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Journal Articles: 836 results
Separation Anxiety: An In-Class Game Designed To Help Students Discover Chromatography  Michael J. Samide
An in-class activity, designed on the basis of plate theory, allows students to physically separate coins on the basis of a provided partition coefficient. Students move coins between stationary and mobile phases to establish equilibrium conditions. The goal is to have students understand equilibration as it relates to separation, which can lead into a discussion of more complex topics.
Samide, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1512.
Chromatography |
Equilibrium
Data Pooling in a Chemical Kinetics Experiment: The Aquation of a Series of Cobalt(III) Complexes  Richard S. Herrick, Kenneth V. Mills, and Lisa P. Nestor
Describes an experiment that introduces students to integrated rate laws, the search for a mechanism that is consistent with chemical and kinetic data, and the concept of activation barriers and their measurement in a curriculum whose pedagogical philosophy makes the laboratory the center of learning for undergraduates in their first two years of instruction.
Herrick, Richard S.; Mills, Kenneth V.; Nestor, Lisa P. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1120.
Coordination Compounds |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Rate Law |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Introducing Undergraduate Students to Electrochemistry: A Two-Week Discovery Chemistry Experiment  Kenneth V. Mills, Richard S. Herrick, Louise W. Guilmette, Lisa P. Nestor, Heather Shafer, and Mauri A. Ditzler,
Within the framework of a laboratory-focused, guided-inquiry pedagogy, students discover the Nernst equation, the spontaneity of galvanic cells, concentration cells, and the use of electrochemical data to calculate equilibrium constants.
Mills, Kenneth V.; Herrick, Richard S.; Guilmette, Louise W.; Nestor, Lisa P.; Shafer, Heather;Ditzler, Mauri A. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1116.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Equilibrium
EQVAPSIM: A Vapor–Liquid Equilibria of Binary Systems Computer Simulation by LabVIEW  A. Belletti, R. Borromei, and G. Ingletto
Reports the results of a program using LabVIEW software to simulate the construction of a phase diagram representing a liquidvapor equilibrium. The program models work in a real laboratory, including mistakes commonly made in this context.
Belletti, A.; Borromei, R.; Ingletto, G. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 879.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics |
Student-Centered Learning
Easy-To-Make Cryophoruses  Rubin Battino and Trevor M. Letcher
This article describes some simple and easy-to-make cryophoruses, ideal for demonstrating evaporative cooling to students at all levels.
Battino, Rubin; Letcher, Trevor M. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 561.
Lipids |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics |
Liquids
Determination of Hammett Equation Rho Constant for the Hydrolysis of p-Nitrophenyl Benzoate Esters  Sheue L. Keenan, Karl P. Peterson, Kelly Peterson, and Kyle Jacobson
In this experiment, seven p-nitrophenyl benzoate esters are synthesized and characterized. Students then measure the rate constants for the base hydrolysis of these esters using UV-vis spectrophotometry and determine the Hammett equation constant for this hydrolysis reaction.
Keenan, Sheue L.; Peterson, Karl P.; Peterson, Kelly; Jacobson, Kyle. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 558.
Aromatic Compounds |
Esters |
IR Spectroscopy |
Kinetics |
Synthesis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
A Lab Experience To Illustrate the Physicochemical Principles of Detergency  J. A. Poce-Fatou, M. Bethencourt-Núñez, C. Moreno, F. J. Moreno-Dorado, and J. J. Pinto-Ganfornina
This article presents a lab to study the role of a surfactant and builder in laundry detergent efficiency as determined through measurements of the diffuse reflectances of polyester samples impregnated with linseed oil.
Poce-Fatou, J. A.; Bethencourt-Núñez, M.; Moreno, C.; Moreno-Dorado, F. J.; Pinto-Ganfornina, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 266.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Micelles |
Surface Science |
Thermodynamics
A Simplified Model To Predict the Effect of Increasing Atmospheric CO2 on Carbonate Chemistry in the Ocean  Brian J. Bozlee, Maria Janebo, and Ginger Jahn
The chemistry of dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater is reviewed and used to predict the potential effect of rising levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. It is found that calcium carbonate may become unsaturated in cold surface seawater by the year 2100, resulting in the destruction of calcifying organisms such as coral.
Bozlee, Brian J.; Janebo, Maria; Jahn, Ginger. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 213.
Applications of Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Green Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry
Reaction Order Ambiguity in Integrated Rate Plots  Joe Lee
This article provides a theoretical and statistical justification for the necessity of monitoring a reaction to a substantial fraction of completion if integrated rate plots plots are to yield unambiguous orders.
Lee, Joe. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 141.
Chemometrics |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
The Chemistry of Paper Preservation  Henry A. Carter
This article examines the applications of chemistry to paper preservation. The acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose accounts for the deterioration of paper in library books and other written records. To combat this threat to our written heritage, new permanent papers have been developed that are relatively chemically stable and undergo a very slow rate of deterioration.
Carter, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1937.
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Free Radicals |
Gas Chromatography |
HPLC |
pH |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Calculating and Visualizing Thermodynamic Equilibrium  João Paulo M. Ferreira
This article demonstrates that classical equilibrium thermodynamics is unable to predict the equilibrium state of an isolated composite system with a movable internal adiabatic wall unless supplemented with information about the process taking place. It also offers some simple methods for estimating the constrained equilibrium point.
Ferreira, João Paulo M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1834.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
Determination of Solvent Effects on Keto—Enol Equilibria of 1,3-Dicarbonyl Compounds Using NMR  A. Gilbert Cook and Paul M. Feltman
Expands the classic physical chemistry experiment using of proton NMR to determine the equilibrium position of tautomeric 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds in various solvents.
Cook, A. Gilbert; Feltman, Paul M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1827.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Equilibrium |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics
Probing the Rate-Determining Step of the Claisen–Schmidt Condensation by Competition Reactions  Kendrew K. W. Mak, Wing-Fat Chan, Ka-Ying Lung, Wai-Yee Lam, Weng-Cheong Ng, and Siu-Fung Lee
This article describes a physical organic experiment to identify the rate-determining step of the ClaisenSchmidt condensation of benzaldehyde and acetophenone by studying the linear free energy relationship.
Mak, Kendrew K. W.; Chan, Wing-Fat; Lung, Ka-Ying; Lam, Wai-Yee; Ng, Weng-Cheong; Lee, Siu-Fung. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1819.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds |
Gas Chromatography |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis
Synthesis of Triarylmethane and Xanthene Dyes Using Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions  James V. McCullagh and Kelly A. Daggett
In this experiment, electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions are used to synthesize several triarylmethane and xanthene dyes (fluorescein, erythrosin B, thymolphthalein, and rhodamine B) using common equipment while avoiding often troublesome, hydroscopic Lewis acids. Subsequent UVvis analysis produce spectra that match commercially available dye samples.
McCullagh, James V.; Daggett, Kelly A. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1799.
Acids / Bases |
Aromatic Compounds |
Dyes / Pigments |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Equilibrium |
Synthesis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Determination of the Rotational Barrier for Kinetically Stable Conformational Isomers via NMR and 2D TLC  Gregory T. Rushton, William G. Burns, Judi M. Lavin, Yong S. Chong, Perry Pellechia, and Ken D. Shimizu
After the synthesis of a N,N'-diaryl naphthalene diimide, students estimate the rotational barrier about a CarylNimidesingle bond by studying the reequilibration of the two resulting isomers using two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography, followed by a more accurate determination through a 1H NMR time study.
Rushton, Gregory T.; Burns, William G.; Lavin, Judi M.; Chong, Yong S.; Pellechia, Perry; Shimizu, Ken D. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1499.
Alcohols |
Chromatography |
Conformational Analysis |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Physical Properties |
Rate Law |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Control of Chemical Equilibrium by Solvent: A Basis for Teaching Physical Chemistry of Solutions  Oleg V. Prezhdo, Colleen F. Craig, Yuriy Fialkov, and Victor V. Prezhdo
The mechanisms by which solvent can be used to control chemical equilibria are analyzed from a thermodynamic perspective and illustrated with several examples. The solvent effect is described in terms of universal- and specific-solvation components, and the practical and pedagogical means of separating these components are discussed.
Prezhdo, Oleg V.; Craig, Colleen F.; Fialkov, Yuriy; Prezhdo, Victor V. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1348.
Equilibrium |
Reactions |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics
Thermal Equilibrium in Plastic and Glass Microscale Containers  Estela Curbelo, María F. Cerdá, and Eduardo Méndez
Thermal equilibration of solutions occurs more slowly in plastic than glass containers, a factor that should be considered in the design of microscale experiments.
Curbelo, Estela; Cerdá, María F.; Méndez, Eduardo. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1326.
Heat Capacity |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Thermodynamics
Quantitative Imaging in the Laboratory: Fast Kinetics and Fluorescence Quenching  Tanya Cumberbatch and Quentin S. Hanley
This article describes an experiment based on quantitative imaging in which students use the quenching of fluorescein dianion to measure rate constants.
Cumberbatch, Tanya; Hanley, Quentin S. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1319.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Kinetics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis
Mass-Elastic Band Thermodynamics: A Visual Teaching Aid at the Introductory Level  William C. Galley
Demonstrations of five spontaneous isothermal processes involving the coupling of a mass and elastic band and arising from combinations of enthalpy and entropy changes are presented and then dissected. Analogies are drawn between these processes and common spontaneous molecular events such as chemical reactions and phase transitions.
Galley, William C. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1147.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
Conversion of Chemical Reaction Energy into Useful Work in the Van't Hoff Equilibrium Box  N. M. Bazhin and V. N. Parmon
The production of useful work by means of the ideal "van't Hoff equilibrium box" is considered in detail. It is shown that useful work arises according to the scheme reaction energy ? heat ? useful work without violation of the second law of thermodynamics.
Bazhin, N. M.; Parmon, V. N. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1053.
Gases |
Thermodynamics
Peer-Developed and Peer-Led Labs in General Chemistry  Lorena Tribe and Kim Kostka
Describes a student-developed and led laboratory curriculum as a model for producing a more student-centered and rich laboratory experience in general chemistry laboratories.
Tribe, Lorena; Kostka, Kim. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1031.
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Laboratory Management |
Thermodynamics |
Student-Centered Learning
Study of Metal–NH3 Interfaces (Metal = Cu, Ni, Ag) Using Potentiostatic Curves  Nelson Nunes, Angela Martins, and Ruben Elvas Leitão
Students determine kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of different metalsolution interfaces obtained from potentiostatic curves using the Tafel and the Arrhenius equations.
Nunes, Nelson; Martins, Angela; Leitão, Ruben Elvas. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1017.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Kinetics |
Metals
Enthalpy of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures: An Inexpensive Apparatus  Rubin Battino, David A. Dolson, Michael R. Hall, and Trevor M. Letcher
Describes an inexpensive apparatus for the determination of the vapor pressure of a liquid as a function of temperature for the purpose of calculating enthalpy changes of vaporization. Also described are a simple air thermostat and an inexpensive temperature controller based on an integrated temperature sensor.
Battino, Rubin; Dolson, David A.; Hall, Michael R.; Letcher, Trevor M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 822.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Lipids |
Phenols |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
"Mysteries" of the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics  Rubin Battino
Over the years the subject of thermodynamics has taken on an aura of difficulty, subtlety, and mystery. This article discusses common misconceptions and how to introduce the topic to students.
Battino, Rubin. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 753.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
Predominance Diagrams, a Useful Tool for the Correlation of the Precipitation–Solubility Equilibrium with Other Ionic Equilibria  Constantino Fernández Pereira, Manuel Alcalde, Rosario Villegas, and José Vale
Similarities among various types of ionic equilibria have led to a unified treatment of equilibria problems using diagrams that employ the logarithm of the exchanged particle's concentration as the variable. This paper focuses on precipitationsolubility equilibria and describes the usefulness of such diagrams for solving solubility problems.
Pereira, Constantino Fernández; Alcalde, Manuel; Villegas, Rosario; Vale, José. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 520.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Water / Water Chemistry
Effect of a Perturbation on the Chemical Equilibrium: Comparison with Le Châtelier's Principle  Emilio Martínez Torres
This article develops a general thermodynamic treatment to predict the direction of shift in a chemical equilibrium when it is subjected to a stress. This treatment gives an inequality that relates the change in the perturbed variable and the change that the equilibrium shift produces in the conjugated variable.
Torres, Emilio Martínez. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 516.
Equilibrium |
Reactions |
Thermodynamics
An Inexpensive Kinetic Study: The Reaction of FD&C Red #3 (Erythrosin B) with Hypochlorite  Maher M. Henary and Arlene A. Russell
Students use a desktop visible spectrophotometer to quantitatively follow the rate of disappearance of FD&C Red #3 with hypochlorite. The first-order reaction in both dye and bleach yields simple data that students can easily process and graph using spreadsheet software to obtain the rate constant and the rate law.
Henary, Maher M.; Russell, Arlene A. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 480.
Dyes / Pigments |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Cp/Cv Ratios Measured by the Sound Velocity Method Using Calculator-Based Laboratory Technology  Mario Branca and Isabella Soletta
The values ? = Cp /Cv (heat capacity at a constant pressure / heat capacity at constant volume) for air, oxygen, nitrogen, argon, and carbon dioxide were determined by measuring the velocity of sound through these gases at room temperature using Calculator-Based Laboratory Technology.
Branca, Mario; Soletta, Isabella. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 462.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Physical Properties
Hurricanes as Heat Engines: Two Undergraduate Problems  Pekka Pyykkö
Hurricanes can be regarded as Carnot heat engines in which evaporation of water vapor from the ocean and its subsequent condensation is the main heat transfer mechanism. The arguments presented here are simple enough to use as an illustration in a second-year chemical thermodynamics course.
Pyykkö, Pekka. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 447.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A Pollutant Transformation Laboratory Exercise for Environmental Chemistry: The Reduction of Nitrobenzenes by Anaerobic Solutions of Humic Acid  Frank M. Dunnivant and Mark-Cody Reynolds
Presents a laboratory for advanced undergraduate- or graduate-level environmental chemistry in which students study the reduction of substituted nitrobenzenes by natural organic matter under anaerobic conditions. The exercise involves solution preparation, pH and EH buffers, organic reaction mechanisms, reaction kinetics, and instrumental analysis.
Dunnivant, Frank M.; Reynolds, Mark-Cody. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 315.
Instrumental Methods |
pH |
Solutions / Solvents |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction
Biodiesel Synthesis and Evaluation: An Organic Chemistry Experiment  Ehren C. Bucholtz
In this two week lab sequence students synthesize fatty acid methyl esters from simulated waste vegetable oil and determine whether the glycerol concentration of the resulting product is low enough to meet the specifications for marketable biodiesel.
Bucholtz, Ehren C. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 296.
Equilibrium |
Esters |
Industrial Chemistry |
Lipids |
Quantitative Analysis
Entropy and the Shelf Model: A Quantum Physical Approach to a Physical Property  Arnd H. Jungermann
A quantum physical approach relying on energy quantization leads to three simple rules which are the key to understanding the physical property described by molar entropy values.
Jungermann, Arnd H. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1686.
Alcohols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Carboxylic Acids |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Physical Properties |
Quantum Chemistry |
Thermodynamics
The Finkelstein Reaction: Quantitative Reaction Kinetics of an SN2 Reaction Using Nonaqueous Conductivity  R. David Pace and Yagya Regmi
Presents a quantitative kinetics laboratory exercise featuring the Finkelstein reaction (SN2) for use in the first-semester organic chemistry course that utilizes nonaqueous conductivity as the method by which relevant structuretemperaturesolvent effects are examined.
Pace, R. David; Regmi, Yagya. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1344.
Calibration |
Kinetics |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Rate Law |
Reactions |
Solutions / Solvents
Lecture Templates: Convenient Partial Lecture Delivery System  Elzbieta Cook and Robert L. Cook
Reports on the use of two forms of PowerPoint lecture presentationsa complete version used by the lecturer and a corresponding partial version available in advance to students. Pre-prepared lecture presentations allow for the sharing of lecture materials among teaching faculty and ensure consistency among several lecture sections in team taught courses.
Cook, Elzbieta; Cook, Robert L. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1176.
Equilibrium |
Lewis Structures |
Professional Development
Geometry and Thermodynamics: Exploring the Internal Energy Landscape  A. P. Hantsaridou and H. M. Polatoglou
This article examines the way undergraduate students of thermodynamics study the ideal gas case and handle its fundamental functions by using geometric objects like surfaces and common computer software. The results indicate that students find the graphical method of elaborating a fundamental function of a system efficient and easy to use.
Hantsaridou, A. P.; Polatoglou, H. M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1082.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Student-Centered Learning
Semiempirical and DFT Investigations of the Dissociation of Alkyl Halides  Jack R. Waas
Enthalpy changes corresponding to the gas phase heats of dissociation of 12 organic halides were calculated using two semiempirical methods, the HartreeFock method, and two DFT methods. All five methods agreed generally with the expected empirically known trends in the dissociation of alkyl halides.
Waas, Jack R. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1017.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Computational Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Modeling |
Reactions |
Reactive Intermediates |
Thermodynamics |
Elimination Reactions |
Nucleophilic Substitution
A Simple Combinatorial Experiment Based on Fischer Esterification. An Experiment Suitable for the First-Semester Organic Chemistry Lab  Peter A. Wade, Susan A. Rutkowsky, and Daniel B. King
Describes a combinatorial experiment for the synthesis of esters by Fischer esterification in which a total of eight esters are prepared as six mixtures.
Wade, Peter A.; Rutkowsky, Susan A.; King, Daniel B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 927.
Alcohols |
Carboxylic Acids |
Combinatorial Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Esters |
Gas Chromatography |
Synthesis
Useful Work of a Process  Norman C. Craig
Acknowledgment of a flaw in the article, Lets Drive Driving Force Out of Chemistry.
Craig, Norman C. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 703.
Bioenergetics |
Biophysical Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
Useful Work of a Process  Bruno Lunelli
Clarifies a potentially misleading statement in the article, Lets Drive Driving Force Out of Chemistry.
Lunelli, Bruno. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 703.
Bioenergetics |
Biophysical Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
No "Driving Forces" in General Chemistry  Evguenii I. Kozliak
A simple and easy-to-remember explanation, that precipitation of a solid and/or formation of water are driving forces of those reactions or drive them to completion, still occurs among instructors.
Kozliak, Evguenii I. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 702.
Bioenergetics |
Biophysical Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
Textbook Deficiencies: Ambiguities in Chemical Kinetics Rates and Rate Constants  Keith T. Quisenberry and Joel Tellinghuisen
Recommends that textbook authors make it clear that (i) the reaction rate and rate constant cannot be defined unambiguously without explicitly stating the reaction for which they apply and therefore (ii) the relation between the half-life, which is a physical property of the reaction system, and the rate constant depends upon how the reaction is written.
Quisenberry, Keith T.; Tellinghuisen, Joel. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 510.
Kinetics |
Rate Law
A Vector Representation for Thermodynamic Relationships  Lionello Pogliani
A new method is presented for manipulating thermodynamic relationships that allows the derivation of relationships involving energy-dimensioned potentials, entropy-dimensioned functions, and their natural variables. The approach uses a set of "ad hoc" rules that systematize the underlying thermodynamic manipulations.
Pogliani, Lionello. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 155.
Computational Chemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Thermodynamics
Vapor Pressure Measurements in a Closed System  Mark Iannone
Describes an inexpensive apparatus for vapor pressure measurements in a closed system and the procedure for its use.
Iannone, Mark. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 97.
Gases |
Liquids |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics
Theoretical Insights for Practical Handling of Pressurized Fluids  Alfonso Aranda and María del Prado Rodríguez
Introduces the basic considerations for managing pressurized fluids, mainly liquefied and compressed gases.
Aranda, Alfonso; Rodríguez, María del Prado. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 93.
Applications of Chemistry |
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
Glycosyltransferases A and B: Four Critical Amino Acids Determine Blood Type  Natisha L. Rose, Monica M. Palcic, and Stephen V. Evans
Human A, B, and O blood type is determined by the presence or absence of distinct carbohydrate structures on red blood cells. In this review the chemistry of the blood group ABO system and the role of glycosyltransferase A, glycosyltransferase B, and the four amino acids critical to determining blood group status are discussed.
Rose, Natisha L.; Palcic, Monica M.; Evans, Stephen V. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1846.
Carbohydrates |
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Biology |
X-ray Crystallography |
Amino Acids
Monitoring the Rate of Solvolytic Decomposition of Benzenediazonium Tetrafluoroborate in Aqueous Media Using a pH Electrode  Floyd L. Wiseman
This article discusses the use of pH electrodes to monitor the aqueous solvolysis of the benzenediazonium ion and shows that the results are in reasonable agreement with literature values.
Wiseman, Floyd L. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1841.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
pH |
Rate Law
Simple and Inexpensive Computer Interface to a Durrum Stopped-Flow Apparatus Tested Using the Iron(III)–Thiocyanate Reaction  Craig M. Hoag
Describes a computer interface between a Durrum model 110 stopped-flow apparatus and a LabPro voltage probe using LoggerPro software from Vernier. This probe and software can be used to measure and record data from most instruments normally connected to an oscilloscope or chart recorder.
Hoag, Craig M. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1823.
Instrumental Methods |
Kinetics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Coordination Compounds |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Displacements of Brownian Particles in Terms of Marian von Smoluchowski's Heuristic Model  Hermann Klein and Dietrich Woermann
The introductory section of Marian von Smoluchowski's seminal publication on the kinetics of Brownian motion (Ann. Physik 1906, 21, 756) includes a simple model that provides lucid access to the topic.
Klein, Hermann; Woermann, Dietrich. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1642.
Colloids |
Statistical Mechanics |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Liquids
E = mc2 for the Chemist: When Is Mass Conserved?  Richard S. Treptow
Einstein's famous equation is frequently misunderstood in textbooks and popular science literature. Its correct interpretation is that mass and energy are different measures of a single quantity known as massenergy, which is conserved in all processes.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1636.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Thermodynamics
Rotational Mobility in a Crystal Studied by Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy. An Experiment for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory  Madalena S. C. Dionísio, Hermínio P. Diogo, J. P. S. Farinha, and Joaquim J. Moura-Ramos
In this article we present a laboratory experiment for an undergraduate physical chemistry course. The purpose of this experiment is the study of molecular mobility in a crystal using the technique of dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. The experiment illustrates important physical chemistry concepts. The background of the experimental technique deals with the concepts of orientational and induced polarization and frequency-dependent relative permittivity (or dielectric constant). The kinetic concepts of temperature-dependent relaxation time, activation energy, and activation entropy are involved in the concept of molecular mobility.
Dionísio, Madalena S. C.; Diogo, Hermínio P.; Farinha, J. P. S.; Moura-Ramos, Joaquim J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1355.
Kinetics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Crystals / Crystallography
Application of ChemDraw NMR Tool: Correlation of Program-Generated 13C Chemical Shifts and pKa Values of para-Substituted Benzoic Acids  Hongyi Wang
An application of ChemDraw NMR Tool was demonstrated by correlation of program-generated 13C NMR chemical shifts and pKa values of para-substituted benzoic acids. Experimental 13C NMR chemical shifts were analyzed in the same way for comparison. The project can be used as an assignment at the end of the first-year organic chemistry course to review topics or explore new techniques: Hammett equation, acidbase equilibrium theory, electronic nature of functional groups, inductive and resonance effects, structurereactivity relationship, NMR spectroscopy, literature search, database search, and ChemDraw software.
Wang, Hongyi. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1340.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Carboxylic Acids
Photocatalytic Oxidation of Sulfurous Acid in an Aqueous Medium  Alicia Romero, Guillermo Hernández, and Marco F. Suárez
The photooxidation process of sulfurous acid by molecular oxygen in the presence of TiO2 is described. The effect of some reaction parameters, such as initial concentration of sulfurous acid, oxygen, TiO2 crystalline structure, and quantity of TiO2, were investigated. The reactions were run in an inexpensive reactor. The experiments are ideal for second-year chemistry undergraduate students interested in photocatalysis and green chemistry.
Romero, Alicia; Hernández, Guillermo; Suárez, Marco F. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1234.
Catalysis |
Green Chemistry |
Kinetics
Equilibria That Shift Left upon Addition of More Reactant  Jeffrey E. Lacy
Most textbook presentations of Le Chtelier's principle in general and physical chemistry do not include a discussion of constant pressure conditions for which addition of a reactant can shift the equilibrium to the left. We propose presentations of isothermal, open systems at constant pressure for both levels of study by using concepts and skills that the respective students already possess. In addition, we derive novel criteria based on the stoichiometry of the reaction that can be used to identify those equilibria that will shift left upon addition of more reactant.
Lacy, Jeffrey E. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1192.
Equilibrium |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Thermodynamics
Microscopic Description of Le Châtelier's Principle  Igor Novak
The analysis based on microscopic descriptors (energy levels and their populations) is given that provides visualization of free energies and conceptual rationalization of Le Châtelier's principle. The misconception "nature favors equilibrium" is highlighted.
Novak, Igor. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1190.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
Equilibrium Constants and Water Activity  David Keeports
General chemistry instructors are faced with a dilemma when introducing the topic of equilibrium constants: These constants are correctly written in terms of activities, yet activity is a complex topic better treated rigorously in a physical chemistry course than superficially in a general chemistry course. Thus, to introduce equilibrium calculations, it is necessary to use approximate forms for equilibrium constants. However, I find that some commonly used textbooks provide incorrect arguments leading to approximate equilibrium constants for aqueous reactions.
Keeports, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 999.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Water / Water Chemistry
JavaScript Programs To Calculate Thermodynamic Properties Using Cubic Equations of State  
Cubic equations of state are widely used by chemists and chemical engineers to predict the thermodynamic properties of both pure substances and mixtures. In particular, these equations enable predictions concerning the temperature and pressure at which vaporliquid equilibrium occurs. These two educational JavaScript programs perform calculations using cubic equations of state and, equally importantly, explain how the calculations are performed.
J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 960.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
JavaScript Programs To Calculate Thermodynamic Properties Using Cubic Equations of State  Patrick J. Barrie
In this article, two JavaScript programs are described. The first program gives students the choice of five different cubic equations of state and performs calculations for pure substances. The second program predicts vaporliquid equilibrium for binary mixtures using a choice of three modern equations of state and the van der Waals mixing rules.
Barrie, Patrick J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 958.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium
Quantitative Thermodynamic Descriptions of Aromaticity. A Computational Exercise for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Terrence Gavin
This article describes an exercise that enables students to establish a quantitative scale of aromaticity via computer-driven quantum mechanical calculations using Spartan software. The method utilizes a group of analogous isodesmic reactions from which the energy difference between two isomeric cyclic polyenes is calculated from their optimized geometries. The energy differences found are used to characterize structures as aromatic, nonaromatic, or antiaromatic depending on the value obtained. A representative group of structures, including hydrocarbons, hydrocarbon ions, and heterocycles are studied.
Gavin, Terrence. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 953.
Aromatic Compounds |
Computational Chemistry |
Heterocycles |
Molecular Modeling |
Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics of the Relationship between Lattice Energy and Lattice Enthalpy  H. Donald B. Jenkins
Incorporation of lattice potential energy within a BornFajansHaber thermochemical cycle based on enthalpy changes necessitates correction of the energy of the lattice to an enthalpy term; the lattice enthalpy is given for a lattice containing s ions of type i in the formula unit.
Jenkins, H. Donald B. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 950.
Thermodynamics |
Solids |
Solid State Chemistry
Ionic Activity Effects in Reaction Kinetics: What Happened to the Parsimony Principle?  Robert de Levie
The effect of ionic strength on the rates of chemical reactions highlights an often overlooked but highly relevant study by Christiansen. That work, based directly on the DebyeHckel theory, makes the BrnstedBjerrum interpretation unnecessary.
de Levie, Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 885.
Kinetics |
Reactive Intermediates |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
On Teaching Ionic Activity Effects: What, When, and Where?  Robert de Levie
Ionic activity effects modify many quantitative chemical relationships involving ions, including those describing equilibria, pH measurements, titrations, diffusional mass transport, and reaction rates. Some of the resulting activity corrections are reviewed, and it is argued that their subtlety requires that they be introduced late rather than early in the chemistry curriculum and then are treated in more detail than is now customary. It is illustrated that interionic effects often cannot be taken into account by merely replacing all ionic concentrations by the corresponding ionic activities.
de Levie, Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 878.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
pH |
Thermodynamics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Procedure for Decomposing a Redox Reaction into Half-Reactions  Ilie Fishtik and Ladislav H. Berka
The principle of stoichiometric uniqueness provides a simple algorithm to check whether a simple redox reaction may be uniquely decomposed into half-reactions in a single way. For complex redox reactions the approach permits a complete enumeration of a finite and unique number of ways a redox reaction may be decomposed into half-reactions. Several examples are given.
Fishtik, Ilie; Berka, Ladislav H. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 553.
Stoichiometry |
Equilibrium |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Thermodynamics
Automatic Low-Cost Data Acquisition from Old Polarimetric Instruments  Giuseppe Alibrandi, Santi D'Aliberti, Salvatore Coppolino, Antonino Villari, and Norberto Micali
This article describes the design of an apparatus that allows the digital acquisition of polarimetric data from a Lippich polarimeter. This apparatus consists of a low-cost telecamera applied to the ocular of a double-field polarimeter and connected to a PC. The camera is able to reveal with high sensibility the difference in brightness in the two fields allowing more accurate analytical data to be obtained, without need for the analyser to be rotated. This apparatus allows the execution of either single observations or kinetics, because it is able to save previously obtained analytical data.
Alibrandi, Giuseppe; D'Aliberti, Santi; Coppolino, Salvatore; Villari, Antonino; Micali, Norberto. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 442.
Instrumental Methods |
Kinetics |
Quantitative Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Species Distribution Diagrams in the Copper–Ammonia System: An Updated and Expanded Demonstration Illustrating Complex Equilibria  Adam R. Johnson, Tyrel M. McQueen, and Kit T. Rodolfa
The addition of aqueous ammonia to a dilute solution of copper sulfate leads to a complex series of coupled equilibria involving acidbase chemistry, precipitation, and complex ion formation. There are 12 chemical species that must be considered to solve the problem mathematically. Although it is possible to solve the complete system of equations analytically, judicious use of intuitive simplifications and assumptions about the chemical system allow a simpler set of equations to be solved.
Johnson, Adam R.; McQueen, Tyrel M.; Rodolfa, Kit T. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 408.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Coordination Compounds |
Equilibrium
Analysis of Natural Buffer Systems and the Impact of Acid Rain. An Environmental Project for First-Year Chemistry Students  David C. Powers, Andrew T. Higgs, Matt L. Obley, Phyllis A. Leber, Kenneth R. Hess, and Claude H. Yoder
The purpose of this project is to investigate the basic principles involved in acidbase buffer systems within the context of an environmental issue. It is designed for use in an introductory chemistry course. The students will learn about acidbase interactions and examine how a buffer system composed of a weak acid and its conjugate base can neutralize large quantities of strong acid while resisting drastic change in the pH of the system. Students will also analyze experimentally the various components of the most commonly occurring natural buffer system.
Powers, David C.; Higgs, Andrew T.; Obley, Matt L.; Leber, Phyllis A.; Hess, Kenneth R.; Yoder, Claude H. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 274.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium
A Pedagogical Simulation of Maxwell's Demon Paradox  D. López and C. Criado
Teaching thermodynamics from the microscopic point of view can help students develop an intuitive understanding of its concepts. This program simulates, at the microscopic level, two gas chambers with an opening between them. The program allows students or their instructors to set up simulations that illustrate the thermodynamics and statistical behavior of the system. The user determines the basis for whether the demon permits or denies passage of particles through the opening using information from the microscopic level, such as specific particle velocity. Students can track and analyze how this affects particle distribution, thermal equilibrium, relaxation time, diffusion, and distribution of particle velocities.
López, D.; Criado, C. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1679.
Statistical Mechanics |
Thermodynamics
Unified Approximations: A New Approach for Monoprotic Weak Acid–Base Equilibria  Harry L. Pardue, Ihab N. Odeh, and Teweldemedhin M. Tesfai
This article describes a new approach to approximate calculations for monoprotic acidbase equilibria in otherwise pure water. The new approach, identified herein as unified approximations, uses a simple decision criterion to select between situations that should be treated as deprotonation and protonation reactions. The remaining treatment takes account of changes in concentrations of conjugate acidbase pairs for all situations and ignores autoprotolysis only for situations for which the analytical concentration of either the conjugate acid or conjugate base will always be larger than zero.
Pardue, Harry L.; Odeh, Ihab N.; Tesfai, Teweldemedhin M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1367.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
A Simple, Inexpensive Water-Jacketed Cuvette for the Spectronic 20  Jonathan E. Thompson and Jason Ting
A simple, inexpensive, water-jacketed cuvette for the Spectronic 20 is described. The cuvette and associated flow system can easily be constructed from materials commonly found in an undergraduate chemistry laboratory. As a demonstration of the cuvette's utility, we used the cuvette for the determination of the activation energy for the reaction between crystal violet and hydroxide ion. However, the cuvette may prove useful in a variety of applications in which a sample must be thermostated within a spectrophotometer.
Thompson, Jonathan E.; Ting, Jason. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1341.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Kinetics |
Spectroscopy
Potassium Tris(oxalato)ferrate(III): A Versatile Compound To Illustrate the Principles of Chemical Equilibria  Gabriel González and Miquel Seco
Using a simple coordination compound, such as potassium tris(oxalato)ferrate(III), a series of test-tube reactions are proposed that allow students to visualize concepts such as equilibrium, stability, and solubility, as well as the physical constants associated with these concepts (equilibrium constant, stability constant, and solubility product). Displacement of the equilibria involved, depending on the quantity and properties of the reagents used, gives students a picture of how chemistry depends on equilibria processes.
