TIGER

Journal Articles: 144 results
Study of Molecular-Shape Selectivity of Zeolites by Gas Chromatography  Pei-Yu Chao, Yao-Yuan Chuang, Grace Hsiuying Ho, Shiow-Huey Chuang, Tseng-Chang Tsai, Chi-Young Lee, Shang-Tien Tsai, and Jun-Fu Huang
This analytical or physical chemistry sorption experiment uses hexane isomers as probe molecules to demonstrate the "molecular-shape selectivity" behavior of zeolites. Students can also modify the sorption protocol to build their own experiments.
Chao, Pei-Yu; Chuang, Yao-Yuan; Ho, Grace Hsiuying; Chuang, Shiow-Huey; Tsai, Tseng-Chang; Lee, Chi-Young; Tsai, Shang-Tien; Huang, Jun-Fu. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1558.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Constitutional Isomers |
Gas Chromatography |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Separation Science |
Solid State Chemistry |
Molecular Recognition
Percy Julian, Robert Robinson, and the Identity of Eserethole  Addison Ault
The Nova production Percy JulianForgotten Genius, which included the very public disagreement over the identity of "eserethole," the key intermediate for the synthesis of the alkaloid physostigmine, left three important chemical questions unanswered.
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1524.
Constitutional Isomers |
Enantiomers |
Natural Products |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis
A Green, Guided-Inquiry Based Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Eric Eby and S. Todd Deal
This alternative, electrophilic aromatic substitutionan iodination reaction of salicylamide, a popular analgesicuses environmentally friendly reagents and serves as a guided-inquiry experiment in which students are asked to predict the orientation of the substitution reaction and determine the product's structure using FT-IR spectroscopy.
Eby, Eric; Deal, S. Todd. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1426.
Aromatic Compounds |
Constitutional Isomers |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Green Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
The Iodochlorination of Styrene: An Experiment That Makes a Difference  R. Gary Amiet and Sylvia Urban
This purpose of this laboratory exercise is to determine the various substitution and elimination products generated in the iodochlorination of styrene and their relative proportions through the application of mechanistic principles and a basic knowledge of GCMS and NMR.
Amiet, R. Gary; Urban, Sylvia. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 962.
Alkenes |
Constitutional Isomers |
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Student-Centered Learning
A Nitration Reaction Puzzle for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Milton J. Wieder and Russell Barrows
Treatment of phenylacetic acid with different concentrations of nitric acid yields two different products. Using 1H NMR and IR spectral data, students are asked to deduce the structures of the two products, thus illustrating fundamental concepts in electrophilic aromatic substitution while posing an interesting structure elucidation puzzle.
Wieder, Milton J.; Barrows, Russell. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 549.
Constitutional Isomers |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Regioselectivity in Organic Synthesis: Preparation of the Bromohydrin of α-Methylstyrene  Brad Andersh, Kathryn N. Kilby, Meghan E. Turnis, and Drew L. Murphy
In the described experiment, the regiochemical outcome of the addition of "HOBr" to a-methylstyrene is investigated. Although both "classic" qualitative analysis and instrumental techniques are described, the emphasis of this experiment is on the utilization 13C and DEPT-135 NMR spectroscopy to determine the regiochemical outcome of the addition.
Andersh, Brad; Kilby, Kathryn N.; Turnis, Meghan E.; Murphy, Drew L. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 102.
Addition Reactions |
Alcohols |
Alkenes |
Constitutional Isomers |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Zeroing In on Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution  David C. Forbes, Mohini Agarwal, Jordan L. Ciza, and Heather A. Landry
Presents a unique and novel illustration of reactivity trends in the formation of trisubstituted benzene derivatives from disubstituted systems using electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions.
Forbes, David C.; Agarwal, Mohini; Ciza, Jordan L.; Landry, Heather A. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1878.
Aromatic Compounds |
Constitutional Isomers |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Reactions
Discovering Electronic Effects of Substituents in Nitrations of Benzene Derivatives Using GC–MS Analysis  Malgorzata M. Clennan and Edward L. Clennan
Describes an organic lab in which students pool mass spectral data to identify the distribution of isomer products generated by the nitration of six benzene derivatives whose substituents differ in their electronic effects. Students also determine which substituents direct nitration predominantly to the ortho- or para- and to the meta positions.
Clennan, Malgorzata M.; Clennan, Edward L. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1679.
Aromatic Compounds |
Constitutional Isomers |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry
The Aromaticity of Pericyclic Reaction Transition States  Henry S. Rzepa
Presents an approach that combines two fundamental concepts in organic chemistry, chirality and aromaticity, into a simple rule for stating selection rules for pericyclic reactions in terms of achiral Hckel-aromatic and chiral Mbius-aromatic transition states.
Rzepa, Henry S. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1535.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stereochemistry
The Quartz-Crystal Microbalance in an Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment  Vladimir Tsionsky
Describes a typical student experiment on the determination of the viscosity of liquids using a quartz-crystal microbalance.
Tsionsky, Vladimir. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1337.
Alcohols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
Competitive Nitration of Benzene–Fluorobenzene and Benzene–Toluene Mixtures: Orientation and Reactivity Studies Using HPLC  Ronald L. Blankespoor, Stephanie Hogendoorn, and Andrea Pearson
In this experiment for the first-year organic laboratory, mixtures of benzenetoluene and benzenefluorobenzene are competitively nitrated to determine the reactivity and orientation effects of CH3 and F. HPLC is used to analyze the reaction mixtures.
Blankespoor, Ronald L.; Hogendoorn, Stephanie; Pearson, Andrea. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 697.
Aromatic Compounds |
Constitutional Isomers |
Electrophilic Substitution |
HPLC
Entropy and the Shelf Model: A Quantum Physical Approach to a Physical Property  Arnd H. Jungermann
A quantum physical approach relying on energy quantization leads to three simple rules which are the key to understanding the physical property described by molar entropy values.
Jungermann, Arnd H. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1686.
