment  Sample, Thomas E., Jr.; Hatch, Lewis F.
By selecting a suitable diene cyclic sulfone, the common complication in performing a Diels-Alder experiment can be avoided.
Sample, Thomas E., Jr.; Hatch, Lewis F. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 55.
Alkenes |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Significant figures and correlation of parameters  DeTar, DeLos F.
Examines the two quite different meanings for the term significant figures as applied to the parameters of an equation.
DeTar, DeLos F. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 759.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Dehydration of 2-methylcyclohexanol  Taber, Richard L.; Champion, William C.
This short article describes a simple alcohol dehydration that illustrates the Saytzeff Rule.
Taber, Richard L.; Champion, William C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 620.
Alcohols |
Gas Chromatography |
Alkenes
Organic nomenclature: A programmed introduction (Traynham, James G.)  Hiatt, Richard

Hiatt, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 309.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Textbooks errors. Miscellanea no. 5  Mysels, Karol J.
Considers inconsistencies in the units involved in thermodynamic expressions, incorrect units given for equivalent conductivity, oscillations in polargraphic measurements, and inconsistencies in dealing with catalysis.
Mysels, Karol J. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 44.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Thermodynamics |
Catalysis
The MKS temperature scale  Georgian, John C.
A temperature scale to fit into the MKS system of units is proposed.
Georgian, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 414.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letter to the editor  Onwood, D. P.
Discusses variations in the usage of the terms "acid" and "base," including Lowry-Bronsted and Lewis systems.
Onwood, D. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 335.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Bromination of alkanes: Experiment illustrating relative reactivities and synthetic utility  Warkentin, J.
The radical halogenation of alkanes lend themselves well to the teaching of basic material such as bond dissociation energies, potential energy profiles, enthalpy of reaction, activation energy, and reaction rate.
Warkentin, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 331.
Electrochemistry |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Synthesis |
Alkenes |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Free Radicals
Molecules versus moles  Guggenheim, E. A.
Now that the mass of molecules is known with great accuracy, there is nothing to be gained in continuing to use moles.
Guggenheim, E. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 250.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A temperature-independent concentration unit  Blumberg, A. A.; Siska, P. E.; San Filippo, Joseph, Jr.
Describes a new system of concentration, termed molicity by the authors.
Blumberg, A. A.; Siska, P. E.; San Filippo, Joseph, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 420.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents
An introduction to chemical nomenclature (Cahn, R. S.)  Hurd, Charles D.

Hurd, Charles D. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 234.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
An MKS system of units for chemists  Strong, Frederick C.
It would be worth investigating whether the MKS system would be useful in chemistry.
Strong, Frederick C. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 621.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Systematic names for the tartaric acids  Baxter, J. N.
Examines the use of the small capital letters D and L in naming tartaric acids.
Baxter, J. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 619.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases |
Carbohydrates |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers
Lexicon of international and national units (Clason, W. E.)  Kieffer, William F.

Kieffer, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 519.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Signs of tensions in electrochemistry  Van Rysselberghe, Pierre
Discusses conventions and definitions for electrochemical terms and relationships.
Van Rysselberghe, Pierre J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 486.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Oxidation / Reduction
An introduction to the sequence rule: A system for the specification of absolute configuration  Cahn, R. S.
This paper describes the relatively simple methods that suffice for specifying the absolute configuration of the majority of optically active organic compounds - those containing asymmetric carbon atoms.
Cahn, R. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 116.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Chromatographic glossary  Lewin, S. Z.
Presents thin layer and gas chromatography terms in English, German, French, and Spanish.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A167.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography
Letters  Goldberg, David E.
The author suggests using the term "continuous chain" rather than "straight" chain so as to reduce confusion regarding the geometry of carbon chains.
Goldberg, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 319.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Editorially Speaking  Kieffer, William F.
Discussion of the conventions, definitions, and symbols of thermodynamics.