González, Gabriel; Seco, Miquel. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1193.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Coordination Compounds |
Equilibrium
Removal of Zinc from Carbonic Anhydrase. A Kinetics Experiment for Upper-Level Chemistry Laboratories  Kathryn R. Williams and Bhavin Adhyaru
The Zn(II) ion in the active site of carbonic anhydrase can be removed by complexation with 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylate (dipicolinate).
Williams, Kathryn R.; Adhyaru, Bhavin. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1045.
Kinetics |
Biophysical Chemistry |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Enzymes |
Instrumental Methods
Determination of Spin—Lattice Relaxation Time Using 13C NMR. An Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  Zbigniew L. Gasyna and Antoni Jurkiewicz
A 13C NMR experiment is proposed in which spinlattice relaxation time T1 is determined for carbon atoms in a sample of liquid n-hexanol.
Gasyna, Zbigniew L.; Jurkiewicz, Antoni. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1038.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Kinetics
An NMR Study of Isotope Effect on Keto–Enol Tautomerization. A Physical Organic Chemistry Experiment  D. Atkinson and V. Chechik
A series of physical organic chemistry experiments suitable for second- or third-year undergraduate students is presented.
Atkinson, D.; Chechik, V. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1030.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Isotopes |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The Purification of Water by Zone Melting: A Phase Diagram Interpretation  Mohamed Jemal
Oughton, Xu, and Battino published a paper in this Journal on the application of zone melting to the purification of water from NaCl aqueous solutions. I would like to comment on this interesting paper by giving an interpretation of some of their results taking into account the binary phase diagram.
Jemal, Mohamed. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 952.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
Class Projects in Physical Organic Chemistry: The Hydrolysis of Aspirin  Peter S. Marrs
The students prepare a pHrate profile for the hydrolysis of aspirin and analyze this profile to determine the mechanism and type of catalysis of the hydrolysis at different pH values.
Marrs, Peter S. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 870.
pH |
Catalysis |
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics
Pressure Dependence of Gas-Phase Reaction Rates  Stéphanie de Persis, Alain Dollet, and Francis Teyssandier
This article is intended to show that only simple concepts are required to qualitatively explain and describe the pressure dependence of gas-phase reaction rates.
de Persis, Stéphanie; Dollet, Alain; Teyssandier, Francis. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 832.
Qualitative Analysis |
Gases |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The Complexation of the Na+ by 18–Crown–6 Studied via Nuclear Magnetic Resonance  Steven J. Peters and Cheryl D. Stevenson
A novel NMR experiment used in the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory is described.
Peters, Steven J.; Stevenson, Cheryl D. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 715.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Equilibrium
Keynotes in Organic Chemistry (Andrew F. Parsons)  Joel M. Karty
As a result of the trend towards modularization of chemistry courses, the text attempts to meet the need for smaller, highly focused and accessible organic chemistry textbooks, which complement the very detailed standard texts, to guide students through the key principles of the subject.
Karty, Joel M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 651.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Thermodynamics
Proposed Improvements to a Lab on Equilibrium Binding of Phenol Red to Protein  Todd Silverstein
Many biochemistry courses incorporate a laboratory project published as experiment 3 in Modern Experimental Biochemistry. Boyer recommends that students calculate the fraction of bound dye using the areas of the two eluted peaks in the absorbance versus fraction number plot. This will only work if the dyes absorbance is identical for both the bound and the free form.
Silverstein, Todd. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 645.
Dyes / Pigments |
Chromatography |
Proteins / Peptides |
Equilibrium
Proposed Improvements to a Lab on Equilibrium Binding of Phenol Red to Protein  Todd Silverstein
Many biochemistry courses incorporate a laboratory project published as experiment 3 in Modern Experimental Biochemistry. Boyer recommends that students calculate the fraction of bound dye using the areas of the two eluted peaks in the absorbance versus fraction number plot. This will only work if the dyes absorbance is identical for both the bound and the free form.
Silverstein, Todd. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 645.
Dyes / Pigments |
Chromatography |
Proteins / Peptides |
Equilibrium
Entropy and Constraint of Motion  Frank L. Lambert
William Jensen's presentation of entropy increase as solely due to kinetic energy dispersion is stimulating.
Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 640.
Thermodynamics
Entropy and Constraint of Motion   William B. Jensen
I would like to make several observations supplementing and supporting the article by Frank Lambert on entropy as energy dissipation, since this is an approach that I have also used for many years when teaching a qualitative version of the entropy concept to students of general and introductory inorganic chemistry.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 639.
Thermodynamics
Variability of the Cell Potential of a Given Chemical Reaction  Ladislav H. Berka and Ilie Fishtik
It is demonstrated in this article that while the value of the free energy change for any chemical reaction is independent of path (a state function), the value of the standard cell potential of a reaction is dependent on the half-cell reactions used to carry out that reaction.
Berka, Ladislav H.; Fishtik, Ilie. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 584.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics |
Physical Properties |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
A Practical Integrated Approach to Supramolecular Chemistry III. Thermodynamics of Inclusion Phenomena  Jesús Hernández-Benito, M. Pilar García-Santos, Emma O'Brien, Emilio Calle, and Julio Casado
This is the third in a series of experiments aimed at introducing undergraduate students into the field of supramolecular chemistry. In the present article, we propose an experiment aiming to familiarize students with the thermodynamics of inclusion phenomena.
Hernández-Benito, Jesús; García-Santos, M. Pilar; O'Brien, Emma; Calle, Emilio; Casado, Julio. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 540.
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Thermodynamics |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
A Photochemical Reactor for the Study of Kinetics and Adsorption Phenomena  J. A. Poce-Fatou, M. L. A. Gil, R. Alcántara, C. Botella, and J. Martín
This article describes the design of a photochemical reactor intended to carry out experiments illustrating the fundamentals of heterogeneous photochemistry.
Poce-Fatou, J. A.; Gil, M. L. A.; Alcántara, R.; Botella, C.; Martín, J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 537.
Dyes / Pigments |
Kinetics |
Photochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Spectroscopy
Using Science Fiction To Teach Thermodynamics: Vonnegut, Ice-nine, and Global Warming  Charles A. Liberko
When covering the topic of thermodynamics at the introductory level, an example from Kurt Vonnegut, Jr's, fictional novel, Cat's Cradle, is used to take what the students have learned and apply it to a new situation.
Liberko, Charles A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 509.
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
The Tragedy of Hamlet, Son of an Organic Chemist of Denmark  Ronald G. Brisbois
Herein, Hamlet (the son of an organic chemist of Denmark) is the surrogate of any and every student as he uses a thoroughly Shakespearean approach to sorting out some of the key distinguishing features of SN2 versus SN1 reactions.
Brisbois, Ronald G. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 502.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stereochemistry |
Nucleophilic Substitution
Using a Graphing Calculator To Determine a First-Order Rate Constant: Author Reply  José E. Cortés-Figueroa
When technology is used to help with mathematical calculations, the emphasis must be on the concepts being learned rather than simply the procedures. In our approach we are attempting to help students learn more about the concept and also to attain data analysis skills they will need in the future.
Cortés-Figueroa, José E. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 485.
Kinetics |
Chemometrics
Using a Graphing Calculator To Determine a First-Order Rate Constant  Todd P. Silverstein
The authors use the graphing calculator to estimate the infinity reading from linearized kinetics data, and then they use linearized semi-log data to determine the first-order rate constant.
Silverstein, Todd P. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 485.
Kinetics |
Chemometrics
A Modular Laser Apparatus for Polarimetry, Nephelometry, and Fluorimetry in General Chemistry  Scott A. Darveau, Jessica Mueller, April Vaverka, Cheri Barta, Anthony Fitch, Jessica Jurzenski, and Yvonne Gindt
We present an apparatus suitable for multiple uses in the general chemistry laboratory including polarimetry, fluorescence, and nephelometry. The open design of the instrument also decreases the chance that students will contract the "black-box syndrome" that seems to develop when using instruments that only provide the final data in an experiment without showing how the measurements are obtained.
Darveau, Scott A.; Mueller, Jessica; Vaverka, April; Barta, Cheri; Fitch, Anthony; Jurzenski, Jessica; Gindt, Yvonne. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 401.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Kinetics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Proteins / Peptides |
Water / Water Chemistry
Steam Hydrocarbon Cracking and Reforming  Michael Golombok
We examine steam hydrocarbon reforming and steam hydrocarbon cracking as an example of two processes that operate under different chemical reactivity regimes: equilibrium determined and kinetically determined, respectively. The feed streams and reaction conditions are similar, but the products are different. The role of catalysis for the two processes is compared and the effects on the kinetics are discussed.
Golombok, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 228.
Aromatic Compounds |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Industrial Chemistry |
Kinetics
Why Chemical Reactions Happen (James Keeler and Peter Wothers)  John Krenos
By concentrating on a limited number of model reactions, this book presents chemistry as a cohesive whole by tying together the fundamentals of thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, and quantum chemistry, mainly through the use of molecular orbital interpretations.
Krenos, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 201.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Quantum Chemistry |
MO Theory
The pH at the First Equivalence Point in the Titration of a Diprotic Acid  Addison Ault
I read with interest the paper entitled Easy Derivation of pH  (pKa1 + pKa2)/2 Using Autoprotolysis of HA: Doubtful Value of the Supposedly More Rigorous Equation. I believe the validity of this simple result can be seen even more easily than this paper indicates.
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1382.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Playing-Card Equilibrium  Robert M. Hanson
A simple hands-on simulation suitable for either classroom use or laboratory investigation involves using a standard deck of playing cards to explore the statistical aspects of equilibrium. Concepts that can be easily demonstrated include fluctuation around a most probable distribution, Le Chtelier's principle, the equilibrium constant, prediction of the equilibrium constant based on probability, and the effect of sample size on equilibrium fluctuations.
Hanson, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1271.
Equilibrium |
Statistical Mechanics |
Thermodynamics
Reactions (→) vs Equations (=)  S. R. Logan
A recent chemical kinetics text uses an equals sign for an overall reaction, whereas an arrow is used in each of the reaction steps that are proposed to constitute the mechanism, and for any elementary process.
Logan, S. R. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1258.
Kinetics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The Solubility Product of PbCl2 from Electrochemical Measurements  Jimmy S. Hwang and Ghassan A. Oweimreen
Students obtain the solubility product, Ksp, of PbCl2 at various temperatures from practically simultaneous emf measurements on two electrochemical cells. One half-cell is common to both cells.
Hwang, Jimmy S.; Oweimreen, Ghassan A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1051.
Electrochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics |
Precipitation / Solubility
Synthesis, Kinetics, and Thermodynamics: An Advanced Laboratory Investigation of the Cis–Trans Isomerization of Mo(CO)4(PR3)2   Ashfaq A. Bengali and Kim E. Mooney
The students synthesize the cis complex and then study its conversion to the trans isomer. This experiment illustrates the important relationship between kinetics and thermodynamics and the results emphasize the selfconsistency of the data.
Bengali, Ashfaq A.; Mooney, Kim E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1044.
Kinetics |
Metals |
Organometallics |
Thermodynamics |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis |
Coordination Compounds
The Kinetics of Dissolution Revisited  Paula S. Antonel, Pablo A. Hoijemberg, Leandro M. Maiante, and M. Gabriela Lagorio
An experiment analyzing the kinetics of dissolution of a solid with cylindrical geometry in water is presented. The dissolution process is followed by measuring the solid mass and its size parameters (thickness and diameter) as a function of time. It is verified that the dissolution rate follows the Nernst model.
Antonel, Paula S.; Hoijemberg, Pablo A.; Maiante, Leandro M.; Lagorio, M. Gabriela. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1042.
Transport Properties |
Kinetics |
Solids |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
Acid–Base Titrations in Nonaqueous Solvents and Solvent Mixtures  Lajos Barcza and Ágnes Buvári-Barcza
Discussion of acid-base theory, the role of hydrogen bonding in acid-base reactions, and promoting, leveling, and differentiating effects.
Barcza, Lajos; Buvári-Barcza, Ágnes. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 822.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Chemical Applications of a Programmable Image Acquisition System  Paul J. Ogren, Ian Henry, Steven E. S. Fletcher, and Ian Kelly
A programmable imaging system for thin-layer and kinetics measurements; examples of applications include well plate analysis, TLC quantitative analysis of acetaminophen and aspirin, analysis of electrophoresis bands, and kinetics of toluidine blue reduction by sulfite.
Ogren, Paul J.; Henry, Ian; Fletcher, Steven E. S.; Kelly, Ian. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 699.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Kinetics |
Quantitative Analysis |
Electrophoresis
Chemical Equilibria Involving Copper(II) Ethylenediamine Complexes  Roberto Zingales
Demonstration illustrating the formation of two different complexes when copper(II) ions react with ethylenediamine.
Zingales, Roberto. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 535.
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Reactions |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Precipitation / Solubility
Rate Controlling Factors in a Bunsen Burner Flame  Julio Andrade-Gamboa, Hugo L. Corso, and Fabiana C. Gennari
Analysis of a Bunsen burner flame and the kinetics of its combustion.
Andrade-Gamboa, Julio; Corso, Hugo L.; Gennari, Fabiana C. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 524.
Transport Properties |
Kinetics |
Gases |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Thermal Analysis |
Thermodynamics |
Reactions |
Rate Law
What Is the Overall Stoichiometry of a Complex Reaction?  Sidney Toby and Irwin Tobias
Obtaining stoichiometric relationships from reaction mechanisms and a kinetics approach.
Toby, Sidney; Tobias, Irwin. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 520.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stoichiometry
Equilibrium  Matthew Sandberg and Michael K. Bellamy
Software (applet) to help students visualize what actually happens in an equilibrium system.
Sandberg, Matthew ; Bellamy, Michael K. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 456.
Equilibrium |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics
Rules of Thumb for Assessing Equilibrium Partitioning of Organic Compounds: Successes and Pitfalls  Kai-Uwe Goss and René P. Schwarzenbach
Factors to consider when predicting equilibrium partitioning of organic compounds between two phases, including volatility, polarity, and hydrophobicity; and a simple model for the evaluation of bulk phase partitioning.
Goss, Kai-Uwe; Schwarzenbach, René P. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 450.
Equilibrium |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Separation Science |
Thermodynamics
Correction to "Rate of Reaction and Rate Equations" (J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 89)   
Misplaced part of equation.
J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 386.
Kinetics |
Gases |
Rate Law
A Demonstration of Structure–Reactivity Relationships in Organic Chemistry  Thomas A. Newton
Demonstration of the correlation between the conductivity of aqueous solutions and the pKa values of various organic compounds.
Newton, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 294.
Acids / Bases |
Conductivity |
Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Conductivity
The Henderson—Hasselbalch Equation: Its History and Limitations  Robert de Levie
Points out that the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation is an approximation and not equivalent to the mass action law.
de Levie, Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 146.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium
"Disorder" in Unstretched Rubber Bands?  Warren Hirsch
Analysis of the thermodynamics of a stretched rubber band.
Hirsch, Warren. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 145.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Thermodynamics
"Disorder" in Unstretched Rubber Bands?  Frank L. Lambert
Analysis of the thermodynamics of a stretched rubber band.
Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 145.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Thermodynamics
"Disorder" in Unstretched Rubber Bands?  Frank L. Lambert
Analysis of the thermodynamics of a stretched rubber band.
Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 145.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Thermodynamics
Le Chat: Simulation in Chemical Equilibrium  João C. M. Paiva, Victor M. S. Gil, and António Ferrer Correia
Software that illustrates Le Chatelier's principle; found on the Advanced Chemistry Collection CD-ROM, 3rd Edition.
Paiva, João C. M.; Gil, Victor M. S.; Correia, António Ferrer. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 111.
Equilibrium
Using a Graphing Calculator to Determine a First-Order Rate Constant When the Infinity Reading Is Unknown  José E. Corté s-Figueroa and Deborah A. Moore
Using a graphing calculator and an acid-catalyzed sucrose inversion to determine a first-order rate constant when the infinity reading is unknown.
Cortés-Figueroa, José E. ; Moore, Deborah A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1462.
Kinetics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Rate Law |
Photochemistry |
Catalysis
Collaboration between Chemistry and Biology to Introduce Spectroscopy, Electrophoresis, and Molecular Biology as Tools for Biochemistry  Vicky L. H. Bevilacqua, Jennifer L. Powers, Connie Tran, Swapan S. Jain, Reem Chabayta, Dale L. Vogelien, Ralph J. Rascati, Michelle Hall, and Kathleen Diehl
Program that integrates a variety of instrumental techniques across the biological and chemistry curricula, including biochemistry, plant physiology, genetics, and forensics.
Bevilacqua, Vicky L. H.; Powers, Jennifer L.; Vogelien, Dale L.; Rascati, Ralph J.; Hall, Michelle; Diehl, Kathleen; Tran, Connie; Jain, Swapan S.; Chabayta, Reem . J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1311.
Biotechnology |
Enzymes |
Forensic Chemistry |
Hormones |
Instrumental Methods |
Kinetics |
Plant Chemistry |
Proteins / Peptides |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Entropy Is Simple, Qualitatively  Frank L. Lambert
Explanation of entropy in terms of energy dispersal; includes considerations of fusion and vaporization, expanding gasses and mixing fluids, colligative properties, and the Gibbs function.
Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1241.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases
Depletion: A Game with Natural Rules for Teaching Reaction Rate Theory  Donald J. Olbris and Judith Herzfeld
Game that reinforces central concepts of rate theory through simulation.
Olbris, Donald J.; Herzfeld, Judith. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1232.
Kinetics |
Nonmajor Courses |
Rate Law |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Catalysis
Entropy Loss of Hydroxyl Groups of Balanol upon Binding to Protein Kinase A  Gergely Gidofalvi, Chung F. Wong, and J. Andrew McCammon
Summer project to give undergraduates hands-on experience in using several modern tools of molecular modeling for computer-aided drug design.
Gidofalvi, Gergely; Wong, Chung F.; McCammon, J. Andrew. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1122.
Computational Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Molecular Recognition |
Undergraduate Research |
Molecular Modeling |
Statistical Mechanics |
Thermodynamics |
Proteins / Peptides
Understanding of Elementary Concepts in Heat and Temperature among College Students and K–12 Teachers  Paul G. Jasien and Graham E. Oberem
Report on a study of the understanding of elementary concepts related to heat and temperature (thermal equilibrium and energy transfer in the form of heat) in undergraduate and post-baccalaurate students as a function of their number of semesters of college-level physical science training.
Jasien, Paul G.; Oberem, Graham E. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 889.
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium
Partial Molar Volumes from Refractive Index Measurements  Anthony F. Fucaloro
Analysis of the use of indexes of refraction to measure the density of liquid mixtures.
Fucaloro, Anthony F. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 865.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics |
Physical Properties
Conceptual Difficulties Experienced by Prospective Teachers in Electrochemistry: Half-Cell Potential, Cell Potential, and Chemical and Electrochemical Equilibrium in Galvanic Cells  Ali Riza Özkaya
Study of prospective teachers' conceptual understanding of topics in electrochemistry.
Özkaya, Ali Riza. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 735.
Electrochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
H Is for Enthalpy, Thanks to Heike Kamerlingh Onnes and Alfred W. Porter  Irmgard K. Howard
Origin of the word enthalpy.
Howard, Irmgard K. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 697.
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
The Application of the Concept of Extent of Reaction  Adela E. Croce
Effectively applying the concept of extent of reaction and the degree of advancement in describing the course of a chemical reaction (particularly multistep reactions) and expressing reaction rate equations.
Croce, Adela E. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 506.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Rate Law
A Chemically Relevant Model for Teaching the Second Law of Thermodynamics  Bryce E. Williamson and Tetsuo Morikawa
Presentation of a chemically relevant model that exemplifies many aspects of the second law: reversibility, path dependence, and extrapolation in terms of electrochemistry and calorimetry.
Williamson, Bryce E.; Morikawa, Tetsuo. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 339.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Thermodynamics
The Mechanism of Aqueous Hydrolysis of Nitro Derivatives of Phenyl Phenylmethanesulfonate. An Organic Laboratory Experiment  S. D. Mulder, B. E. Hoogenboom, and A. G. Splittgerber
Synthesis, purification, and characterization of three esters.
Mulder, S. D.; Hoogenboom, B. E.; Splittgerber, A. G. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 218.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Resonance Theory |
Reactive Intermediates |
Equilibrium |
Esters |
Aromatic Compounds |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Spontaneous Assembly of Soda Straws  D. J. Campbell, E. R. Freidinger, J. M. Hastings, and M. K. Querns
Demonstrating spontaneous assembly using soda straws.
Campbell, D. J.; Freidinger, E. R.; Hastings, J. M.; Querns, M. K. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 201.
Materials Science |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nanotechnology |
Surface Science |
Thermodynamics
First Law of Thermodynamics; Irreversible and Reversible Processes  Norman C. Craig and Eric A. Gislason
Analysis of the first law and its relation to reversible and irreversible processes.
Craig, Norman C.; Gislason, Eric A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 193.
Gases |
Thermodynamics
Disorder--A Cracked Crutch for Supporting Entropy Discussions  Frank L. Lambert
Arguments against using disorder as a means of introducing and teaching entropy.
Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 187.
Thermodynamics
Easy Derivation... (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1183)  Stephen J. Hawkes
Analysis of pH derivation by averaging pK values.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 162.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
pH
Easy Derivation... (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1183)  Julian L. Roberts Jr.
Analysis of pH derivation by averaging pK values.
Roberts, Julian L., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 161.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
pH
An Excel Program to Study First-Order Kinetics  Ken Muranaka
An Excel program to study first-order kinetics.
Muranaka, Ken. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 135.
Computational Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Kinetics |
Chemometrics
Using Latex Elastomer to Illustrate Euler's Chain Relationship  Fred R. Hilgeman and Ana A. Alcaraz
Strips of latex gloves are used to verify the mathematical relationship between tension, temperature, and stretch predicted by Euler's chain relationship.
Hilgeman, Fred R.; Alcaraz, Ana A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 78.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Chemometrics |
Thermodynamics
Factors Affecting Reaction Kinetics of Glucose Oxidase  Kristin A. Johnson
Demonstration based on a biochemical kinetics experiment in which the rate of reaction varies with the enzyme concentration, substrate concentration, substrate used in the reaction, and temperature.
Johnson, Kristin A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 74.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Proteins / Peptides |
Carbohydrates |
Catalysis |
Rate Law
The Definition and Unit of Ionic Strength  Theodros Solomon
Analysis of the definition and unit of ionic strength.
Solomon, Theodros. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1691.
Electrochemistry |
Thermodynamics
Using the Science Writing Heuristic to Move toward an Inquiry-Based Laboratory Curriculum: An Example from Physical Equilibrium  James A. Rudd II, Thomas J. Greenbowe, Brian M. Hand, and Margaret J. Legg
Changing the laboratory report format to improve student understanding of physical equilibrium in the lecture setting using the Science Writing Heuristic.
Rudd, James A., II; Greenbowe, Thomas J.; Hand, Brian M.; Legg, Margaret J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1680.
Equilibrium
Visualizing the Photochemical Steady State with UV-Sensitive Beads (re J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 77, 648A-648B)  Jerry A. Bell
Analysis of the temperature dependence of the color intensity of UV-sensitive beads.
Bell, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1594.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Kinetics |
Photochemistry |
Chemometrics
Relating Qualitative Analysis to Equilibrium Principles  Glenn V. Lo
Mathcad document intended for a prelab activity for qualitative analysis experiments.
Lo, Glenn V. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1557.
Qualitative Analysis |
Equilibrium |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Precipitation / Solubility
Network Complexes of Copper(I) Halides  Robert D. Pike, Peter M. Graham, Kathryn A. Guy, T. Jason Johnson, Jenine R. Cole, Sarah M. Stamps, and Lauren E. Klemmer
Procedure to introduce self-assembled metal-organic coordination networks.
Pike, Robert D.; Graham, Peter M.; Guy, Kathryn A.; Johnson, T. Jason; Cole, Jenine R.; Stamps, Sarah M.; Klemmer, Lauren E. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1522.
Coordination Compounds |
Equilibrium |
Nanotechnology |
Stoichiometry |
Organometallics
An Inexpensive Water Jacket for a Polarimeter Tube  F. A. Kundell and W. A. Adkins
Design and construction of an inexpensive water jacket for a polarimeter tube.
Kundell, F. A.; Adkins, W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1516.
Carbohydrates |
Kinetics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
The Relative Acidities of Water and Methanol  Henry I. Abrash
Analysis of the disparity between the way the acidity constant of water is presented in general chemistry and organic chemistry textbooks.
Abrash, Henry I. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1496.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium
Teaching Brønsted-Lowry Acid-Base Theory in a Direct Comprehensive Way  Jamie L. Adcock
Unifying all the Bronsted-Lowry acid-base concepts in a quantitative way.
Adcock, Jamie L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1495.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Learning Theories |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
The Importance of Non-Bonds in Coordination Compounds  Michael Laing
Significance of noncovalent interactions in determining the structure and behavior of coordination compounds.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1400.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Coordination Compounds |
Kinetics |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
On the Importance of Ideality  Rubin Battino, Scott E. Wood, and Arthur G. Williamson
Analysis of the utility of ideality in gaseous phenomena, solutions, and the thermodynamic concept of reversibility.
Battino, Rubin; Wood, Scott E.; Williamson, Arthur G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1364.
Thermodynamics |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents
Developing an Intuitive Understanding of Free Energy  Hilton M. Weiss
Conceptual model illustrating the combination of entropy and enthalpy to explain the feasibility or spontaneity of processes.
Weiss, Hilton M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1362.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
The Relationship between Stoichiometry and Kinetics Revisited  Jim Y. Lee
Analysis decoupling stoichiometry and kinetics in dealing with nonelementary reactions.
Lee, Jim Y. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1283.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Rate Law
Blood-Chemistry Tutorials: Teaching Biological Applications of General Chemistry Material  Rachel E. Casiday, Dewey Holten, Richard Krathen, and Regina F. Frey
Four, Web-based tutorials that deal with chemical processes in the blood and provide an integrated biological context for a variety of chemical concepts.
Casiday, Rachel E.; Holten, Dewey; Krathen, Richard; Frey, Regina F. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1210.
Applications of Chemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Proteins / Peptides |
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Molecular Properties / Structure
An In-Depth Look at the Madelung Constant for Cubic Crystal Systems  Robert P. Grosso Jr., Justin T. Fermann, and William J. Vining
A simple, clear, and visual method by which the Madelung constant can be taught to students.
Grosso, Robert P., Jr.; Fermann, Justin T.; Vining, William J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1198.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Coordination Compounds |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solid State Chemistry |
Solids |
Thermodynamics |
X-ray Crystallography
The Isothermal Heat Conduction Calorimeter: A Versatile Instrument for Studying Processes in Physics, Chemistry, and Biology  Lars Wadsö, Allan L. Smith, Hamid Shirazi, S. Rose Mulligan, and Thomas Hofelich
A simple but sensitive isothermal heat-conduction calorimeter and five experiments for students to illustrate its use (heat capacity of solids, acid-base titration, enthalpy of vaporization of solvents, cement hydration, and insect metabolism).
Wadsö, Lars; Smith, Allan L.; Shirazi, Hamid; Mulligan, S. Rose; Hofelich, Thomas. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1080.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thermal Analysis |
Thermodynamics
Apparent Paradoxes and Instructive Puzzles in Physical Chemistry  Lawrence S. Bartell
Examples of puzzles in physical chemistry to challenge the imagination of students.
Bartell, Lawrence S. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1067.
Thermodynamics |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Stories to Make Thermodynamics and Related Subjects More Palatable  Lawrence S. Bartell
Collection of anecdotes regarding the history and human side of chemistry.
Bartell, Lawrence S. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1059.
Surface Science |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Applications of Chemistry
Teaching the Fundamentals of Pulsed NMR Spectroscopy in an Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Laboratory  Gary A. Lorigan, Robert E. Minto, and Wei Zhang
An undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory experiment that utilizes a commercially available bench-top pulsed NMR spectrometer; students assemble the components of an NMR spectrometer, program a variety of pulse sequences, and collect T1 and T2 relaxation data.
Lorigan, Gary A.; Minto, Robert E.; Zhang, Wei. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 956.
Kinetics |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Color Changes in Indicator Solutions. An Intriguing and Elucidative General Chemistry Experiment  César R. Silva, Renato B. Pereira, and Edvaldo Sabadini
Investigation of a solution in which there is a color change resulting simply from dilution with water.
Silva, Cesar R.; Pereira, Renato B.; Sabadini, Edvaldo. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 939.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Dyes / Pigments |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Don't Be Tricked by Your Integrated Rate Plot!  Edward T. Urbansky
Using integrated rate plots to determine reaction order.
Urbansky, Edward T. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 921.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Learning Theories |
Chemometrics |
Rate Law
A Simple Computer-Interfaced Calorimeter: Application to the Determination of the Heat of Formation of Magnesium Oxide  Sze-Shun Wong, Natasha D. Popovich, and Shelley J. Coldiron
Design, construction, and laboratory instructional application of a simple computer-controlled, constant-pressure calorimeter.
Wong, Sze-Shun; Popovich, Natasha D.; Coldiron, Shelley J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 798.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Thermodynamics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Build a Simple Polarimeter  Frank E. Stary and Norman Woldow
Details of the construction of a durable, inexpensive portable polarimeter with a self-contained 585-nm light source are given, combining the best features of several polarimeters; may easily be scaled up in size for increased sensitivity.
Stary, Frank E.; Woldow, Norman. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 644.
Instrumental Methods |
Kinetics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Stereochemistry
Evaluating Solubility of Sparingly Soluble Diprotic Acid Salts  Jean M. Nigretto
The use of logarithmic concentration diagrams as a convenient tool for finding approximate solutions to the pH of solutions containing sparingly soluble diprotic acid salts in pure water; an application of this method based on a series of carbonate salts is presented.
Nigretto, Jean M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 631.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
pH
S is for Entropy. U is for Energy. What Was Clausius Thinking?  Irmgard K. Howard
19th-century scientist Rudolf Clausius devised equations to describe the actions and relationships of heat and work; this paper traces his thinking from 1850 to 1879, particularly noting his ideas about parallel concepts of energy and entropy.
Howard, Irmgard K. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 505.
Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics and Kinetics for the Biological Sciences (by Gordon G. Hammes)  Vicky Minderhout
Book designed to introduce biological science students to some of the important concepts of physical chemistry used in biology.
Minderhout, Vicky. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 457.
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics
Are Fizzing Drinks Boiling? A Chemical Insight from Chemical Education Research  Alan Goodwin
The suggestion that fizzing drinks are examples of liquids boiling at room temperature has proved to be controversial among both chemists and chemical educators. This paper presents a case for believing this everyday system to be a good example of a boiling solution and the consequent separation of carbon dioxide from the solution to exemplify fractional distillation.
Goodwin, Alan. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 385.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Drug Distribution: A Guided-Inquiry Laboratory Experiment in Coupled Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Equilibria  John Hein and Michael Jeannot
This experiment gives students an opportunity to study the distribution of a drug (a common antihistamine drug, diphenhydramine) in a two-phase system by measuring the concentrations of two chemical species and predicting the others by considering charge balance, mass balance, and equilibrium constant expressions.
Hein, John; Jeannot, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 224.
Acids / Bases |
Chromatography |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Equilibrium |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science
The State of Division of Solids and Chemical Equilibria  João C. M. Paiva and Victor M. S. Gil
An experiment and a computer simulation are presented to address a counterintuitive situation often encountered when teaching chemical equilibria. This is prompted by the question "How can the subdivision of a solid reactant affect the reaction rate and not the composition of the equilibrium state?"
Paiva, João C. M.; Gil, Victor M. S. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 222.
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Application of Hammond's Postulate. An Activity for Guided Discovery Learning in Organic Chemistry  J. E. Meany, Vicky Minderhout, and Y. Pocker
In this activity, students are given product distributions and other relevant experimental data concerning the free radical chlorination and bromination of propane. Students are guided in the use of Hammond's postulate to predict transition-state structures and to provide a rationale for the relationship between selectivity and reactivity in these and other reactions.
Meany, J. E.; Minderhout, Vicky; Pocker, Y. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 204.
Free Radicals |
Kinetics |
Reactions
From Chicken Breath to the Killers Lake of Cameroon: Uniting Seven Interesting Phenomena with a Single Chemical Underpinning  Ron DeLorenzo
By using a single equation prototype, seven interesting mysteries and phenomena can be seen as sharing a common chemical underpinning. The applications discussed are the Killer Lakes of Cameroon, chicken breath, the Permian Ocean, the snow line, boiler scale, the Fizz Keeper, and stalactites and stalagmites.
DeLorenzo, Ronald. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 191.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Equilibrium
The Solubility Rules: Why Are All Acetates Soluble?  William G. Van Der Sluys
According to the solubility rules presented in many introductory chemistry texts, all (or most) acetate salts are soluble in aqueous solution. The thermodynamic factors that contribute to the solubility of acetates are compared with those of other slightly basic anions.
Van Der Sluys, William G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 111.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
An Introduction to the Understanding of Solubility  Trevor M. Letcher and Rubin Battino
This paper explores the solubility process from a number of perspectives, including the second law of thermodynamics and ideal solubility, real solutions and activity coefficients, intermolecular forces, and theories of gases or liquids or solids dissolving in liquids.
Letcher, Trevor M.; Battino, Rubin. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 103.
Solutions / Solvents |
Learning Theories |
Thermodynamics |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Noncovalent Interactions
Organic-Solvent-Free Phase-Transfer Oxidation of Alcohols Using Hydrogen Peroxide  Martin Hulce and David W. Marks
Six representative alcohols are oxidized to the corresponding aldehyde or ketone, integrating the various techniques of extraction, drying, filtration, column chromatography, gas chromatography, NMR and IR spectroscopy, and reaction kinetics.