Alcohols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Carboxylic Acids |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Physical Properties |
Quantum Chemistry |
Thermodynamics
Colorful Chemical Demonstrations on the Extraction of Anionic Species from Water into Ether Mediated by Tricaprylylmethylammonium Chloride (Aliquat 336), a Liquid–Liquid Phase-Transfer Agent  Anil Joseph Pezhathinal, Kerensa Rocke, Louis Susanto, Derek Handke, Roch Chan-Yu-King, and Patrick Gordon
Provides a list of safe and easy experiments to demonstrate the extraction of colorful, water-soluble reagents by Aliquat 336 into ether. The demonstrations simulate the preliminary extractive step of an ionic species in liquidliquid phase transfer-catalyzed reactions and introduce various undergraduate chemistry concepts and principles to students.
Pezhathinal, Anil Joseph; Rocke, Kerensa; Susanto, Louis; Handke, Derek; Chan-Yu-King, Roch; Gordon, Patrick. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1161.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Catalysis |
Dyes / Pigments |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Semiempirical and DFT Investigations of the Dissociation of Alkyl Halides  Jack R. Waas
Enthalpy changes corresponding to the gas phase heats of dissociation of 12 organic halides were calculated using two semiempirical methods, the HartreeFock method, and two DFT methods. All five methods agreed generally with the expected empirically known trends in the dissociation of alkyl halides.
Waas, Jack R. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1017.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Computational Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Modeling |
Reactions |
Reactive Intermediates |
Thermodynamics |
Elimination Reactions |
Nucleophilic Substitution
A Sequence of Linked Experiments, Suitable for Practical Courses of Inorganic, Organic, Computational Chemistry, and NMR Spectroscopy  Grigoriy A. Sereda
A sequence of investigations associated with the iodochlorination of styrene and 1-hexene is described. The sequence is flexible enough to be used in inorganic, organic, computational, and instrumental courses.
Sereda, Grigoriy A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 931.
Alkenes |
Computational Chemistry |
Constitutional Isomers |
MO Theory |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Enhancements on the Photochromism of 2-(2,4-Dinitrobenzyl)pyridine: Molecular Modeling, NMR Spectrometry, Photo- and Solvent-Bleaching  Ernest C. McGoran, Kevin Hintz, Kristin Hoffman, and Ramon Iovin
Describes molecular-modeling studies on the photochromism of 2-(2,4-dinitrobenzyl)pyridine (a-DNBP) that focus on the hydrogen atom migratory distances and the energies for the two very different tautomers arising from the photo-induced proton transfers.
McGoran, Ernest C.; Hintz, Kevin; Hoffman, Kristin; Iovin, Ramon. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 923.
Constitutional Isomers |
Molecular Modeling |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Photochemistry
A Laboratory Assignment in 1H NMR Spectroscopy: A Comparative Analysis of Calculated and Experimental 1H NMR Chemical Shifts  Susan D. Van Arnum
A computer program is used to determine the proton NMR chemical shifts of endo- and exo-norbornenyl ketones and these values are compared to empirical results.
Van Arnum, Susan D. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 429.
Constitutional Isomers |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Photochemistry
Diastereoselectivity in the Reduction of α-Hydroxyketones. An Experiment for the Chemistry Major Organic Laboratory  David B. Ball
Describes a research type, inquiry-based project where students synthesize racemic ahydroxyketones using umpolung, a polarity-reversal approach; investigate chelating versus non-chelating reducing agents; and determine the diastereoselectivity of these reducing processes by NMR spectroscopy.
Ball, David B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 101.
Addition Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Chromatography |
Conferences |
Constitutional Isomers |
Enantiomers |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis |
Conformational Analysis
Further Analysis of Boiling Points of Small Molecules, CHwFxClyBrz  Guy Beauchamp
Multiple linear regression analysis has proven useful in selecting predictor variables that could significantly clarify the boiling point variation of the CHwFxClyBrz molecules.
Beauchamp, Guy. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1842.
Chemometrics |
Physical Properties |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
A Template-Controlled Solid-State Reaction for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Tomislav Friscic, Tamara D. Hamilton, Giannis S. Papaefstathiou, and Leonard R. MacGillivray
Describes a laboratory experiment that employs linear hydrogen-bond templates to direct [2 + 2] photodimerization in the solid state. The experiment introduces undergraduates to supramolecular and solid-state chemistry, as well as aspects of green chemistry.
Friscic, Tomislav; Hamilton, Tamara D.; Papaefstathiou, Giannis S.; MacGillivray, Leonard R. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1679.
Green Chemistry |
Solid State Chemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Alkenes |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Materials Science |
NMR Spectroscopy
Conversion of an Aziridine to an Oxazolidinone Using a Salt and Carbon Dioxide in Water  Justin R. Wallace, Deborah L. Lieberman, Matthew T. Hancock, and Allan R. Pinhas
An undergraduate laboratory experiment that allows for optimization of experimental reaction conditions for the conversion of a readily-available aziridine to the corresponding oxazolidinone using only carbon dioxide and a salt in water is discussed. A variety of salts were used to determine their effect on the reaction. In all cases, either no reaction occurred or a high yield of product was obtained. Ring opening of the less substituted carbonnitrogen bond predominates. This experiment allows students to optimize reaction conditions to obtain predominantly one of two regioisomers.
Wallace, Justin R.; Lieberman, Deborah L.; Hancock, Matthew T.; Pinhas, Allan R. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1229.
Heterocycles |
Synthesis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Constitutional Isomers |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis
Testing for Genetically Modified Foods Using PCR  Ann Taylor and Samin Sajan
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a powerful technique used to detect and amplify a specific DNA sequence. In this experiment, DNA is isolated from commercially available corn meal and corn-muffin mixes, then a sequence unique to transgenic plants is amplified by PCR. The amplified sequence is identified by its size (192 base pairs) by agarose gel electrophoresis. This experiment could be used in either a biochemistry course or in an analytical chemistry course in a curriculum that integrates biochemistry throughout the course work.
Taylor, Ann; Sajan, Samin. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 597.
Agricultural Chemistry |
Constitutional Isomers |
Biotechnology |
Plant Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Nucleic Acids / DNA / RNA
A Set of Hands-On Exercises on Conformational Analysis  Silvina C. Pellegrinet and Ernesto G. Mata
This article describes a set of comprehensive exercises on conformational analysis that employs a hands-on approach by the use of molecular modeling kits. In addition, the exercises provide illustrations of other topics such as nomenclature, functional groups, and isomerism, and introduce some notions of chirality.