Kieffer, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 489.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Thermodynamics
The mole in quantitative chemistry  Copley, George Novello
The purpose of this paper is to show how the mole concept can be applied more consistently and efficiently to all aspects of quantitative chemistry.
Copley, George Novello J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 551.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Quantitative Analysis
Letters  Laughton, P. M.
A short discussion on the meaning of empirical formula.
Laughton, P. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 378.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The general philosophy of organic nomenclature  Hurd, Charles D.
A discussion of the underlying principles of nomenclature that are basic to all systems of organic nomenclature.
Hurd, Charles D. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 43.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
MolonA new concentration unit  Gillespie, R. J.; Solomons, C.
Suggests the use of the molon, defined as moles of solute per kilogram of solution.
Gillespie, R. J.; Solomons, C. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 202.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents
New Prefixes for Units  
Outlines new recommendations for standardized metric prefixes.
J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 85.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Polymerization of ethylene at atmospheric pressure: A demonstration using a "Ziegler" type catalyst  Zilkha, Albert; Calderon, Nissim; Rabani, Joseph; Frankel, Max
A simple experiment on the polymerization of ethylene at atmospheric pressure is described using a "Ziegler" type catalyst prepared from amyl lithium and titanium tetrachloride.
Zilkha, Albert; Calderon, Nissim; Rabani, Joseph; Frankel, Max J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 344.
Polymerization |
Reactions |
Catalysis |
Alkenes
Representation of polycyclic aromatic compounds  Bieber, Theodore I.
Reviews the representation of polycyclic aromatic compounds and the matter of pi-electron sharing by adjacent sextets.
Bieber, Theodore I. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 235.
Aromatic Compounds |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Letters  Fisher, D. Jerome
A spirited discussion regarding terminology for crystal classes.
Fisher, D. Jerome J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 214.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters  Donohue, Jerry
A spirited discussion regarding terminology for crystal classes.
Donohue, Jerry J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 214.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Nomenclature of phase transition  McDonald, James E.
Discusses the curious situation in which the terminology of chemistry and physics has only five words to describe the six possible transitions between three states of matter.
McDonald, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 205.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters  Pokras, Lewis
The author proposes the term "senacule" as analagous to molecule and to be used to refer to ionic species.
Pokras, Lewis J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 159.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Ciphered formulas in carbohydrate chemistry  Difini, Alvaro; Neto, Jose Difini
Describes the use of schematic formulas as an aid to rapidly representing configurations for monosaccharides.
Difini, Alvaro; Neto, Jose Difini J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 38.
Carbohydrates |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Letters  Fisher, D. Jerome
The author responds to criticism of his suggestions for naming classes of crystals.
Fisher, D. Jerome J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 458.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Recent developments concerning the signs of electrode potentials  Licht, Truman S.; deBethune, Andre J.
It is the purpose of this paper to review recent developments concerning the signs of electrode potentials, particularly with respect to single electrode potential, half-reaction potential, and half-cell electromotive force.
Licht, Truman S.; deBethune, Andre J. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 433.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Letters to the editor  Freedman, Jules
Commentary on the D and L convention as applied to tartaric acid.
Freedman, Jules J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 362.
Acids / Bases |
Stereochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Letters to the editor  Pickering, Roger A.
Commentary on the D and L convention as applied to tartaric acid.
Pickering, Roger A. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 362.
Stereochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enantiomers |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Assignment of D and L prefixes to the tartaric acids  Vickery, Hubert Bradford
Discusses conventions regarding the assignment of D and L prefixes to the tartaric acids.
Vickery, Hubert Bradford J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 339.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enantiomers |
Stereochemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters to the editor  Donohue, Jerry
Commentary of the terminology of crystal classes.
Donohue, Jerry J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 310.
Solids |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Assignment of D and L prefixes to the tartaric acids: The Wohl conventions  Abernethy, John Leo
Examines the Wohl system for designating dextro- and levorotatory tartaric acids.