Hulce, Martin; Marks, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 66.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Phenols
A Simple Method for Demonstrating Enzyme Kinetics Using Catalase from Beef Liver Extract  Kristin A. Johnson
A simple visual method of demonstrating enzyme kinetics using beef liver catalase. Filter paper is saturated with beef liver extract and placed into a solution of hydrogen peroxide. The catalase in the extract decomposes the hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen. Oxygen forms on the filter paper, and the filter paper rises to the top of the beaker. Catalase activity is measured by timing the rise of the enzyme-soaked filter paper to the top of beakers containing different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide.
Johnson, A. Kristin. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1451.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Proteins / Peptides |
Reactions
SolEq: Solution Equilibria, Principles and Applications, Release 1
by SolEq Project Team: L. D. Pettit, K. J. Powell, and R. W. Ramette

  Marina C. Koether
29 tutorials with simulation, calculations, and graphs, on solution equilibria.
Koether, Marina C. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1414.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis

Epoxy Polymerization  Fred Schubert and Tom LoBuglio
Identifying the gel point of a polymer using a multimeter.
Schubert, Fred; LoBuglio, Tom. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1409.
Kinetics |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy
Interpretation of Second Virial Coefficient  Vivek Utgikar
Identifying the gel point of a polymer using a multimeter.
Utgikar, Vivek. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1409.
Kinetics |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Gases |
Thermodynamics
Comparisons and Demonstrations of Scientific Calculators  Myung-Hoon Kim, Suw-Young Ly, and Tae-Kee Hong
Scientific calculators are compared in terms of their capacities, featuring many advantages of the graphic calculator over simple nongraphic calculators. Applications in this paper include a simulation of acid-base titration curves, and graphic display of a time course of concentrations of reactants and products for a chemical reaction with first-order kinetics.
Kim, Myung-Hoon; Ly, Suw-Young; Hong, Tae-Kee. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1367.
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Are We Taking Symbolic Language for Granted?   Paul Marais and Faan Jordaan
This study formed part of a broader investigation into the role of language in teaching and learning chemical equilibrium. Students were tested for their understanding of 25 words and five symbols commonly used in connection with chemical equilibrium. This test showed that most of the students had an inadequate grasp of the meaning of all five symbols. It also showed that, on the average, their understanding of symbols was more problematic than their understanding of words.
Marais, Paul; Jordaan, Faan. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1355.
Equilibrium |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Displacement of the Benzene Solvent Molecule from Cr(CO)5(benzene) by Piperidine: A Laser Flash Photolysis Experiment  Ashfaq A. Bengali and Samantha B. Charlton
This laboratory experiment utilizes a nitrogen laser to investigate the chemistry of the Cr(CO)5(benzene) complex on the microsecond time scale. The unique capabilities of a laser and the chemistry made possible by its use is demonstrated.
Bengali, Ashfaq A.; Charlton, Samantha B. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1348.
Kinetics |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Organometallics |
Photochemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Reactions
Enzymatic Spectrophotometric Reaction Rate Determination of Glucose in Fruit Drinks and Carbonated Beverages. An Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment for Food Science-Oriented Students  Argyro-Maria G. Vasilarou and Constantinos A. Georgiou
This laboratory experiment demonstrates the implementation of reaction rate kinetic methods of analysis, the use of enzymes as selective analytical reagents for the determination of substrates, the kinetic masking of ascorbic acid interference, and the analysis of glucose in drinks and beverages.
Vasilarou, Argyro-Maria G.; Georgiou, Constantinos A. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1327.
Enzymes |
Food Science |
Kinetics |
Quantitative Analysis |
Carbohydrates
Ernest Rutherford, Avogadro's Number, and Chemical Kinetics Revisited (about J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 998-1003)  James E. Sturm
Quantifying the link between Rutherford's observations and Avogadro's number.
Sturm, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1278.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Kinetics |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Rate Law
Hell May Be Hotter Than Heaven After All (about J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 503)  M. N. Berberan-Santos
Estimation of temperatures in heaven and hell based on biblical information.
Berberan-Santos, Mário N. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1278.
Nonmajor Courses |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
Ernest Rutherford, Avogadro's Number, and Chemical Kinetics Revisited (about J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 998-1003)  James E. Sturm
Estimation of temperatures in heaven and hell based on biblical information.
Sturm, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1278.
Nonmajor Courses |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Kinetics |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
Easy Derivation of pH Is Approxiimately Equal To (pKa1 + pKa2) / 2 Using Autoprotolysis of HA-: Doubtful Value of the Supposedly More Rigorous Equation  Stephen J. Hawkes
[H+]2 Ka1Ka2 can be derived in only two lines by recognizing that the principal reaction in a solution of HA- is its autoprotolysis. The supposedly rigorous equation derived in many texts gives pH values that are no more reliable.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1183.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium
A Visual Aid in Enthalpy Calculations  Sebastian G. Canagaratna
This article discusses the use of enthalpy-temperature diagrams for reactants and products as a visual aid in the teaching of reaction-enthalpy calculations. By the use of such diagrams the division of the process into a part involving a chemical reaction without a temperature change and a part involving only a temperature change is made visually concrete.
Canagaratna, Sebastian G. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1178.
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Graphing Calculator Strategies for Solving Chemical Equilibrium Problems (re J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 632-634) Author Reply  Henry Donato Jr.
Reinforces appropriateness of application of graphing calculator for solving chemical equilibrium problems.
Donato, Henry, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1120.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium
Graphing Calculator Strategies for Solving Chemical Equilibrium Problems (re J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 632-634)  Todd P. Silverstein
Questions appropriateness of application of graphing calculator for solving chemical equilibrium problems.
Silverstein, Todd P. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1120.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium
Every Year Begins a Millennium  Jerry A. Bell
This article outlines a series of demonstrations and their contexts, leading to recommendations about what we teach and how we teach.
Bell, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1098.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Learning Theories
Evaporation Kinetics in Short-Chain Alcohols by Optical Interference  Ian M. Rosbrugh, S. Y. Nishimura, and A. M. Nishimura
The evaporation rates of volatile organic liquids may be determined through the observation of optical interference of spatially coincident light that is reflected from the top (air-liquid) and bottom (liquid-surface) of a liquid drop on a glass surface. As an example of what is possible with this technique, the evaporation for a series of short-chain alcohols and acetone is investigated.
Rosbrugh, Ian M.; Nishimura, S. Y.; Nishimura, Allan M. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1047.
Kinetics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids
Kinetic Isotope Effect in the Chromic Acid Oxidation of Secondary Alcohols  Charles E. Harding, Christopher W. Mitchell, and Jozsef Devenyi
The kinetic isotope effect is an invaluable tool in studying certain organic reaction mechanisms. Two activities involving the technique that are suitable for introductory organic laboratory students are described. A simple competition experiment utilizing the benzhydrol?benzhydrol-d1 system and chromic acid oxidation is used to demonstrate qualitatively that there is a kinetic isotope effect involved in this process.
Harding, Charles E.; Mitchell, Christopher W.; Devenyi, Jozsef. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1042.
Isotopes |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Alcohols |
Oxidation / Reduction
Determination of Ksp, ΔG0, ΔH0, and ΔS0 for the Dissolution of Calcium Hydroxide in Water: A General Chemistry Experiment  William B. Euler, Louis J. Kirschenbaum, and Ben Ruekberg
This exercise utilizes low-cost, relatively nonhazardous materials presenting few disposal problems. It reinforces the students' understanding of the interrelationship of solubility, Ksp, ΔG0, ΔH0, and ΔS0.
Euler, William B.; Kirschenbaum, Louis J.; Ruekberg, Ben. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1039.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Paradoxes, Puzzles, and Pitfalls of Incomplete Combustion Demonstrations  Ed Vitz
Paper is burned in a closed container containing sufficient oxygen to consume all the paper. Paradoxically, the flame expires while half of the paper remains. This demonstrates that thermodynamics or stoichiometry is insufficient to explain everyday chemical processes, and that kinetics is often necessary. The gases in the container are analyzed by GC before and after combustion, and the results are examined in detail.
Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1011.
Gases |
Kinetics |
Stoichiometry
Simulations for Teaching Chemical Equilibrium  Penelope A. Huddle, Margaret Dawn White, and Fiona Rogers
This paper outlines a systematic approach to teaching chemical equilibrium using simulation experiments that address most known alternate conceptions in the topic. Graphs drawn using the data from the simulations are identical to those obtained using real experimental data for reactions that go to equilibrium. This allows easy mapping of the analogy to the target.
Huddle, Penelope Ann; White, Margaret Dawn; Rogers, Fiona. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 920.
Equilibrium |
Learning Theories
Photochemistry of Chloropicrin. A Physical Chemistry Project  E. A. Wade, T. P. Clemes, and K. A. Singmaster
In this experiment, students will use FTIR spectroscopy to monitor the kinetics of the photolysis of chloropicrin by an Hg arc lamp, both with and without oxygen. They will then be able to determine the mechanism of the photolytic reaction.
Wade, Elisabeth A.; Clemes, T. P.; Singmaster, Karen A. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 898.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Kinetics |
Photochemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Melting Point and Molecular Symmetry  R. J. C. Brown and R. F. C. Brown
In 1882 Thomas Carnelley observed that high molecular symmetry is associated with high melting point. The application of the rule to a number of different molecular crystals is discussed. The rule applies to different categories of crystal for different reasons, which can be explained by thermodynamic analysis.
Brown, R. J. C.; Brown, R. F. C. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 724.
Liquids |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Thermodynamics |
Physical Properties |
Aromatic Compounds |
Crystals / Crystallography
A Closer Look at Phase Diagrams for the General Chemistry Course  Stephen A. Gramsch
The information provided by the high-pressure phase diagrams of some simple systems (carbon dioxide, water, hydrogen, and iron) can provide a useful extension to the traditional discussion of phase diagrams in the general chemistry course. At the same time, it can prepare students for a more illuminating presentation of the concept of equilibrium than is possible through the discussion of gas phase, acid-base, and solubility product equilibria alone.
Gramsch, Stephen A. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 718.
Equilibrium |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Geochemistry
The Thermodynamics and Kinetics of "HeaterMeals": An Exercise in Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry  William B. Jensen
The author traces his steps in unraveling the chemistry behind an innovative new commercial product called HeaterMeals, which makes use of an "inorganic oven" composed of magnesium metal, iron metal, and salt water as a way of heating prepackaged meals. The thermodynamic, kinetic, and structural roles played by each component are analyzed and correlated with various topics taught in a typical introductory inorganic course.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 713.
Electrochemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Applications of Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Ionic Crystals: A Simple and Safe Lecture Demonstration of the Preparation of NaI from Its Elements  Zelek S. Herman
A simple and safe classroom demonstration showing the production of sodium iodide (NaI) crystals from elemental sodium and elemental (molecular) iodine is presented. The demonstration, which is quite impressive, naturally fits into the discussion of ionic bonding and the alkali halide crystals.
Herman, Zelek S. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 619.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Thermodynamics |
Ionic Bonding |
Crystals / Crystallography
Illustrating Thermodynamic Concepts Using a Hero's Engine  Pedro L. Muiño and James R. Hodgson
A modified Hero's engine is used to illustrate concepts of thermodynamics and engineering design suitable for introductory chemistry courses and more advanced physical chemistry courses. This demonstration is suitable to illustrate concepts like gas expansion, gas cooling through expansion, conversion of heat to work, interconversion between kinetic energy and potential energy, and feedback mechanisms.
Muio, Pedro L.; Hodgson, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 615.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Spreadsheet Investigation of First-Order Kinetics  Glenn V. Lo
Spreadsheet exercises designed for in-depth examination of the first-order rate law are described. The exercises illustrate two main approaches for analyzing first-order rate data and allow students to examine how they are affected by systematic and random errors. The exercises aim to provide a sound foundation for the students to make intelligent decisions with regard to data acquisition and analysis.
Lo, Glenn V. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 532.
Kinetics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Chemometrics
Modeling Chemical Processes in Seawater Aquaria to Illustrate Concepts in Undergraduate Chemistry  Gordan Grguric
This paper describes three exercises which can be used in a variety of undergraduate chemistry curricula: (i) determining the salts and their amounts needed to prepare a given volume of artificial seawater, (ii) modeling aqueous carbonate equilibria, to calculate pH and alkalinity shifts through additions of chemicals, and (iii) modeling chemical kinetics involved in aqueous ozone-bromine reactions, to predict the type and extent of disinfection by-products.
Grguric, Gordan. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 495.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Applications of Chemistry
A Puzzle Concerning Solution Equilibria  Peter Gans
A puzzle is presented, which is designed to reinforce understanding of simple acid-base equilibria and to give students an introduction to more complicated equilibria.
Gans, Peter. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 489.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium
An Introduction to Nonlinear Chemical Dynamics: Oscillations, Waves, Patterns, and Chaos (by I. R. Epstein and J. A. Pojman)  reviewed by Richard J. Field
The major strength of this treatment by Epstein and Pojman is a strong connection between theory and experiment. The mechanisms of many oscillating chemical reactions are described in detail.
Field, Richard J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 450.
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Experiments with Aspirin  Londa L. Borer and Edward Barry
Experiments include (i) synthesis, purification, and characterization of aspirin by mp and TLC, (ii) percentage composition of a commercial aspirin tablet by titration, (iii) kinetics of the hydrolysis of aspirin to salicylic acid under various conditions, (iv) synthesis and characterization of copper(II) aspirinate and copper(II) salicylate, and (v) reaction of copper(II) aspirinate in aqueous solution.
Borer, Londa L.; Barry, Edward. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 354.
Synthesis |
Kinetics |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Aromatic Compounds
Linking the Lab Experience with Everyday Life: An Analytical Chemistry Experiment for Agronomy Students  Sônia Maria N. Gimenez, Maria Josefa S. Yabe, Neide K. Kondo, Rodrigo O. Mouriño, and Graziela Cristina R. Moura
Samples of soils and plants prepared by students were introduced. Soil was treated with molasses residue, organic matter (chicken manure and humus obtained from goat excrement), and lime. The response of plants to the different soil treatments increased student interest in chemical analyses.
Gimenez, Sônia Maria N.; Yabe, Maria Josefa S.; Kondo, Neide K.; Mouriño, Rodrigo O.; Moura, Graziela Cristina R. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 181.
Acids / Bases |
Agricultural Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Learning Theories
LeChâtelier's Principle in the Sciences  Volker B. E. Thomsen
The concept of homeostasis in biology and the economic law of supply and demand are both equilibrium-like principles, but involve systems in the steady state. However, all these principles involve the stability of the system under consideration and the analogies presented may be useful in the teaching of LeChtelier's principle.
Thomsen, Volker B. E. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 173.
Equilibrium |
Learning Theories
Using TOPEX Satellite El Niño Altimetry Data to Introduce Thermal Expansion and Heat Capacity Concepts in Chemistry Courses  Harvey F. Blanck
Warm water is less dense than cool water and will float somewhat like ice, with a portion above the surface of the cooler surrounding water. The height of the bump can be used to estimate the excess thermal energy in the warmer water.
Blanck, Harvey F. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1635.
Liquids |
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Old Rule of Thumb and the Arrhenius Equation  I. A. Leenson
The empirical rule (doubling of the reaction rate upon every 10 increase in temperature) is discussed on the basis of the Arrhenius equation and experimental data. A graph is plotted that shows the applicability limits of the empirical rule in terms of activation energies and temperatures.
Leenson, Ilya A. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1459.
Kinetics
Entropy, Disorder, and Freezing  Brian B. Laird
It is argued that the usual view that entropy is a measure of "disorder" is problematic and that there exist systems at high density, for which packing considerations dominate, where a spatially ordered state has a higher entropy than a disordered one.
Laird, Brian B. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1388.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Statistical Mechanics
Shuffled Cards, Messy Desks, and Disorderly Dorm Rooms - Examples of Entropy Increase? Nonsense!  Frank L. Lambert
Simply changing the location of everyday macro objects from an arrangement that we commonly judge as orderly to one that appears disorderly is a "zero change" in the thermodynamic entropy of the objects because the number of accessible energetic microstates in any of them has not been changed.
Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1385.
Nonmajor Courses |
Statistical Mechanics |
Thermodynamics
Chemistry Comes Alive! Vol. 3: Abstract of Special Issue 23 on CD-ROM  Jerrold J. Jacobsen and John W. Moore
Volume 3 contains several related topics generally included in an introductory chemistry course. The general areas are Enthalpy and Thermodynamics, Oxidation-Reduction, and Electrochemistry.
Jacobsen, Jerrold J.; Moore, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1311.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Chemiluminescence Demonstration Illustrating Principles of Ester Hydrolysis Reactions  Andrew G. Hadd, David W. Lehmpuhl, Laura R. Kuck, and John W. Birks
Peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence, the most efficient nonenzymatic chemiluminescence reaction known, is used to demonstrate mechanistic features of analogous ester hydrolysis reactions.
Hadd, Andrew G.; Lehmpuhl, David W.; Kuck, Laura R.; Birks, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1237.
Kinetics |
Photochemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Esters
?G and ?G/??, and the Physical Meaning of a Derivative (author's reply)  Spencer, J. N.
Discussion of the relationship between the mathematical and physical aspects of ?G/??.
Spencer, J. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1188.
Thermodynamics
?G, ?G/??, and the Physical Meaning of a Derivative  Jemal, Mohamed
Discussion of the relationship between the mathematical and physical aspects of ?G/??.
Jemal, Mohamed J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1188.
Thermodynamics
Letters  
Discussion of the relationship between the mathematical and physical aspects of ?G/??.
Jemal, Mohamed. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1188.
Thermodynamics
Spreadsheet Techniques for Evaluating the Solubility of Sparingly Soluble Salts of Weak Acids  José L. Guinón, José García-Antón, and Valentín Pérez-Herranz
A spreadsheet of Microsoft Excel for determining the solubility of sparingly soluble salts is described. The chart and worksheet are shown simultaneously on the screen. The worksheet can be used for any salt by merely changing the data for the solubility product constant and ionization constants.
Guinn, Jos L.; Garca-Antn, Jos; Prez-Herranz, Valentn. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1157.
Computational Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Quantitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility
Complexation Calculations Are Worse Than Useless  Stephen J. Hawkes
Calculations of complexation equilibria in introductory texts are unreliable to the point of absurdity. No case has been made that they should be taught, but if they are they should be taught using software that solves all the simultaneous equilibria and allows for the effect of ionic strength in the solution.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1099.
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Predicting Acid-Base Titration Curves without Calculations  Dennis W. Barnum
In this paper a qualitative and systematic method for sketching titration curves is presented. Even the more complex cases such as salts or polyprotic acids and bases are treated just as easily as simple monoprotic acids. Having students predict the shape of titration curves from known equilibrium constants helps to focus attention on the general principles without distraction by the mathematics.
Barnum, Dennis W. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 938.
Acids / Bases |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Learning Theories |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics
Do pH in Your Head  Addison Ault
Every aqueous solution has a pH. Two factors determine this pH: the acidic or basic strength of the solute, and its concentration. When you use pKa values to express acidic and basic strength you can easily estimate the approximate pH of many aqueous solutions of acids, bases, and their salts and their buffers.
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 936.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Learning Theories |
Chemometrics |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
The Evolution of the Celsius and Kelvin Temperature Scales and the State of the Art  Julio Pellicer, M. Amparo Gilabert, and Ernesto Lopez-Baeza
A physical analysis is given of the evolution undergone by the Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales, from their definition to the present day.
Pellicer, Julio; Gilabert, M. Amparo; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 911.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Thermodynamics |
Learning Theories
The Arrhenius Equation Revisited (author's reply)  Carroll, Harvey F.
Misleading remarks regarding the Arrhenius equation in some general chemistry texts.
Carroll, Harvey F. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 899.
Equilibrium |
Rate Law
The Arrhenius Equation Revisited  Logan, S. R.
Addition citation on the implications of the Arrhenius equation.
Logan, S. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 899.
Equilibrium |
Rate Law
Why Not Replace pH and pOH by Just One Real Acidity Grade, AG?  Henk van Lubeck
The disadvantages of pH and pOH disappear after replacing them with AG, the acidity grade: AG = log [H+]/[OH-]. AG of neutral solutions equals 0 at all temperatures, whereas AG of acidic solutions is positive and of alkaline solutions, negative. AG offers some other minor advantages as well.
van Lubeck, Henk. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 892.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium
Kinetics of Papain: An Introductory Biochemistry Laboratory Experiment  Kathleen Cornely, Eric Crespo, Michael Earley, Rachel Kloter, Aime Levesque, and Mary Pickering
In this experiment, we investigate the kinetics of the thiol protease papain. A specific substrate, Na-benzoyl-arginine-p-nitroanilide (BAPNA), is used, which takes advantage of the fact that papain interacts with a phenylalanine residue two amino acids away from the peptide bond cleaved. Upon hydrolysis by papain, a bright yellow product is released, p-nitroaniline. This allows the reaction to be monitored spectrophotometrically by measuring the rate of formation of the p-nitroaniline product as a function of the increase in absorbance of the solution at the lmax of p-nitroaniline (400 nm) over time at various substrate concentrations. These data are used to plot a Lineweaver-Burk plot from which the vmax and KM are obtained.
Cornely, Kathleen; Crespo, Eric; Earley, Michael; Kloter, Rachel; Levesque, Aime; Pickering, Mary. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 644.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Discovering a Change in Equilibrium Constant with Change in Ionic Strength: An Empirical Laboratory Experiment for General Chemistry  Richard J. Stolzberg
Spectrophotometric measurements of absorbance of a solution of Fe3+(aq) and SCN-(aq) treated with different amounts of KNO3 are made to determine Kc for the formation of FeSCN2+(aq). Students observe a regular decrease in the value of Kc as the concentration of added KNO3 is increased.
Stolzberg, Richard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 640.
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Using CBL Technology and a Graphing Calculator To Teach the Kinetics of Consecutive First-Order Reactions  José E. Cortés-Figueroa and Deborah A. Moore
This work proposes a demonstration to introduce first-order reactions using the CBL system. It then presents the analysis of two consecutive first-order reactions. The values of the rate constants that govern each reaction's rate are determined using the graphing and statistical capabilities of a TI-83 calculator.
Cortés-Figueroa, José E.; Moore, Deborah A. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 635.
Kinetics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Rate Law
Graphing Calculator Strategies for Solving Chemical Equilibrium Problems  Henry Donato Jr.
A general method for finding the roots of polynomial equations using the ubiquitous and inexpensive graphing calculator is presented. It is suggested that important reactions, which are not discussed in introductory chemistry courses because of computational considerations, may now be discussed.
Donato, Henry, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 632.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Learning Theories |
Equilibrium
Introducing Dynamic Equilibrium as an Explanatory Model  Jan H. Van Driel, Wobbe de Vos, and Nico Verloop
This article describes an educational design for the introduction of chemical equilibrium, in which students' authentic experiences with chemical phenomena play a central role. The students' most effective type of reasoning appeared to be based on the idea that, in a state of equilibrium, all conditions for both the forward and the backward reaction to take place are satisfied.
Van Driel, Jan H.; de Vos, Wobbe; Verloop, Nico. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 559.
Equilibrium |
Learning Theories
A New Twist on the Iodine Clock Reaction: Determining the Order of a Reaction  Xavier Creary and Karen M. Morris
The iodine clock reaction can be used to illustrate the kinetic order of a reaction, and an overhead projector demonstration was developed three years ago for general chemistry classes at the University of Notre Dame showing this concept.
Creary, Xavier; Morris, Karen M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 530.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Kinetics
Equilibrium Principles: A Game for Students  Lionel J. Edmonson Jr. and Don L. Lewis
The laboratory exercise is a game using marked sugar cubes as dice. The game emphasizes the dynamic character of equilibrium. Forward and reverse rate-constant values are used to calculate an equilibrium constant and to predict equilibrium populations. Predicted equilibrium populations are compared with experimental results.
Edmonson, Lionel J., Jr.; Lewis, Don L. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 502.
Equilibrium |
Kinetics
General Potential Energy Surfaces for Catalytic Processes  S. H. Bauer
Here we argue that one may describe, in general terms, how catalysts modify reaction mechanisms by entering and leaving a conversion sequence, using potential energy surfaces that are conceptually correct. Thermochemical and kinetic constraints providing bounds that limit catalytic processes are formulated. 3-D diagrams are proposed. These clearly illustrate the basic principle that catalysts initially associate with the substrates and thus directly participate in modified conversion pathways, but are regenerated in the final step, thereby providing for a turnover number greater than unity.
Bauer, S. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 440.
Catalysis |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
A Simplified Method for Finding the pKa of an Acid-Base Indicator by Spectrophotometry  George S. Patterson
Experiments on determining the pKa of an acid-base indicator by visible spectroscopy are often found in analytical and physical chemistry lab texts. The procedure described here is a modification suitable for general chemistry lab students.
Patterson, George S. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 395.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
An Undergraduate Experiment in Polyester (PET) Synthesis  Andrew N. Cammidge
The most important polyester manufactured industrially is PET (polyethyleneterephthalate). We describe an experiment that conveniently mimics the industrial synthesis in the undergraduate laboratory.
Cammidge, Andrew N. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 236.
Synthesis |
Equilibrium |
Stoichiometry |
Industrial Chemistry
How Thermodynamic Data and Equilibrium Constants Changed When the Standard-State Pressure Became 1 Bar  Richard S. Treptow
In 1982 the IUPAC recommended that the pressure used to define the standard state of a substance be changed from 1 atm to 1 bar. The principal effect of the change is a slight increase in the entropy and a slight decrease in the free energy of any gas.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 212.
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The Ammonia Smoke Fountain: An Interesting Thermodynamic Adventure  M. Dale Alexander
The ammonia smoke fountain demonstration utilizes a modification of the apparatus used in the standard ammonia fountain. The modification allows for the introduction of hydrogen chloride gas into a flask of ammonia rather than water. The flow rate of hydrogen chloride gas into the flask in the smoke fountain is not constant, but periodic; that is, the smoke puffs from the end of the tube. This unexpected behavior elicits an interesting thermodynamic explanation.
Alexander, M. Dale. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 210.
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Precipitation / Solubility
The Fizz Keeper, a Case Study in Chemical Education, Equilibrium, and Kinetics  Reed Howald
The chemistry of the loss of carbonation from carbonated beverages on storage is considered. Increasing the pressure of CO2(g) will restore carbonation, but an increase in pressure adding air should not affect the equilibria. It can and does, however, affect the kinetics-the rate at which a new equilibrium is established. Thus the Fizz Keeper is effective for storage of resealed pop containers for hours, but not for periods of weeks or months.
Howald, Reed. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 208.
Transport Properties |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Kinetics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Spontaneity and log K  Klotz, Irving M.; Rosenberg, Robert M.
Why the degree of spontaneity and the equilibrium constant should have different temperature dependencies.
Klotz, Irving M.; Rosenberg, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 165.
Equilibrium |
Rate Law
Conceptualizing Kinetics with Curve Fitting  Ed Vitz
This paper describes how to use the Excel "Solver" function for the analysis of kinetics data by nonlinear curve-fitting methods, as an alternative to the traditional linearization methods for zero-, first-, and second-order processes.
Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1661.
Kinetics |
Chemometrics
The Blue Bottle Experiment-Simple Demonstration of Self-Organization  L'ubica Adamcíková and Peter Sevcík
This article describes a pattern that is formed in the blue bottle experiment.
Adamcíková, L'ubica; Sevcík, Peter. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1580.
Catalysis |
Dyes / Pigments |
Kinetics
Chemical Kinetics without Calculus  Igor Novak
We present an example of a general reaction network consisting of three species. The scheme (network) is used to illustrate, without the aid of calculus, several types of reactions that have simple kinetic laws.
Novak, Igor. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1574.
Equilibrium |
Kinetics
Why Does an Equilibrium Constant Not Appear Constant?  R. Bruce Martin
Whatever the method of calculation, attainment of reliable equilibrium constants demands procurement of precise terminal values, and a special effort should be expended in obtaining them.
Martin, R. Bruce. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1497.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium
The Octahedral-Square-Planar Transition of Nickel Chelates  Lina Ben-Dor and Yizhak Marcus
An experiment for an advanced inorganic chemistry laboratory is proposed that involves the study of the equilibrium between the (blue) octahedral and (yellow) square planar chelates of nickel(II) with tetraaza ligands in solution.
Ben-Dor, Lina; Marcus, Yizhak. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1458.
Coordination Compounds |
Equilibrium |
Transition Elements
A Simple Method To Demonstrate the Enzymatic Production of Hydrogen from Sugar  Natalie Hershlag, Ian Hurley, and Jonathan Woodward
In the experimental protocol described here, it has been demonstrated that the common sugar glucose can be used to produce hydrogen using two enzymes, glucose dehydrogenase and hydrogenase. No sophisticated or expensive hydrogen detection equipment is required-only a redox dye, benzyl viologen, which turns purple when it is reduced. The color can be detected by a simple colorimeter.
Hershlag, Natalie; Hurley, Ian; Woodward, Jonathan. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1270.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Carbohydrates |
Applications of Chemistry
Why the Arrhenius Equation Is Always in the "Exponentially Increasing" Region in Chemical Kinetic Studies  Harvey F. Carroll
The Arrhenius equation in chemical kinetics, k = Ae-Ea/RT, has, as T gets larger, an inflection point where it changes from an "exponentially increasing" curve to one approaching an asymptote of A. The inflection point occurs at T = Ea/2R. For any activation energy, the inflection point occurs at such a high temperature that chemical kinetic studies would not be possible. Thus, the Arrhenius equation always appears to be exponentially increasing in any chemical kinetic studies of interest.
Carroll, Harvey F. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1186.
Kinetics
The Ksp-Solubility Conundrum  Roy W. Clark and Judith M. Bonicamp
The authors sought to find those cases of partly soluble substances for which simple calculations such as Ksp=S2, and Ksp=4S3 can realistically be used for computing solubility from Ksp and the reverse calculation. Empirical solubility data are compared with solubilities calculated from reliable Ksp values that have been adjusted for activity coefficients. A table of 18 substances is suggested for textbook use.
Clark, Roy W.; Bonicamp, Judith M. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1182.
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
Solving Chemical Equilibria  David Uribe
In this work, a method is described to solve chemical equilibria and to obtain the equilibrium concentrations. The technique is based on considering exclusively the variations of the concentrations of the species participating in the equilibria mixture, so that a number of algebraic equations (and unknowns) is obtained that is equal to the number of equilibrium equations. This represents a decrease in the number of algebraic equations compared with the conventional method for which, besides the equilibrium constants, the charge and mass balances must be considered.
Uribe, David. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1177.
Equilibrium |
Stoichiometry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A Simple Electrochemical Approach to Heterogeneous Reaction Kinetics  K. J. Drok, I. M. Ritchie, and G. P. Power
The system studied is the dissolution of a known amount of copper in a solution of iron(III). The reaction time is determined by measuring the potential of the copper, which has been electrodeposited on an inert electrode, as a function of time
Drok, K. J.; Ritchie, Ian M.; Power, G. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1145.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Kinetics
Limiting Reagent and Kinetics: Social Implications and Malthus' Prediction  L. H. Holmes Jr.
Robert Malthus predicted in the early 1800s that man would outstrip his food supply. The amount of carbon on earth is the ultimate limiting reagent for the number of people the earth can have and in the sense that carbon is our "food", Malthus was right. However, the land area of the earth is a "limiting reagent" that will limit our population before carbon does. These concepts are discussed in the context of limiting reagents and chemical kinetics to show that if the rate of increase of population remains at what it is now, we have less than a thousand years to "solve" the problem.
Holmes, L. H., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1004.
Kinetics
Thermodynamics and Spontaneity (the author replies)  Ochs, Raymond S.
The term "spontaneous" is historical baggage.
Ochs, Raymond S. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 659.
Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics and Spontaneity  Earl, Boyd L.
The term "spontaneous" is worth keeping in the chemistry lexicon.
Earl, Boyd L. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 658.
Thermodynamics
Letters to the Editor  
The term "spontaneous" is worth keeping in the chemistry lexicon.
J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 658.
Thermodynamics
A Simple Organic Microscale Experiment Illustrating the Equilibrium Aspect of the Aldol Condensation  Ernest A. Harrison Jr.
A simple microscale experiment has been developed that illustrates the equilibrium aspect of the aldol condensation by using two versions of the standard preparation of tetraphenylcyclopentadienone from benzil and 1,3-diphenyl- 2-propanone.
Harrison, Ernest A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 636.
Equilibrium |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Kinetic Demonstration of Intermolecular General Acid (GA) Catalysis in Thiolysis of 9-Anilinoacridine   Mohammad Niyaz Khan
After nearly five decades of active research and numerous publications on GA-GB catalysis, introduction of an experiment on GA for students majoring in enzymology/physical organic chemistry at advanced undergraduate/postgraduate level is appropriate. A kinetic experiment involving the reaction of 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) with 9-anilinoacridine (9-ANA) is designed to demonstrate intermolecular GA catalysis.
Khan, Mohammad Niyaz. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 632.
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Catalysis |
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics
Determination of the Equilibrium Constants of a Weak Acid: An Experiment for Analytical or Physical Chemistry   Russell A. Bonham
Allows students to explore the concepts of chemical equilibria, nonideal behavior of aqueous solutions, least squares with adjustment of nonlinear model parameters, and errors. The relationship between the pH of a solution of known initial concentration and volume of a weak acid as it is titrated by known volumes of a monohydroxy strong base is developed rigorously assuming ideal behavior.
Bonham, Russell A. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 631.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
S. M. Tanatar and His Contribution to the Field of Thermal Rearrangements  Ludmila Birladeanu
Thermal rearrangements constitute an important chapter in organic chemistry. Surprisingly, the name of its discoverer remains unknown. The present article is meant to remedy this situation by describing some of the work of the 19th century Russian chemist S. M. Tanatar (1849 - 1917) who, based on the thermochemical data provided by Berthelot, envisaged the possibility of transforming cyclopropane into propene under the influence of heat alone.