Pellegrinet, Silvina C.; Mata, Ernesto G. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 73.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Conformational Analysis |
Constitutional Isomers |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry
Studying Current–Potential Curves Using Bipotentiometric Iodometric Back-Titration for the Determination of Ascorbic Acid in Fruits and Vegetables  Roxana A. Verdini and Claudia M. Lagier
A method for the determination of the ascorbic acid content in fruits and vegetables was used to introduce the principles of voltammetry. The procedure combines an iodometric back-titration with voltammetric (bipotentiometric) end point detection, which minimizes the risk of ascorbic acid oxidation, allowing for a rapid and efficient quantification of vitamin C in fruits and vegetables. A better understanding of the titration curve is achieved by analyzing the schematic currentpotential curves of the anodic and cathodic half-cell reactions during the titration.
Verdini, Roxana A.; Lagier, Claudia M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1482.
Constitutional Isomers |
Electrochemistry |
Food Science |
Instrumental Methods |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Vitamins |
Consumer Chemistry
Molecular Modeling of Non-Trivial Cyclohexane Derivatives: A Discovery Approach  Gail Horowitz
An experiment is described that utilizes molecular modeling to study the effects of sp2 hybridization, bond elongation, and heteroatom substitution upon the stabilities of the axial and equatorial conformers of cyclohexane.
Horowitz, Gail. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1006.
Molecular Modeling |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Computational Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Using Hydrocarbon Acidities To Demonstrate Principles of Organic Structure and Bonding  Andrew P. Dicks
This article demonstrates the utility of hydrocarbon acidity as a teaching tool within the undergraduate classroom. Acidities of compounds containing only hydrogen and carbon vary by at least 50 orders of magnitude. Differences in acidities are rationalized by invoking principles of hybridization, resonance, induction, and aromaticity.
Dicks, Andrew P. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1322.
Acids / Bases |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Organic Functional Group Playing Card Deck  Michael J. Welsh
Organic functional group playing card deck used for review of the name and structure of organic functional groups that can be used to play any game that a normal deck of cards is used for.
Welsh, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 426.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmajor Courses |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Amides |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters |
Ethers |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis
C–H and C–D Bonds: An Experimental Approach to the Identity of C–H Bonds by Their Conversion to C–D Bonds  Alex T. Rowland
Three experiments that allow students to determine the relative reactivity of C-H bonds that are aliphatic, alpha, benzylic, or aromatic by the ease of substitution of deuterium for oxygen.
Rowland, Alex T. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 311.
Acids / Bases |
IR Spectroscopy |
Isotopes |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Undergraduate Research |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids
Fractional Distillation and GC Analysis of Hydrocarbon Mixtures  Craig J. Donahue
Separating and identifying the components of a three-hydrocarbon mixture through fractional distillation and gas chromatography.
Donahue, Craig J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 721.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Aromatic Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
Further Information on the Hazards of n-Hexane (re J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 587)  Jay A. Young
Consideration of a flammable liquid above its flash point.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1593.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Laboratory Management
Further Information on the Hazards of n-Hexane (re J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 587)  J. C. Jones
Consideration of a flammable liquid above its flash point.
Jones, J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1593.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Laboratory Management
Further Information on the Hazards of n-Hexane (re J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 587)  J. C. Jones
Consideration of a flammable liquid above its flash point.
Jones, J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1593.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Laboratory Management
Correction to Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: n-Hexane (J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 587)  Jay A. Young
Corrected formula for n-hexane.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1021.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
A Method for Drawing the Cyclohexane Ring and Its Substituents  Veljko Dragojlovic
A simple method for drawing cyclohexanes.
Dragojlovic, Veljko. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 923.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: n-Hexane  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for n-hexane.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 587.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
The Discovery-Oriented Approach to Organic Chemistry. 3. Rearrangement of cis- and trans-Stilbene Oxides with Boron Trifluoride Etherate. An Exercise in 1H NMR Spectroscopy for Sophomore Organic Laboratories  Erik A. Sgariglia, Regina Schopp, Kostas Gavardinas, and Ram S. Mohan
A discovery-oriented laboratory experiment that involves the rearrangement of both cis- and trans-stilbene oxides with boron trifluoride etherate.
Sgariglia, Erik A.; Schopp, Regina; Gavardinas, Kostas; Mohan, Ram S. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 79.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Constitutional Isomers
A Strategy for Incorporating 13C NMR into the Organic Chemistry Lecture and Laboratory Courses  Perry C. Reeves and Chris P. Chaney
The use of spectroscopy in establishing the structures of molecules is an important component of the first course in Organic Chemistry. However, the point in the course at which these techniques are best introduced remains uncertain. We suggest that carbon nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy should be introduced at an early stage of the lecture course, specifically while studying the alkanes, and used extensively for structure determination throughout the course.
Reeves, Perry C.; Chaney, Chris P. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1006.
Instrumental Methods |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Molecular Properties / Structure
S. M. Tanatar and His Contribution to the Field of Thermal Rearrangements  Ludmila Birladeanu
Thermal rearrangements constitute an important chapter in organic chemistry. Surprisingly, the name of its discoverer remains unknown. The present article is meant to remedy this situation by describing some of the work of the 19th century Russian chemist S. M. Tanatar (1849 - 1917) who, based on the thermochemical data provided by Berthelot, envisaged the possibility of transforming cyclopropane into propene under the influence of heat alone.
Birladeanu, Ludmila. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 603.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Synthesis |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes
On the Disproportionations of Cyclohexene and Related Compounds  Alex Bunjes, Ingo Eilks, Manfred Pahlke, and Bernd Ralle*
The catalytic hydrogenation of liquid hydrocarbons is easy to realize in a simple laboratory experiment using a palladium catalyst. In the case of hydrogenation cyclohexen or cyclohexadiene in addition to the expected finding of cyclohexane among the hydrogenation products, the formation of benzene can be observed. In absence of hydrogen, the disproportionation of both starting materials to cyclohexane and benzene takes place.
Bunjes, Alex; Eilks, Ingo; Pahlke, Manfred; Ralle, Bernd. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1323.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkenes |
Synthesis
Alkanes in Motion (Program for Mac OS-Compatible Computers: J. Chem. Educ. Software Vol. 9C, No. 1)  Jae Hyun Kim
To improve students' understanding of molecular motion, Alkanes in Motion, a collection of clip animations generated from molecular dynamics calculations, was produced. It depicts the molecular motion of hydrocarbons in the gas phase.