Abernethy, John Leo J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 150.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enantiomers |
Stereochemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Acids / Bases
Assignment of D and L prefixes to the tartaric acids: An unsettled stereochemical question  Nenitzescu, Costin D.
Examines the Wohl and Freudenberg systems of designating dextro- and levorotatory tartaric acids.
Nenitzescu, Costin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 147.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Letters to the editor  Gorin, George
Amplifies the discussion of proper configurational prefixes for the tartaric acids.
Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 478.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Letters to the editor  Foster, Laurence S.
Thanks a reader for pointing out a misstatement in an earlier article involving atomic mass units and avograms.
Foster, Laurence S. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 477.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Letters to the editor  Mayper, Stuart A.
Points out a misstatement in an earlier article involving atomic mass units and avograms.
Mayper, Stuart A. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 477.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Some difficulties and common errors related to the designation of sugar configurations  Abernethy, John Leo
Examines some difficulties and common errors related to the designation of sugar configurations.
Abernethy, John Leo J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 88.
Carbohydrates |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers
Letters to the editor  Weiner, Samuel
Discusses some of the semantic confusions that plague teaching in chemistry.
Weiner, Samuel J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 646.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A mnemonic for dicarboxylic acids  Cox, Gerald J.
This short note provides a mnemonic for the names of the dicarboxylic acids.
Cox, Gerald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 363.
Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Carboxylic Acids
A notation for the study of certain stereochemical problems  Newman, Melvin S.
Newman introduces the projections of compounds containing two adjacent asymmetric carbons that would later bear his name.
Newman, Melvin S. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 344.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Conformational Analysis |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Trends in chemical education  Currier, Arnold J.
Topics examined include chemical nomenclature, the organization of subject matter in chemistry, carbon chemistry versus qualitative analysis, the laboratory versus the textbook, and supplies in chemistry teachers.
Currier, Arnold J. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 286.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Qualitative Analysis
A mnemonic acid for aldoses  Deloach, Will S.; Brandon, Ann
Presents a mnemonic aid for remembering the D-aldoses (through the hexoses).
Deloach, Will S.; Brandon, Ann J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 136.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Carbohydrates
Note on the representation of the electronic structures of acetylene and benzene  Noller, Carl R.
The three dimensional nature of molecular orbitals in acetylene and benzene are illustrated.
Noller, Carl R. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 23.
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory
Letters to the editor  Steinhardt, Ralph G., Jr.
The author replies to a commentary on his earlier article regarding the definition of "spectrum."
Steinhardt, Ralph G., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 217.
Spectroscopy |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters to the editor  Rosenbaum, E. J.
Commentary on an earlier article regarding the definition of "spectrum."
Rosenbaum, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 216.
Spectroscopy |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters to the editor  Lash, M. E.
The author clarifies the definition of critical temperature, which is often stated uncritically in textbooks.
Lash, M. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 102.
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Aspects of isomerism and mesomerism. I. (a) Formulas and their meaning (b) Mesomerism  Bent, Richard L.
Examines molecular, empirical, structural, configurational, and projection formulas, as well as mesomerism (electronic isomers) and various types of resonance.
Bent, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 220.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Resonance Theory
Letters  Azcuenaga-Chacon, J. V.
The author suggests that valence electrons be called "valentrons."
Azcuenaga-Chacon, J. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 155.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Hyperconjugation: An elementary approach  Ferreira, Ricardo Carvalho
Presents kinetic, thermochemical, and spectroscopic evidence for hyperconjugation in organic species.
Ferreira, Ricardo Carvalho J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 554.
Alkenes
Letters  Brescia, Frank
The author calls for someone to invent another term for the word resonance as applied to the field of molecular structure.
Brescia, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 261.
Resonance Theory |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The preparation of "2-bromo-naphthalene"  Wolfe, Winthrop C.; Doukas, Harry M.
Presents a procedure for the preparation of "2-bromo-naphthalene" in large or small amounts.
Wolfe, Winthrop C.; Doukas, Harry M. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 472.
Synthesis |
Alkenes