Birladeanu, Ludmila. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 603.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Synthesis |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes
Letters to the Editor  
The author points out that in a previous article, "Why Is Bismuth Subchloride Soluble in Acid," a key reaction which aids in the dissolving of bismuth subchloride is omitted.
J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 523.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility
An Analogy to Help Students Understand Reaction Orders  Charles J. Marzzacco
This article describes a simple analogy to help students understand the concept of the rate law for a chemical reaction. The analogy involves the mathematical relationships between various characteristics of a cube and the length of its edge.
Charles J. Marzzacco. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 482.
Learning Theories |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
A Mechanical Analogue for Chemical Potential  Samuel V. Glass and Roger L. DeKock
An analogy that relates the concepts of chemical potential, the extent of reaction, and Gibbs energy with spring force, the position of a block, and mechanical potential energy.
Glass, Samuel V.; DeKock, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 190.
Thermodynamics
Thermodynamic and Kinetic Controlled Enolates: A Project for a Problem-Oriented Laboratory Course  Augustine Silveira Jr., Michael A. Knopp, and Jhong Kim
A microscale preparation of thermodynamic and kinetic enolates is given as an undergraduate research laboratory. This experiment provides student involvement and discussion.
Silveira, Augustine, Jr.; Knopp, Michael A.; Kim, Jhong. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 78.
Equilibrium |
Microscale Lab |
Stereochemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics
Acid-Base Chemistry of the Aluminum Ion in Aqueous Solution  Edward Koubek
A demonstration of the amphoteric behavior of aluminum is given based on an older report that was given many years ago.
Koubek, Edward. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 60.
Coordination Compounds |
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Kinetics of p-Nitrophenol Degradation by Pseudomonas sp.: An Experiment Illustrating Bioremediation  Michelle H. Duong, Samuel L. Penrod, and Stanley B. Grant
This paper describes a simple experiment illustrating bioremediation which is well suited for undergraduate classes in environmental chemistry, microbiology, or engineering.
Duong, Michelle H.; Penrod, Samuel L.; Grant, Stanley B. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1451.
Biotechnology |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry
Acid Rain Demonstration: The Formation of Nitrogen Oxides as a By-Product of High-Temperature Flames in Connection with Internal Combustion Engines  Jerry A. Driscoll
This demonstration illustrates the formation of nitrogen oxides resulting from a high temperature flame.
Driscoll, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1424.
Equilibrium |
Learning Theories |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Complexometric Titrations: Competition of Complexing Agents in the Determination of Water Hardness with EDTA  M. Cecilia Yappert and Donald B. DuPre
The competition of complexing agents for the same metal ion and the formation of colored metal-ion complexes is demonstrated with the use of an overhead projector. This demonstration can be used to emphasize both the relevance of the relative values of formation constants in the complexation of metal cations and the applicability of complexometric titrations in quantitative chemical analysis.
Yappert, M. Cecilia; DuPre, Donald B. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1422.
Equilibrium |
Coordination Compounds |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Metals
Measurement of Evaporation Rates of Organic Liquids by Optical Interference  Scott A. Riley, Nathan R. Franklin, Bobbie Oudinarath, Sally Wong, David Congalton, and A. M. Nishimura*
Laser light reflects and refracts at the air-surface interface; the latter beam then reflects at the lower liquid glass interface. These two beams are focused onto a photodiode. The optical interference occurs as a result of the different distances traveled by the two beams and the intensity at the detector oscillates as the liquid evaporates. The frequency of oscillation is used to determine the rate of evaporation.
Riley, Scott A.; Franklin, Nathan R.; Oudinarath, Bobbie; Wong, Sally; Congalton, David; Nishimura, A. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1320.
Instrumental Methods |
Surface Science |
Thermodynamics |
Physical Properties |
Lasers
Disadvantages of Double Reciprocal Plots  R. Bruce Martin
Because they involve grossly uneven weightings of points, the linear and formally similar double reciprocal Benesi-Hildebrand and Lineweaver-Burke plots should never be used to resolve equilibrium and enzyme kinetic results.
Martin, R. Bruce. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1238.
Biophysical Chemistry |
Enzymes |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics
Metal Complexes of EDTA: An Exercise in Data Interpretation  Philip C. H. Mitchell
Stability constants of metal complexes of edta with main group and transition metals are correlated with properties of the elements and cations (ion charge, atomic and ionic radii, ionization energies and electronegativities) and interpreted with an ionic bonding model including a covalent contribution. It is shown how chemists recognize patterns in data with the help of a general theory and so develop a model.
Mitchell, Philip C. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1235.
Metals |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
The reply: Ionization Constants  S. Roo, L. Vermeire, and C. Gorller-Walrand
Error regarding the first ionization constant of carbonic acid.
Roo, S.; Vermeire, L.; Gorller-Walrand, C. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1160.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
Ionization Constants  Morris Bader
Error regarding the first ionization constant of carbonic acid.
Bader, Morris. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1160.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Why Don't Things Go Wrong More Often? Activation Energies: Maxwell's Angels, Obstacles to Murphy's Law  Frank L. Lambert
The micro-complexity of fracturing utilitarian or beautiful objects prevents assigning a characteristic activation energy even to chemically identical artifacts. Nevertheless, a qualitative EACT SOLID can be developed. Its surmounting is correlated with the radical drop in human valuation of an object when it is broken.
Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 947.
Kinetics |
Nonmajor Courses |
Thermodynamics
Determination of DeltaH for Reactions of the Born-Haber Cycle  Richard S. Treptow
Review of the many experimental methods used to determine ?H for the various steps of the cycle for the formation of sodium chloride. Two topics given special attention are the choice of standard state of the electron and the importance of distinguishing lattice enthalpy from lattice energy.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 919.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Thermodynamics
Ionization or Dissociation?  Emeric Schultz
The use of the terms Dissociation and Ionization in the teaching of chemistry is discussed. It is suggested that the term dissociation, and what it suggests in terms of ordinary language, is inappropriate when used in certain contexts. Since an alternate and more physically correct term, specifically ionization, is available for these contexts, it is argued that this term be used consistently in these contexts.
Schultz, Emeric. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 868.
Equilibrium |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
An Integrated-Circuit Temperature Sensor for Calorimetry and Differential Temperature Measurement  Mark Muyskens
Application of an integrated-circuit (IC) temperature sensor which is easy-to-use, inexpensive, rugged, easily computer-interfacable and has good precision is described. The design, based on the National Semiconductor LM35 IC chip, avoids some of the difficulties associated with conventional sensors (thermocouples, thermistors, and platinum resistance thermometers) and a previously described IC sensor.
Muyskens, Mark. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 850.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermal Analysis |
Thermodynamics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Conversion of an Alkyl Chloride to a Bromide (or Vice-Versa) by Homogeneous Nucleophile Exchange  Roger C. Hahn
Quaternary salt-catalyzed bromide-chloride exchange between alkyl chlorides and alkyl bromides is used to demonstrate effects of temperature, catalyst, concentration, and substrate structure on reaction rates and chemoselectivity. Microscale reactions are monitored by GC analysis.
Hahn, Roger C. . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 836.
Catalysis |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Microscale Lab |
Gas Chromatography |
Rate Law |
Kinetics
The Thermodynamics of Drunk Driving  Robert Q. Thompson
Biological, chemical, and instrumental variables are described along with their contributions to the overall uncertainty in the value of BrAC/BAC.
Thompson, Robert Q. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 532.
Thermodynamics |
Nonmajor Courses |
Forensic Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Applications of Chemistry
Illustrating Chemical Kinetic Principles with Ion Motions in Thin Membranes  Michael E. Starzak
Ions dissolved in thin membranes follow first order kinetics when they are moved between interfacial states by an applied electrical potential. The two state system is ideal to describe basic chemical kinetic concepts such as detailed balance at equilibrium and possible time dependence in the rate constants.
Starzak, Michael E. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 410.
Kinetics |
Membranes |
Equilibrium
Why is Bismuth Subchloride Soluble in Acid?  Damon Diemente
It is shown that the solubility of BiOCl can be explained as a consequence of the shifting of hydrolysis equilibriums upon the addition of acid. Two demonstrations suitable for classroom use are presented, with detailed discussion of each.
Diemente, Damon. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 398.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents
A Brief History of Thermodynamics Notation  Rubin Battino, Laurence E. Strong, Scott E. Wood
This paper gives a brief history of thermodynamic notation for the energy, E, enthalpy, H, entropy, S, Gibbs energy, G, Helmholtz energy, A, work, W, heat, Q, pressure, P, volume, V, and temperature, T. In particular, the paper answers the question, "Where did the symbol S for entropy come from?"
Battino, Rubin; Strong Laurence E.; Wood, Scott E. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 304.
Thermodynamics
Equilibrium with Fried Eggs of PbI2 and KPbI3  Adolf Cortel
Numerous experiments can be used to introduce the displacement of equilibrium. This simple experiment illustrates very effectively the equilibrium between two different solids in a dissolution, and it requires a minimum of equipment and preparation.
Cortel, Adolf. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 297.
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents
In Defense of Thermodynamics - An Animate Analogy  Sture Nordholm
In order to illustrate the deepest roots of thermodynamics and its great power and generality, it is applied by way of analogy to human behavior from an economic point of view.
Nordholm, Sture. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 273.
Thermodynamics
A Simple Determination of the NO2 Dimerization Equilibrium Constant  Qingjiang Yu and Hongxia Gao
Based on the chemical equilibrium equation 2NO(g) + O2(g) <--> 2NO2(g) <--> N2O4(g) this paper deals with the possible gases existing in the reaction system and the change of the total volume of gases after the mixture of two volumes of NO and one volume of O2 in a closed container under normal pressure (1 atm) with the changes in temperature.
Yu, Qingjiang; Gao, Hongxia. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 233.
Equilibrium |
Gases
Virtual Titrator: A Student-Oriented Instrument  David Ritter and Michael Johnson
A virtual autotitrator based on an Orion pH meter, a 386 CPU computer, and a homemade stepper-motor driven syringe, and a stopped-flow spectrometer interfaced to a 386 CPU computer which uses a virtual oscilloscope program written in Visual Basic to collect and display the data.
Ritter, David; Johnson, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 120.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
pH |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
The Acid Catalyzed Dehydration of an Isomeric 2-Methylcyclohexanol Mixture: A Kinetic and Regiochemical Study of the Evelyn Effect  John J. Cawley and Patrick E. Linder
This paper details an experiment which serves as an introduction to organic laboratory research. The reaction is the dehydration of a cis, trans mixture of 2-methylcyclohexanols. At intervals of times the reactant mixture is sampled for the cis and trans reactants. At those same intervals of times the receiver flasks of product cyclohexanes being collected are changed, such that sequential fractions of material are obtained.
Cawley, John J.; Linder, Patrick E. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 102.
Catalysis |
Kinetics |
Alcohols |
Stereochemistry
Data Acquisition in the Chemistry Laboratory Using LabVIEW Software  Mark A. Muyskens, Samuel V. Glass, Thomas W. Wietsma, Terry M. Gray
Our application of LabVIEW software for computer data-acquisition using several techniques used across our curriculum is described. The techniques are gas chromatography, calorimetry, titrations and other volume-dependent techniques, spectrometry for kinetics using a Spectronic 20(R), and emission spectroscopy.
Muyskens, Mark A.; Glass, Samuel V.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Gray, Terry M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1112.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Gas Chromatography |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Spectroscopy |
Kinetics
A Simple Method for Determining the Temperature Coefficient of Voltaic Cell Voltage  Alfred E. Saieed, Keith M. Davies
This article describes a relatively simple method for preparing voltaic cells, and through their temperature coefficient, ?E/?T, it explores relationships between ?G, ?H,and ?S for the cell reactions involved.
Saieed, Alfred E.; Davies, Keith M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 959.
Electrochemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Oxidation / Reduction
Thermoelectric Devices: Solid-State Refrigerators and Electrical Generators in the Classroom  Edmund J. Winder, Arthur B. Ellis, George C. Lisensky
Thermoelectric devices provide an engaging high-tech demonstration suitable for illustrating thermodynamic principles in the classroom.
Winder, Edmund J.; Ellis, Arthur B.; Lisensky, George C. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 940.
Thermodynamics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Semiconductors |
Electrochemistry |
Conductivity |
Solid State Chemistry
Iodine Clock Reaction  Richard S. Mitchell
The study of kinetics using the iodine clock reaction has provided an interesting experience for students for many years.
Mitchell, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 783.
Kinetics |
Laboratory Management
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Some Surprising Aspects of the Equilibrium between Hemoglobin, Carbon Monoxide, and Oxygen  N. M. Senozan and J. A. Devore
Carbon monoxide poisoning and some aspects of the equilibrium between carbon monoxide, oxygen, and hemoglobin are discussed within the framework of Haldane's laws.
Senozan, N. M.; Devore, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 767.
Equilibrium
The Well-Read Biochemist  Gale Rhodes
This article describes how I use a collection of poems, essays, and fiction to inspire my biochemistry students to make connections between the arcane world of cellular chemistry and the wider world of literature and the humanities.
Rhodes, Gale. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 732.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Metabolism |
Proteins / Peptides |
Membranes
Chemical Kinetics in Real Time: Using the Differential Rate Law and Discovering the Reaction Orders  B. R. Ramachandran and Arthur M. Halpern
In this paper we describe the kinetic analysis, in real time, of the spectrometrically-acquired rate data based on the differential rate law, where no assumptions in initial reactant concentrations are necessary, except for their values.
B. R. Ramachandran and Arthur M. Halpern. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 686.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Spectroscopy
Approximating the Electrostatic Contribution to the Entropy Change of Aqueous Phase Lanthanide-Aminocarboxylate Complexation  Thomas J. Manning
A model is presented to approximate the electrostatic contribution to the entropy change of the reaction for aqueous lanthanide-aminocarboxylate complexes. The procedure is outlined using La(3+)-EDTA complexation to predict the entropy change per carboxylate, the entropy change per amine, and the total entropy change.
Thomas J. Manning. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 661.
Thermodynamics |
Solutions / Solvents |
Reactions |
Coordination Compounds
Visible ion exchange demonstration for large or small lecture halls  Driscoll, Jerry A.
This demonstration is a colorful illustration of how an ion exchange column works.
Driscoll, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 640.
Equilibrium |
Conductivity |
Ion Exchange |
Separation Science
Determination of Free-Energy Relationships Using Gas Chromatography  Nicholas H. Snow
By performing a few straightforward analyses on a gas chromatograph, it is possible to calculate the free energy, enthalpy, and entropy changes that occur when a compound transfers between the mobile and stationary phases.
Snow, Nicholas H. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 592.
Gas Chromatography |
Thermodynamics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Qualitative Analysis
An Easily Demonstrated Zero-Order Reaction in Solution  Kathryn Hindmarsh and Donald A. House
Here we describe a reaction exhibiting all the characteristics of a typical zero-order reaction.
Hindmarsh, Kathryn; House, Donald A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 585.
Kinetics |
Spectroscopy |
Rate Law
The Nitrogen-Laser Excited Luminescence of Pyrene: A Student Laboratory Study of Excimer Dynamics  John S. Muenter and John L. Deutsch
The resulting luminescence is studied as a function of wavelength, time, and pyrene concentration to observe the dynamics of both the excited pyrene monomer and the pyrene excimer.
Muenter, John S.; Deutsch, John L. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 580.
Aromatic Compounds |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Lasers
The Esterification of Trifluoroacetic Acid: A Variable Temperature NMR Kinetics Study  Thomas N. Gallaher, David A. Gaul, and Serge Schreiner
This paper describes an addition to a previously published experiment in which NMR is used to follow the kinetics of the reaction of trifluoroacetic acid with alcohols. A variable temperature accessory is used to determine the energy of activation and reaction order with respect to the alcohol concentration.
Gallaher, Thomas N.; Gaul, David A.; Schreiner, Serge. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 465.
Kinetics |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Esters
Reduction of Viologen Bisphosphonate Dihalide with Aluminum Foil  Peter Abeta Iyere
An elegant undergraduate experiment similar to the popular "Iodine Clock Reaction" employs the reduction of methyl viologen by hydroxide ion. This demonstration can be used as prelaboratory discussion for an undergraduate kinetic experiment based on the same phenomenon.
Iyere, Peter Abeta. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 455.
Kinetics |
Equilibrium
Introduction to the Paper Symposium  D. K. Carpenter
As part of their education, students in physical chemistry have been taught the importance and the usefulness of the Gibbs function. It comes as a surprise to occasionally discover that even those who teach this venerable subject sometimes disagree, not merely in matters of style or organization of the subject, or in matters of mathematical elegance, but in matters of real substance. The following four papers are examples of this.
Carpenter, D. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 384.
Thermodynamics
Bacterial Toxicity Assessment Using Resazurin Reduction Kinetics: An Undergraduate Toxicity Experiment for the Chemistry-Biology Major  S. Helliwell and T. J. Harden
An undergraduate toxicity experiment is described using the redox indicator resazurin as an indicator of dehydrogenase activity. Two types of bacteria are utilized, the Gram positive Streptococcus cremoris and a Gram negative bacterium, Escherichia coli, to demonstrate the potentially different toxicological responses to the same chemical.
Helliwell, S.; Harden, T. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 368.
Toxicology |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Kinetics
Synthesis and Kinetics of Hydrolysis of 3,5-Dimethyl-N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone Imine: An Undergraduate Laboratory  Jeanne M. Buccigross, Christa Metz, Lori Elliot, Pamela Becker, Angela S. Earley, Jerry W. Hayes, Michael Novak, and Gayl A. Underwood
The synthesis of the title compound by a three-step procedure is described. The hydrolysis kinetics, which involve two consecutive psuedo-first-order processes, are also described.
Buccigross, Jeanne M.; Metz, Christa; Elliot, Lori; Becker, Pamela; Earley, Angela S.; Hayes, Jerry W.; Novak, Michael; Underwood, Gayl A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 364.
Synthesis |
Kinetics |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Curve Fitting: An Alternative Approach to Analyzing Kinetic Data in Introductory Chemistry  Coleman, William F.
183. The availability of high quality software for performing nonlinear curve fitting on microcomputers allows students to take an alternative approach to data analysis, one that concentrates on functional forms that may be more natural than some of the algebraic machinations necessary to render relationships into linear forms. An example of the application of such an approach to the analysis of kinetic data is presented in this paper.
Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 243.
Chemometrics |
Kinetics
Fundamental Issues of Thermodynamics Illuminated by Conspicuous Inorganic Chemistry: Oxidation of [Co(H2O)6]2+ to [Co(H2O)6]3+ by Hydrogen Peroxide: A Nonspontaneous Redox Reaction Made Feasible by Thermodynamic Coupling  Susan Cline Schäffer and Claus E. Schäffer
The thermodynamic properties of hydrogen peroxide as an oxidizing agent do not allow it to oxidize [Co(OH2)6]2+ to [Co(OH2)6]3+. However, if [Co(OH2)6]3+ is formed in two steps, hydrogen peroxide is able to do it.
Schäffer, Susan Cline; Schäffer, Claus E. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 180.
Thermodynamics |
Oxidation / Reduction
Using Quality Circles in General Chemistry  Kogut, Leonard S.
A second semester class in General Chemistry used a student Quality Circle to suggest methods to improve instruction in chemical equilibrium in solution.
Kogut, Leonard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 146.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents
Correct Regression Formula Used in determination of Vaporization Enthalpy of Pure Liquids by UV-Visible Spectroscopy  Sheng Dai
A recent paper by G. Marin-Puga, M. Guzman L., and F. Hevia [J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 91] attracted my attention. A wrong regression formula was used in the paper to determine the vaporization enthalpy. The expression for the proportionality constant that relates the absorbance of the vapor with the vapor pressure was also wrongly derived.
Dai, Sheng. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 122.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Computational Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Liquids
Gas-Phase NMR Study of the DCl-HBr Isotope Exchange Reaction  Joseph W. Nibler, Philip Minarik, William Fitts, and Rodger Kohnert
A physical chemistry laboratory experiment is described in which proton and deuteron FT-NMR spectra are used to determine the equilibrium constant for the isotope exchange reaction (DCl + HBr <==> DBr + HCl).
Nibler, Joseph W.; Minarik, Philip; Fitts, William; Kohnert, Rodger. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 99.
Thermodynamics |
Isotopes |
NMR Spectroscopy
Free Energy versus Extent of Reaction: Understanding the Difference between Delta G and the Partial Derivative of G with Respect to Xi  Richard S. Treptow
Graphs show how free energy changes with extent of reaction enables us to visualize a chemical reaction seeking its equilibrium position.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 51.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
Chemical Thermodynamics: Basic Theory and Methods, Fifth Edition (Klotz, Irving M.; Rosenberg, Robert M.)  Jones, Francis T.
Physical chemistry text on classical thermodynamics; extends this analysis into biology.
Jones, Francis T. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A251.
Thermodynamics
Monitoring Oxidation of Bromocresol Green with a Diode Laser: A General Chemistry IBM Personal Science Laboratory (PSL) Experiment  Zimmer, John; Reeves, James; Jones, Rebecca; Cizerle, Kirk; Ward, Dick
Procedure for monitoring the oxidation of bromocresol green using a diode laser and a radiometric probe; includes data and analysis.
Zimmer, John; Reeves, James; Jones, Rebecca; Cizerle, Kirk; Ward, Dick J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A118.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Spectroscopy |
Kinetics |
Lasers
Thermodynamics for Teachers: Basic Concepts Explained (MacDonald, J. J.)  Duffey, George H.
Conceptual presentation of thermodynamics.
Duffey, George H. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A72.
Thermodynamics |
Professional Development
Photosynthesis: Why Does It Occur?  J. J. MacDonald
Explanation of why photosynthesis occurs; stating that it is merely the reverse of respiration is misleading.
MacDonald, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1113.
Plant Chemistry |
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Photochemistry |
Electrochemistry
Simplifying Difficult Mathematical Concepts in Chemistry Courses  Russell W. Maatman
Two syllabi, "Origin of the Spatial Quantum Numbers n, l, and ml" and "Introduction to the Rate Laws of Chemical Reactions", that specifically and completely outline the mathematical development of these concepts.
Maatman, Russell W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1089.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Chemometrics |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Energy and the Environment: Physical Chemistry for Environmental Science Majors  Leonard J. Soltzberg
A course that covers the major topics of applied thermodynamics and uses computer modeling software to allow students to learn the concepts of differential and integral calculus without spending the time to master the mechanics of integration and differentiation using STELLA II software.
Soltzberg, Leonard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 979.
Thermodynamics |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Chemometrics
Mechanism of Electrode Reactions and the Stoichiometric Number  P. Radhakrishnamurty and R. Arun Mozhi Selvan
Calculating the rate determining step for a multielectron transfer reaction.
Radhakrishnamurty, P.; Selvan, R. Arun Mozhi. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 895.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Rate Law |
Electrochemistry
A Method to Find the Rate Constants in Chemical Kinetics of a Complex Reaction  Sydney Bluestone and Kin Y. Yan
Method for extracting rate constants for a complex reaction from analytical and simulated data.
Bluestone, Sydney; Yan, Kin Y. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 884.
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Chemometrics
Make-up Exams: What's a Professor to Do?  Stephen W. Carper
Sample questions on chemical potential.
Carper, Stephen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 882.
Thermodynamics
Components in Chemical Thermodynamics  Robert A. Alberty
Applying matrix equations/analysis to chemical equations/thermodynamics.
Alberty, Robert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 820.
Thermodynamics |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
NO2 Dimerization  Brooks, David W.
Teachers need to focus student attention on the first few seconds of an NO2 dimerization system after it is disturbed and while a new equilibrium is becoming restored.
Brooks, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 764.
Equilibrium
Two Paired "Le Chatelier" Reactions  John J. Cawley
Procedure involving acid-catalyzed esterfication and base-catalyzed hydrolysis to illustrate the ideas of equilibrium, percent yield, and Le Chtelier's principle; both reactions result in percentage yields greater than the equilibrium constant would suggest.
Cawley, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 657.
Catalysis |
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases
Breaking Bonds versus Chopping Heads: The Enzyme as Butcher  Todd P. Silverstein
Analogy to help biochemistry students understand concepts of Michaelis-Menten kinetics; active site/binding site; activation energy; substrate saturation; cooperativity; allosteric effects; and inhibitors.
Silverstein, Todd P. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 645.
Catalysis |
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Proteins / Peptides |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions |
Rate Law
Promoting Higher-Order Thinking Skills: Uses of Mathcad and Classical Chemical Kinetics to Foster Student Development  Theresa Julia Zielinski
How Mathcad software can be used to develop higher-order chemical thinking skills in physical chemistry courses.
Zielinski, Theresa Julia. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 631.
Kinetics |
Chemometrics |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
Computer-Generated Ternary Phase Diagrams   Leon L. Combs and Gregory W. Lynn
175. Bits and pieces, 54. Application of software (Monte Carlo) to obtain statistical thermodynamic properties of particles viewed as local harmonic oscillators.
Combs, Leon L.; Lynn, Gregory W. . J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 606.
Thermodynamics |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
Fugacity and Activity in a Nutshell   John D. Ramshaw
A simple general treatment of the topics of fugacity and activity.
Ramshaw, John D. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 601.
Thermodynamics
Chemical Thermodynamics on Mars   Jodye I. Selco
A seven-question take-home exam to answer the question "How sensitive a probe do you need in order to detect signs of life on Mars?", involving adjusting the values of thermodynamic state functions for changes in temperature and pressure in physical chemistry.
Selco, Jodye I. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 599.
Thermodynamics
Some Comments on Hyperbolas in Chemistry   R. A. Day, Jr. and A. L. Underwood
Illustrates examples (Michaelis-Menten kinetics and "linear" titration curves) in which the relationship between a chemical model and the corresponding mathematical function (hyperbolas) is explicitly stated.
Day, R. A., Jr.; Underwood, A. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 596.
Kinetics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics
Bond Energies and Enthalpies: An Often Neglected Difference  Treptow, Richard S.
Questions whether the enthalpy change under standard conditions is the correct property to associate with the strength of a bond.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 497.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
The Effect of Diffusion Due to a Temperature Gradient on the Measurement of the N2O4-NO2 Equilibrium Constant  Wilczek-Vera, Grazyna
Discussion and correction of potential source of error in the determination of the dissociation constants of nitrogen tetroxide as a result of diffusion caused by a temperature gradient in the experimental system; includes sample data and analysis.
Wilczek-Vera, Grazyna J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 472.
Transport Properties |
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment for the Direct Measurement of Monolayer-Formation Kinetics  Karpovich, D. S.; Blanchard, G. J.
Procedure that introduces the chemistry of modified surfaces to undergraduates; includes sample data and analysis.
Karpovich, D. S.; Blanchard, G. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 466.
Kinetics |
Surface Science
Bromination of Disubstituted Arenes: Kinetics and Mechanism: GC/MS Experiments for the Instrumental Analysis and Organic Chemistry Labs  Annis, D. Allen; Collard, David M.; Bottomley, Lawrence A.
Experimental procedure using gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy to trace the progression of a reaction over time and determine the several possible steps of its mechanism; sample data and analysis included.
Annis, D. Allen; Collard, David M.; Bottomley, Lawrence A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 460.
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics |
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Aromatic Compounds
Mass Transfer and Car Driving  Mukesh, D.
Explaining the concept of mass transfer using an analogy of driving a car.
Mukesh, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 436.
Kinetics |
Industrial Chemistry
Some Views in the Internal Energy and Enthalpy of Gases  Yi, Liang; Sheng-Lu, Kuang; Song-Sheng, Qu
Analysis of the internal energy and enthalpy of gases.
Yi, Liang; Sheng-Lu, Kuang; Song-Sheng, Qu J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 408.
Gases |
Thermodynamics
Isoelectronic Series: The Stability of Their Members  Sima, Jozef
Explanation for the existence and stability of isoelectronic series members.
Sima, Jozef J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 310.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Thermodynamics |
Quantum Chemistry
A Novel Method for Examination of Vapor-Liquid Equilibria  Knewstubb, P. F.
Method and apparatus for obtaining reasonably accurate vapor-liquid equilibrium data; sample data and analysis included.
Knewstubb, P. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 261.
Rate Law |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Liquids
Thermal Dehydration of Crystalline Hydrates: Microscopic Studies and Introductory Experiments to the Kinetics of Solid-State Reactions  Tanaka, Haruhiko; Koga, Nobuyoshi; Galwey, Andrew K.
Description of solid-state reactions, particularly decompositions/dehydration, and sample studies of dehydration of several hydrates through the microscope; includes pictures and experimental procedure.
Tanaka, Haruhiko; Koga, Nobuyoshi; Galwey, Andrew K. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 251.
Kinetics |
Solids |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solid State Chemistry
REACT: Exploring Practical Thermodynamic and Equilibrium Calculations  Ramette, Richard W.
Description of REACT software to balance complicated equations; determine thermodynamic data for all reactants and products; calculate changes in free energy, enthalpy, and entropy for a reaction; and find equilibrium conditions for the a reaction.
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 240.
Stoichiometry |
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics |
Chemometrics
An Exceptional Theoretical Process with Internal Entropy Coupling  Belandria, Jose I.
Theoretical consideration of system in which internal entropy is created and destroyed during operation.
Belandria, Jose I. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 116.
Thermodynamics |
Theoretical Chemistry
Hydrogen-Bonding Equilibrium in Phenol Analyzed by NMR Spectroscopy  Lessinger, Leslie
Experimental procedure for determining the equilibrium constant for the hydrogen-bonding equilibrium of phenol in carbon tetrachloride solution; data and analysis included.
Lessinger, Leslie J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 85.
Equilibrium |
Noncovalent Interactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alcohols
Calculating Equilibrium Concentrations by Iteration: Recycle Your Approximations  Weltin, E.
Using graphing calculators, spreadsheets, and iteration analysis to approximate equilibrium concentrations and judge their accuracy; includes data and analysis.
Weltin, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 36.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Chemometrics
Temperature Control for a Small-Scale Kinetics Experiment  Flash, Patrick
A microscale version of the iodine clock kinetics experiment with iodine and peroxydisulfate under temperature- controlled conditions that also permits calculating the activation energy.
Flash, Patrick J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A66.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Microscale Lab
Probing Student Misconceptions in Thermodynamics with In-Class Writing  Beall, Herbert
Examples of the use of in-class writing assignments in the teaching of thermodynamics in general chemistry are presented.
Beall, Herbert J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1056.
Thermodynamics
The Physical Chemistry Sequence at Liberal Arts Colleges: The Lake Forest College Approach  Shields, George C.
In this paper the author describes efforts at Lake Forest College to revamp the physical chemistry course.
Shields, George C. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 951.
Quantum Chemistry |
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics |
Spectroscopy
Chemical Equilibrium in the General Chemistry Course  Fainzilberg, Vladimir E.; Karp, Stewart
The first chapters on chemical equilibrium in first-year college chemistry texts make an "error" in the solution of certain types of equilibria problems.
Fainzilberg, Vladimir E.; Karp, Stewart J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 769.
Equilibrium |
Kinetics
Teaching the Truth about pH  Hawkes, Stephen J.
-log[H+] is only an approximation to pH; how to teach pH to avoid misleading students.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 747.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium
Fruit Anthocyanins: Colorful Sensors of Molecular Milieu  Curtright, Robert D.; Rynearson, James A .; Markwell, John
Provides background and references as a starting point for the further exploration of anthocyanins.
Curtright, Robert D.; Rynearson, James A .; Markwell, John J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 682.
Dyes / Pigments |
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
pH
Simulations and Interactive Resources  Martin, John S.
12 Simulations and Interactive Resources (SIRs) including Periodic Table Displays, Electron Orbits and Orbitals, Electron Configurations, Barometers and Manometers, Vapor Pressure, Ideal Gas Behavior, Heat Capacity and Heat of Reaction, Approach to Equilibrium, The Law of Chemical Equilibrium, Titration Curves, Electrochemical Cells, and Rate of Reaction.
Martin, John S. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 667.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Gases |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Rate Law
Photometric Determination of the Rate Expression for MnO4- Mediated Organic Oxidations  Crouch, R. David
Photometric procedure for studying the kinetics of the MnO4- mediated oxidation of mandelic acid in KOH.
Crouch, R. David J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 597.
Rate Law |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Photochemistry |
Kinetics
A Unified Equation for Chemical Kinetics  Tan, Xinyi; Lindenbaum, Siegfried; Meltzer, Noel
An equation from which equations for zero-, first-, and higher order reactions can be readily derived that is also amenable to more complex situations not covered by simple rate law expressions.
Tan, Xinyi; Lindenbaum, Siegfried; Meltzer, Noel J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 566.
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Understanding Entropy Using Fundamental Stability Conditions  Sanchez, Karen S.; Vergenz, Robert A.
Introducing the second law of thermodynamics in a way that provides chemical intuition about the thermal meaning of entropy and is rigorously based on mathematical logic.
Sanchez, Karen S.; Vergenz, Robert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 562.
Thermodynamics
Spreadsheet Tools for Solving One-Equation Chemical Equilibrium Problems  Joshi, Bhairav D.
163. Using Lotus spreadsheets to deal with the computational aspects of homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibrium problems.
Joshi, Bhairav D. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 551.
Chemometrics |
Equilibrium
Rubber Elasticity: A Simple Method for Measurement of Thermodynamic Properties  Byrne, John P.
A modified triple-beam balance that uses an optical lever to detect small changes in the length of a stretched rubber band.
Byrne, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 531.
Thermodynamics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties
On the Use of Least Squares To Fit Data in Linear Form  Chong, Delano P.
Analysis of Michaelis-Menten kinetics as an example of using least squares to fit data in a linear form.
Chong, Delano P. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 489.
Chemometrics |
Enzymes |
Kinetics
Equilibrium Vapor Pressures: Comparing Pressures Obtained Using a Classical Method with Those from a Laboratory-Computer Interface  Berka, L. H.; Kildahl, N. K.; Bergin, S. J.; Burns, D. S.