Kim, Jae Hyun. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1015.
Molecular Modeling |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Four Programs for Windows: Abstract of Volume 4D, Number 2: Alkanes in Motion  Jae Hyun Kim
Alkanes in Motion depicts the molecular motion of hydrocarbons in the gas phase. Four animations from the collection are presented here. These four animations consist of two animations each of hexane and octadecane, one animation calculated to show translational motion and one to show vibrational motion.
Kim, Jae Hyun. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1079.
Molecular Modeling |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Gases
The Curiously Intertwined Histories of Benzene and Cyclohexane  E. W. Warnhoff
The first reduction of benzene, which was done by means of hydrogen iodide in the middle of the 19th century, led to a saturated hydrocarbon initially thought to be hexane and later to be hexahydrobenzene (cyclohexane).
Warnhoff, E. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 494.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Aromatic Compounds
A Rapid Way of Computing the Number of Rings Present in a Polycyclic Organic Compound  A. Srikrishna
This article discusses how by counting the number of quaternary and tertiary atoms present, the number of rings in a polycyclic organic compound can be deduced.
Srikrishna, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 428.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
A Ternary Phase Diagram for a Less Hazardous System  Barbara A. Udale and John D. Wells
Using a n-propanol-n-heptane-water system to generate data for construction of a ternary phase diagram.
Udale, Barbara A.; Wells, John D. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1106.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Alcohols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Solutions / Solvents
The Conformational Behavior of n-Pentane: A Molecular Mechanics and Molecular Dynamics Experiment  Mencarelli, Paolo
174. Use of HyperChem to investigate the conformational behavior of n-pentane.
Mencarelli, Paolo J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 511.
MO Theory |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Conformational Analysis |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Molecular Modeling
The Distribution of Cyclohexanone between Cyclohexane and Water  Worley, John D.
A microscale experiment that may be used to demonstrate extraction, spectrophotometric analysis, and the determination of a distribution constant.
Worley, John D. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A145.
Microscale Lab |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Separation Science |
Spectroscopy
Hydrochlorination of (R)-Carvone  Miles, William H.; Nutaitis, Charles F.; Berreth, Christina L.
This paper describes the hydrochlorination of (R)-carvone that illustrates the concepts of regioselectivity and chemoselectivity.
Miles, William H.; Nutaitis, Charles F.; Berreth, Christina L. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1097.
Laboratory Management |
Alkenes |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
A Simple and Safe Catalytic Hydrogenation of 4-Vinylbenzoic Acid  De, Shantanu; Gambhir, Geetu; Krishnamurty, H. G.
An alternative procedure to catalytic hydrogenation is catalytic transfer hydrogenation. In this technique, the reduction of an organic compound is achieved with the aid of a donor substance in the presence of a catalyst.
De, Shantanu; Gambhir, Geetu; Krishnamurty, H. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 992.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes
GC/MS experiments for the organic chemistry laboratory: I. E2 elimination of 2-bromo-2-methyloctane   Novak, Michael; Heinrich, Julie; Martin, Kristy A.; Green, John; Lytle, Scott
Two capillary GC/MS experiments that were designed for and tested in a sophomore organic laboratory course.
Novak, Michael; Heinrich, Julie; Martin, Kristy A.; Green, John; Lytle, Scott J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A103.
Gas Chromatography |
Alkenes |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alcohols |
Elimination Reactions |
Synthesis
Cyclooctane conformational analysis via mechanical and computational models  Fitzgerald, Jeffrey P.
Description of an exercise in which students use both mechanical and computational models to identify and quantify various types of strains in different conformations of a molecule.
Fitzgerald, Jeffrey P. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 988.
Molecular Modeling |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Diastereomers
The enumeration of isomers-With special reference to the stereoisomers of decane  Whyte, J. R. C.; Clugston, M. J.
Structural isomers predicted through algorithms.
Whyte, J. R. C.; Clugston, M. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 874.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers
A simple and colorful demonstration of light-catalyzed bromination of an alkane  Stevens, Malcolm P.
Light-catalyzed bromination of an alkane.
Stevens, Malcolm P. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1028.
Catalysis |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Photochemistry |
Reactions
An easily constructed model: The boat form of a six-membered ring composed of six distorted tetrahedral penetrating each other  Yamana, Shukichi
Instructions for constructing a model of the boat form of a six-membered ring using six empty envelopes.
Yamana, Shukichi J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 964.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Stereochemistry
Replacing carbon tet: Other alternatives.  Ackermann, Martin N.
Using a mixture of hexanes in the traditional experiment to determine the equilibrium constant for the formation of I3-.
Ackermann, Martin N. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 602.
Equilibrium |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Toxicology
A source of isomer-drawing assignments  Kjonaas, Richard A.
A comprehensive source from which instructors can choose a wide variety of good isomer drawing examples to use as homework assignments and exam questions.
Kjonaas, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 452.
Stereochemistry |
Alcohols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Ethers |
Esters |
Alkynes
An expanded Fieser model suitable for a large classroom  Levinson, Alfred S.; Zupan, Rudolph
In organic chemistry, one area in which models are indispensable is in introducing the conformational analysis of cyclopentane and cyclohexane rings.
Levinson, Alfred S.; Zupan, Rudolph J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 369.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Understanding the fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in the subsurface environment  Chen, Chien T.
This article reviews our current understanding and then specifies the requirements for research that will improve our ability to detect hydrocarbons and predict their fate in the subsurface environment.
Chen, Chien T. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 357.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Addition of IBr to fatty acids on the overhead projector   Solomon, Sally; Fulep-Poszmik, Annamaria; Kulp, Gary; Yu, Heung
The interhalogen compound IBr dissolved in CCl4 is added to petroleum ether solutions of fatty acids to test for unsaturation.
Solomon, Sally; Fulep-Poszmik, Annamaria; Kulp, Gary; Yu, Heung J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 66.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes
A visual presentation of the relationships between the enthalpies of a reaction and the nature of the transition states  Nyquist, H. LeRoy
An apparatus that illustrates the potential energy diagram for the chlorination of alkanes and another for the bromination of alkanes.
Nyquist, H. LeRoy J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 731.
Thermodynamics |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
A projection for bond location in chair cyclohexane and related structures  Woolf, A. A.
Benefits and drawbacks of 2D representations for chair cyclohexane and related structures.
Woolf, A. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 646.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers |
Constitutional Isomers
An internal comparison of the intermolecular forces of common organic functional groups: A thin-layer chromatography experiment  Beauvais, Robert; Holman, R. W.
Due to the latest trends in organic chemistry textbook content sequences, it has become desirable to develop an experiment that is rapid, simple, and general, that would compare and contrast the various functional group classes of organic molecules in terms of their relative polarities, dipole moments, and intermolecular forces of attraction.
Beauvais, Robert; Holman, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 428.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alcohols |
Carboxylic Acids |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
Qualitative Analysis |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Synthesis of a bicyclo[2.2.1]heptene Diels-Alder adduct: An organic chemistry experiment utilizing NMR spectroscopy to assign endo stereochemistry  Harrison, Ernest A., Jr.
An organic chemistry experiment utilizing NMR spectroscopy to assign endo stereochemistry via synthesis of a bicyclo[2.2.1]heptene Diels-Alder adduct.
Harrison, Ernest A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 426.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Synthesis |
Alkenes |
Aromatic Compounds |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Thin Layer Chromatography
The diverse nature of the C6H6 molecule  Potgeiter, J. H.
The purpose of this discussion is to show that C6H6 describes more than just one kind of benzene.
Potgeiter, J. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 280.
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkenes |
Reactions |
Constitutional Isomers
Representing isomeric structures  Thall, Edwin
"Representing isomeric structures" is the name of a technique this author has developed to help students learn to draw molecular structures of isomers in their first organic chemistry class.
Thall, Edwin J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 190.
Constitutional Isomers |
Diastereomers
Polarity and selectivity of ionic stationary phases used in gas chromatography: Evaluation of commercial detergents containing anionic surfactants as column packings  Furton, Kenneth G.; Mantilla, Adriana
Evaluation of commercial detergents containing anionic surfactants as column packings.
Furton, Kenneth G.; Mantilla, Adriana J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 74.
Consumer Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Physical Properties |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Quantitative Analysis |
Covalent Bonding |
Solutions / Solvents
Organic Nomenclature (Lampman, Gary)  Damey, Richard F.
An interactive tutorial / drill for naming organic compounds.
Damey, Richard F. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A220.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Ethers |
Alcohols |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Phenols
Reaction of bromine with hydrocarbons on the overhead, real or simulated  Solomon, Sally; Gregory, Michael; Padmanabhan, Sandeep; Smith, Kurt
A simulation that looks like the addition of bromine to hydrocarbons but is not (the bromine is simulated using a mixture of food colorings).
Solomon, Sally; Gregory, Michael; Padmanabhan, Sandeep; Smith, Kurt J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 961.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Addition Reactions
Drawing different views of the chair form of substituted cyclohexanes  Richardson, W. S.
A set of rules to instruct students in a method for drawing chair structures of cyclohexane after rotation about the central axis.
Richardson, W. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 478.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry
A classroom demonstration of aliphatic substitution   Perina, Ivo; Mihanovic, Branka
Substitution of an alkane by a halogen can be demonstrated effectively on the stage of an overhead projector using a compartmentalized Petri dish or a transparent Conway dish covered by a glass plate
Perina, Ivo; Mihanovic, Branka J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 257.
Reactions |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Bromination of a hydrocarbon   Deck, Eva; Deck, Charles
The authors have developed a simple one-hour student experiment that demonstrates photochemical halogen substitution in a quantitative way using heptane, bromine, and water.
Deck, Eva; Deck, Charles J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 75.
Reactions |
Photochemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Stereochemistry of cyclic hydrocarbons   Perkins, Robert R.
The topic of stereochemistry always poses great difficulties for many students in introductory organic chemistry. The following problems can be used as a tutorial question after having introduced the various terms associated with stereochemistry. The question requires skills at the applications level in the Bloom taxonomy.
Perkins, Robert R. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 860.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Constitutional Isomers
The preparation of 4-hydroxy-2,3,4,5-tetraphenyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one and its base catalyzed conversion into 2,3,4,5-tetraphenycyclopentadienone: An organic laboratory experiment   Harrison, Ernest A., Jr.
An organic laboratory experiment that permits direct observation of a pedagogically interesting transformation.
Harrison, Ernest A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 828.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Phenols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
IR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Chemical applications of graph theory. Part II. Isomer enumeration  Hansen, Peter J.; Jurs, Peter C.
An in-depth look at the study of isomer enumeration.
Hansen, Peter J.; Jurs, Peter C. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 661.
Chemometrics |
Constitutional Isomers |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
The number of alkanes having n carbons and a longest chain of length d: An application of a theorem of Polya  Balaban, Alexandru T.; Kennedy, John W.; Quintas, Louis
This paper tackles the problem of determining the number of structural isomers of an alkane. The primitive algorithm that is usually taught to students is confusing and generates redundancies.
Balaban, Alexandru T.; Kennedy, John W.; Quintas, Louis J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 304.
Constitutional Isomers |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Chemometrics
On the boiling points of the alkyl halides  Correla, John
Most textbooks spend some time discussing the relationship between boiling point and molecular structure, however, their reasons behind this relationship differ. This variation among textbooks warrants further investigation and discussion in order to uncover which of the factors are the major contributors to the variation of boiling point.
Correla, John J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 62.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Physical Properties |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A very brief, rapid, simple, and unified method for estimating carbon-13 NMR chemical shifts: The BS method  Shoulders, Hen; Welch, Steven C.
The "BS" method is so brief and simple that students can memorize and use it to interpret 13C NMR spectra with ease.
Shoulders, Hen; Welch, Steven C. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 915.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Instrumental Methods
From shadows to three dimensions: Stereographic images using Dreiding models and the Macintosh  Strauss, Michael J.; Gribble, Gordon
Printing stereographic images using ChemDraw.
Strauss, Michael J.; Gribble, Gordon J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 850.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Counting halomethanes  Namhi, Parthasarathy
Asking the question "How many halomethanes are there?" illustrates the range of molecular species that can be derived by substituting the hydrogens of an alkane by halogens.
Namhi, Parthasarathy J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 678.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Molecular structure: Property relationships  Seybold, Paul G.; May, Michael; Bagal, Ujjvala A.
How molecular structure can be represented mathematically and how this can lead to a better understanding of the connection between molecular structures and properties.