Comparing vapor pressures of nitrogen using a glass syringe with those from a Chempac laboratory / computer interfacing system.
Berka, L. H.; Kildahl, N. K.; Bergin, S. J.; Burns, D. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 441.
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
A Kinetic Experiment To Determine Traces of Iron(lll) and Iron(ll): Using the "Pyrrole Blue" Reaction  Lampard, M.
The semi-quantitative determination of traces of iron(II) and iron(III) over a practical range of 1-10 micrograms.
Lampard, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 352.
Kinetics |
Qualitative Analysis |
Dyes / Pigments
An Experiment in trans-cis Isomerization: Synthesis and Kinetics of trans-Dichlorotetraamminecobalt(III) Chloride  Borer, Londa L.; Erdman, Howard W.
Synthesis and kinetics investigation of trans-dichlorotetraamminecobalt(III) chloride.
Borer, Londa L.; Erdman, Howard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 332.
Diastereomers |
Synthesis |
Kinetics |
Coordination Compounds |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Conductivity
An Oscillating Reaction as a Demonstration of Principles Applied in Chemistry and Chemical Engineering  Weimer, Jeffrey J.
Platinum catalyzed decomposition of methanol.
Weimer, Jeffrey J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 325.
Thermodynamics |
Catalysis |
Transport Properties |
Kinetics |
Reactions
A Perfect (Gas) Analogy for Kinetic versus Thermodynamic Control  Macomber, Roger S.
Physical analogy for giving students a better feel for the relationship between kinetic and thermodynamic control of a reaction.
Macomber, Roger S. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 311.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics
Erroneous Explanations for the Limited Water Solubility of Organic Liquids  Alger, Donald B.
Explaining water solubility of organic liquids in terms of entropy.
Alger, Donald B. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 281.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Thermodynamics
Galvanic Corrosion-A Kinetic Study  Randle, T. H.
A comprehensive investigation of the kinetics of galvanic corrosion and factors influencing the rate of such reactions.
Randle, T. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 261.
Kinetics |
Metals |
Electrochemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Using the Biological Cell in Teaching Electrochemistry  Merkel, Eva Gankiewicz
How electricity is produced in a simple cell is correlated with how commercial batteries work; this concept can then be related to how living cells send electrical impulses.
Merkel, Eva Gankiewicz J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 240.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Equilibrium
KineticsLab: The Crystal Violet/Sodium Hydroxide Reaction  Cannon, John F.; Gammon, Steven D.; Hunsberger, Lynn R.
A computer-assisted experiment to collect and analyze data for a kinetic study of the decolorization of crystal violet in basic solution.
Cannon, John F.; Gammon, Steven D.; Hunsberger, Lynn R. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 238.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Reactions
A Visual Method of Teaching Mass Balance Relationships to Undergraduate Quantitative Analysis Students  Poston, Pete E.
Method for solving complex equilibria problems.
Poston, Pete E. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 146.
Quantitative Analysis |
Chemometrics |
Equilibrium
The Uncertainty of pH  Schmitz, Guy
Analysis of why measured pH values are always a little lower than the ones calculated.
Schmitz, Guy J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 117.
pH |
Chemometrics |
Kinetics
Will a precipitate form? Will it dissolve?: The Role of Lecture Demonstrations in Facilitating the Introduction to Solubility Product Equilibria  Pacer, Richard A.; Williams, Kathryn
Three demonstrations to illustrate solubility product equilibria.
Pacer, Richard A.; Williams, Kathryn J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 69.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium
Cryophori, Hot Molecules, and Frozen Nitrogen  Hunter, Paul W. W.; Knoespel, Sheldon L.
Freezing water and nitrogen at low atmospheric pressure.
Hunter, Paul W. W.; Knoespel, Sheldon L. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 67.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A Microcomputer Simulation of the Liesgang Phenomena  Talanquar, Vicente
157. A simple computer simulation for Liesegang rings formation whose results are qualitatively similar to those obtained experimentally.
Talanquar, Vicente J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 58.
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility
A kinetic study of the isomerization of eugenol: The quantitative use of NMR, GC, and HPLC in a single organic laboratory experiment that demonstrates alternative approaches to solving a problem   Peterson, Thomas H.; Bryan, James H.; Keevil, Thomas A.
Description of an experiment that allows students to be aware that there is often more than one approach to designing an experiment,and that the quality of the experimental results often depend on the proper choice of instrument(s).
Peterson, Thomas H.; Bryan, James H.; Keevil, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A96.
Aromatic Compounds |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Kinetics
Using Infrared Spectroscopy Measurements To Study Intermolecular Hydrogen Bonding: Calculating the Degree of Association, Equilibrium Constant, and Bond Energy for Hydrogen Bonding in Benzyl Alcohol and Phenol  Frohlich, H.
This paper presents simple IR spectroscopy experiments that the author has used for two years in a third-year course, which covers spectroscopy and binding.
Frohlich, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A3.
Hydrogen Bonding |
IR Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds |
Equilibrium |
Covalent Bonding
Determining Hammett sigma and rho values: Improvements on a published student experiment  Hathaway, Bruce A.; Olesen, Bjorn
Modifications and improvements to laboratory experiments written for an organic chemistry lab text.
Hathaway, Bruce A.; Olesen, Bjorn J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 953.
Esters |
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics |
Synthesis
Photodegradation of methylene blue: Using solar light and semiconductor (TiO2)  Nogueira, Raquel F. P.; Jardim, Wilson F.
An experiment that can be used to introduce or explore concepts such as photochemistry, semiconductors, and kinetics.
Nogueira, Raquel F. P.; Jardim, Wilson F. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 861.
Semiconductors |
Photochemistry |
Kinetics |
Catalysis |
MO Theory
A suggested modification of the nitrito-nitro isomerization kinetic experiment   Goren, Smadar; Zayat, Marcos; Heitner-Wirguin, Carla
Some suggestions to enhance an experiment that appeared in the past in this Journal (September 1981, page 734).
Goren, Smadar; Zayat, Marcos; Heitner-Wirguin, Carla J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 606.
Catalysis |
Kinetics
Polymer spherulites: II. Crystallization kinetics  Marentette, J. M.; Brown, G. R.
A commonplace polarized light microscope equipped with a hot stage permits examination of crystallization kinetics in addition to morphology and birefringence.
Marentette, J. M.; Brown, G. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 539.
Kinetics |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Polymerization
Using the electrician's multimeter in the chemistry teaching laboratory: Part 1. Colorimetry and thermometry experiments  Andres, Roberto T.; Sevilla, Fortunato, III
The multimeter could be a very useful instrument for the chemistry laboratory bench. In this paper, the versatility of the multimeter in the chemistry teaching laboratory is demonstrated.
Andres, Roberto T.; Sevilla, Fortunato, III J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 514.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Equilibrium |
Stoichiometry |
Kinetics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Kinetics of the reaction of p-nitrobenzyl chloride with cyanide ion: An undergraduate organic chemistry experiment  Hurst, Michael O.; Hill, John W.
The title reaction is used to develop an undergraduate organic kinetics experiment in which the student determines the order and rate constant of the reaction, as well as the effect of solvent upon the rate of the reaction.
Hurst, Michael O.; Hill, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 429.
Reactions |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alcohols |
Solutions / Solvents |
Organosulfur Compounds
A family of hydrogen bonds in the model system salicylic acid-toluene-water: A biophysical experiment modeled on the distribution of the monomeric acid between two phases and on its dimerization in the organic phase  Worley, John D.
Hydrogen bonding is often studied using model systems: the system salicylic acid-tolune-water offers an interesting example for study by students in a physical or biophysical chemistry lab.
Worley, John D. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 417.
Hydrogen Bonding |
Proteins / Peptides |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Equilibrium
Experimental Demonstration of the Principles of Thermal Energy Storage and Chemical Heat Pumps: Experiments for General, Inorganic, or Physical Chemistry and Materials Science  Casarin, Carlos; Ibanez, Jorge G.
The basic principles of a thermal energy storage system and a chemical heat pump are experimentally demonstrated and discussed using the reaction between CaCl2 and CH3OH as a model.
Casarin, Carlos; Ibanez, Jorge G. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 158.
Applications of Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Green Chemistry
Demonstration of the Common Ion Effect  Koubek, E.
KCl and HCl are used in this demonstration to describe the common ion effect and to show the difference between values Q and K.
Koubek, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 155.
Solutions / Solvents |
Equilibrium
The CoCl2 Thermosiphon   Brown, Justina L.; Battino, Rubin
A novel way to present the temperature dependence of the equilibrium shift using cobalt complexes.
Brown, Justina L.; Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 153.
Equilibrium |
Coordination Compounds
On the Formation of Peptide Bonds  Stojanoski, Kiro; Zdravkovski, Zoran
In an attempt to simplify the concept of peptide bond formation, many textbooks misrepresent the energy requirement that is necessary for peptide bonds to form.
Stojanoski, Kiro; Zdravkovski, Zoran J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 134.
Amino Acids |
Biosynthesis |
Equilibrium |
Bioenergetics
Monitoring self-association of a hydrophobic peptide with high performance liquid chromatography: An undergraduate kinetic experiment using the antibiotic gramicidin A  Braco, Lorenzo; Ba, M. Carmen; Abad, Concepcin
The authors propose a kinetic experiment that uses high performance liquid chromatography to determine the rate and equilibrium constants in a very simple manner, and separate the molecular species under study.
Braco, Lorenzo; Ba, M. Carmen; Abad, Concepcin J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A113.
HPLC |
Kinetics |
Proteins / Peptides |
Rate Law |
Equilibrium
Intensive and extensive: Underused concepts  Canagaratna, Sebastian G.
Methods for teaching intensive and extensive properties.
Canagaratna, Sebastian G. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 957.
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics
Determining the thermal expansion coefficient of gases  Lehmann, Jochen K.
The authors improved the design of the apparatus and extended the experimental task on a recently published experiment for determining the zero point of the absolute temperature scale.
Lehmann, Jochen K. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 943.
Thermodynamics |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Synthesis of a heteropolytungstate and its use in outer-sphere redox kinetics  Walmsley, Frank
An inorganic chemistry experiment has been developed combining two topics usually included in inorganic chemistry: heteropoly ions and mechanisms of oxidation-reduction reactions of transition metal ions.
Walmsley, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 936.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Kinetics |
Synthesis |
Coordination Compounds
Kinetic study of the reaction between ethanol and chloroacetyl chloride in chloroform: A laboratory experiment using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy  Garcia, M. V.; Tiemblo, P.
Using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to study the reaction between ethanol and chloroacetyl chloride in chloroform.
Garcia, M. V.; Tiemblo, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 841.
Kinetics |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
IR Spectroscopy |
Reactions
A biochemistry project to study mushroom tyrosinase: Enzyme localization, isoenzymes, and detergent activation  Rodriquez, Marta Olga; Flurkey, William H.
Investigating mushroom tyrosinase isoenzymes in different tissue sections of commercial mushrooms.
Rodriquez, Marta Olga; Flurkey, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 767.
Enzymes |
Electrophoresis |
Kinetics
Putting some snap into work.  Mitschele, Jonathan.
Suggestions for improving the instructional value of the demonstration presented.
Mitschele, Jonathan. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 687.
Thermodynamics
Chelate ring size and metal ion selection: The basis of selectivity for metal ions in open-chain ligands and macrocycles.  Hancock, Robert D.
The thermodynamic chelate effect for an n-dentate chelating ligand.
Hancock, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 615.
Coordination Compounds |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Thermodynamics
Replacing carbon tet: Other alternatives.  Ackermann, Martin N.
Using a mixture of hexanes in the traditional experiment to determine the equilibrium constant for the formation of I3-.
Ackermann, Martin N. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 602.
Equilibrium |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Toxicology
The synthesis of E-beta-bromostyrene: An experiment illustrating the use of IR bending modes to distinguish E and Z isomers and the concept of kinetic and thermodynamic controlled reactions.  Strom, Laura A.; Anderson, James R.; Gandler, Joseph R.
An experiment illustrating the concept of thermodynamic and kinetically controlled reactions to produce E and Z isomers (respectively); the use of IR to distinguish E and Z isomers; and the different properties of E and Z isomers (only the E isomer has a pleasant odor).
Strom, Laura A.; Anderson, James R.; Gandler, Joseph R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 588.
Synthesis |
IR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics |
Alkenes |
Diastereomers |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Three methods for studying the kinetics of the halogenation of acetone.  Birk, James P.; Walters, David L.
Three methods for carrying out a kinetic study of the reaction between propanone and elemental iodine.
Birk, James P.; Walters, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 585.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Kinetics |
Spectroscopy |
Rate Law
Simple soda bottle solubility and equilibria  Snyder, Cheryl A.; Snyder, Dudley C.
Using a bottle of selzter water and bromocresol green to demonstrate gas-liquid solubility (carbon dioxide in water).
Snyder, Cheryl A.; Snyder, Dudley C. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 573.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Liquids |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry
Applications of Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution diagrams.  Peckham, Gavin D.; McNaught, Ian J.
Although Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution diagrams are intuitively appealing, care must be taken to avoid several common errors and misconceptions.
Peckham, Gavin D.; McNaught, Ian J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 554.
Thermodynamics |
Rate Law |
Catalysis
The acid equilibrium constant is unity! (the author replies)  Thompson, Ralph J.
The interpretation of thermodynamic equilibrium constants by Baldwin and Burchill is quite proper and technically correct.
Thompson, Ralph J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 515.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The acid equilibrium constant is unity!  Baldwin, W. G.; Burchill, C. E.
The attempt to assign a non-unity value to this equilibrium constant is a consequence of misunderstanding the way in which the (nearly) constant concentration or activity of the solvent in a dilute solution (or of a pure solid or liquid in a heterogeneous system) is treated when formulating the conventional equilibrium constant expression.
Baldwin, W. G.; Burchill, C. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 514.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Gibbs free energy: The criteria for spontaneity   Greaves, Ronald J.; Schlecht, Kenneth D.
This demonstration is useful in presenting a physical model for the four possible combinations of entropy and enthalpy to predict the spontaneity of a reaction.
Greaves, Ronald J.; Schlecht, Kenneth D. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 417.
Thermodynamics
Solving equilibrium problems   Ruekberg, Ben
An equation with more than three terms is not cause for despair.
Ruekberg, Ben J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 344.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Substrate partitioning and chemical equilibrium in a micellar solution  Abuin, Elsa B.; Lissi, Eduardo A.
This experiment is designed to study one very important aspect of micellar solutions that is due to their microheterogeneous character: As a solute is dissolved, it is inhomogeneously distributed throughout the entire volume of the resulting solution.
Abuin, Elsa B.; Lissi, Eduardo A. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 340.
Micelles |
Solutions / Solvents |
Surface Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium
Flash photochemical measurements in the physical chemistry laboratory: Kinetics of deactivation of electronically excited aromatic molecules by oxygen  Clark, Lisa M.; Hayes, Susan E.; Hayes, David M.; McFarland, Jeffrey M.; Miller, Robin L.; Shalmi, Craig L.; Soltis, Marabeth G.; Susnow, Roberta; Strong, Robert L.
In this experiment, students examine the kinetics by which molecular oxygen deactivates the electronically excited triplet states of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phenanthrene in hexane solution.
Clark, Lisa M.; Hayes, Susan E.; Hayes, David M.; McFarland, Jeffrey M.; Miller, Robin L.; Shalmi, Craig L.; Soltis, Marabeth G.; Susnow, Roberta; Strong, Robert L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 336.
Aromatic Compounds |
Photochemistry |
Kinetics |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Determination of the solubility product of copper(II) tartrate  Thomsen, Marcus W.
The spectrophotometric determination of the solubility product of cupric tartrate is an appropriate experiment for the introductory chemistry course.
Thomsen, Marcus W. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 328.
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Spectroscopy
A kinetic experiment to determine traces of Mo(VI)  Lampard, M.
This experiment deals with the estimation of Mo(VI) on a microchemical scale using visual color end-point detection.
Lampard, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 327.
Microscale Lab |
Kinetics |
Reactions
Fugacity-More than a fake pressure  Donkersloot, Maarten C. A.
The equivalence of fugacity and chemical potential, in terms of dependence on pressure, should be obvious to any student based on the following equations.
Donkersloot, Maarten C. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 290.
Gases |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics
Competitive and coupled reactions  Spencer, J. N.
The misconception that one reaction, when coupled with another, may be "driven" against its free energy comes from a misunderstanding of the use of thermodynamic parameters to describe kinetic processes.
Spencer, J. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 281.
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics
Matrix formulation of chemical reaction rates: A mathematical chemical exercise  Pogliani, Lionello; Terenzi, Mario
An application of matrix algebra to first-order rate equations is presented here.
Pogliani, Lionello; Terenzi, Mario J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 278.
Chemometrics |
Rate Law |
Kinetics
The use of equilibrium notation in listings of standard potentials.  Donkersloot, Maarten C. A.
The difficulty in equilibrium notation of standard electrode potentials is due to the convention that half-reactions must be written as reductions if the given potential is to be called a (standard) electrode potential.
Donkersloot, Maarten C. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 256.
Equilibrium |
Electrochemistry
Standard states for water equilibrium (author response).  Campbell, Mark L.; Waite, Boyd A.
For the purposes of comparison only the unconventionally derived Ka values should be used to compare equilibrium constants for other acids to determine relative acid strengths.
Campbell, Mark L.; Waite, Boyd A. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 256.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Standard states for water equilibrium.  Baldwin, W. George; Burchill, C. Eugene.
The authors consider that Ka and Kb values for Bronsted acids and bases in aqueous solution represent one data set describing the properties of solutes in dilute aqueous solution.
Baldwin, W. George; Burchill, C. Eugene. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 255.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
A new twist to an old favorite: The hydrolysis of tert-butyl chloride.  Turner, J.
The author describes a common kinetics experiment in which NMR spectroscopy is used to study the reaction kinetics rather than a titration.
Turner, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 242.
Kinetics |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Reactions
Microstate  York, Richard
Microstate allows experimentation with a simulated crystal that is viewed as a set of loosely coupled harmonic oscillators.
York, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 130.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Thermodynamics
Reaction thermodynamics: A flawed derivation  Hornack, Fred M.
Students are presented with a proof that may lead to obvious contradictions. In the process of solving the proof students will learn some mathematical logic and thermodynamic principles.
Hornack, Fred M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 112.
Thermodynamics
The conversion of chemical energy: Part 1. Technological examples  Wink, Donald J.
When a chemical reaction occurs, the energy of the chemical species may change and energy can be released or absorbed from the surroundings. This can involve the exchange of chemical energy with another kind of energy or with another chemical system.
Wink, Donald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 108.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Electrochemistry |
Photosynthesis
Studying odd-even effects and solubility behavior using alpha, omega-dicarboxylic acids  Burrows, Hugh D.
Odd-even effect provides a satisfying way of introducing students to a large area of chemistry that encompasses both classical thermodynamics and applied aspects.
Burrows, Hugh D. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 69.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics
An alternative proof that equilibrium concentrations for a chemical reaction are always uniquely determined by the initial concentrations  Glaister, P.
The principle used by the author says that, if a function changes sign in an interval, but its gradient does not change sign in that interval, than the function must vanish once and only once in the interval.
Glaister, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 51.
Equilibrium |
Reactions
Equilibria among isotopically substituted molecules  Logan, S. R.
An isotopic exchange equilibrium among diatomic molecules is a useful demonstration of how to evaluate an equilibrium constant from partition functions.
Logan, S. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 32.
Equilibrium |
Isotopes |
Statistical Mechanics
Order and disorder and entropies of fusion  Gilson, D. F. R.
A simple alternative for discussing entropy, is to interpret the actual entropy changes of well-recognized, reversible physical processes for which entropy can be considered as a disordering process.
Gilson, D. F. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 23.
Thermodynamics
Molecular mechanics in the undergraduate curriculum  Sauers, Ronald R.
The author outlines recent experience with the introduction of molecular mechanics methodology via computer aided analysis of molecular geometry and energy. Students gained appreciation for the interplay of molecular forces that govern equilibrium energy and molecular forces of organic molecules.
Sauers, Ronald R. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 816.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Thermodynamics |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
A visual presentation of the relationships between the enthalpies of a reaction and the nature of the transition states  Nyquist, H. LeRoy
An apparatus that illustrates the potential energy diagram for the chlorination of alkanes and another for the bromination of alkanes.
Nyquist, H. LeRoy J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 731.
Thermodynamics |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Multifunctional base unknowns in the introductory analytical chemistry lab  Werner, Jonathan A.; Werner, T. C.
The authors look at mathematical descriptions of acid-base equilibria and emphasize the nature of the assumptions that are being made to simplify the mathematics.
Werner, Jonathan A.; Werner, T. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 600.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
A problem for buffer buffs  Leis, J. Ramon; Pena, M. Elena; Herrero-Latorre, C.
An exam problem particularly for undergraduates studying chemistry as part of some other discipline such as biochemistry, biology, or medicine.
Leis, J. Ramon; Pena, M. Elena; Herrero-Latorre, C. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 141.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
pH
Numerical solutions for diprotic acid equilibria using spreadsheet iterations  Parker, O. Jerry; Breneman, Gary L.
This software affords the opportunities of solving the problem in an open format that displays any desired intermediate steps as well as final results.
Parker, O. Jerry; Breneman, Gary L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A5.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium
Versed and reversed: A meter for mobile equilibrium  Vemulapalli, G. K.
The principle of mobile equilibrium in verse.
Vemulapalli, G. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1003.
Equilibrium |
Oxidation / Reduction
Student ideas regarding chemical equilibrium: What written test answers do not reveal  Bergquist, Wilbur; Heikkinen, Henry
Examples, evidence, and implications of student misconceptions regarding chemical equilibrium.
Bergquist, Wilbur; Heikkinen, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1000.
Equilibrium |
Constructivism
Maximum work  Salzsieder, John C.
Maximum work is done when a process is done reversibly; this is demonstrated by lifting masses to various heights using rubber bands as a source of energy.
Salzsieder, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 962.
Thermodynamics
Calculation of solubilities of carbonates and phosphates in water as influenced by competitive acid-base reactions  Lagier, Claudia; Olivieri, Alejandro
Examples of the calculation of the solubilities of carbonates and phosphates in water as influenced by competitive acid-base reactions and their practical applications.
Lagier, Claudia; Olivieri, Alejandro J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 934.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics |
Equilibrium |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Effects of "crowding" in protein solutions  Ralston, G. B.
The effects of macromolecular nonideality and crowding on chemical equilibria, association reactions, and enzyme kinetics.
Ralston, G. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 857.
Proteins / Peptides |
Equilibrium |
Reactions |
Enzymes |
Kinetics
Calculation of equilibrium constant in esterification reactions  Sarlo, Edward; Svoronos, Paris; Kulas, Patricia
Procedure for measuring the equilibrium constant in esterification reactions.
Sarlo, Edward; Svoronos, Paris; Kulas, Patricia J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 796.
Esters |
Alcohols |
Carboxylic Acids |
Equilibrium
Ants and chemical kinetics  Myers, R. Thomas
Data regarding the speed of ants at various temperatures are amenable to standards treatment on chemical kinetics.
Myers, R. Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 761.
Kinetics |
Rate Law
A simple second-order kinetics experiment  Weiss, Hilton M.; Touchette, Kim
The reaction studied in this experiment is the (reversible) dimerization of 2,5-dimethyl-3,4-diphenylcyclopentadienone; the monomer is colored while the dimer is not, so monitoring the reaction with a simple spectrophotometer provides the concentration of the monomer and therefore the rate of its disappearance.
Weiss, Hilton M.; Touchette, Kim J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 707.
Kinetics |
Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds
A modified graphical method for acid-base equilibria  Nakagawa, Kuniaki
A method based on logarithmic diagrams for finding the pH values for various systems in acid-base equilibria.
Nakagawa, Kuniaki J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 673.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
pH
Isopycnic ultracentrifugation: A simple and inexpensive demonstration of its princples  Berlot, Pedro E.; Locasscio, Guillermo A.
This demonstration allows one to visualize density gradient separations and to understand the differences between the principles of equilibrium and sedimentation velocity techniques.
Berlot, Pedro E.; Locasscio, Guillermo A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 627.
Separation Science |
Equilibrium |
Ion Exchange
A bromate clock reaction: The formation of purple tris(diphosphato)manganate(III)  Rich, Ronald L.; Noyes, Richard M.
Bromate is used to oxidize nearly colorless Mn(II) to a deep purple complex of Mn(III).
Rich, Ronald L.; Noyes, Richard M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 606.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Kinetics
A kinetic experiment for determination of traces of Cu2+  Lampard, M.
Adaptation of a spot technique used to identify trace amounts of cupric ion by its catalytic effect of the ferric ion / thiosulfate reaction.
Lampard, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 601.
Qualitative Analysis |
Catalysis |
Kinetics
A visual demonstration of Raoult's law  Wilson, Archie S.
Reducing the vapor pressure of bromine by adding chloroform.
Wilson, Archie S. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 598.
Gases |
Equilibrium
Are the equilibrium concentrations for a chemical reaction always uniquely determined by the initial concentrations?  Weltin, E.
A question not often addressed is whether the equilibrium concentrations for a given set of initial concentrations are always unique, or for some complex reaction and initial conditions is it possible for more than one set of chemically meaningful equilibrium concentrations to be satisfied?
Weltin, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 548.
Equilibrium |
Reactions
Simple, inexpensive glass reactors for high-temperature aqueous kinetics experiments  Jeffers, Peter M.
The authors have devised methods to make, fill, and seal gas bulbs that have been subsequently heated to 200 degrees Celcius for kinetics studies of hydrolysis reactions.
Jeffers, Peter M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 522.
Reactions |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Kinetics
Experiments with "Calo-pH Meter"   Paris, Michel R.; Aymes, Daniel J.

Paris, Michel R.; Aymes, Daniel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 510.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Binding energy and enzymatic catalysis  Hansen, David E.; Raines, Ronald T.
The authors discuss the fundamental role that the favorable free energy of binding of the rate-determining transition state plays in catalysis and review the principle that many catalytic factors are realized by the use of this binding energy.
Hansen, David E.; Raines, Ronald T. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 483.
Enzymes |
Catalysis |
Thermodynamics
A simple method for analyzing first-order kinetics  Borderie, B.; Lavabre, D.; Levy, G.; Micheau, J. C.
The authors describe a new and simple method for accurate determination of the first-order rate constant.
Borderie, B.; Lavabre, D.; Levy, G.; Micheau, J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 459.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
A discourse on the drinking bird  Vemulapalli, G. K.
The aims of this article are to describe the operation of the drinking bird in quantitative terms, and to show the similarities between heat engines and the bird.
Vemulapalli, G. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 457.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Wet labs, computers, and spreadsheets  Durham, Bill
The following is a description of some commonly encountered experiments that have been modified for computerized data acquisition.
Durham, Bill J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 416.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Kinetics |
Electrochemistry
Solving quadratic equations  Brown, R. J. C.
A better technique than the quadratic equation for chemical equilibria is offered here.
Brown, R. J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 409.
Chemometrics |
Equilibrium
Rejoinder to the "Gibbs-function problem" discussion  Schomaker, Verner; Waser, Jurg
For the authors process as well as for most of the processes discussed in practical chemical thermodynamics, ?G, does not refer to the change in a particular mathematically defined function G, and the ideal of notational precision is by far unattained; in their process the inexplicit change is of a different sort form that expressed by the ?G for a certain chemical reaction.
Schomaker, Verner; Waser, Jurg J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 384.
Thermodynamics
Equilibrium, free energy, and entropy: Rates and differences  MacDonald, J. J.
Difference terms and rate terms have been distinguished by using an ordinary delta for the former and a filled-in delta for the latter. This strategy then allows the authors to explain more clearly that a minimum in the free energy function corresponds to a maximum in the total entropy function.
MacDonald, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 380.
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium
The integration of kinetic rate equations by matrix methods  Berberan-Santos, M. N.; Martinho, J. M. G.
The aim of this paper is to present a general approach based on a matrix formulation of the differential kinetic equations.
Berberan-Santos, M. N.; Martinho, J. M. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 375.
Kinetics |
Rate Law
The kinetics of isotopic exchange reactions  Logan, S. R.
An isotopic exchange reaction progress toward equilibrium follows an equation comparable to that applicable to many reversible isomerization reactions.
Logan, S. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 371.
Kinetics |
Isotopes |
Reactions |
Equilibrium
Ferrimyoglobin-fluoride: An undergraduate kinetics experiment  Russo, Steven O.; Hanania, George I. H.
The authors propose an experiment which concerns the reaction of the protein ferrimyoglobin with fluoride ion, in dilute aqueous solution.
Russo, Steven O.; Hanania, George I. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 352.
Kinetics |
Proteins / Peptides |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Thermal decomposition of a natural manganese dioxide: A laboratory experiment for undergraduate students  Puerta, M. C.; Valerga, P.
This is a very instructive experiment that combines experimental work, theoretical discussion, and literature investigation.
Puerta, M. C.; Valerga, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 344.
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Thermal Analysis |
Solid State Chemistry
A small scale equilibrium experiment   Flash, Patrick
An alternative method for the experiment in which the equilibrium constant for the iron-thiocyanate complex is determined.
Flash, Patrick J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 341.
Equilibrium |
Reactions
The solvation of halide ions and its chemical significance  Sharpe, Alan G.
Most of this article is concerned with structural and thermodynamic aspects of halide ion solvation, first by water and the by other solvents.
Sharpe, Alan G. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 309.
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics |
Ionic Bonding
E =  hv? (author response)  Leo, Howard R.
In retrospect, I should have recommended the use of an absolute value sign with ?E to yield a single equation for emission and absorption.
Leo, Howard R. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 278.
Thermodynamics
?E =  hv?  Woolf, A. A.
Leo has unnecessarily complicated the ?E =  hv relation, which simply means that the magnitudes of the two energies in emission or absorption are balanced.
Woolf, A. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 278.
Thermodynamics
Stoke's theorem and the second law (errata)   Bowen, Lawrence H.
Author notes two errors in his original paper.
Bowen, Lawrence H. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 277.
Thermodynamics
Photohydration of pyridine: Modification of an undergraduate kinetics experiment  Morine, Gerald H.
In a previous article in this Journal an undergraduate experiment on photochemical kinetics was presented. This author is offering modifications to the original experiment.
Morine, Gerald H. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 266.
Photochemistry |
Kinetics |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Heterocycles
PIRExS  Birk, James P.
Predicting Inorganic Reactivity Expert System is a rule based, instructional expert system that predicts the products of inorganic reactions.
Birk, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 237.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Thermodynamics
Solution of acid-base equilibria by successive approximations  Olivieri, Alejandro C.
The use of the method of successive approximations for solving acid-base equilibria, in conjunction with an intuitive, chemically based analysis is presented.
Olivieri, Alejandro C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 229.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium
Partitioning ratios and a biochemical kinetic dilemma: The pH dependence of chymotrypsin catalysis  Breslow, Ronald
This example show the attractiveness and ease of the partitioning ratio alternative to the commonly used steady-state method.
Breslow, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 228.
Kinetics |
pH |
Catalysis
An efficient method for the treatment of weak acid/base equilibria  Burness, James H.
The use of the ionization ratio concept enables students to perform many of the calculations for aqueous acid/base equilibria more quickly and efficiently.
Burness, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 224.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases
The extent of acid-base reactions  Thompson, Ralph J.
How to calculate the equilibrium constant of an acid-base reaction.
Thompson, Ralph J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 220.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions |
Equilibrium
On the use of the adiabaticity concept to obtain approximate solutions of the Schrdinger equation  Morales, Daniel A.
In this paper the author discusses the use of the notion of adiabaticity to obtain approximate solutions of Schrdinger equation.
Morales, Daniel A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 211.
Thermodynamics |
Quantum Chemistry
Entropy measures amount of choice  Swanson, R. M.
The purpose of this paper is present a correct and simple interpretation of entropy in terms of per-molecule behavior, and to put entropy on a closer to equal footing with energy as an intuitively useful chemical concept.
Swanson, R. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 206.
Thermodynamics |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Biophysical Chemistry
A mathematical verification of the second law of thermodynamics from the entropy of mixing  Clugston, Michael J.
The usual derivation of the form of the equilibrium constant depends on introducing the concept of a chemical potential. In this paper the equilibrium constant will be derived instead from the entropy of mixing.
Clugston, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 203.
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium
Boltzmann's H theorem applied to simulations of polymer interchange reactions  Pojman, John
The mathematical complexity of the Boltzmann theory seems to preclude undergraduate consideration. In this paper the author considers a system of condensation polymers whose interactions are analogous to those of a hard-sphere gas.
Pojman, John J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 200.
Thermodynamics
The use of equilibrium notation in listings of standard potentials   Ohline, R. Wayne
All who write in the area of thermodynamics are acquainted with the difficulty of stating the exact nature of the transformation one has in mind.
Ohline, R. Wayne J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 184.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
The true meaning of isothermal   Lin, Shu-Kun
A clarification regarding student's misconceptions in thermodynamics.
Lin, Shu-Kun J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 183.
Thermodynamics
Units of an equilibrium constant   Laidler, Keith J.
The best policy is to define equilibrium constants in terms of ratios of concentrations or pressures, in which case they have units.
Laidler, Keith J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 88.
Equilibrium
The direct relation between altitude and boiling point  Earl, Boyd L.
Since the physical parameter whose variation is responsible for the change in boiling point due to altitude is atmospheric pressure, one must make the connection between boiling point and altitude via the pressure, which is directly connected to both.
Earl, Boyd L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 45.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Water / Water Chemistry
Modelling and analyzing chemical equilibria on a spreadsheet: Acid-base systems  Leharne, Stephen
Using a spreadsheet to compute how the concentration of an aqeous species varies with some master variables (such as pH or ligand concentrations) and show this variation graphically.