Seybold, Paul G.; May, Michael; Bagal, Ujjvala A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 575.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alcohols
Use of polar maps in conformational analysis  Ounsworth, James P.; Weller, Larry
A relatively simple procedure to identify different or similar conformations of large ring structures (generating polar maps of torsional angles).
Ounsworth, James P.; Weller, Larry J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 568.
Conformational Analysis |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
A simple formula for the number of rings in a cyclic molecule  Reddy, P. Anantha
A simple formula that determines the number of rings from the number of ring atoms and bonds present in a cyclic system.
Reddy, P. Anantha J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 400.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Concerning dehydration of 2-methycyclohexanol  Feigenbaum, A.
One half of class dehydrates 2-methycyclohexanol, the other half dehydrates 1-methycyclohexanol; gas chromatography retention times are then compared for the two product mixtures.
Feigenbaum, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 273.
Alcohols |
Alkenes |
Stereochemistry |
Constitutional Isomers |
Gas Chromatography
Comparison of chemical oxidation of alkanes, alkenes, and alcohols on the overhead projector  Kolb, Kenneth E.
This overhead projector demonstration utilizes two classical oxidants, permanganates and dichromate, to distinguish between alkanes, alkenes, and primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols.
Kolb, Kenneth E. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 977.
Alcohols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Qualitative Analysis
Reduction of cyclohexanone with sodium borohydride in aqueous alkaline solution: a beginning organic chemistry experiment  Hudak, Norman J.; Sholes, Anne H.
A beginning organic chemistry experiment that involves the reduction of cyclohexanone with sodium borohydride in aqueous alkaline solution.
Hudak, Norman J.; Sholes, Anne H. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 161.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Alcohols
Identification of the stable conformer of cyclohexane by vibrational spectroscopy  Garcia, M. V.; Redondo, M. I.
A laboratory experiment that uses group theory to help interpret infrared and Raman spectra of cyclohexane.
Garcia, M. V.; Redondo, M. I. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 887.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Raman Spectroscopy |
Conformational Analysis |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Group Theory / Symmetry
Chemical properties of commonly available hydrocarbons  Perina, Ivo
Studying the properties of saturated hydrocarbons using natural gas.
Perina, Ivo J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 864.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
An introduction to conformational analysis of ethane and butane  Flash, Patrick J.
60. Bits and pieces, 23. Introduces students to some conventions for drawing molecules and provides a brief tutorial and extensive drill work on the conformations of ethane and butane.
Flash, Patrick J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 412.
Conformational Analysis |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Enrichment / Review Materials
A short set of 13C-NMR correlation tables  Brown, D. W.
The object of these tables is to enable a student to calculate rapidly approximate d values for 13C nuclei in as wide a variety of compounds as possible.
Brown, D. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 209.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amides |
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters
A method for drawing cyclohexane chairs  Cheer, Clair J.
A method for drawing cyclohexane chairs.
Cheer, Clair J. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 947.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Preparation of 2-bromopentane  Howell, B. A.; Kohrman, R. E.
The conversion of 2-pentanol to 2-bromopentane offers a good illustration of the problems associated with substitution in secondary systems.
Howell, B. A.; Kohrman, R. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 932.
Synthesis |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
The evaluation of strain and stabilization in molecules using isodesmic reactions  Fuchs, Richard
The stabilities of cyclic hydrocarbons are analyzed using isodesmic and metathetical isodesmic reactions.
Fuchs, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 133.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Aromatic Compounds
Oil shale - Heir to the petroleum kingdom   Schachter, Y.
A discussion of oil shale provides students with real-world problems that require chemical literacy.
Schachter, Y. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 750.
Applications of Chemistry |
Alkenes |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Green Chemistry
Free radical chlorination of methane: A demonstration  Conklin, Alfred R.; Kramme, Alan
Free radical reactions are very important and often discussed in chemistry. One of the first such reactions encountered by students of organic chemistry is the free radical chlorination of methane. This reaction serves to introduce the student to free radical reactions and chain reaction. In spite of its common occurrence, demonstrations of this reaction are uncommon.
Conklin, Alfred R.; Kramme, Alan J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 597.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Free Radicals
The photochemical isomerization of maleic to fumaric acid: an undergraduate organic chemistry experiment  Castro, Albert J.; Ellenberger, Suzanne R.; Sluka, James P.
An undergraduate organic chemistry experiment in the photochemical isomerization of maleic to fumaric acid.
Castro, Albert J.; Ellenberger, Suzanne R.; Sluka, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 521.
Acids / Bases |
Photochemistry |
Constitutional Isomers
Degas' dancers: an illustration for rotational isomers  Hargittai, Istvan
Two drawings by Degas provide an opportunity to introduce the concepts of staggered and eclipsed conformations of A2B-BC2 molecules in a concrete, interesting, and aesthetic way.
Hargittai, Istvan J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 94.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Constitutional Isomers |
Diastereomers
Lecture experiment in gas-liquid chromatography with a simple gas chromatograph at room temperature  Wollrah, Adalbert
Apparatus and method for separating mixtures of pentane / hexane and methyl chloride / carbon tetrachloride.
Wollrah, Adalbert J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 1042.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
An easily conducted free radical substitution for organic chemistry courses  Pavlis, Robert R.
The photobromination of 1,2-diphenylethane into its dibromo derivative, (2R) (3S) 1,2-dibromo-1,2-diphenylethane.
Pavlis, Robert R. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 658.
Free Radicals |
Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Photochemistry |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Aromatic Compounds
Introduction to infrared spectroscopy: A simple undergraduate experiment  Reeder, Deborah M.; Sridharan, Srinivasa
The objective is to obtain two IR spectra, one on an aliphatic compound and the other on an aromatic compound in a first-semester organic laboratory.
Reeder, Deborah M.; Sridharan, Srinivasa J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 503.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The separation and identification of straight chain hydrocarbons: An experiment using gas-liquid chromatography  Benson, G. A.
Gas liquid chromatography used to separate and identify a mixture of C5 to C10 straight chain hydrocarbons.
Benson, G. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 344.
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Chromatography
An early laboratory introduction to IR spectroscopy: Gaseous deuteroalkanes  Braun, Loren L.; Law, Raymond L.