Leharne, Stephen J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A239.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Chemical equilibrium and spreadsheets  David, Carl W.
Using a spreadsheet to compute the free energy change associated with a reaction as the "extent of reaction" is allowed to vary.
David, Carl W. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A237.
Equilibrium
Computer simulation of chemical equilibrium  Cullen, John F., Jr.
108. The "Great Chemical Bead Game" requires no instruments and presents the concepts of equilibrium and kinetics more clearly than an experiment. [October and November Computer Series both inadvertently called number 107. Numbering restored by skipping 109 and calling January 1990 number 110.]
Cullen, John F., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1023.
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
With Clausius from energy to entropy  Baron, Maximo
Examination of entropy following the route taken by Clausius.
Baron, Maximo J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1001.
Thermodynamics
A study of the E2 reaction for the microscale organic lab  Flash, Patrick; Galle, Fred; Radil, Mark
Students determine the pseudo-first-order rate constant for the elimination of HBr from 2-bromobutane and measure the yield and approximate composition of the alkene products, determine the yield of alkenes from 1-bromobutane under the same conditions, and examine the effect of changing solvent polarity on alkene yields for the two halides.
Flash, Patrick; Galle, Fred; Radil, Mark J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 958.
Elimination Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Rate Law |
Kinetics
The iodine clock reaction: A surprising variant  Autuori, Marcos Alberto; Brolo, Alexandre Guimaraes; Mateus, Alfredo Luis M. L.
Substituting malonic acid for sulfuric acid.
Autuori, Marcos Alberto; Brolo, Alexandre Guimaraes; Mateus, Alfredo Luis M. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 852.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Isomerization of dimethyl maleate to dimethyl fumarate: An undergraduate experiment utilizing high performance liquid chromatography  Ledlie, David B.; Wenzel, Thomas J.; Hendrickson, Susan M.
Introduces students to liquid chromatography, the stereoisomerization of alkenes, certain aspects of free radical chemistry, and thermodynamics.
Ledlie, David B.; Wenzel, Thomas J.; Hendrickson, Susan M. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 781.
HPLC |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Esters |
Stereochemistry |
Free Radicals |
Alkenes |
Thermodynamics
Kinetics of the fading of phenolphthalein in alkaline solution  Nicholson, Lois
The fading of phenolphthalein in alkaline solution can serve as the basis for an experiment illustrating first-order kinetics.
Nicholson, Lois J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 725.
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics
A dedicated educational expert system coupled to a simulator in chemical kinetics  Cachet, C.; Cabrol, D.; Milleliri, A.
104. Design of a computer-based learning environment that allows students the maximum freedom to design and execute simulated laboratory experiments.
Cachet, C.; Cabrol, D.; Milleliri, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 553.
Kinetics
Electrochemistry of the zinc-silver oxide system. Part 1. Thermodynamic studies using commercial miniature cells  Smith, Michael J.; Vincent, Colin A.
Using readily available, sealed, miniature or "button" cells to obtain accurate measurements of the enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy change of a chemical reaction.
Smith, Michael J.; Vincent, Colin A. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 529.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Thermodynamics
Counters on grids  Selinger, Ben; Sutherland, Ralph
103. "Counters on Grids", a computer-based dice game used to illustrate statistical thermodynamics.
Selinger, Ben; Sutherland, Ralph J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 506.
Thermodynamics
An improved mnemonic diagram for thermodynamic relationships  Rodriguez, Joaquin; Brainard, Alan J.
A number of the most important expressions in thermodynamics of simple systems may developed directly from a simple mnemonic diagram.
Rodriguez, Joaquin; Brainard, Alan J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 495.
Thermodynamics
Chemical equilibrium and polynomial equations: Beware of roots  Smith, William R.; Missen, Ronald W.
Two easily applied mathematical theorems, Budan's rule and Rolle's theorem, that, in addition to Descartes's rule and the intermediate value theorem, are useful in chemical equilibrium.
Smith, William R.; Missen, Ronald W. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 489.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
The free energy prediction of reaction direction and the principle of Le Chtelier  Xianmin, Zheng
If we use the "unity amount" of free energy prediction value to predict the influence of temperature on reaction equilibrium, the result will be in exact agreement with the prediction of Le Chtelier's principle and does not cause any apparent contradictions.
Xianmin, Zheng J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 401.
Thermodynamics
Shine some light on entropy of mixing  Brady, K. T.
The apparatus described is relatively easy to construct and is quite useful in providing a visual demonstration of the concept of entropy of mixing and diffusion.
Brady, K. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 339.
Thermodynamics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Overall chemical equations  Gil, Victor M. S.
An equation sum can be used safely by itself in stoichiometric and equilibrium calculations only if the intermediates produced in separate reactions are at low steady-state concentrations and if there are no other equilibria involving those species.
Gil, Victor M. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 324.
Stoichiometry |
Equilibrium
Phase equilibrium and G minimum: Displacements of the equilibrium under external parameters  Deumie, M.; Henri-Rousseau, O.; Boulil, K.; Boulil, B.
The object of this paper is to treat the displacement of a phase equilibrium with respect to changes in pressure, temperature, amount of solute, and amount of an inert gas, in the framework of the Perona approach.
Deumie, M.; Henri-Rousseau, O.; Boulil, K.; Boulil, B. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 232.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Equilibrium
Chemical generation and visualization of hydrodynamic instability: An extremely simple demonstration of self-organization  Bowers, Peter G.; Soltzberg, Leonard J.
The chemical convection system described here is the pattern formation seen when an acidic vapor comes into contact with the surface of an aqueous solution containing indicator.
Bowers, Peter G.; Soltzberg, Leonard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 210.
Thermodynamics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
A simple explanation of the salt water oscillator  Noyes, Richard M.
Yoshikawa et al. have described a simple device that undergoes repeated oscillations and that can also illustrate some of the principles essential to the oscillators driven by chemical reactions.
Noyes, Richard M. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 207.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium
Amusement with a salt-water oscillator  Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Nakata, Satoshi; Yamanaka, Masahiro; Waki, Takeshi
Rhythmic oscillations of water flow are generated when a vertically oriented hypodermic syringe, with the plunger removed, is filled with salt water and partially submerged in a beaker of pure water.
Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Nakata, Satoshi; Yamanaka, Masahiro; Waki, Takeshi J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 205.
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Oscillating chemical reactions and nonlinear dynamics  Field, Richard J.; Schneider, F. W.
The field of oscillating chemical reactions has grown dramatically over the last 15 years. The reasons for this activity are the intrinsic chemical interest in the behavior and mechanisms of oscillating chemical reactions and the connection between oscillating reactions and the properties of nonlinear differential equations.
Field, Richard J.; Schneider, F. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 195.
Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The role of flow systems in far-from-equilibrium dynamics   Epstein, Irving R.
In this article the continuous-flow, stirred tank reactor or CSTR is discussed.
Epstein, Irving R. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 191.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
Some models of chemical oscillators   Noyes, Richard M.
This review concentrates on models of chemical oscillations, which constitute the self-organization of a system in time without any accompanying organization in space.
Noyes, Richard M. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 190.
Thermodynamics
The language of dynamics  Field, Richard J.
For a reacting chemical system, there exists a set of polynomial differential equations that describes the dynamics of how the concentrations of all chemical species change with time.
Field, Richard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 188.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
Self-organization in chemistry: The larger context   Soltzberg, Leonard J.
The following three papers in this symposium will serve the reader as a good introduction to self-organization in chemical systems.
Soltzberg, Leonard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 187.
Thermodynamics
Equations of state, collisional energy transfer, and chemical equilibrium in gases  Alvarino, Jose M.; Veguillas, Juan; Velasco, Santiago
The authors discuss the molecular and macroscopic arguments that give theoretical support to the apparent contradiction between the ideal gas model and chemical reactivity.
Alvarino, Jose M.; Veguillas, Juan; Velasco, Santiago J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 139.
Thermodynamics |
Gases |
Equilibrium
Saturation properties at a given temperature from cubic equations of state  Aguirre-Ode, Fernando
99. Bits and pieces, 39. The advantage of cubic equations of state (EOS) lies in the fact that they can be solved analytically for the volume of a real gas when both the temperature and pressure are given.
Aguirre-Ode, Fernando J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 54.
Thermodynamics |
Physical Properties
Solving differential equations in kinetics by using power series  Hughes, Elvin, Jr.
This article describes an approach for solving eq 2, a differential equation that arises in the discussion of a set of consecutive chemical reactions that are outlined in eq 1.
Hughes, Elvin, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 46.
Kinetics |
Chemometrics
Analysis of kinetic data with a spreadsheet program  Henderson, John
An article about spreadsheet templates that accept concentration versus time data for several runs of an experiment, determination of least-squares lines through data points for each run, and will allow the user to exclude points from the least-squares calculation.
Henderson, John J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A150.
Chemometrics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Enzymes
Determination of the relative rates of alkaline hydrolysis of esters by the method of competition  Paredes, Rodrigo; Gil, Jimmy; Ocampo, Pamela
A method is presented for further illustration of the electronic and steric factors in the saponification of selected groups of esters.
Paredes, Rodrigo; Gil, Jimmy; Ocampo, Pamela J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1109.
Esters |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics
The perils of carbonic acid and equilibrium constants  Jencks, William P.; Altura, Rachel A.
It is important to remember that the small amounts of carbon dioxide that are usually present in water can have large effects on acid-base equilibria of dilute solutions and that dilute solutions of most weak acids and bases undergo significant protonation or hydrolysis when they are dissolved in water.
Jencks, William P.; Altura, Rachel A. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 770.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Will that pop bottle really go pop? An equilibrium question  Deamer, David W.; Selinger, Benjamin K.
These authors challenge a claim that appeared in the journal *New Scientist* regarding carbon dioxide in carbonated beverages and equilibrium.
Deamer, David W.; Selinger, Benjamin K. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 518.
Applications of Chemistry |
Gases |
Equilibrium
Correct equilibrium constants for water (the authors reply)  Starkey, Ronald; Norman, Jack; Hinitze, Mark
Water and hydronium ion Ka values are special cases.
Starkey, Ronald; Norman, Jack; Hinitze, Mark J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1068.
Equilibrium |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Thermodynamics
Correct equilibrium constants for water  Baldwin, W. George; Burchill, C. Eugene
Disagreement with the numerical values assigned to equilibrium constants.
Baldwin, W. George; Burchill, C. Eugene J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1067.
Equilibrium |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Far from equilibrium: The flashback oscillator  Soltzberg, Leonard J.; Boucher, Michel M.; Cane, Dawn M.; Pazar, Stacey S.
An easily demonstrated model system that exemplifies far-from-equilibrium, self-organizing behavior.
Soltzberg, Leonard J.; Boucher, Michel M.; Cane, Dawn M.; Pazar, Stacey S. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1043.
Equilibrium
Comment on the equilibrium assumption in chemical kinetics  Olivieri, Alejandro C.
Addresses a common student question regarding the equilibrium assumption in chemical kinetics.
Olivieri, Alejandro C. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1002.
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Laboratory applications of the vortex tube  Bruno, Thomas J.
A brief explanation of the function of the vortex tube and some heating and cooling applications for the chemistry laboratory.
Bruno, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 987.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thermodynamics
The kinetic rate law for autocatalytic reactions  Mata-Perez, Fernando; Perez-Benito, Joaquin F.
A method for obtaining accurate rate constants for autocatalytic reactions.
Mata-Perez, Fernando; Perez-Benito, Joaquin F. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 925.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
A low-cost laboratory experiment using a nephelo-turbidity meter  Das, Ishwar; Das, S. S.; Pushkarna, Anal
Principle of the nephelo-turbidity meter, description of the apparatus, and application to the kinetic study of the decomposition of sodium thiosulfate by mineral acid.
Das, Ishwar; Das, S. S.; Pushkarna, Anal J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 729.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Kinetics
The entropy of dissolution of urea  Pickering, Miles
This experiment combines colorimetric techniques, thermochemical techniques, some volumetric work, and actual measurements of entropy.
Pickering, Miles J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 723.
Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics of "mixing" of ideal gases: A persistent pitfall  Meyer, Edwin F.
There seems to be a widespread misconception that mixing causes an increase in entropy, and thus is the driving force of the process.
Meyer, Edwin F. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 676.
Gases |
Thermodynamics
The chemists' delta  Craig, Norman C.
Thermodynamic quantities such as ?G and ?S are intensive functions and derivatives that depend on instantaneous values of the partial molar forms of various thermodynamic properties of reactions and products; they are not simple finite differences.
Craig, Norman C. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 668.
Thermodynamics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
General definitions of work and heat in thermodynamic processes  Gislason, Eric A.; Craig, Norman C.
Problems with earlier definitions of thermodynamic work, general definitions of thermodynamic work, interesting consequences of the definitions of heat and work, a more general view of work and heat, examples of work and heat, and pedagogical implications.
Gislason, Eric A.; Craig, Norman C. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 660.
Thermodynamics
The effect of temperature and pressure on equilibria: A derivation of the van't Hoff rules  Kemp, H. R.
Derivation of the van't Hoff rules for disturbed equilibria.
Kemp, H. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 482.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics of the rhodamine B lactone zwitterion equilibrium: An undergraduate laboratory experiment  Hinckley, Daniel A.; Seybold, Paul G.
An experiment to derive thermodynamic values from a thermochromic equilibrium that uses a commercially available dye, attains equilibrium rapidly, and employs a simple, single-beam spectrophotometer.
Hinckley, Daniel A.; Seybold, Paul G. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 362.
Thermodynamics |
Dyes / Pigments |
Spectroscopy |
Equilibrium
Coupled oscillations  Onwood, D. P.
Demonstrating coupled oscillations using pendulums.
Onwood, D. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 351.
Kinetics
Introduction to overhead projector demonstrations  Kolb, Doris
General suggestions for using the overhead projector and 21 demonstrations. [Debut]
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 348.
Rate Law |
Reactions |
Catalysis |
Equilibrium |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases
Kinetics and mechanism of the iodine azide reaction: A videotaped experiment  Haight, Gilbert P.; Jones, Loretta L.
A clock reaction suitable for videotaping and presenting to a large lecture class of general chemistry for analysis.
Haight, Gilbert P.; Jones, Loretta L. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 271.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Rate Law
Addition of iodine to alkenes: A pseudo-first-, second-, or third-order kinetics experiment  Field, Kurt W.; Wilder, Deborah; Utz, Arthur; Kolb, Kenneth E.
A simple, inexpensive, class-tested experiment for determining the kinetics of iodine addition to various alkenes in several solvents.
Field, Kurt W.; Wilder, Deborah; Utz, Arthur; Kolb, Kenneth E. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 269.
Alkenes |
Kinetics
Ligand replacement at a square planar metal center: A kinetic experiment for the inorganic chemistry laboratory  Kruger, H.; de Waal, D. J. A.
The ligand triphenyl phosphine is replaced from a rhodium metal center by a series of pyridine derivatives; this system will introduce students to stopped-flow spectrophotometry as a technique to study the kinetics of very fast reactions.
Kruger, H.; de Waal, D. J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 262.
Coordination Compounds |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Kinetics |
Transition Elements |
Metals
Estimating the equilibrium voltage of an ion-selective electrode  Chang, On-Kok
A procedure for estimating the value of the equilibrium voltage based on just a few voltage readings obtained in the early stage of the measurement process.
Chang, On-Kok J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 91.
Equilibrium |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Instrumental Methods
Kinetics of oxidation of bromcresol green  Pickering, Miles; Heiler, David
Study of the bleaching of bromcresol green by hypochlorite.
Pickering, Miles; Heiler, David J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 81.
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Dyes / Pigments |
Acids / Bases |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Inorganic fireflies - A chemiluminescent clock reaction  Jones, Peter; Frew, Jane E.; Scowen, Nina
Adaptation of a clock reaction to illustrate the application to flow methods in the study of fast reactions and the release of carbon dioxide from the bloodstream in respiration.
Jones, Peter; Frew, Jane E.; Scowen, Nina J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 70.
Photochemistry |
Reactions |
Kinetics
Thermodynamics and the bounce  Carraher, Charles E., Jr.
Explaining the bouncing of a rubber ball using the laws of thermodynamics.
Carraher, Charles E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 43.
Thermodynamics
Stretched elastomers: A case of decreasing length upon heating  Clough, S. B.
Demonstrating and explaining the decrease in length of a heated rubber band.
Clough, S. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 42.
Thermodynamics |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Determination of reaction stoichiometries by flow injection analysis: A laboratory exercise  Rios, Angel; Castro, Dolores Luqne de; Valcarcel, Miguel
These authors took advantage of the features of Flow Injection Analysis and developed an easy and simple photometric method intended for calculation of complex-formation and redox reaction stoichiometries.
Rios, Angel; Castro, Dolores Luqne de; Valcarcel, Miguel J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 552.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Instrumental Methods |
Photochemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Coordination Compounds
VisiChem  Breneman, G. L.
70. Bits and pieces, 28. Many of the business spreadsheet programs can be used to answer "What if?" questions in chemistry due to the mathematical functions needed for science (such as logs, trig functions, square root) and others.
Breneman, G. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 321.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Equilibrium
Relative stabilities of organic compounds using Benson's additivity rules  Vitale, Dale E.
The author comments that students regard organic chemistry as a subject that is a "catalog of loosely related, descriptive examples" and suggests that the relationship between structure and energy could be treated earlier and more explicitly to avoid this misconception and stress the quantitative aspect of this branch of chemistry.
Vitale, Dale E. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 304.
Thermodynamics |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The rate laws for reversible reactions  King, Edward L.
The author provides examples of real chemistry as these are often more effective than trying to explain concepts in rate laws through "A plus B equals C plus D" chemistry.
King, Edward L. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 21.
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Equilibrium
Doing the dishes: An analogy for use in teaching reaction kinetics  Last, Arthur M.
An analogy between doing dishes and a two-step reaction.
Last, Arthur M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1015.
Kinetics |
Reactions
The esterification of trifluoroacetic acid: An NMR kinetics experiment  Minter, David E.; Villarreal, Mark C.
Procedure to determine pseudo-first-order rate constants for the esterification of trifluoroacetic acid.
Minter, David E.; Villarreal, Mark C. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 911.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Kinetics |
Instrumental Methods
Le Châtelier's Principle  Knox, Kerro
Question involving effect of increasing the pressure on the N2 + 3H2 <=> 2NH3 system.
Knox, Kerro J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 863.
Equilibrium |
Gases
The production of oxygen gas: A student catalysis experiment  Onuchukwu, A. I.; Mshelia, P. B.
Synthesizing copper ferrite spinnel and using it as a catalyst in the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to generate oxygen; the rate of generation is used to determine the kinetic activity of the catalyst.
Onuchukwu, A. I.; Mshelia, P. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 809.
Catalysis |
Synthesis |
Kinetics
Windowsill kinetics: A spectrophotometric study of the photochromism of mercury dithizonate  Petersen, Richard L.; Harris, Gaylon L.
Mercury dithizonate undergoes a color change from orange to an intense royal blue upon irradiation with visible light.
Petersen, Richard L.; Harris, Gaylon L. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 802.
Photochemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Kinetics |
Coordination Compounds |
Raman Spectroscopy
One run kinetics - A computer program  O'Neill, Richard T.; Lodder, Robert A.; Scheifers, Steven M.
63. A computer program that will analyze the data from one kinetics experiment for 84 different rate laws.
O'Neill, Richard T.; Lodder, Robert A.; Scheifers, Steven M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 791.
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Conversion of standard thermodynamic data to the new standard state pressure  Freeman, Robert D.
Analyzes the changes that will be required to convert standard thermodynamic data from units of atmospheres to the bar.
Freeman, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 681.
Thermodynamics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Energy interconversions in photosynthesis  Bering, Charles L.
Reviews the energetics of the light reactions of photosynthesis.
Bering, Charles L. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 659.
Photosynthesis |
Photochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Bioenergetics
The NBS reaction: A simple explanation for the predominance of allylic substitution over olefin addition by bromine at low concentrations  Wamser, Carl C.; Scott, Lawrence T.
What factors govern the reaction of Br2 with an alkene to give either allylic substitution or double bond addition?
Wamser, Carl C.; Scott, Lawrence T. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 650.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Free Radicals |
Kinetics |
Alkenes
A simple low-cost device for temperature control in nonisothermic chemical kinetics in solution  Salvador, F.; Gonzalez, J. L.; Tel, L. M.
Design and operation of a temperature controller capable of reproducing a desired temperature / time heating curve.
Salvador, F.; Gonzalez, J. L.; Tel, L. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 613.
Kinetics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Heat, work, and metabolism  Spencer, J. N.
Survey of metabolism,, including energy dissipation, metabolic rate, and basal metabolism.
Spencer, J. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 571.
Applications of Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Metabolism
Derivation of the ideal gas law  Levine, S.
Derivation of the ideal gas law from a thermodynamic influence.
Levine, S. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 399.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Chemometrics
Le Châtelier's principle, temperature effects, and entropy  Campbell, J. Arthur
A useful extension of Le Chatelier's Principle to predict concentration, pressure, and temperature effects solely from the equation for the net reaction.
Campbell, J. Arthur J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 231.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
A gas kinetic explanation of simple thermodynamic processes  Waite, Boyd A.
Proposes a simplified, semi-quantitative description of heat, work, and internal energy from the viewpoint of gas kinetic theory; both heat and work should not be considered as forms of energy but rather as different mechanisms by which internal energy is transferred from system to surroundings.
Waite, Boyd A. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 224.
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Thermodynamics
Ion exchange chromatography and spectrophotometry: An introductory undergraduate laboratory experiment  Foster, N.; Pestel, B.; Mease, B.
Experiment designed for an introductory course in chemical equilibria in aqueous media in which students have already experienced the quantitative use of spectrophotometry in calculating equilibrium constants for the formation of colored complexes in solution.
Foster, N.; Pestel, B.; Mease, B. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 170.
Ion Exchange |
Separation Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium
Kinetics and mechanism-a games approach  Harsch, Gunther
Using statistical games to simulate and illustrate a variety of chemical kinetics.
Harsch, Gunther J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1039.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Catalysis |
Rate Law
Kinetic stability, kinetic control, and descriptive inorganic chemistry  Webb, Michael J.
Examples, demonstrations, and laboratory work involving kinetic stability and kinetic control in inorganic chemistry.
Webb, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 988.
Kinetics |
Descriptive Chemistry
The emergence of stochastic theories: What are they and why are they special?  Freeman, Gordon R.
Examines the word stochastic and its opposite, deterministic, and points out why stochastic models are receiving new emphasis of late.
Freeman, Gordon R. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 944.
Kinetics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Further reflections on heat  Hornack, Frederick M.
Confusion regarding the nature of heat and thermodynamics.
Hornack, Frederick M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 869.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
A small electronic device for studying chemical kinetics  Prez-Rodriguez, A. L.; Calvo-Aguilar, J. L.
Studying rates of reactions with a small electronic device and an oscilloscope overcomes the difficulty students encounter in solving the differential equations describing chemical equilibrium.
Prez-Rodriguez, A. L.; Calvo-Aguilar, J. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 808.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Thermodynamic changes, kinetics, equilibrium, and LeChatelier's principle  Hansen, Robert C.
A series of demonstrations in which water in beakers and the flow of water between beakers is used to represent the components of an exothermic chemical reaction and the flow and quantity of thermal energy involved in chemical changes.
Hansen, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 804.
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics
The goals of teaching solution equilibrium  Ruda, Paul T.
Using and making relevant the concepts of solution equilibrium.
Ruda, Paul T. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 784.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents
Why teach solution equilibrium?  Butler, James N.
What are the most important aspects of solution equilibrium to teach at the elementary level?
Butler, James N. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 784.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases |
pH
Equilibrium constants of chemical reactions involving condensed phases: Pressure dependence and choice of standard state  Perlmutter-Hayman, Berta
The thermodynamics of condensed phases, especially those involving solutes in dilute solution, is a neglected area in a large number of textbooks.
Perlmutter-Hayman, Berta J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 782.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics |
Solutions / Solvents
Use of the world "eager" instead of "spontaneous" for the description of exergonic reactions  Hamori, Eugene; Muldrey, James E.
Difficulties with the word spontaneous and why eager is a better term.
Hamori, Eugene; Muldrey, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 710.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Thermodynamics
Catalysis of radical chain reactions  Bardsley, W. D.; Failes, R. L.; Hunter, R.; Stimson, V. R.
Examples where "catalysts" enter into reaction in a consistent manner, to increase the rate in one case and decrease it in the other.
Bardsley, W. D.; Failes, R. L.; Hunter, R.; Stimson, V. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 657.
Catalysis |
Free Radicals |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Cooking with chemistry  Grosser, Arthur E.
Two demonstrations involving cooking eggs and suggestions for many more examples of cooking that illustrate important principles of chemistry. From the "State-of-the-Art Symposium for Chemical Educators: Chemistry of the Food Cycle".
Grosser, Arthur E. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 362.
Food Science |
Gases |
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics
An addendum on measuring the entropy of mixing of a two-ion system  Pulfer, J. D.
Note to develop a simple data handling procedure when using concentration cells for measuring the entropy of mixing of a two-ion system.
Pulfer, J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 69.
Chemometrics |
Thermodynamics |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
The wasps and the bees - A dynamic analogy  MacBride, Hugh
This analogy conveys the nature of dynamic equilibrium between free and adsorbed states upon which the formation and differing rates of movement of chromatographic bands depends.
MacBride, Hugh J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 132.
Chromatography |
Equilibrium
Equilibrium or slow change?-an experiment for the general chemistry laboratory  Umland, Jean B.; Fefer, Jean A.
The lab described here demonstrates equilibrium, but it also allows students to practice several important lab techniques.
Umland, Jean B.; Fefer, Jean A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 59.
Equilibrium
Equilibria in the silver arsenate-arsenic acid and silver phosphate-phosphoric acid systems  Samuel, Patricia L.
A qualitative test for arsenate ion provides the basis for a colorful demonstration of the principles of relative acid strength, solubility product, and effects of pH on solubility.
Samuel, Patricia L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 1043.
Equilibrium |
Qualitative Analysis |
pH |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Equilibria calculations with "out-of-range" values  Doub, William H., Jr.
32. Bits and pieces, 12.
Doub, William H., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 782.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Organic lecture demonstrations of common-ion effect, ionizing power of solvents, and first-order reaction kinetics  Danen, Wayne C.; Blecha, Sr. M. Therese
The hydrolysis of tert-butyl chloride is the basis of three demonstrations which each illustrate an important principle of organic chemistry: the common-ion or mass law effect, the effect of changing the ionizing power of a solvent on a solvolysis reaction, and the collecting and plotting of data to illustrate a first-order reaction.
Danen, Wayne C.; Blecha, Sr. M. Therese J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 659.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Chemical energy: A learning package  Cohen, Ita; Ben-Zvi, Ruth
Problems associated with the teaching of chemical energy and an instructional package designed to overcome those difficulties.
Cohen, Ita; Ben-Zvi, Ruth J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 656.
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Entropy and its relation to work  Richardson, W. S.
The relationship of entropy to the disorder of a system can be explained using a deck of playing cards.
Richardson, W. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 649.
Thermodynamics
Cesium neonide: Molecule or thermochemical exercise?  Blake, P. G.; Clack, D. W.
Examines the energetics of formation of hypothetical solids such as cesium neonide using a Born-Haber cycle to estimate the enthalpy of formation.
Blake, P. G.; Clack, D. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 637.
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
The mechanism of the formaldehyde clock reaction: Methylene glycol dehydration  Burnett, M. G.
Results of investigation to determine the mechanism of the formaldehyde clock reaction.
Burnett, M. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 160.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Solubility of a compound including anion interaction with the solvent  Kelly, Edward
The student is required to write all the equilibrium equations and solve numerically the full and reduced sets of equations by writing suitable computer programs.
Kelly, Edward J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 132.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Quantitative Analysis |
Equilibrium
Calculation of statistical thermodynamic properties  Vicharelli, P. A.; Collins, C. B.
25. Bits and pieces, 9. A computer program for the calculation of specific heat, entropy, enthalpy, and Gibbs free energy of polyatomic molecules.
Vicharelli, P. A.; Collins, C. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 131.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Chemometrics
Amperometric determination of phenol bromination kinetics  Cohen, R.; Matzek, C.; Schlosser, S.; Huber, C. O.
A laboratory that allows students to explore bromination substitution reactions as examples of important non-aqueous solution kinetics including the role of a catalyst, the relationship between rate laws and mechanisms, and acid-base properties.
Cohen, R.; Matzek, C.; Schlosser, S.; Huber, C. O. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 823.
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics |
Catalysis |
Electrochemistry |
Reactions
A statistical note on the time lag method for second-order kinetic rate constants  Schwartz, Lowell M.
A clever method for finding second-order kinetic rate constants by using a time lag method that avoids direct measurement of the end point reading P(infinity) can easily be programmed.
Schwartz, Lowell M. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 588.
Chemometrics |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Some kinetic aspects relevant to contemporary analytical chemistry  Mottola, Horacio A.
Fundamental concepts of kinetics tend to get diluted or ignored in contemporary treatments of the subject.
Mottola, Horacio A. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 399.
Kinetics
Chemical equilibrium  Mickey, Charles D.
The law of mass action, the equilibrium constant, and the effect of temperature, concentration, and pressure on equilibrium.
Mickey, Charles D. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 801.
Equilibrium |
Catalysis
Dissociation of a weak acid  Ladd, M. F. C.
An earlier treatment of the equilibrium of a weak acid in water gives, for certain ranges of concentration, significantly incorrect results.
Ladd, M. F. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 669.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
A simple demonstration of conformational equilibrium  Partridge, D. A.
The infrared spectra of solutions of pinacol in tetrachloromethane with different molarities are compared to identify the presence of intermolecular hydrogen-bonding.
Partridge, D. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 508.
Equilibrium |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Conformational Analysis |
Hydrogen Bonding |
IR Spectroscopy
Cobalt complexes in equilibrium  Ophardt, Charles E.
This equilibrium illustrates the application of LeChatelier's principle to concentration effects.
Ophardt, Charles E. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 453.
Equilibrium |
Coordination Compounds |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Le Châtelier's principle: A reexamination and method of graphic illustration  Treptow, Richard S.
Le Châtelier's development of the principle that bears his name, and a rephrasing of that principle to make it technically and historically accurate.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 417.
Equilibrium
A time-lag method for second-order kinetics  Espenson, James H.
Circumvents the need for a reliable endpoint for kinetic investigations of second-order reactions.
Espenson, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 160.
Kinetics
An introductory level kinetics investigation  McGarvey, J. E. B.; Knipe, A. C.
A kinetic study of the hydrolysis of 3-bromo-3-phenylpropanoic acid.
McGarvey, J. E. B.; Knipe, A. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 155.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Rossini, William Tell and the iodine clock reaction: A lecture demonstration  Brice, L. K.
The iodine clock reaction is timed to coincide with three portions of the William Tell Overture.
Brice, L. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 152.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
"To sink or swim"  O'Connor, Rod
A problem regarding the maximum water hardness that can be permitted in a swimming pool if it is desired to avoid calcite formation given the carbonate ion concentration. [Debut]
O'Connor, Rod J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 151.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents
On the misuse of Le Châtelier's principle for the prediction of the temperature dependence of the solubility of salts  Bodner, George M.
Explores why Le Châtelier's principle often fails to predict the temperature dependence of the solubility of salts.
Bodner, George M. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 117.
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Paradigms and paradoxes  Campbell, J. A.
Examines the commonly held tenets "systems tend to a minimum potential energy," "the entropy of a shuffled deck of cards is greater than that of a new deck," and "energy is the ability to do work."
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 41.
Thermodynamics
Evaluation of cation hydrolysis schemes with a pocket calculator  Clare, Brian W.
Using nonlinear regressions on a calculator to determine the stability constants of species from experimental data.
Clare, Brian W. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 784.
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Coordination Compounds
The second year course in inorganic chemistry at the free university of Amsterdam  Bolster, M. W. G.
Includes an outline of the experiments used in the course.
Bolster, M. W. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 734.
Coordination Compounds |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
IR Spectroscopy |
Magnetic Properties |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Catalysis
The kinetics of running  Larsen, Russell D.
The consideration of running as a rate process has several advantages for a student studying chemical kinetics for the first time.
Larsen, Russell D. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 651.
Kinetics |
Rate Law
"Invitation to enquiry": The Fe3+/CNS- equilibrium  Driscoll, D. R.
Adding NH4Cl should not affect the position of the reaction equilibrium, but it does. Why?
Driscoll, D. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 603.
Equilibrium |
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Bond free energies  Amador, Alberto
Provides standard free energies for the formation of common single and multiple bonds.
Amador, Alberto J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 453.
Covalent Bonding |
Thermodynamics
Compact Compacts  Huebner, Jay S.; Shiflett, R. B.; Blanck, Harvey F.
A collection of three suggestions regarding demonstrating the oxidation of hydrocarbons and the primary, secondary, and tertiary structure of proteins and the first law of thermodynamics as applied to air conditioning.
Huebner, Jay S.; Shiflett, R. B.; Blanck, Harvey F. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 389.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Proteins / Peptides |
Thermodynamics
Comments on the criterion of spontaneity  Senozan, N. M.
Draws attention to the incomplete or misleading presentations sometimes made in connection with the criteria for spontaneous reactions.
Senozan, N. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 381.
Thermodynamics
Entropy and rubbery elasticity  Nash, Leonard K.
Thermodynamic analysis of the polymeric molecules of rubber.
Nash, Leonard K. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 363.
Thermodynamics |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Statistical Mechanics
Salt effects on the hydrolysis of sucrose  Dordick, Robert S.; Clarke, George A.
Under the appropriate conditions, the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of sucrose follows pseudo-first order kinetics.
Dordick, Robert S.; Clarke, George A. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 352.