The authors have found that the preparation of deuterated gaseous alkanes is a simple experiment that is a less hazardous experiment than the popular alternatives.
Braun, Loren L.; Law, Raymond L. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 79.
Isotopes |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Grignard Reagents |
Gases
The effect of free radical stability on the rate of bromination of hydrocarbons  Doheny, Anthony J.; Loudon, G. Marc
The effect of alkyl free radical stability on the rate of free radical halogenation of hydrocarbons can be convincingly demonstrated by the comparative photobromination of the arenes toluene, ethylbenzene, and cumene.
Doheny, Anthony J.; Loudon, G. Marc J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 507.
Free Radicals |
Reactions |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Photochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Stereochemical nonequivalence of ligands and faces (heterotopicity)  Eliel, Ernest L.
Reviews the concepts associated with stereochemical non-equivalence (heterotopicity).
Eliel, Ernest L. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 52.
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers |
Diastereomers |
Constitutional Isomers |
Group Theory / Symmetry
Optical illusions in drawings of cyclohexane derivatives  Feldman, Martin R.
An optical illusion in the representation of chair cyclohexanes.
Feldman, Martin R. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 659.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers |
Diastereomers |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Report of the symposium on high school instructional interface: Modernization, restructuring and improvement of chemistry teaching  Richardson, Shirley E.

Richardson, Shirley E. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 602.
Constitutional Isomers |
Professional Development
The perturbational MO method for saturated systems  Herndon, William C.
Outlines a molecular orbital approach to the problem of predicting and correlating bond dissociation energies in saturated hydrocarbons.
Herndon, William C. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 448.
MO Theory |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Free Radicals |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Conformations of substituted ethanes  Kingsbury, Charles A.
Provides a state-of-the-art view of conformational analysis, with an emphasis on sp3 hybridized acyclic molecules.
Kingsbury, Charles A. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 431.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Conformational Analysis |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Diastereomers
Compact Compacts  Huebner, Jay S.; Shiflett, R. B.; Blanck, Harvey F.
A collection of three suggestions regarding demonstrating the oxidation of hydrocarbons and the primary, secondary, and tertiary structure of proteins and the first law of thermodynamics as applied to air conditioning.
Huebner, Jay S.; Shiflett, R. B.; Blanck, Harvey F. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 389.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Proteins / Peptides |
Thermodynamics
Why did Adolf Baeyer propose a planar, strained cyclohexane ring?  Ramsay, O. Bertrand
Considers the question "Why did Adolf Baeyer propose a planar, strained cyclohexane ring?"
Ramsay, O. Bertrand J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 563.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A Dramatic and relevant demonstration of ring strain  Kelly, T. Ross
Addition of the cyclobutane alpha-pinene to crystalline iodine results in an exceptionally exothermic reaction.
Kelly, T. Ross J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 228.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Reactions
Hydrocarbons in ambient air: A laboratory experiment  DiNardi, Salvatore R.; Briggs, Elaine S.
Students calibrate and the n use a gas chromatograph to analyze ambient air for hydrocarbons.
DiNardi, Salvatore R.; Briggs, Elaine S. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 811.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Quantitative Analysis |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography
Some reflections on the topological structure of covalent molecules  Rouvray, D. H.
Presents a method that involves a description of the possible topological structures a chemical species may adopt, subject to the constraints imposed by the valence.
Rouvray, D. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 768.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Stereospecific thermal cycloadditions and catalyzed isomerizations: An organic laboratory project  Pasto, D. J.; Duncan, J. A.; Silversmith, E. F.
The authors have prepared a sequence of experiments for their undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory concerned with the preparation of cis and trans 1,4-diphenyl-2-butene-1,4diones, their cycloadditions reactions with cyclopentandiene, and with related isomerization reactions of both the sequence, which has met with much success experimentally, clearly and collectively demonstrates certain aspects of the concepts of thermodynamics, kinetics, and stereochemistry and photochemistry.
Pasto, D. J.; Duncan, J. A.; Silversmith, E. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 277.
Photochemistry |
Constitutional Isomers |
Addition Reactions
A laboratory study of strike and inductive effects  Fulkrod, John E.
The authors describe a general reaction that can be successfully used to teach both strike and inductive effects in the laboratory by discovery.
Fulkrod, John E. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 115.
Constitutional Isomers |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Aromatic Compounds
Demonstration of solubility of "immiscible" fluids  Koob, R. D.; Tallman, D. E.
Demonstrating that hexane is miscible in water.
Koob, R. D.; Tallman, D. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 724.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Computer program for identifying alkane structures  Davidson, Scott
A Fortran IV computer program to identify and name alkane structure having C1-C16 main chains and C1-C4 side chains is available.
Davidson, Scott J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 707.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The boat form of cyclohexane as viewed by Midwestern sailors (the author replies)  Hart, Harold
Possible confusion regarding the boat analogy in describing the positions of hydrogens in cyclohexane.
Hart, Harold J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 656.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
The boat form of cyclohexane as viewed by Midwestern sailors  Lyle, Gloria; Lyle, Robert E.
Possible confusion regarding the boat analogy in describing the positions of hydrogens in cyclohexane.
Lyle, Gloria; Lyle, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 655.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Saving a life with alcohol  Scala, A. A.
Using alcohol as a treatment for ethylene glycol poisoning.
Scala, A. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 365.
Alcohols |
Toxicology |
Metabolism |
Constitutional Isomers
Inductive effects in the chlorination of 1-chlorobutane. An organic laboratory experiment  Reeves, Perry C.
The present paper describes the quantitative study of the directive effect of chlorine already present in the molecule on the orientation of incoming chlorine in the free radical halogenation of 1-chlorobutane.
Reeves, Perry C. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 636.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Conversions from cyclohexanol. An undergraduate laboratory project  Hanna, Samir B.; Wrobleski, James T.; Bohanon, Joseph T.; Peace, Bab W.
A procedure for a laboratory in conversions from cyclohexanol.
Hanna, Samir B.; Wrobleski, James T.; Bohanon, Joseph T.; Peace, Bab W. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 556.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alcohols
The stereospecific synthesis of trans-1,4-disubstituted cyclohexanes. An organic chemistry laboratory experiment  Monson, Richard S.
The authors present a synthetic experiment suitable for the introductory organic chemistry laboratory which the introductory organic chemistry laboratory which allows for the unambiguous preparation of trans-1,4-disubstituted cyclohexane derivatives from readily available starting materials.
Monson, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 197.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Stereochemistry |
Reactions
Separation of leucine and isoleucine by thin-layer chromatography  Gatto, Karen L.; Borders, C. L., Jr.
This experiment involves the separation of leucine and isoleucine through continuous ascending thin layer chromatography.
Gatto, Karen L.; Borders, C. L., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 840.
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Amino Acids |
Constitutional Isomers
The isomerization of xylenes. An experiment for the organic or instrumental laboratory  Harbison, Kenneth G.
This experiment illustrates both qualitative and quantitative applications of infrared spectroscopy for the analysis of mixtures, as well as providing an interesting study of the mechanism of Friedel-Crafts reactions.
Harbison, Kenneth G. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 837.
Instrumental Methods |
Aromatic Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions |
Constitutional Isomers
Organic nomenclature, I  Liotta, Charles
It is the purpose of this article to call attention to errors and misconceptions in the application of IUPAC Rules of Organic Nomenclature.
Liotta, Charles J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 471.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alcohols |
Heterocycles
Chlorination of 2,3-dimethylbutane: A quantitative organic chemistry experiment  Markgraf, J. Hodge
This paper describes the quantitative study of a free radical chlorination in which the student determines the relative reactivity of selected hydrogens.
Markgraf, J. Hodge J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 610.
Quantitative Analysis |
Alkylation |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Free Radicals
The preparation of naphthalene-alpha-d: An experiment in organic chemistry  Ziegler, Gene R.
This procedure involves the preparation of a hydrocarbon via the Grignard reagent from the corresponding bromide.
Ziegler, Gene R. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 609.
Synthesis |
Grignard Reagents |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
A unified theory of bonding for cyclopropanes  Bernett, William A.
Examines various models for bonding in cyclopropanes.
Bernett, William A. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 17.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
MO Theory |
Molecular Modeling
The Hofmann Rule  Freedman, Leon D.
The statement that the decomposition of tert-butyldimethyltethylammonium hydroxide yields predominantly ethylene is mistaken.
Freedman, Leon D. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 662.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Calculation of molecular geometry by vector analysis: Application to six-membered alicyclic rings  Henshall, T.
Demonstrates the calculation of molecular geometry by vector analysis through an application to cyclohexane.
Henshall, T. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 600.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Bromination of alkanes: Experiment illustrating relative reactivities and synthetic utility  Warkentin, J.
The radical halogenation of alkanes lend themselves well to the teaching of basic material such as bond dissociation energies, potential energy profiles, enthalpy of reaction, activation energy, and reaction rate.
Warkentin, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 331.
Electrochemistry |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Synthesis |
Alkenes |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Free Radicals
The bromination of anthracene  Wright, Oscar L.; Mura, Lawrence E.
This reaction illustrates the property of anthracene of adding the halogen molecule and later losing the elements of HBr to form the monobrominated hydrocarbon.
Wright, Oscar L.; Mura, Lawrence E. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 150.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Extensions in the use of plastic tetrahedral models  Fieser, Louis F.
Describes the modification of existing models to provide for the construction of specialized organic and inorganic structures and their use in teaching.
Fieser, Louis F. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 408.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Cyclobutane chemistry. 1. Structure and strain energy  Wilson, Armin; Goldhamer, David
Examines the various conformations that have been proposed for particular four-membered rings.
Wilson, Armin; Goldhamer, David J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 504.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The decarboxylation of organic acid  March, Jerry
Simple aliphatic acids (except for acetic) do not give good yields of the corresponding alkanes through decarboxylation, although many organic chemistry textbooks cite this as a general method for the preparation of alkanes.
March, Jerry J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 212.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions |
Synthesis |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Carboxylic Acids
Models illustrating rotational isomerism in aliphatic chains  Hayman, H. J. G.
Describes a simple modification to Fisher-Hirschfelder-Taylor models which, without abolishing the possibility of rotation, gives additional stability to the staggered configurations of aliphatic chains.
Hayman, H. J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 208.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
A versatile molecular model of cyclobutane  Wilson, Armin
Describes a versatile molecular model of cyclobutane constructed from brass tubing and used to illustrate ring strain.
Wilson, Armin J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 649.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Lecture demonstration models of cycloalkanes  Schultz, Harry P.
Describes large, sturdy, lecture demonstration models of cycloalkanes.
Schultz, Harry P. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 648.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Hydrocarbons in petroleum  Rossini, Frederick D.
Examines research and industrial processes involving the separation of petroleum into its constituent components.
Rossini, Frederick D. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 554.
Industrial Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Separation Science |
Natural Products
Conformational analysis in mobile systems  Eliel, Ernest L.
A review of conformational analysis and its application to mobile systems.
Eliel, Ernest L. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 126.
Conformational Analysis |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Potentialities of protein isomerism  Asimov, Isaac
The permutations generated by structural isomerism in proteins could be demonstrated more convincingly and realistically if the amino acid compositions of actual proteins were taken into consideration.
Asimov, Isaac J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 125.
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Amino Acids |
Constitutional Isomers
Aspects of isomerism and mesomerism. III. Stereoisomerism  Bent, Richard L.
Examines the tetrahedral nature of carbon, multiple bonds, enantiomorphism, diastereoisomerism, and geometric isomerism.
Bent, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 328.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enantiomers |
Diastereomers |
Constitutional Isomers
Aspects of isomerism and mesomerism. II. Structural isomerism  Bent, Richard L.
Examines the relationship between structural, optical, and geometric isomerism.
Bent, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 284.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Constitutional Isomers |
Enantiomers |
Diastereomers
The organization of subject matter in elementary organic chemistry  MacKenzie, Charles A.
Describes a curricular approach in which aliphatic and aromatic compounds are treated simultaneously rather than separately.
MacKenzie, Charles A. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 243.
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
The mechanisms of the reactions of aliphatic hydrocarbons  Schmerling, Louis
Examines the formation of carbonium ions and free radicals, the polymerization of olefins, hydrogen-halogen exchange, the condensation of haloalkanes with alkenes, the alkylation of paraffins, the condensation of paraffins with chloroolefins, the cracking of paraffins and olefins, and the isomerization of paraffins.
Schmerling, Louis J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 562.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Free Radicals |
Polymerization