Carbohydrates |
Catalysis |
Kinetics
The hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl beta-gIucoside: An undergraduate experiment on the effect of temperature on reaction rate  Schram, Alfred. C.
The intensely colored p-nitrophenolate ion formed during basic hydrolysis allows a quick and convenient determination of the amount of product formed.
Schram, Alfred. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 351.
Kinetics |
Rate Law
A few chemical magic tricks based on the clock reaction  Shigematsu, Euchi
Three tricks based on the clock reaction involving KIO3 and NaHSO3.
Shigematsu, Euchi J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 184.
Reactions |
Kinetics
Rates of reaction - Analogies  Smith, Douglas D.
Demonstrations of / analogies for zero- and first-order reactions.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 47.
Rate Law |
Kinetics
Participatory lecture demonstrations  Battino, Rubin
Examples of participatory lecture demonstrations in chromatography, chemical kinetics, balancing equations, the gas laws, the kinetic-molecular theory, Henry's law, electronic energy levels in atoms, translational, vibrational, and rotational energies of molecules, and organic chemistry.
Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 39.
Chromatography |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Kinetics |
Stoichiometry |
Gases |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Double scales for equilibria  Chaston, S. H. H.
The acid / base, oxidant / reductant, and solid / solute scales described here can be used as visual representations of equilibria expressions.
Chaston, S. H. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 24.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solutions / Solvents |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Why green? More chemistry in the student synthesis of tris(ethylenediamine) cobalt(III) chloride  Krause, Ronald A.
What began as a "failure" in this laboratory exercise turned into a great opportunity for inquiry.
Krause, Ronald A. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 453.
Coordination Compounds |
Alcohols |
Equilibrium |
Oxidation / Reduction
Project for problem-oriented undergraduate organic or integrated undergraduate laboratory  Silveira, Augustine, Jr.
This paper reports on an open-ended project which allows a great degree of flexibility in the laboratory. The project provided about a 6-week study for groups of 24 students each.
Silveira, Augustine, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 57.
Synthesis |
Undergraduate Research |
Spectroscopy |
Diastereomers |
Addition Reactions |
MO Theory |
Elimination Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics
Lecture table experimental demonstration of entropy  Dole, Malcolm
Apparatus for demonstrating entropy that involves heating a stretched rubber band with hot steam.
Dole, Malcolm J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 754.
Thermodynamics
Approach to teaching some of the principles of environmental chemistry  Klehr, Edwin H.
Indicates how a few concepts from systems analysis can be used to integrate some of the principles of environmental chemistry.
Klehr, Edwin H. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 658.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Kinetics
The determination of the pK of the dihydrogen phosphate ion. A student experiment  Davies, I. R.; Serjeant, E. P.; Warner, A. G.
In this experiment the cell glass electrode | aqueous solution in 0.01 M NaCl | AgCl; Ag is used for the direct determination of the acidity function.
Davies, I. R.; Serjeant, E. P.; Warner, A. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 649.
Electrochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Simultaneous equilibria involving insoluble salts  Baumann, Jacob B.
This demonstration is derived from and involves the same reactions as the Mohr titration of chloride ion with silver nitrate solution using potassium chromate as an indicator.
Baumann, Jacob B. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 618.
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Free energy surfaces and transition state theory  Cruickshank, F. R.; Hyde, A. J.; Pugh, D.
130/131. Unless free energy diagrams are very precisely labeled and explained they are seriously misleading and often incorporate a major error of principle. [Note: This should be #130 in the series, as shown in the table of contents. But p. 288 shows #131. The error was not caught, so the next one in the series is #132. The present article is both #130 and #131.]
Cruickshank, F. R.; Hyde, A. J.; Pugh, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 288.
Thermodynamics
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
290-297. Eight questions regarding practical applications of chemistry, primarily in the medical field, and their answers.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 247.
Toxicology |
Equilibrium |
Metabolism |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Cycloamyloses  Bergeron, Raymond J.
Examines an unusual carbohydrate system of current interest in the hope of generating some enthusiasm for the topic.
Bergeron, Raymond J. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 204.
Carbohydrates |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Enzymes |
Spectroscopy
The Old Nassau reaction  Alyea, Hubert N.
A description of the chemistry and history of the Old Nassau reactions.
Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 167.
Kinetics |
Reactions
On mole fractions in equilibrium constants  Delaney, C. M.; Nash, Leonard K.
Proposes a hybrid equilibrium constant for use in introductory chemistry courses.
Delaney, C. M.; Nash, Leonard K. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 151.
Equilibrium |
Stoichiometry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Chemical equilibrium  Burke, Barbara A.
Demonstrates the equilibrium between blue CuSO4 and green K2(CuBr4) on an overhead projector.
Burke, Barbara A. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 29.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Computer programs for evaluating luminescence decay times  Wyker, A. T.; Demas, J. N.
To computer programs LUMEN and DECAY are written in Basic and are available for evaluating luminescence decay times.
Wyker, A. T.; Demas, J. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 656.
Photochemistry |
Kinetics |
Quantitative Analysis |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
A polarimeter experiment for introductory courses  Gibas, Murray A.
This note describes an experiment which can be done with an inexpensive polarimeter, requires only about 20 minutes per student, and yet gives results accurate enough to satisfy the students.
Gibas, Murray A. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 462.
Enantiomers |
Carbohydrates |
Equilibrium
Two examples of programmed learning in inorganic chemistry  Kaufmann-Goetz, H.; Kaufmann, G.
This paper looks to described a program allowing students in inorganic chemistry to learn individually and requiring them to reflect and participate. They go on to demonstration a simulation of the kinetic study of a chemical reaction.
Kaufmann-Goetz, H.; Kaufmann, G. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 179.
Kinetics |
Reactions
The dimerization of isobutylene: A student experiment.  Allen, M.; Joyner, C.; Kubler, P. G.; Wilcox, P.
The author shares a useful pedagogical device to have students read original literature on the dimerization of isobutylene.
Allen, M.; Joyner, C.; Kubler, P. G.; Wilcox, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 175.
Thermodynamics
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
203-205. Three chemistry questions and their answers.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 587.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Collision and transition state theory approaches to acid-base catalysis  Dunford, H. B.
Shows that the description of acid-catalyzed chemical reactions in terms of transition state acid dissociation constants is formally equivalent to the collision theory approach, in which dissociation constants of acid groups on initial reactants are utilized.
Dunford, H. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 578.
Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Kinetics |
Equilibrium
Fading of bromophenol blue. A combined synthesis and spectrophotometric kinetics experiment  Winans, Randall; Brown, Charles Allan
An experimental sequence involving the synthesis of phenosulfonphthalein, bromination of this to give bromophenol blue, and study of the fading of the latter in a strongly alkaline medium.
Winans, Randall; Brown, Charles Allan J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 526.
Dyes / Pigments |
Synthesis |
Kinetics |
Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis
Chemiluminescence. An illuminating experiment  Gafney, Harry D.; Adamson, Arthur W.
Examines the bright chemiluminescenct reaction between trisbipyridalruthenium(III) and sodium borohydride.
Gafney, Harry D.; Adamson, Arthur W. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 480.
Photochemistry |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Coordination Compounds
Maximizing profits in equilibrium processes  Rish, Ronald J.
Provides the student with an example in which both chemical principles and calculus are applied to a realistic industrial situation where profits are a must.
Rish, Ronald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 441.
Equilibrium |
Industrial Chemistry |
Chemometrics
Aluminothermic reduction. An illustrative experiment  Espelund, A. W.
The thermite reaction can be made into a very illustrative experiment, involving some typical calculations in high-temperature physical chemistry.
Espelund, A. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 400.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Reactions |
Thermodynamics
Capillary flow. A versatile analog for chemical kinetics  Davenport, Derek A.
A number of novel ways in which capillary flow can be used as a mechanical analog for chemical kinetics.
Davenport, Derek A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 379.
Kinetics
Molar solubility calculations and the control equilibrium  Chaston, S. H. H.
The Control-Equilibrium method uses as its starting point a precise procedure for obtaining the equilibrium that accounts for the bulk of the decomposition of starting materials.
Chaston, S. H. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 206.
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics |
Equilibrium
Content and context. Entropy principle experiments in a course for non- science students  Bell, Jerry A.
An approach that aims to give students a feel for the concept of entropy and how to analyze natural events to see entropic control.
Bell, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 182.
Thermodynamics |
Nonmajor Courses
P-Chem crossword puzzle  Snead, Claybourne C.
A physical chemistry crossword puzzle. The answer from p. 174 is reproduced in this PDF.
Snead, Claybourne C. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 158.
Thermodynamics
The mercury-water system. A deviation from Raoult's Law  Sanders, M. L.; Beckett, R. R.
Mercury covered with a layer of water will continue to vaporize and escape as if the water were not even there.
Sanders, M. L.; Beckett, R. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 117.
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
Kinetics simulation program  Breneman, G. L.
A Basic program that simulates the spectrophotometric study of a reaction and allows the determination of rate law values from absorbance data.
Breneman, G. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 106.
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Thermodynamics, folk culture, and poetry  Smith, Wayne L.
The principles of the first, second, and third laws of thermodynamics are illustrated in songs and poems.
Smith, Wayne L. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 97.
Thermodynamics
Heterogeneous catalysis: Resin-catalyzed saponification of methyl acetate  Nieto, Alberto
An experiment designed to illustrate a heterogeneous catalyzed reaction with a soluble acid.
Nieto, Alberto J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 846.
Catalysis |
Kinetics
Polymerization as a model chain reaction  Morton, Maurice
The building of long chain macromolecules offers the best opportunity for the study of chain reactions and the free radical mechanism.
Morton, Maurice J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 740.
Conferences |
Professional Development |
Polymerization |
Reactions |
Free Radicals |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Lecture experiment: A quantitative illustration of LeChatelier's principle  Nelson, D. L.; Ginns, E. I.; Richtol, H. H.; Reeves, R. R.
A short experiment involving the popular gaseous nitrogen dioxide system has been developed into a lecture demonstration which quantitatively illustrates the behavior of a homogeneous gas-phase equilibrium under conditions of varying temperature and pressure.
Nelson, D. L.; Ginns, E. I.; Richtol, H. H.; Reeves, R. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 721.
Equilibrium |
Gases
A stabilized linear direct reading conductance apparatus. The solvolysis of t-butyl chloride  Cyr, T.; Prudhomme, J.; Zador, M.
A simple ac conductivity apparatus for experiments in chemical kinetics is described; the instrument is sufficiently reliable that it can be used by first year students and assembled in a few hours.
Cyr, T.; Prudhomme, J.; Zador, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 572.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Kinetics
Recrystallization: unexpected behavior. An undergraduate organic demonstration or experiment  Lilje, Kenneth C.; Macomber, R. S.
A simple method for providing a demonstration of an exception to the rule that solubility increases with temperature.
Lilje, Kenneth C.; Macomber, R. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 567.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics
An oscillating iodine clock  Briggs, Thomas S.; Rauscher, Warren C.
An oscillating iodine clock reaction that gives striking cyclic changes from colorless to gold to blue using simple reagents.
Briggs, Thomas S.; Rauscher, Warren C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 496.
Reactions |
Kinetics
Lewis acid-base equilibria. An undergraduate laboratory experiment  Brice, L. K.
Describes an experiment involving the spectrophotometric determination of formation constants of Lewis adducts formed between metal halides and organic bases in diethyl ether as a solvent.
Brice, L. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 430.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Quantitative Analysis
Scuba diving and the gas laws  Cooke, E. D.; Baranowski, Conrad
Three illustrations of physical-chemical principles drawn from scuba diving.
Cooke, E. D.; Baranowski, Conrad J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 425.
Gases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Thermodynamics
Cooking Succulent Roasts  Plumb, Robert C.; Davis, Adelle
Allowing a roast to gradually warm to the desired internal temperature produces superior results.
Plumb, Robert C.; Davis, Adelle J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 425.
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
Kinetics |
Equilibrium |
Rate Law |
Applications of Chemistry
Cooking Succulent Roasts  Plumb, Robert C.; Davis, Adelle
Allowing a roast to gradually warm to the desired internal temperature produces superior results.
Plumb, Robert C.; Davis, Adelle J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 425.
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
Kinetics |
Equilibrium |
Rate Law |
Applications of Chemistry
The equilibrium between a solid solution and an aqueous solution of its ions  Berndt, Alan F.; Stearns, Robert I.
It is the purpose of this paper to present the equations that describe the equilibrium between solid solutions and their ions and to outline methods for their derivation.
Berndt, Alan F.; Stearns, Robert I. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 415.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Footnote to the house heating exemplum  Plumb, Robert C.; Campbell, J. A.
Offers a simple proof regarding an earlier column.
Plumb, Robert C.; Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 365.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
The first law. For scientists, citizens, poets and philosophers  Bent, Henry A.
Practical experiences and phenomena that serve to illustrate the first law of thermodynamics.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 323.
Thermodynamics
Physical chemistry of the drinking duck  Plumb, Robert C.; Wagner, Robert E.
The operation of the drinking bird is easily understood in terms of a few elementary physical chemistry principles.
Plumb, Robert C.; Wagner, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 213.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Equilibrium
Stomach upset caused by aspirin  Hobey, William D.; Davenport, Horace W.
The chemistry behind the slight damage that aspirin causes to the lining of the stomach.
Hobey, William D.; Davenport, Horace W. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 212.
Acids / Bases |
Solid State Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Equilibrium |
Consumer Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Lipids
On thermodynamics of solution by gas-liquid chromatography  Meyer, Edwin F.
Discusses the standard and reference states commonly used in glc, and suggests the use of a more straightforward set of states for the evaluation of standard free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of solution when measured via glc.
Meyer, Edwin F. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 191.
Thermodynamics |
Solutions / Solvents |
Gas Chromatography |
Chromatography
Enthalpy and entropy of evaporation from measured vapor pressure using a programmable desk calculator  McEachern, Douglas M.
A program for a calculator that calculates the heat of evaporation of a solid or a liquid and the corresponding entropy change.
McEachern, Douglas M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 190.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Chemometrics
Auto windows - Strong but self-destructing  Stookey, S. D.
Auto windowglass illustrates the principles of metastable equilibrium.
Stookey, S. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 131.
Applications of Chemistry |
Solids |
Equilibrium
LeChatelier's principle and a rubber band  DeLorenzo, Ronald
The cited demonstration can also be sued to illustrate LeChatelier's principle .
DeLorenzo, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 124.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
Ions in aqueous systems. An introduction to chemical equilibrium and solution chemistry (Moeller, Therald)  Guenther, W. B.

Guenther, W. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A697.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Qualitative Analysis
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
Seven questions requiring the application of basic principles of chemistry.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 769.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Applications of Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Gases |
Astrochemistry
Pseudo first-order kinetics  Corbett, John F.
A kinetic study of second-order reactions under first-order conditions can yield accurate second-order rate constants provided an empirical allowance is made for the depletion of the reactant in excess.
Corbett, John F. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 663.
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Rate Law
The solubility of sodium acetate in water and LeChatelier's principle  Mazo, Robert M.; Barnhard, Ralph
Resolves the apparent anomaly between the solubility of anhydrous sodium acetate in water as a function of temperature and the exothermic nature of this process.
Mazo, Robert M.; Barnhard, Ralph J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 639.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Equilibrium |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
Durable chrome plating  Plumb, Robert C.; Saur, Roger L.
How chrome plating works to protect bumpers from corrosion.
Plumb, Robert C.; Saur, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 626.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry |
Kinetics
Durable chrome plating  Plumb, Robert C.; Saur, Roger L.
How chrome plating works to protect bumpers from corrosion.
Plumb, Robert C.; Saur, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 626.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry |
Kinetics
Passage of fruit flies through a hole. A model for a reversible chemical reaction  Runquist, Elizabeth A.; Runquist, Olaf
The passage of fruit flies through a single orifice provides an excellent model for illustrating the principles of equilibrium and chemical dynamics; the results are found to be temperature dependent and reproducible.
Runquist, Elizabeth A.; Runquist, Olaf J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 534.
Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
The design and use of an equilibrium machine  Alden, Robert T.; Schmuckler, Joseph S.
An operating model that can be used to determine quantitatively equilibrium shifts when demonstrating Le Chatelier's Principle and relates to molecular level considerations and the probabilistic nature of equilibrium.
Alden, Robert T.; Schmuckler, Joseph S. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 509.
Equilibrium
Entropy and a rubber band  Laswick, Patty Hall
A temperature change is noted when a rubber band held against the cheek is stretched and then released.
Laswick, Patty Hall J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 469.
Thermodynamics
Silver equilibria via cell measurements. A quantitative laboratory experiment  Ramette, Richard W.
The purpose of this experiment is to determine the equilibrium constants for the chloride, ammonia, and bromide complexes, and to deduce the formula for the ammonia complex.
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 423.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Equilibrium |
Quantitative Analysis
Acid and base catalyzed isomerization of 5-cholesten-3-one. An experiment in UV/kinetics  Dimmel, Donald R.; McKinney, Michael A.
This experiment is designed to introduce the student to the principles of ultraviolet spectroscopy and point out its application to following the rate of a chemical change; the experiment also clearly demonstrates that a conjugated system is thermodynamically more stable than a nonconjugated system.
Dimmel, Donald R.; McKinney, Michael A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 373.
Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Reactivity ratios from copolymerization kinetics. A quantitative gas-liquid chromatography experiment  Mukatis, W. A.; Ohl, Temple
Gas-liquid chromatography is used to follow the rate of disappearance of two monomers as they polymerize.
Mukatis, W. A.; Ohl, Temple J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 367.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Polymerization |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
Five questions requiring an application of basic chemical principles.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 328.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Applications of Chemistry |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Mass Spectrometry |
Isotopes
Squeak, skid and glide - The unusual properties of snow and ice  Plumb, Robert C.; Fletcher, N. H.
The Clapeyron equation controls the behavior of ice under varying conditions of temperature and pressure.
Plumb, Robert C.; Fletcher, N. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 179.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Equilibrium
Squeak, skid and glide - The unusual properties of snow and ice  Plumb, Robert C.; Fletcher, N. H.
The Clapeyron equation controls the behavior of ice under varying conditions of temperature and pressure.
Plumb, Robert C.; Fletcher, N. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 179.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Equilibrium
The effervescence of ocean surf  Plumb, Robert C.; Blanchard, Duncan C.; Bilofsky, Howard S.; Bridgman, Wilbur B.
A pure liquid will not foam, but all true solutions will, as dictated by the fundamental concepts of surface thermodynamics enunciated by Gibbs.
Plumb, Robert C.; Blanchard, Duncan C.; Bilofsky, Howard S.; Bridgman, Wilbur B. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 29.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics
Miscellanea No. 6  Eberhardt, W. H.
A collection of clarified, underemphasized, and misunderstood topics, including cell electromotive force and disproportionate reactions; partially miscible liquids and upper consolute temperatures; enthalpy and free energy of formation; and magnetic moment.
Eberhardt, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 829.
Electrochemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics |
Magnetic Properties
Preparation and properties of a series of cobalt(II) complexes. An undergraduate laboratory investigation  King, H. C. A.
The series of cobalt II complexes described in the present paper is ideally suited to provide not only a demonstration of the influence of ligand field strength on the spectra of transition metal complexes and the use of magnetic measurements in structure determination, but also an excellent example of configuration equilibria in solution.
King, H. C. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 482.
Coordination Compounds |
Equilibrium |
Transition Elements
Kinetic versus thermodynamic control. An organic chemistry experiment  McGrew, LeRoy A.; Kruger, T. L.
The authors report an experiment which does not involve the competition of different starting materials for a common reagent, but rather one in which a kinetically-controlled and a thermodynamically-controlled products may be obtained from exactly the same starting materials. The experiment has the added advantage of illustrating certain principles of the use of infrared and ultraviolet spectra for the identification of compounds of similar structures.
McGrew, LeRoy A.; Kruger, T. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 400.
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics
Mechanistic implications and ambiguities in rate laws  Birk, James P.
Uses electrical analogs to reaction rates and presents a series of reactions that illustrate different mechanistic patterns.
Birk, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 805.
Rate Law |
Kinetics
Fast reactions: Rapid mixing and concentration jump experiments  Patel, Ramesh C.; Atkinson, Gordon; Boe, R. J.
Describes three experiments: the rate determination of dehydration of carbonic acid, the concentration jump experiment on carbonic acid, and the concentration jump experiment on pyruvic acid.
Patel, Ramesh C.; Atkinson, Gordon; Boe, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 800.
Rate Law |
Kinetics
Kinetics as an introductory course  Beatty, James W.; Powers, Jack W.; Scamehorn, Richard G.
Describes an introductory course entitled "Reaction Kinetics and the Mechanisms of Reactions."
Beatty, James W.; Powers, Jack W.; Scamehorn, Richard G. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 797.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Hydrolysis of benzenediazonium ion  Sheats, John E.; Harbison, Kenneth G.
Presents a more convenient approach to studying the kinetics of the hydrolysis of benzenediazonium ion.
Sheats, John E.; Harbison, Kenneth G. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 779.
Aromatic Compounds |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Kinetics
Analogies between chemical and mechanical equilibria  Canagaratna, S. G.; Selvaratnam, M.
The authors show that the concept of chemical equilibrium can, with advantage, be presented by drawing analogies with mechanical equilibria that students should be familiar with.
Canagaratna, S. G.; Selvaratnam, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 759.
Equilibrium
So-called zeroth law of thermodynamics  Redlich, Otto
The "zeroth law of thermodynamics" elucidates the difference between the axiomatic and the epistemological method; it is neither a law nor a statement of fact but a guideline for checking our description of nature.
Redlich, Otto J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 740.
Thermodynamics
An alternative to free energy for undergraduate instruction  Strong, Laurence E.; Halliwell, H. Frank
It is the purpose of this paper to question the usefulness of the Gibbs function for the student and to propose an alternative based on the use of entropy functions that help the student to focus more sharply on the features of a system that relate to its capacity to change.
Strong, Laurence E.; Halliwell, H. Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 347.
Thermodynamics
The second law - How much, how soon, to how many?  Bent, Henry A.
Discussion of the conceptual components of thermodynamics, their mathematical requirements, and where they might be best placed in the curriculum.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 337.
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Sealed tube experiments  Campbell, J. A.
Lists and briefly describes a large set of "sealed tube experiments," each of which requires less than five minutes to set-up and clean-up, requires less than five minutes to run, provides dramatic results observable by a large class, and illustrates important chemical concepts.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 273.
Thermodynamics |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Liquids |
Gases |
Rate Law |
Equilibrium
Equivalence point potential in redox titrations  Heyn, Arno H. A.
Many analytical chemistry textbooks ignore or mistake the effect of [H+] on the equivalence point potential.
Heyn, Arno H. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 240.
Electrochemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases |
Solutions / Solvents
An unusual solution-surface phenomenon  Williams, Hulen B.
Explaining the spontaneous arrangement of highly surface active agents such as natural gums into very small rings.
Williams, Hulen B. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 230.
Surface Science |
Thermodynamics |
Solid State Chemistry
Ratio diagrams: A simple graphical representation of complicated equilibria  de Levie, R.
Introduces and demonstrates the usefulness and general applicability of ratio diagrams as the simplest graphical representation of equilibria involving mononuclear species.
de Levie, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 187.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
The effects of chloride ion and temperature on lead chloride solubility: A versatile quantitative experiment  West, Allen C.
The experiment described in this paper emphasizes quantitative technique and introduces complexometric titrations, elementary statistics describing precision and its measurement, ion activities and activity coefficients, free energy and equilibrium, a thermodynamic picture of the solution process, and the solubility product principle and its limitations.
West, Allen C. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 773.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics |
Thermodynamics |
Solutions / Solvents
The pKa of a weak acid as a function of temperature and ionic strength: An experiment using a pH meter  Bada, Jeffrey L.
This report presents a procedure for using a pH meter to determine the pKa of a weak acid as a function of temperature and ionic strength.
Bada, Jeffrey L. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 689.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Equilibrium
Correlation of composition of acid solutions with activity and acidity functions  O'Connor, Charmian J.
Presents correlation tables of percentage composition with molarity, molality, activity coefficient, water activity, and Hammett Acidity function for aqueous solutions of hydrochloric, perchloric, phosphoric, and sulfuric acids.
O'Connor, Charmian J. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 686.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Kinetics
Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; House, J. E., Jr.; Campbell, J. A.
(1) When is the rule valid that the rate of reaction approximately doubles with a ten-degree temperature rise? - answer by House. (2) On the colors of transition metal complexes. (3) On an electrolysis experiment in which an acid solution is used to minimize the hydrolysis of Cu 2+. - answer by Campbell.
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; House, J. E., Jr.; Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 674.
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Transition Elements |
Coordination Compounds |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Acids / Bases
The effect of cations on the thermal decomposition of salts with oxyanions: A semi-empirical correlation  Stern, Kurt H.
It is the purpose of this paper to reexamine the stability problem in a more quantitative way than has been previously done, particularly be examining relations between measures of thermal stability and ionic properties.
Stern, Kurt H. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 645.
Thermodynamics
Encounters and slow reactions  Langford, Copper H.
This paper reviews the formation of a metal ion and a ligand in a mechanistic language, as much derived from the collision theory as from transition state theory.
Langford, Copper H. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 557.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Metals |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Coordination Compounds |
Solutions / Solvents
A distribution experiment  Campbell, J. A.; Nelson, Douglas; Rudesill, John
An experiment to determine the distribution coefficient of an acid between an aqueous and nonaqueous phase.
Campbell, J. A.; Nelson, Douglas; Rudesill, John J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 454.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
The principle of exponential change: Applications in chemistry, biochemistry, and radioactivity  Green, Frank O.
Examines the nature of exponential change and its applications to chemistry, biochemistry, and radioactivity, including radioactive decay, enzyme kinetics, colorimetry, spectrophotometry, and first order reaction kinetics.
Green, Frank O. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 451.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Kinetics |
Enzymes |
Spectroscopy
Hydrolysis of group IV chlorides: A laboratory experiment  Yoder, Claude H.
This experiment involves the determination of the relative extent and rates as well as the products of the hydrolyses of trimethylchlorosilane and trimethylchloromethane.
Yoder, Claude H. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 382.
Equilibrium |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics
Quantities of work in thermodynamic equations  Wright, P. G.
Examines distinctions to be made between work done by forces exerted by external bodies and acting on a system with work done by forces exerted by the system on external bodies.
Wright, P. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 380.
Thermodynamics
Kinetics of fast brominations: A potentiometric study  Burgess, A. E.; Latham, J. L.
Demonstrates that the kinetics of fast reactions such as the bromination of phenols in aqueous solution are easily determined by a simple potentiometric technique.
Burgess, A. E.; Latham, J. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 370.
Kinetics |
Electrochemistry |
Rate Law
Kinetic rate equations  Ganesen, L. R.
Illustrates the integration of a kinetic rate equation.
Ganesen, L. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 226.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Chemometrics
Kinetics of condensation polymerization: Preparation of a polyester  McCaffery, Edward L.
This experiment involves determining the reaction-rate constant for a condensation polymerization.
McCaffery, Edward L. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 59.
Kinetics |
Polymerization |
Synthesis |
Esters |
Rate Law
The thermal decomposition of 2,5-dihydrofuran vapor: An experiment in gas kinetics  Rubin, Jay A.; Filseth, Stephen V.
Describes an experiment designed to illustrate manipulations with a vacuum system and the conduct of kinetic measurements.
Rubin, Jay A.; Filseth, Stephen V. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 57.
Kinetics |
Gases
Kinetics of Chemical Processes (Boudart, Michel)  Kieffer, William F.

Kieffer, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 814.
Kinetics
Rapid graphical method for determining formation constants  Christian, Sherril D.
This paper presents a rapid graphical method for determining formation constants and absorptivities of 1:1 complexes in dilute solution.
Christian, Sherril D. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 713.
Equilibrium
Acid-base indicators: An experiment in aqueous equilibria  Brown, William E.; Campbell, J. A.
Examines absorbtivity values for six acid-base indicators under various conditions.
Brown, William E.; Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 674.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Dyes / Pigments
The kinetics of oxidation-reduction reactions: An alternate derivation of Marcus' cross relation  Newton, T. W.
The purpose of this article is to show how Marcus' cross relation can be derived from a simple, essentially mechanical model.
Newton, T. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 571.
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Calcium carbonate equilibria in lakes  Morton, Stephen D.; Lee, G. Fred
Discusses some of the problems encountered in studying the chemistry of lakes and oceans, focussing on the solubility of calcium carbonate in fresh water lakes.
Morton, Stephen D.; Lee, G. Fred J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 511.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Equilibrium
Le Chtelier and ionic equilibria  Ringbom, Anders
When s solution contains several weak acids, the squares of the separately calculated hydrogen ion concentrations of all weak acids in the solution are additive.
Ringbom, Anders J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 442.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents
Probabilistic derivation of the kinetic rate equations  Lee, Tieh-Sheng; Kuffner, Roy J.
The use of the probabilistic approach is readily applicable to reaction kinetics if one considers the probability of the survival of the reactant molecule instead of the survival of a radioactive nucleus.
Lee, Tieh-Sheng; Kuffner, Roy J. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 430.
Kinetics
Why does methane burn?  Sanderson, R. T.
A thermodynamic explanation for why methane burns.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 423.
Thermodynamics |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
Energy cycles  Haight, G. P., Jr.
Points out limitations and potential pitfalls associated with the use energy cycles to show the atomic and molecular energy factors that may influence an observable chemical property.
Haight, G. P., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 420.
Thermodynamics
Bimolecular nucleophilic displacement reactions  Edwards, John O.
The bimolecular nucleophilic displacement reaction is important and should be included in any detailed discussion of kinetics and mechanism at an early undergraduate level.
Edwards, John O. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 386.
Reactions |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
From stoichiometry and rate law to mechanism  Edwards, John O.; Greene, Edward F.; Ross, John
Examines the rules used by chemists as guidelines in developing mechanisms from stoichiometric and rate law observations.
Edwards, John O.; Greene, Edward F.; Ross, John J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 381.
Stoichiometry |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Reactive Intermediates
Chemical reaction cross sections and rate constants  Kuppermann, A.; Greene, E. F.
Examines bimolecular collisions in a gas and the collision cross section; reaction rates and cross sections for chemical reactions; calculations of reaction cross sections; and experimental methods for the determination of reaction cross sections.
Kuppermann, A.; Greene, E. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 361.
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Recent developments in theoretical chemical kinetics  Marcus, R. A.
Examines some of the recent experiments, topics, and questions in theoretical kinetics.
Marcus, R. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 356.
Theoretical Chemistry |
Kinetics
Chromic acid oxidation of alcohols: A simple experiment on reaction rates  Lanes, Rose M.; Lee, Donald G.
In this experiment, students determine the relative rates of oxidation by adding quantities of several different alcohols to a solution of chromium(VI) in dilute sulfuric acid and visually monitoring the course of the reaction.
Lanes, Rose M.; Lee, Donald G. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 269.
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Acids / Bases |
Alcohols
Is ?S naught or not?, part II: Five thermodynamicists comment  Campbell, J. A.
Five thermodynamicists comment on the question, Is ?S naught or not?
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 244.
Thermodynamics
The standard free energies of solution of anhydrous salts in water  Johnson, D. A.
In this paper, factors contributing to the variations in the ?G values for certain series of anhydrous salts are examined with the aid of a much simplified, semiempirical model.
Johnson, D. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 236.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Precipitation / Solubility
The ion product constant of water: Thermodynamics of water ionization  Clever, H. Lawrence
Examines the determination of water ion product constants and summarizes their values.
Clever, H. Lawrence J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 231.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Thermodynamics
The comparison of stability constants  Agterdenbos, J.
In some texts, the stability of complexes with polydentate ligands is done incorrectly by comparing the numerical value of the stability constant with the numerical value of the overall constant of the fully coordinated unidentate complex.
Agterdenbos, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 230.
Coordination Compounds |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Equilibrium
Biological oxidations and energy conservation  Kirschbaum, Joel
Examines the oxidative steps leading to the synthesis of ATP in living organisms and their metabolic control.
Kirschbaum, Joel J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 28.
Bioenergetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics |
Metabolism
Instantaneous precipitation from homogeneous solution  Hiskey, C. F.; Cantwell, F. F.
Procedure for the iodine clock reaction.
Hiskey, C. F.; Cantwell, F. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A727.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Kinetics
Chemical kinetics; The metalloids; The noble gases (Harris, Gordon M.; Rochow, Eugene G.; Claassen, Howard H.)  Birdwhistell, R. K.

Birdwhistell, R. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A663.
Kinetics |
Metalloids / Semimetals |
Gases |
Nonmetals
Reaction rates and equilibria. D. Redox  Klug, Evangeline B.
Sugar + chlorate + acid produces an exothermic reaction using a violent oxidizing agent.
Klug, Evangeline B. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A545.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Equilibrium
Reaction rates and equilibria. C. Equilibrium   Slabaugh, W. H.; Jackman, Kenneth V.
Demonstrations of the effect of temperature on equilibrium include shifting equilibrium by heating and cooling phosphorous pentabromide and cobalt complexes.
Slabaugh, W. H.; Jackman, Kenneth V. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A545.
Equilibrium
Reaction Rates and Equilibria A. Rate of Reaction 1. Effect of concentration  Cooper, Edwin H., Alyea, Hubert N.
Demonstrations of the effect of concentration on the rate of a reaction include H2O2+Cu(NH3)4++, Zn+acid, and the "long delay" iodine clock reaction.
Cooper, Edwin H., Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A274.
Reactions |
Rate Law |
Kinetics
Energy E. Mechanical Energy   Owens, Charles
A steam engine demonstrates the transformation of heat into motion.
Owens, Charles J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A273.
Thermodynamics
Reaction rate analysis and instrumentation: An experiment for the analytical laboratory  Pardue, Harry L.; Burke, Michael F.; Jones, David O.
This experiment exemplifies the use of operational amplifiers for measurement and analog computation in determining the glucose utilizing glucose enzyme.
Pardue, Harry L.; Burke, Michael F.; Jones, David O. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 684.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Catalysis |
Enzymes |
Carbohydrates
Le Chtelier's principle and rigorous ionic equilibria equations  Goldman, James A.
Presents an approach, exemplified by acid-base and solubility equilibria, that relates the concept of Le Chtelier's principle to rigorous ionic equilibria equations.
Goldman, James A. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 658.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Letter to the editor  Lielmezs, J.
Comments regarding the use of negative absolute temperatures.
Lielmezs, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 622.
Thermodynamics
Unimolecular gas reactions at low pressures  Perlmutter-Hayman, Berta
Discusses potential student confusion regarding the kinetics of unimolecular gas reactions at low pressures.
Perlmutter-Hayman, Berta J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 605.
Gases |
Reactions |
Kinetics
A simple analogy of the relationship of ?G to the position of equilibrium  Marks, D. J.
This short note describes a simple demonstration to serve as an analogy of the relationship of ?G to the position of equilibrium.
Marks, D. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 402.
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium
Kinetics of inorganic reactions (Sykes, A. G.)  Duke, Frederick R.

Duke, Frederick R. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 374.
Kinetics
Analytical chemistry: A kinetic viewpoint. A new approach to undergraduate instruction  Rechnitz, Garry A.
Identifies analytical topics and laboratory experiments suited to consideration from a kinetic perspective.
Rechnitz, Garry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 317.
Kinetics
Alcohols to alkyl halides: A kinetics experiment for elementary chemistry courses  Cooley, J. H.; McCown, J. D.; Shill, R. M.
The rate measurement in this procedure is accomplished by direct observation of the change in length or volume of the insoluble layer of an alkyl bromide that is formed from a mixture of alcohol, hydrobromic acid, and sulfuric acid.
Cooley, J. H.; McCown, J. D.; Shill, R. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 280.
Alcohols |
Synthesis |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Determination of glucose: A kinetics experiment for the analytical course  Toren, E. Clifford, Jr.
This determination of glucose demonstrates both kinetic and enzymatic methods of analysis.
Toren, E. Clifford, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 172.
Quantitative Analysis |
Carbohydrates |
Kinetics |
Enzymes
Textbooks errors. Miscellanea no. 5  Mysels, Karol J.
Considers inconsistencies in the units involved in thermodynamic expressions, incorrect units given for equivalent conductivity, oscillations in polargraphic measurements, and inconsistencies in dealing with catalysis.
Mysels, Karol J. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 44.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Thermodynamics |
Catalysis
Lectures on Matter and Equilibrium (Hill, Terrell L.)  Rosenburg, Robert

Rosenburg, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A1086.
Thermodynamics |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Chemical Principles in Calculations of Ionic Equilibria: Solution Theory for General Chemistry, Qualitative Analysis, and Quantitative Analysis (Margolis, Emil J.)  Whiteker, Roy A.

Whiteker, Roy A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 684.
Equilibrium |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents
Hard sphere simulation of statistical mechanical behavior of molecules  Plumb, Robert C.
Describes the design and use of a demonstration device to illustrate the kinetic behavior of gases, liquids, and solids.
Plumb, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 648.
Statistical Mechanics |
Gases |
Liquids |
Solids |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Equilibrium |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A demonstration and exercise in simultaneous equilibria  Carrano, S. A.; Zompa, L. J.; Chen, Karl A.
Through this one chemical analysis, the student may be introduced to and become involved with as many as eleven fundamental equilibria and their corresponding equilibrium constants.
Carrano, S. A.; Zompa, L. J.; Chen, Karl A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 603.
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The fundamental assumptions of chemical thermodynamics  MacRae, Duncan
Examines the fundamental terms, definitions, and assumptions of chemical thermodynamics.
MacRae, Duncan J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 586.
Thermodynamics
Kinetic theory, temperature, and equilibrium  Carpenter, Dewey K.
Statements of the relationship of the postulates of the kinetic theory of gases to the concept of temperature and discussions of the molecular basis for the general validity of a proportionality between the mean molecular kinetic energy and the absolute temperature in systems at equilibrium may give a misleading impression about the status of temperature.
Carpenter, Dewey K. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 332.
Equilibrium |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases
Bromination of alkanes: Experiment illustrating relative reactivities and synthetic utility  Warkentin, J.
The radical halogenation of alkanes lend themselves well to the teaching of basic material such as bond dissociation energies, potential energy profiles, enthalpy of reaction, activation energy, and reaction rate.
Warkentin, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 331.
Electrochemistry |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Synthesis |
Alkenes |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Free Radicals
The enigmatic polymorphism of iron  Myers, Clifford E.
Unusual and nontypical, elemental iron can provide the impetus for discussing important chemical principles and properties, including basic thermodynamic concepts and the phenomenon and theory of ferromagnetism.
Myers, Clifford E. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 303.
Thermodynamics |
Magnetic Properties
Versatile magnetic stirrer and flexible coupler  Warkentin, J.
Describes a versatile magnetic stirrer and flexible coupler connected to a vacuum line that can be used to determine reaction rates by monitoring gas volume as a function of time.
Warkentin, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 265.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
A kinetic theory dilemma?  Kittsley, Scott L.
Considers, "What fraction of the molecules in a perfect monatomic gas at one atm and 25C has a velocity equal to zero at a given instant?"
Kittsley, Scott L. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 249.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases |
Thermodynamics
Work in irreversible expansions  Kivelson, Daniel; Oppenheim, Irwin
Presents some examples of the expansion and compression of gases that illustrate work, irreversible processes, and the specifications of a system.
Kivelson, Daniel; Oppenheim, Irwin J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 233.
Thermodynamics
The use and misuse of the laws of thermodynamics  McGlashan, M. L.
Examines the first and second laws, the usefulness of thermodynamics, the calculation of equilibrium constants, and what entropy does not mean.
McGlashan, M. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 226.
Thermodynamics
The use of oxidation potentials in inorganic chemistry  Jolly, William L.
This paper attempts to show, using a minimum of thermodynamics, how oxidation potentials can be used to predict the products and driving forces of oxidation-reduction reactions.
Jolly, William L. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 198.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Thermodynamics
Demonstrating concepts of statistical thermodynamics: More on the Maxwell Demon bottle  Sussman, M. V.
The Maxwell Demon bottle can illustrate the nature of entropy, the difference between a work effect and a heat effect, the difference between reversible and irreversible work effects, the mechanical equivalent of heat, and similar intangibles.
Sussman, M. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 105.
Thermodynamics
Electrode potentials  Shombert, Donald
Changes in the potential observed for two Daniell cells are due to changes in ion concentrations.
Shombert, Donald J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A215.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium
A computer program for use in teaching chemical equilibrium  Zajicek, O. T.
Describes a computer program for use in teaching chemical equilibrium.
Zajicek, O. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 622.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
pH
The ionization of polyhydric acids: Numerical results for phosphoric acid  Cooke, S. L., Jr.
Presents calculated ionization values for phosphoric acid across the normal aqueous pH range.
Cooke, S. L., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 620.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium
When to approximate  Meeks, Frank R.
Presents approximation criteria for simple and two "step" equilibria.
Meeks, Frank R. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 609.
Chemometrics |
Equilibrium
Reaction mechanisms in organic chemistry. I. The experimental approach  Caserio, Marjorie C.
Reviews a variety of method that may be employed to determine the mechanism of organic reactions.
Caserio, Marjorie C. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 570.
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactive Intermediates |
Kinetics |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Addition Reactions |
Elimination Reactions
Device for measuring instantaneous rates of gas-evolving reactions  Steiner, Edwin C.; Hartzell, Gordon E.
Presents a device for measuring instantaneous rates of gas-evolving reactions that relies on a hypodermic syringe capable of responding to extremely small pressure changes.
Steiner, Edwin C.; Hartzell, Gordon E. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 559.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Reactions |
Rate Law |
Kinetics
Effect of amine structure on the relative acidity of conjugate acids  Griswold, Robert E.
the primary objectives of this experiment are to investigate the effect of structure of amines on the relative acidity of their conjugate acids and to study some of the factors affecting equilibrium constants.
Griswold, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 483.
Acids / Bases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Equilibrium |
pH
Solvent effect on the keto-enol equilibrium of acetoacetic ester  Lockwood, Karl L.
The purpose of the investigation is to introduce students to some of the factors that influence an equilibrium constant.
Lockwood, Karl L. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 481.
Solutions / Solvents |
Equilibrium
Formation of the chromium-EDTA complex: An undergraduate kinetics experiment  Hedrick, C. E.
The formation of the chromium-EDTA complex serves as the basis for a kinetics experiment in analytical chemistry.
Hedrick, C. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 479.
Coordination Compounds |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Applying a steady state approach to polarography  Mason, John G.
The application of a simple steady-state rate treatment requires very little mathematics and offers much insight into polargraphic processes in particular and electrochemical processes in general.
Mason, John G. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 333.
Quantitative Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Definition of variable-volume and constant-volume reaction rates  Peters, Max S.; Skorpinski, Edward J.
Examines disagreements regarding the fundamental definition of the reaction-rate expressions.
Peters, Max S.; Skorpinski, Edward J. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 329.
Rate Law |
Kinetics
Kinetics of corrosion of metals  Habashi, Fathi
It is the purpose of this paper to report that all corrosion processes that produce no insoluble end products and evolve hydrogen follow a single kinetic law.
Habashi, Fathi J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 318.
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Kinetics
A thermodynamic dilemma?  Smith, Norman O.
Readers are challenged to detect the fallacy in a short thermodynamic argument.
Smith, Norman O. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 301.
Thermodynamics
Introduction to computer use: Programs for first order rate constants  Casanova, Joseph, Jr.; Weaver, E. R.
This article presents a simple but versatile computer program for the calculation of first order and pseudo-first order rate constants and least squares.
Casanova, Joseph, Jr.; Weaver, E. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 137.
Kinetics |
Chemometrics
General digital computer program for chemical equilibrium calculations  Bard, Allen J.; King, Donald M.
The aim of this work is to show how a general digital computer program for solving equilibrium problems could be formulated.
Bard, Allen J.; King, Donald M. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 127.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Teaching ionic equilibrium: Use of log chart transparencies  Freiser, Henry; Fernando, Quintus
The use of graphical methods brings the problem of significance of various terms in complicated expressions into proper focus. Furthermore, a pictorial representation permits the student to see at a glance how the concentrations of various species in a system at equilibrium change with conditions.
Freiser, Henry; Fernando, Quintus J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 35.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Chemometrics |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
The effect of structure on chemical and physical properties of polymers  Price, Charles C.
Suggests using polymers to teach the effect of changes in structure on chemical reactivity, the effect of structure on physical properties, the role of catalysts, and the basic principles of a chain reaction mechanism.
Price, Charles C. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 13.
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Polymerization |
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Catalysis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Concerning equilibrium, free energy changes, LeChatelier's Principle. III. Halide-halate equilibria  Eberhardt, William H.
Compares four equilibria: KI + KIO3, KI + KBrO3, KBR + KBrO3, and KBr + KIO3.
Eberhardt, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A883.
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Thermodynamics
Concerning equilibrium, free energy changes, Le Châtelier's principle II  Eberhardt, William H.
This demonstration involves a reversible, temperature-based transformation from blue tetrahedrally coordinated Co2+ to pink sixfold coordinated Co2+.
Eberhardt, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A591.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Coordination Compounds
A new clock reaction preparation of dicinnamalacetone  King, L. Carroll; Ostrum, G. Kenneth
Presents a new clock reaction preparation of dicinnamalacetone.
King, L. Carroll; Ostrum, G. Kenneth J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A139.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Reaction heats and bond strengths (Mortimer, C. T.)  Lacher, John R.

Lacher, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A130.
Thermodynamics |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
Maximum work revisited (Letters)  Mysels, Karol J.
Comments on an earlier "Textbook Error" article that considers at length errors in the calculation of work done in compression or expansion of an ideal gas.
Mysels, Karol J. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 677.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
Maximum work revisited (Letters)  Bauman, Robert
Comments on an earlier "Textbook Error" article that considers at length errors in the calculation of work done in compression or expansion of an ideal gas.
Bauman, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 676.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
Maximum work revisited (Letters)  Kokes, Richard J.
Comments on an earlier "Textbook Error" article that considers at length errors in the calculation of work done in compression or expansion of an ideal gas.
Kokes, Richard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 675.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
Maximum work revisited (Letters)  Bauman, Robert
Comments on an earlier "Textbook Error" article that considers at length errors in the calculation of work done in compression or expansion of an ideal gas.
Bauman, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 675.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
Infrared spectrometry to study second order reaction kinetics  Gastambide, B.; Blanc, J.; Allamagny, Y.
The change studied is a synthesis reaction between menthol and phenyl isocyanate.
Gastambide, B.; Blanc, J.; Allamagny, Y. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 613.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Synthesis
The hydration of carbon dioxide: A double clock experiment  Jones, P.; Haggett, Max L.; Longridge, Jethro L.
This extension of the "Soda Water Clock" experiment provides a quantitative kinetics investigation.
Jones, P.; Haggett, Max L.; Longridge, Jethro L. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 610.
Reactions |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Demonstration of a parent-daughter radioactive equilibrium using 137Cs-137mBa  Choppin, Gregory R.; Nealy, Carson L.
Demonstrates the relationship between radioactive half life and both the rate of decay and growth of a radioactive daughter.
Choppin, Gregory R.; Nealy, Carson L. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 598.
Isotopes |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Rate Law
An NMR demonstration of isotopic exchange  Lapidot, Aviva; Reuben, Jack; Samuel, David
Hydracrylonitrile (beta-hydroxypropionitrile) is used in a simple NMR experiment to demonstrate the isotopic exchange of deuterium.
Lapidot, Aviva; Reuben, Jack; Samuel, David J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 570.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Isotopes |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
A simple kinetic investigation of an organic reaction mechanism  Landgrebe, John A.
This kinetic experiment allows the student to determine what factors affect the rate of a reaction and how this information can be rationalized in terms of a logical sequence of molecular events.
Landgrebe, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 567.
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The oxidation of iodide ion by persulfate ion  Moews, P. C., Jr.; Petrucci, R. H.
Presents the oxidation of iodide ion by persulfate ion as an ideal reaction to study as part of an experiment on kinetics.
Moews, P. C., Jr.; Petrucci, R. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 549.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Method for the determination of liquid-vapor binary equilibria  Colgate, S. O.; Hanrahan, R. J.
In the method described here, which is a modification of the refluxing procedure, provision is made for collecting samples of both condensed vapor and liquid without disturbing the equilibrium.
Colgate, S. O.; Hanrahan, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 433.
Equilibrium |
Liquids |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Rates and equilibria of organic reactions (Leffler, John E.; Grunwald, Ernest)  Pilar, Frank L.

Pilar, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 407.
Equilibrium |
Rate Law |
Kinetics
Teaching the entropy concept  Plumb, Robert C.
Presents a macroscopic lecture demonstration illustrating both potential energy and entropy driving forces and showing their interrelationship.
Plumb, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 254.
Thermodynamics |
Statistical Mechanics
A pseudo first-order-second-order kinetics experiment: An illustration of the Guggenheim method  Ahmad, Mushlaq; Hamer, Jan
The rate of one of the typical reactions of the aromatic nitroso group is determined spectrophotometrically employing the Guggenheim method.
Ahmad, Mushlaq; Hamer, Jan J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 249.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Aromatic Compounds |
Spectroscopy
A second order kinetics experiment  Teerlink, Wilford J.; Asay, Jeanette; Sugihara, James M.
Investigates the nucleophilic displacement reaction of ethyl p-toluenesulfonate by iodide in acetone.
Teerlink, Wilford J.; Asay, Jeanette; Sugihara, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 161.
Kinetics |
Nucleophilic Substitution
Work of compressing an ideal gas  Bauman, Robert P.
In formulating examples of compression problems there should be an explicit statement that the process is reversible, or at least slow.
Bauman, Robert P. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 102.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
Colorimetric chemical kinetics experiment  Corsaro, Gerald
This article describes an experiment in which a photocolorimetric technique is employed to follow a bimolecular reaction rate; the reactants are crystal violet and the hydroxide ion.
Corsaro, Gerald J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 48.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Reactions
Principles of chemical reaction  Sanderson, R. T.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature of chemical change in the hope of recognizing and setting forth the basic principles that help us to understand why they occur.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 13.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics |
Synthesis |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
Effect of chloride ion on precipitation of cadmium sulfide  O'Donnell, T. A.
Adding NaCl or KCl to suspended CdS causes the suspension to disappear.
O'Donnell, T. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A313.
Precipitation / Solubility |
pH |
Equilibrium
An amperometric-kinetic experiment emphasizing the importance of error treatment  Young, J. A.
Provides suggestions for student research based on an earlier article published in the Journal.
Young, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A139.
Undergraduate Research |
Kinetics |
Chemometrics
Kinetics for the undergraduate: Introduction  King, Edward L.
Introduces the ACS symposium entitled "Kinetics in the Undergraduate Curriculum."
King, Edward L. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 573.
Kinetics
Chemical kinetics in laboratory and classroom  Connick, Robert E.
Reviews laboratory experiments and lecture topics regarding kinetics presented in an undergraduate laboratory course on inorganic chemistry.
Connick, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 587.
Kinetics |
Rate Law
KineticsEarly and often  Campbell, J. A.
Describes an approach to investigating kinetics and its application to the "blue bottle" experiment.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 578.
Kinetics |
Equilibrium |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Concepts of time in chemistry  Benfey, O. T.
Examines concepts of time and the presentation of kinetics in the curriculum at Earlham College.
Benfey, O. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 574.
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics
Modern chemical kinetics (Eyring, Henry; Eyring, Edward M.)  Eblin, Lawrence P.

Eblin, Lawrence P. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 498.
Kinetics
Entropy: The significance of the concept of entropy and its applications in science and technology (Fast, J. D.)  Bent, Henry A.

Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 442.
Thermodynamics
Control and measurement of water activity  Christian, Sherril D.; Affsprung, H. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Worley, J. D.
This article describes equilibration techniques that may be used to dry organic solutions or to bring them to a known water activity in a short period of time.
Christian, Sherril D.; Affsprung, H. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Worley, J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 419.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Equilibrium
Flowing clock reactions  Haggett, M. L.; Jones, Peter; Oldham, K. B.
Describes an apparatus and its application to the study of the iodine and formaldehyde clock reactions.
Haggett, M. L.; Jones, Peter; Oldham, K. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 367.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
The theory of the formaldehyde clock reaction  Jones, P.; Oldham, K. B.
Presents a theory for the formaldehyde clock reaction.
Jones, P.; Oldham, K. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 366.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Method for determining order of a reaction  Zimmerman, Howard K.
The method presented here is a substitution process that expresses various rate laws in terms of one initial concentration only.
Zimmerman, Howard K. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 356.
Kinetics
A simple approach to the second law  Breck, W. G.
Uses a reversible Carnot cycle as a simple approach to explicating the second law.
Breck, W. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 353.
Thermodynamics
Letters to the editor  Arotsky, J.
Points out evidence against iodine cations existing in aqueous media.
Arotsky, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 270.
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Letters to the editor  O'Ferrall, R. A. More; Miller, Sidney I.
Elaborates on the errors involved in the calculation of rate constants.
O'Ferrall, R. A. More; Miller, Sidney I. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 269.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Chemometrics
Mnemonics for thermodynamic equations  Radley, Edward T.; Cohen, Irwin; McCullough, Brother Thomas, C. S. C.
Presents several mnemonics devices for remembering thermodynamic equations.
Radley, Edward T.; Cohen, Irwin; McCullough, Brother Thomas, C. S. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 261.
Thermodynamics
Random and systematic errors in the determination of association constants  Pasternak, R. A.; Brady, A. P.
Examines random and systematic errors in the context of studying association equilibria in solution of carboxylic acids and amides.
Pasternak, R. A.; Brady, A. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 254.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
Carboxylic Acids |
Amides
The dissociation quotient of bromcresol green: A class study of ionic strength effects  Ramette, Richard
The purposes of this study include the use of spectrophotometry, a thorough application of various acid-base equilibrium principles, and a realistic look at the behavior of activity coefficients.
Ramette, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 252.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
pH |
Dyes / Pigments
Letters to the editor  Day, Jesse H.
The author suggests how the importance of thermodynamics might be demonstrated to students.
Day, Jesse H. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 229.
Thermodynamics
Energy relations in teaching organic chemistry  Allinger, Norman L.
Discusses the use of energetics and reaction coordinate diagrams in the elementary organic course.
Allinger, Norman L. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 201.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Addendum: Conventions defining thermodynamics  Noyes, Richard M.
Clarifies an earlier published article.
Noyes, Richard M. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 116.
Thermodynamics
Kinetics in the study of organic reaction mechanisms  DeWolfe, Robert H.
Examines the question: What are some of the things that can, and cannot, be learned about a reaction by studying its kinetics?
DeWolfe, Robert H. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 95.
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Graphical treatment simplifies acid-base equilibria calculations  Thomas, E. B.
In dealing with equilibria involving polybasic acids, considerable simplification of the calculation of the relative distribution of the various species with changes in pH may be obtained by a graphical treatment of the ratios involved.
Thomas, E. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 70.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
pH
Calculating titration errors  Butler, James N.
This paper presents some explicit expressions for the titration error in acid-base and precipitation titrations, as well as a simple method for deciding qualitatively whether or not a given titration is feasible.
Butler, James N. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 66.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics |
Quantitative Analysis |
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility
Maxwell's demon demonstrator  Sussman, M. V.
Describes a simple device used to illustrate the concept of irreversibility.
Sussman, M. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 49.
Thermodynamics
A second lecture in thermodynamics  Burton, Milton
Outlines an introduction for the three laws of thermodynamics
Burton, Milton J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 500.
Thermodynamics
Editorially Speaking  Kieffer, William F.
Discussion of the conventions, definitions, and symbols of thermodynamics.
Kieffer, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 489.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Thermodynamics
Determining second order rate constants  Tobey, Stephen W.
Derives a method for determining second order rate constants that eliminates some of the restrictions of earlier methods and allows second order rate constants to be calculated from physical measurements in the absence of zero and infinite-time readings.
Tobey, Stephen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 473.
Kinetics |
Chemometrics |
Rate Law
Cryogenic calorimetric contributions to chemical thermodynamics  Westrum, Edgar F., Jr.
It is the purpose of this paper to review current areas of research in cryogenic calorimetry.
Westrum, Edgar F., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 443.
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solid State Chemistry
H2S equilibria: The precipitation and solubilities of metal sulfides  Petrucci, Ralph H.; Moews, P. C., Jr.
It is possible to discuss all aspects of H2S and metal sulfide systems through a single mathematical relationship by using the appropriate terms in the expression.
Petrucci, Ralph H.; Moews, P. C., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 391.
Equilibrium |
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals
A model for introducing the entropy concept  Bockhoff, Frank J.
Describes a model system for introducing the entropy concept.
Bockhoff, Frank J. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 340.
Thermodynamics
A model for demonstrating dynamic equilibria  Weigang, O. E., Jr.
Presents an apparatus for demonstrating dynamic equilibrium.
Weigang, O. E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 146.
Equilibrium
Reaction kinetics from conductivity data: An apparatus for the student laboratory  Greenberg, David B.
In this paper a conductivity experiment in chemical reaction kinetics is described using an indicating type electrical instrument of simple circuit design.
Greenberg, David B. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 140.
Conductivity |
Kinetics
Keto-enol tautomerism of ethyl acetoacetate: Experiment in homogeneous equilibrium  Ward, C. H.
The tautomerism of ethyl acetoacetate provides the basis for a satisfactory experiment illustrating homogeneous equilibria in liquid solution.
Ward, C. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 95.
Equilibrium
Determining ionization constants from ion exchange equilibrium measurements  Bonner, O. D.; Jackson, R.; Rogers, O. C.
This discussion shows how measurements of ion exchange equilibria may be used as a rapid and convenient method for the estimation of the ionization constants.
Bonner, O. D.; Jackson, R.; Rogers, O. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 37.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Ion Exchange |
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases
Nomographs for first and second order kinetics  Smith, S. G.; Stevens, I. D. R.
Presents a series of nomographs for first and second order kinetics.
Smith, S. G.; Stevens, I. D. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 574.
Kinetics |
Rate Law
The equilibria of complex formation  Banks, James E.
Despite the present recognition of the stepwise formation of complexes in solution, many textbooks continue to treat it as a one-step process, presumably to preserve a reasonable simplicity in the mathematical computation of concentrations.
Banks, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 391.
Equilibrium |
Coordination Compounds |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Total and static thermodynamic properties: Old gas dynamic properties which may be new to the chemist  Fletcher, Edward A.
Introduces the instructor and student to some thermodynamic ideas that are not usually part of the chemistry curriculum, including total and static temperature and pressure.
Fletcher, Edward A. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 257.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
Crystal field theory and substitution reactions of metal ions  Pearson, Ralph G.
This article illustrates crystal field theory in studying substitution reactions of compounds of the metal ions.
Pearson, Ralph G. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 164.
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Metals |
Kinetics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
An approach to complex equilibrium problems  Butler, James N.
Presents an approach to equilibrium problems that sets up enough equations relating the various concentrations present to define the system completely and then makes approximations that simplify the equations.
Butler, James N. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 141.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A constant temperature reaction vessel for the thermal decomposition of solids  Prout, E. G.; Herley, P. J.
Describes an apparatus suitable for studying the thermal decomposition of potassium permanganate in high vacuum.
Prout, E. G.; Herley, P. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 643.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solids |
Rate Law |
Kinetics
A realistic introduction to solution equilibria  Ramette, Richard
This paper is concerned with a sophomore chemistry course entitled "Equilibrium."
Ramette, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 344.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Qualitative Analysis
Dynamic equilibrium: A simple quantitative demonstration  Carmody, Walter R.
Transferring colored water between two graduated cylinders using pipets of varying sizes demonstrates the establishment of a dynamic equilibrium.
Carmody, Walter R. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 312.
Equilibrium
Determination of reaction rates with an A.C. conductivity bridge: A student experiment  Chesick, J. P.; Patterson, A., Jr.
Describes a quantitative experiment in chemical kinetics suitable for advanced freshmen or physical chemistry; it involves a study of the solvolysis of tertiary butyl chloride by means of conductance measurements.
Chesick, J. P.; Patterson, A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 242.
Conductivity |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
The role of kinetics in teaching inorganic chemistry  Taube, Henry
The recommendation that is made in this paper for treating rate phenomena as an integral part of the course work in descriptive inorganic chemistry should be considered in the context of the philosophy of the entire course.
Taube, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 451.
Kinetics |
Rate Law
The dissociation constant of iodic acid: Experiments for the analytical laboratory  Ramette, Richard
This paper describes a replacement for an earlier equilibrium constant experiment.
Ramette, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 191.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium
Use of radioisotopes in the college chemistry laboratory  Phillips, David; Maybury, Robert H.
Provides experiments and experiences working with constructed Geiger counters and radioisotopes.
Phillips, David; Maybury, Robert H. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 133.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Isotopes |
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis |
Kinetics
The stability of solutions for the iodine clock reaction  Kauffman, George B.; Hall, Charles R.
The results of attempts to stabilize solutions needed for the iodine clock reaction to allow long-term storage.
Kauffman, George B.; Hall, Charles R. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 577.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Textbook errors: Guest column. The solubility product constants of the metallic sulfides  Waggoner, William H.
This report reviews direct and indirect methods for investigating the solubility of substances, including conductance, potentiometric, optical, equilibrium, and thermodynamic procedures.
Waggoner, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 339.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Equilibrium |
Metals |
Conductivity
The analyst and the inconstant constants  Ringbom, Anders
Simple theories taught to freshmen often do not agree well with experimental data; the author examines the case of equilibrium constants and elaborates on a method of dealing with this problem.
Ringbom, Anders J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 282.
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
Textbook errors: Guest column. XVI: The vapor pressure of hydrated cupric sulfate  Logan, Thomas S.
Examines variability in the values of pressures of water vapor in equilibrium with pairs of cupric sulfate in hydrates quoted in the literature and texts.
Logan, Thomas S. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 148.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Equilibrium
What topics belong in a modern course in qualitative analysis?  Gilreath, Esmarch S.
The author focuses particularly on the role of theory and aqueous solutions equilibria in the qualitative analysis course.
Gilreath, Esmarch S. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 391.
Qualitative Analysis |
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
On the second order rate equation  Said, Abdel S.
Presents a derivation of the rate equation of a second order reaction.
Said, Abdel S. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 251.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Chemometrics
Model of a potential energy surface  Dye, J. L.
Describes a physical, three-dimensional model of the potential energy surface for HBr.
Dye, J. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 215.
Kinetics |
Reactive Intermediates |
Reactions
A simple kinetic model for single and consecutive first order reactions  Kahn, Milton
It is the purpose of this paper to describe an experiment whereby the validity of several kinetic relationships can be demonstrated without resorting to radioactive materials or actual chemical experimentation.
Kahn, Milton J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 148.
Kinetics |
Gases |
Equilibrium
A graphical method for determining the order of homogeneous reactions  Wright, J. H.; Black, J. H.; Coull, James
Provides a review of classical kinetics, derivation of the reaction order equation, and the determination of reaction order using a graph provided.
Wright, J. H.; Black, J. H.; Coull, James J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 542.
Kinetics |
Chemometrics
Letters to the editor  Castellan, Gilbert W.
The author presents a simpler method for illustrating the Le Chatelier theorem.
Castellan, Gilbert W. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 302.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Textbook errors: VII. The laws of reaction rates and of equilibrium  Mysels, Karol J.
Examines the frequently misplaced emphasis on the rate law of mass action, its fallacious use to prove the existence and form of equilibrium constants, and the occasional confusion of the two concepts.
Mysels, Karol J. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 178.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Equilibrium
Le Chtelier's theorem  Singh, Bhagat; Ebbing, Darrell
An quantitative analysis of Le Chtelier's theorem.
Singh, Bhagat; Ebbing, Darrell J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 34.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Why is hydrofluoric acid a weak acid? An answer based on a correlation of free energies, with electronegativities  Pauling, Linus
The puzzling behavior of hydrofluoric acid is explained by considering the factors that determine the free energy of hydrogen halogenide molecules and hydrohalogenide ions.
Pauling, Linus J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 16.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The reliability of calculations based upon the law of chemical equilibrium  Deford, Donald D.
Although it is not generally possible to formulate any numerical method for evaluating the reliability of an equilibrium calculation, it is possible to list the factors that must be considered in making such evaluations.
Deford, Donald D. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 460.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents
Le Châtelier's principle and the equilibrium constant  Miller, Arild J.
Many students of chemistry have difficulty in understanding how the position of equilibrium in a gaseous reaction can change when the pressure is altered, in accordance with Le Châtelier's principle, without causing a corresponding variation in the equilibrium constant.
Miller, Arild J. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 455.
Equilibrium |
Reactions |
Gases
A kinetic analogy  Lemlich, Robert
This analogy, which clearly demonstrates the principles involved in a first-order reaction, is based on Poiseuille's law for the viscous flow of fluids.
Lemlich, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 431.
Kinetics
A heat engine run by rubber  Cox, E. G.
Describes a rotating wheel powered by the alternate heating and cooling of rubber bands.
Cox, E. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 307.
Thermodynamics
Solubility of silver salts in aqua ammonia  Johnson, Clyde R.
Examines two problems regarding the calculation of the solubility of a silver salt in aqua ammonia of a given concentration.
Johnson, Clyde R. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 205.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Equilibrium
Letters  Davidson, David
Responds to comments made in a related letter.
Davidson, David J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 534.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Letters  Ricci, John E.
Discusses the question of teaching students how to "solve" problems requiring more than one equilibrium constant.
Ricci, John E. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 532.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Praseodymium tetrafluoride  Perros, Theodore P.; Munson, Thomas R.; Naeser, Charles R.
In spite of the experimental failures to prepare praseodymium tetrafluoride, there is strong evidence for its possible formation to be found by calculating the equilibrium constants for some of the reactions by which this compound might be prepared.
Perros, Theodore P.; Munson, Thomas R.; Naeser, Charles R. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 402.
Oxidation State |
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
An electronic interval marker  Marion, Alexander P.
The device described here provides a tone impulse at a rate variable from 30 to 120 per minute and an additional characteristic signal for submultiples within a range of 5 to 15 per minute.
Marion, Alexander P. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 252.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Kinetics
The algebra of simultaneous equilibria  Davidson, David; Geller, Kenneth
Presents a series of rules for dealing with simultaneous equilibria using simple algebra.
Davidson, David; Geller, Kenneth J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 238.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Letters  Angus, L. H.
Suggests a simple temperature-equilibrium demonstration.
Angus, L. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 472.
Thermodynamics
A simple demonstration of the Carnot cycle  Calingaert, George
This simple demonstration makes use of a stretched rubber band whose temperature changes are noted with the lips.
Calingaert, George J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 405.
Thermodynamics
A temperature-equilibrium demonstration  Brown, John A.
This demonstration makes use of the colored cobaltous complexes in a mixed solvent to show the dependence of some equilibria on temperature.
Brown, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 640.
Equilibrium |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Coordination Compounds
Coulomb's law and the qualitative interpretation of reaction rates  Amis, Edward S.
Summarizes the effect upon the rate of reaction between like and unlike charged species in solution due to an increase and decrease in total ion concentration and an increase and decrease in the dielectric constant; also offers demonstrations of these effects.
Amis, Edward S. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 635.
Rate Law |
Electrochemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Kinetics
A clock reaction  Suryaraman, M. G.; Viswanathan, Arcot
Ferrous ions in an alkaline solution of a tartrate form of a soluble chelate complex that reacts sluggishly with iodine.
Suryaraman, M. G.; Viswanathan, Arcot J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 386.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry