TIGER

Journal Articles: 999 results
Cocrystal Controlled Solid-State Synthesis  Miranda L. Cheney, Michael J. Zaworotko, Steve Beaton, and Robert D. Singer
Describes experiments that can easily be adapted to a typical undergraduate organic chemistry course and are inexpensive, relatively safe, require little or no solvent, have high atom economy, make use of non-toxic or low toxicity compounds, and generate negligible quantities of waste.
Cheney, Miranda L.; Zaworotko, Michael J.; Beaton, Steve; Singer, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1649.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Green Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
Solid State Chemistry |
Synthesis
Designing and Conducting a Purification Scheme as an Organic Chemistry Laboratory Practical  Kate J. Graham, Brian J. Johnson, T. Nicholas Jones, Edward J. McIntee, and Chris P. Schaller
Describes an open-ended laboratory practical that challenges students to evaluate when different purification techniques are appropriate.
Graham, Kate J.; Johnson, Brian J.; Jones, T. Nicholas; McIntee, Edward J.; Schaller, Chris P. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1644.
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Physical Properties |
Separation Science
Molecular Models of Natural Products  William F. Coleman
This months Featured Molecules focus on natural products and include blattellquinone, a sex pheromone secreted by female German cockroaches to attract males, and (R)-limonene, a secondary metabolite found in citrus fruit peels.
Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1584.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Natural Products
Study of Molecular-Shape Selectivity of Zeolites by Gas Chromatography  Pei-Yu Chao, Yao-Yuan Chuang, Grace Hsiuying Ho, Shiow-Huey Chuang, Tseng-Chang Tsai, Chi-Young Lee, Shang-Tien Tsai, and Jun-Fu Huang
This analytical or physical chemistry sorption experiment uses hexane isomers as probe molecules to demonstrate the "molecular-shape selectivity" behavior of zeolites. Students can also modify the sorption protocol to build their own experiments.
Chao, Pei-Yu; Chuang, Yao-Yuan; Ho, Grace Hsiuying; Chuang, Shiow-Huey; Tsai, Tseng-Chang; Lee, Chi-Young; Tsai, Shang-Tien; Huang, Jun-Fu. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1558.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Constitutional Isomers |
Gas Chromatography |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Separation Science |
Solid State Chemistry |
Molecular Recognition
The Discovery-Oriented Approach to Organic Chemistry. 7. Rearrangement of trans-Stilbene Oxide with Bismuth Trifluoromethanesulfonate and Other Metal Triflates  James E. Christensen, Matthew G. Huddle, Jamie L. Rogers, Herbie Yung, and Ram S. Mohan
Presents a microscale, green organic chemistry laboratory experiment that illustrates the utility of metal triflates, especially bismuth triflate, as a Lewis acid catalyst. Bismuth compounds are especially attractive for use as catalysts in organic synthesis because of their low toxicity, low cost, and ease of handling.
Christensen, James E.; Huddle, Matthew G.; Rogers, Jamie L.; Yung, Herbie; Mohan, Ram S. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1274.
Catalysis |
Epoxides |
Green Chemistry |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy
Molecular Models of Annatto Seed Components  William F. Coleman
This month's molecular model is of bixin, a pigment that can be isolated from annatto seeds.
Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1008.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Natural Products |
Plant Chemistry
Identification of an Unknown Compound by Combined Use of IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and Mass Spectrometry: A Real-Life Experience in Structure Determination  Louis J. Liotta and Magdalena James-Pederson
In this introductory organic chemistry experiment, students are expected to operate NMR, IR, and GCMS instrumentation to obtain spectra which are interpreted to elucidate the chemical structure of the assigned compounds without the benefit of a list of possible unknowns.
Liotta, Louis J.; James-Pederson, Magdalena. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 832.
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Spectroscopy
Molecular Models of Reactants and Products from an Asymmetric Synthesis of a Chiral Carboxylic Acid  William F. Coleman
The Featured Molecules for this month are based on the use of 4-benzyl-2-oxazolidinone in the synthesis of a chiral carboxylic acid and include 4-dimethylaminopyridine, sodium bis(trimethylsilyl)amide, chelated (Z)-enolate of N-propionyl oxazolidinone, allyl iodide, and allylated oxazolidinone.
Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 752.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Converting Municipal Waste into Automobile Fuel: Ethanol from Newspaper  Mark Mascal and Richard Scown
In this experiment, waste newspaper is pulped with acid and its cellulose hydrolyzed to produce glucose syrup that is fermented and distilled to yield ethanol. In doing so, students are introduced to carbohydrate chemistry and the use of fermentation in organic synthesis.
Mascal, Mark; Scown, Richard. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 546.
Acids / Bases |
Alcohols |
Applications of Chemistry |
Biotechnology |
Carbohydrates |
Qualitative Analysis |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography
A Simple Method for Drawing Chiral Mononuclear Octahedral Metal Complexes  Aminou Mohamadou and Arnaud Haudrechy
This article presents a simple and progressive method to draw all of the octahedral complexes of coordination units with at least two different monodentate ligands and show their chiral properties.
Mohamadou, Aminou; Haudrechy, Arnaud. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 436.
Asymmetric Synthesis |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Coordination Compounds |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Transition Elements
Using Tactile Learning Aids for Students with Visual Impairments in a First-Semester Organic Chemistry Course  Thomas Poon and Ronit Ovadia
This paper describes two techniques for rendering visual concepts encountered in an organic chemistry course into tactile representations for students with low vision.
Poon, Thomas; Ovadia, Ronit. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 240.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Minorities in Chemistry |
Student-Centered Learning
Synthesis of Quaternary Ammonium Salts of Tricyclic Cationic Drugs: A One-Pot Synthesis for the Bioorganic Chemistry Laboratory  Linda S. Brunauer, Abid C. Mogannam, Won B. Hwee, and James Y. Chen
Describes a one-pot conversion of tricyclic cationic drugs to their quaternary ammonium forms for a widely used bioactive drug, chlorpromazine, a phenothiazine-based antipsychotic. The conversion of parent drug to the methylated form was evaluated by qualitatively measuring its ability to induce alterations in the shape of mammalian erythrocytes.
Brunauer, Linda S.; Mogannam, Abid C.; Hwee, Won B.; Chen, James Y. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1992.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Determination of Solvent Effects on Keto—Enol Equilibria of 1,3-Dicarbonyl Compounds Using NMR  A. Gilbert Cook and Paul M. Feltman
Expands the classic physical chemistry experiment using of proton NMR to determine the equilibrium position of tautomeric 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds in various solvents.
Cook, A. Gilbert; Feltman, Paul M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1827.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Equilibrium |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics
Synthesis of Triarylmethane and Xanthene Dyes Using Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions  James V. McCullagh and Kelly A. Daggett
In this experiment, electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions are used to synthesize several triarylmethane and xanthene dyes (fluorescein, erythrosin B, thymolphthalein, and rhodamine B) using common equipment while avoiding often troublesome, hydroscopic Lewis acids. Subsequent UVvis analysis produce spectra that match commercially available dye samples.
McCullagh, James V.; Daggett, Kelly A. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1799.
Acids / Bases |
Aromatic Compounds |
Dyes / Pigments |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Equilibrium |
Synthesis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Molecular Models of Dyes  William F. Coleman
The JCE Featured Molecules for this month include the triarylmethane and xanthene dyes fluorescein, erythrosin B, thymolphthalein, and rhodamine B.
Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1798.
Dyes / Pigments |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Molecular Models of Compounds in Maple Syrup  William F. Coleman
This months Featured Molecules includes compounds found in honey and maple syrup.
Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1650.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Analysis and Identification of Acid–Base Indicator Dyes by Thin-Layer Chromatography  Daniel D. Clark
Presents an experiment that serves to illustrate the fundamentals and utility of thin-layer chromatography through the resolution and identification of brightly colored, acidbase indicator dyes on the basis of Rf values and color.
Clark, Daniel D. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1186.
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Synthesis and NMR Spectral Analysis of Amine Heterocycles: The Effect of Asymmetry on the 1H and 13C NMR Spectra of N,O-Acetals  Shahrokh Saba, James A. Ciaccio, Jennifer Espinal, and Courtney E. Aman
Describe an undergraduate organic laboratory experiment in which students prepare two N,O-acetals that differ only in a single ring substituent that introduces asymmetry, giving each compound a distinct 1H and 13C NMR spectral pattern that must be explained by students.
Saba, Shahrokh; Ciaccio, James A.; Espinal, Jennifer; Aman, Courtney E. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1011.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Green Chemistry |
Heterocycles |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis
CARBOHYDECK: A Card Game To Teach the Stereochemistry of Carbohydrates  Manuel João Costa
This paper describes CARBOHYDECK, a card game that may replace or complement lectures identifying and differentiating monosaccharide isomers.
Costa, Manuel João. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 977.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Carbohydrates |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Student-Centered Learning
Triethylamine  Jay A. Young
The hazards of triethylamine are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 926.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Laboratory Management
A2: Element or Compound?  Marilyne Stains and Vicente Talanquer
Particulate questions are used to investigate the mental association between the concepts of molecule and compound in chemistry students with different levels of academic preparation. A significant proportion of students misclassify molecular elements as chemical compounds, and this association is stronger in students with higher levels of preparation.
Stains, Marilyne; Talanquer, Vicente. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 880.
Molecular Properties / Structure
Characterization of High Explosives and Other Energetic Compounds by Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling  John A. Bumpus, Anne Lewis, Corey Stotts, and Christopher J. Cramer
Four experiments suitable for use in the undergraduate instructional laboratory demonstrate the use of computational chemistry and molecular-modeling procedures to calculate selected physical and chemical properties of several high explosives and other energetic compounds.
Bumpus, John A.; Lewis, Anne; Stotts, Corey; Cramer, Christopher J. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 329.
Computational Chemistry |
Gases |
Physical Properties |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Dynamic Stereochemistry: A Simple Approach To Delineating Relative Configuration  Dipak K. Mandal
A simple approach is presented for delineating relative stereochemistry of the product in reactions involving stereogenic center(s).
Mandal, Dipak K. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 274.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry
Plastic Solar Cells: A Multidisciplinary Field To Construct Chemical Concepts from Current Research  Rafael Gómez and José L. Segura
Presents a multidisciplinary approach to the field of organic solar cells and proposes examples of this technology to illustrate core concepts in chemistry, including the photovoltaic effect, the photoinduced electron-transfer process, the correlation between physical properties and atomic electronic structures, and molecular design.
Gómez, Rafael; Segura, José L. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 253.
Applications of Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Synthesis |
Materials Science
Chemical Speciation Analysis of Sports Drinks by Acid–Base Titrimetry and Ion Chromatography: A Challenging Beverage Formulation Project  Howard Drossman
Describes a three-part laboratory project that integrates a full chemical speciation analysis of Gatorade and Powerade, including base standardization, potentiometric or colorimetric titration, and ion chromatography.
Drossman, Howard. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 124.
Acids / Bases |
Food Science |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chromatography
Molecular Model of trans-3-(9-Anthryl)-2-Propenoic Acid Ethyl Ester   William F. Coleman
The Featured Molecules this month come from the paper by Nguyen and Weisman on solvent-free Wittig reactions and the stereochemical consequences of crowding in the transition state. The molecules include those pictured in the paper as well as the cis isomer of 3-(9-anthryl)-2-propenoic acid ethyl ester.
Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 121.
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Teaching Structure–Property Relationships: Investigating Molecular Structure and Boiling Point  Peter M. Murphy
The boiling points for 392 organic compounds are tabulated by carbon chain length and functional group to facilitate a wide range of inquiry-based activities that correlate the effects of chemical structure on physical properties.
Murphy, Peter M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 97.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
Molecular Model of Tubocurarine  William F. Coleman
Presents a molecular model of tubocurarine.
Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1831.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Mentoring an Undergraduate Research Student in the Structural and Nonstructural Properties of Drugs  Julie B. Ealy and Veronica Kvarta
This article describes research, conducted with an undergraduate, to investigate the structural and nonstructural characteristics of drugs and their significance in drug research.
Ealy, Julie B.; Kvarta, Veronica. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1779.
Applications of Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Undergraduate Research |
Student-Centered Learning
Using a Simulated Industrial Setting for the Development of an Improved Solvent System for the Recrystallization of Benzoic Acid: A Student-Centered Project  Timothy R. Hightower and Jay D. Heeren
Presents a peer-led, problem-solving organic laboratory exercise that provide students with an opportunity to produce a more efficient recrystallization solvent in an industrial environment.
Hightower, Timothy R.; Heeren, Jay D. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1663.
Carboxylic Acids |
Industrial Chemistry |
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents
A Discovery-Learning 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazone Experiment  Bruno M. Vittimberga and Ben Ruekberg
Selections of liquid aldehydes and ketones are proposed for students to determine what property is the best predictor of the color (yellow to red) of their 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone derivative. Students may use a computer (spreadsheet or word processor) to analyze their results.
Vittimberga, Bruno M.; Ruekberg, Ben. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1661.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Qualitative Analysis
Microwave-Mediated Synthesis of Lophine: Developing a Mechanism To Explain a Product   R. David Crouch, Jessica L. Howard, Jennifer L. Zile, and Kathryn H. Barker
Describes the microwave-mediated preparation of lophine (2,4,5-triphenylimidazole). The experiment also provides an opportunity for students to employ the principles of carbonyl chemistry in devising a mechanism to explain the formation of the product.
Crouch, R. David; Howard, Jessica L.; Zile, Jennifer L.; Barker, Kathryn H. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1658.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aromatic Compounds |
Microscale Lab |
Molecular Modeling |
Synthesis |
NMR Spectroscopy
Creatine Synthesis: An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  Andri L. Smith and Paula Tan
Describes the synthesis of creatine monohydratea popular supplement used in sports requiring short bursts of energyfor introductory organic chemistry laboratory courses. The synthesis illustrates the electrophilic nature of nitriles, as well as the nucleophilic nature of amines.
Smith, Andri L.; Tan, Paula. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1654.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Chromatography |
Dyes / Pigments |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Developing Critical Thinking Skills: The "Sabotaged" Synthesis of Methyl p-Bromobenzoate  Eric J. Mahan and Mary Alice Nading
Before beginning an experiment, students are told that someone might have sabotaged their experiment to produce other-than-expected results. The objective is to perform the experiment, determine if any sabotage has occurred, and, if so, identify the changes that were made to the reagents as well as the person responsible.
Mahan, Eric J.; Nading, Mary Alice. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1652.
Alcohols |
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Synthesis
Astrochemistry Examples in the Classroom  Reggie L. Hudson
In this article some recent developments in astrochemistry are suggested as examples for the teaching of acid-base chemistry, molecular structure, and chemical reactivity. Suggestions for additional reading are provided, with an emphasis on readily-accessible materials.
Hudson, Reggie L. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1611.
Acids / Bases |
Astrochemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
A Polymer in Everyday Life: The Isolation of Poly(vinyl alcohol) from Aqueous PVA Glues. An Undergraduate Chemistry Experiment   Yueh-Huey Chen and Jing-Fun Yaung
The IR spectra of three common and related polymers are used to identify functional groups and rationalize molecular structures.
Chen, Yueh-Huey; Yaung, Jing-Fun. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1534.
Applications of Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Esters |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Colorful Chemical Demonstrations on the Extraction of Anionic Species from Water into Ether Mediated by Tricaprylylmethylammonium Chloride (Aliquat 336), a Liquid–Liquid Phase-Transfer Agent  Anil Joseph Pezhathinal, Kerensa Rocke, Louis Susanto, Derek Handke, Roch Chan-Yu-King, and Patrick Gordon
Provides a list of safe and easy experiments to demonstrate the extraction of colorful, water-soluble reagents by Aliquat 336 into ether. The demonstrations simulate the preliminary extractive step of an ionic species in liquidliquid phase transfer-catalyzed reactions and introduce various undergraduate chemistry concepts and principles to students.
Pezhathinal, Anil Joseph; Rocke, Kerensa; Susanto, Louis; Handke, Derek; Chan-Yu-King, Roch; Gordon, Patrick. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1161.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Catalysis |
Dyes / Pigments |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Evaluating the Internal Charge-Transfer in Benzylidene Derivatives of N,N′-Dimethylbarbituric Acid  Marcos Caroli Rezende, Francisco Jara, and Moisés Domínguez
Four benzylidene derivatives of N,N'-dimethylbarbituric acid are prepared and their UVvisible and 1H NMR spectra used to characterize the molecular internal charge-transfer in the molecules.
Rezende, Marcos Caroli; Jara, Francisco; Domínguez, Moisés. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 937.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Dyes / Pigments |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Reductive Amination: A Remarkable Experiment for the Organic Laboratory  Kim M. Touchette
The synthesis of N-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)-N-p-tolylacetamide is a fast, simple three-step sequence that serves as a useful example of the reductive amination reaction for the organic chemistry laboratory.
Touchette, Kim M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 929.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Green Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solids
A Simple Combinatorial Experiment Based on Fischer Esterification. An Experiment Suitable for the First-Semester Organic Chemistry Lab  Peter A. Wade, Susan A. Rutkowsky, and Daniel B. King
Describes a combinatorial experiment for the synthesis of esters by Fischer esterification in which a total of eight esters are prepared as six mixtures.
Wade, Peter A.; Rutkowsky, Susan A.; King, Daniel B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 927.
Alcohols |
Carboxylic Acids |
Combinatorial Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Esters |
Gas Chromatography |
Synthesis
Iodolactonization of 4-Pentenoic Acid   R. David Crouch, Alexander Tucker-Schwartz, and Kathryn Barker
Describes an experiment in which 4-pentenoic acid is converted into a lactone via iodolactonization.
Crouch, R. David; Tucker-Schwartz, Alexander; Barker, Kathryn. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 921.
Alkenes |
Carboxylic Acids |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Reactions |
Synthesis
Lubricating Greases  William F. Coleman
Molecular models of furfural, terephthalic acid, N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine, and N,N'-disalicylidene-1,2-diaminopropane.
Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 882.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Computer-Based Conformational Analysis of Acetylcholine and Muscarine Combined with an Overview of the Receptor–Ligand Interaction   Marcelo Tavares de Oliveira, Minéia Alves dos Santos, and Thais Horta Álvares da Silva
Reports on a procedure to perform conformational analysis using the systematic search method and the superimposition of two bioactive molecules, acetylcholine and muscarine. The undergraduate students individually perform the proposed procedure using a personal computer.
Tavares de Oliveira, Marcelo; Alves dos Santos, Minéia ; Álvares da Silva, Thais Horta. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 780.
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Computational Chemistry |
Conformational Analysis |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Receptors
Microwave-Assisted Heterocyclic Chemistry  William F. Coleman
This month's Featured Molecules include benzimidazole, succinic anhydride, phthalimide, piperazine-2,5-dione, 2,3-diphenylquinoxaline, 5,5-diphenylhydantoin, and benzoxazinone.
Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 621.
Heterocycles |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Ozonolysis Problems That Promote Student Reasoning  Ray A. Gross Jr.
The structural features inherent in acyclic monoterpenes that follow the isoprene rule often lead to unique sets of ozonolysis products from which their structures, excluding stereochemistry, can be determined from molecular formulas only. This article shows how students may elucidate the structures of these compounds by analysis of the oxidative and reductive workup products.
Gross, Ray A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 604.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Carboxylic Acids |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Student-Centered Learning
Synthesis of Methyl Diantilis, a Commercially Important Fragrance  William H. Miles and Katelyn B. Connell
Describes the synthesis of a family of fragrances, including the commercially important Methyl Diantilis, and provides an excellent introduction to intellectual property laws.
Miles, William H.; Connell, Katelyn B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 285.
Alcohols |
Food Science |
Catalysis |
Ethers |
Industrial Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis
The Chemistry of Highly Fluorinated Compounds  William F. Coleman
Highly fluorinated compounds modeled in this month's Feature include fluorous phenylboronic acid, fluorous alkyl phospine, fluorous acid, fluorous chlorosilane, and fluorous reverse-phase silica gel.
Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 92.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Separation Science
Assessment of Molecular Construction in Undergraduate Biochemistry  Deborah Booth, Robert C. Bateman Jr., Rudy Sirochman, David C. Richardson, Jane S. Richardson, Steven W. Weiner, Mary Farwell, and Cindy Putnam-Evans
Reports on the results of surveys of undergraduates regarding their attitudes towards the use of molecular visualization in biochemistry lecture courses. Students were found to believe that actually constructing a molecular illustration is a more effective vehicle for learning than viewing and manipulating molecular images.
Booth, Deborah; Bateman, Robert C., Jr.; Sirochman, Rudy; Richardson, David C.; Richardson, Jane S.; Weiner, Steven W.; Farwell, Mary; Putnam-Evans, Cindy. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1854.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Constructivism
Chemistry of Blood Type  William F. Coleman
The molecules for this month come from a paper on structural factors determining blood type.
Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1853.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Further Analysis of Boiling Points of Small Molecules, CHwFxClyBrz  Guy Beauchamp
Multiple linear regression analysis has proven useful in selecting predictor variables that could significantly clarify the boiling point variation of the CHwFxClyBrz molecules.
Beauchamp, Guy. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1842.
Chemometrics |
Physical Properties |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Monitoring the Rate of Solvolytic Decomposition of Benzenediazonium Tetrafluoroborate in Aqueous Media Using a pH Electrode  Floyd L. Wiseman
This article discusses the use of pH electrodes to monitor the aqueous solvolysis of the benzenediazonium ion and shows that the results are in reasonable agreement with literature values.
Wiseman, Floyd L. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1841.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
pH |
Rate Law
An Animated Interactive Overview of Molecular Symmetry  Marion E. Cass, Henry S. Rzepa, David R. Rzepa, and Charlotte K. Williams
An Animated Interactive Overview of Molecular Symmetry is a series of Web pages designed to help instructors teach molecular symmetry. These pages combine interactive images and instructional text that allow students to examine and explore the operations and elements that give rise to molecular symmetry.
Cass, Marion E.; Rzepa, Henry S.; Rzepa, David R.; Williams, Charlotte K. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1742.
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
3D Molecular Symmetry Shockwave: A Web Application for Interactive Visualization and Three-Dimensional Perception of Molecular Symmetry  Nickolas D. Charistos, Constantinos A. Tsipis, and Michail P. Sigalas
3D Molecular Symmetry Shockwave is a Web-based application for interactive visualization and three-dimensional perception of molecular symmetry. The user interface is simple, and students learn how to use the program from the built-in help screens.
Charistos, Nickolas D.; Tsipis, Constantinos A.; Sigalas, Michail P. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1741.
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Teaching Molecular Symmetry with JCE WebWare  William F. Coleman and Edward W. Fedosky
Presents two tools, 3D Molecular Symmetry Shockwave and An Animated Interactive Overview of Molecular Symmetry, that illustrate and help teach molecular symmetry.
Coleman, William F.; Fedosky, Edward W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1741.
Computational Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Group Theory / Symmetry
The Use of the Free, Open-Source Program Jmol To Generate an Interactive Web Site To Teach Molecular Symmetry  Marion E. Cass and Henry S. Rzepa
Describes the use of Jmol, a free, open-source code program, for the presentation of interactive materials to teach molecular symmetry.
Cass, Marion E.; Rzepa, Henry S. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1736.
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Polypyrazolylborates: Scorpionates  Swiatoslaw Trofimenko
Key features of polypyrazolylborates (also known as scorpionates because of certain specific features of their coordination chemistry) and examples of their use in modeling biologically active compounds are briefly presented.
Trofimenko, Swiatoslaw. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1715.
Coordination Compounds |
Heterocycles |
Synthesis |
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Cotton Effect in Copper–Proline Complexes in the Visible Region  Victor Volkov and Rolf Pfister
This article suggests taking advantage of the visible dd electronic transition of Cu2+, which allows one to contrast the normal optical rotatory dispersion response of d- and l-proline in aqueous solution with the strong Cotton effect observed when these amino acids are complexed with a metal cation.
Volkov, Victor; Pfister, Rolf. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1663.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Amino Acids |
Coordination Compounds |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory
Nicotine Smoke Chemistry  William F. Coleman
As educators we must constantly make decisions about how one introduces students to both the principles of chemistry and the complexity of real chemical systems. The Featured Molecules this month come from the paper by Jeffrey Seeman detailing some of the complexities involved in the volatilization of two alkaloids, nicotine and cocaine. Students could be asked to identify how chemistry is involved in the various steps described in the paper, and most beginning students will be surprised to learn just how complex a process the volatilization of a molecule such as nicotine is.
Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1583.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Application of ChemDraw NMR Tool: Correlation of Program-Generated 13C Chemical Shifts and pKa Values of para-Substituted Benzoic Acids  Hongyi Wang
An application of ChemDraw NMR Tool was demonstrated by correlation of program-generated 13C NMR chemical shifts and pKa values of para-substituted benzoic acids. Experimental 13C NMR chemical shifts were analyzed in the same way for comparison. The project can be used as an assignment at the end of the first-year organic chemistry course to review topics or explore new techniques: Hammett equation, acidbase equilibrium theory, electronic nature of functional groups, inductive and resonance effects, structurereactivity relationship, NMR spectroscopy, literature search, database search, and ChemDraw software.
Wang, Hongyi. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1340.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Carboxylic Acids
Circular Dichroism Investigation of Dess–Martin Periodinane Oxidation in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Nicole A. Reed, Robert D. Rapp, Christian S. Hamann, and Pamela G. Artz
Using circular dichroism, organic laboratory students investigated the change in absolute stereochemistry upon oxidation of menthol to menthone. In the first laboratory period, the oxidation was performed with DessMartin periodinane, which is a facile and less toxic oxidizing agent. Half the laboratory group performed the oxidation with ()-menthol and the other half used (+)-menthol to produce ()-menthone and (+)-menthone, respectively. The products were analyzed in the second laboratory period using infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to determine the fraction of starting alcohol converted to ketone. Comparison was made between CD spectra both for the menthol reactant and menthone product and for the (+)- and ()-menthone enantiomers.
Reed, Nicole A.; Rapp, Robert D.; Hamann, Christian S.; Artz, Pamela G. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1053.
Instrumental Methods |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Enantiomers
Menthol Stereoisomers  William F. Coleman
The JCE Featured Molecules for July come from the paper by Edward M. Treadwell and T. Howard Black on the use of commercially available stereoisomers of menthol to illustrate properties of enantiomers and diastereomers. The paper describes the use of four of the eight possible stereoisomers. Structures of all eight stereoisomers are included in this months molecule collection, labeled by the chirality of the three chiral atoms. In addition to the exercises described in the paper, students can be asked to match the appropriate structures to those shown in the paper, or to generate structures for the isomers that are not discussed.
Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1048.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Alcohols
Enantiomeric Resolution of (±)-Mandelic Acid by (1R,2S)-(–)-Ephedrine. An Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Illustrating Stereoisomerism  Marsha R. Baar and Andrea L. Cerrone-Szakal
There has been an increasing need, particularly in the pharmaceutical industry, to prepare chiral substances in single-isomer form. A chiral technique that makes an excellent introductory organic chemistry experiment is enantiomeric resolution. The classical resolution of ()-mandelic acid using the chiral amine, (1R,2S)-()-ephedrine, was adapted for use in introductory organic chemistry lab curricula.
Baar, Marsha R.; Cerrone-Szakal, Andrea L. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1040.
Acids / Bases |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Separation Science |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers
Formation of α-Tetralone by Intramolecular Friedel–Crafts Acylation  Michael S. Holden, R. David Crouch, and Kathryn A. Barker
A microscale procedure is described for the formation of the industrially-important compound alpha-tetralone. This is an example of an intramolecular FriedelCrafts acylation, utilizing 4-phenylbutanoic acid and a proton source. The title reaction demonstrates the concept of ring-forming reactions and highlights the use of carboxylic acids as an electrophile precursor in electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions.
Holden, Michael S.; Crouch, R. David; Barker, Kathryn A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 934.
Aromatic Compounds |
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Carboxylic Acids |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
Teaching pH Measurements with a Student-Assembled Combination Quinhydrone Electrode  Fritz Scholz, Tim Steinhardt, Heike Kahlert, Jens R. Pörksen, and Jürgen Behnert
A combination pH electrode that can be assembled by the student is described. It consists of a glass holder and two sensors in the form of rubber stoppers that contain quinhydrone and graphite. The combination electrode is suitable to teach potentiometric measurements, pH measurements, and the interplay of acidbase and redox equilibria. The electrode meets highest safety standards and overcomes the troubles associated with the use of the conventional quinhydrone electrode.
Scholz, Fritz; Steinhardt, Tim; Kahlert, Heike; Pörksen, Jens R.; Behnert, Jürgen. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 782.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry
A Literature Exercise Using SciFinder Scholar for the Sophomore-Level Organic Chemistry Course  Ian J. Rosenstein
This report details an exercise for the sophomore-level organic course using SciFinder Scholar to search the Chemical Abstracts database. Students each research the synthesis and use of a chiral auxiliary then present their findings to their classmates in a short oral presentation.
Rosenstein, Ian J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 652.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A Closer Look at AcidBase Olfactory Titrations  Kerry Neppel, Maria T. Oliver-Hoyo, Connie Queen, and Nicole Reed
This laboratory experiment uses the sense of smell to determine end points of acidbase titrations. Olfactory indicators include garlic, onions, and vanillin. Results show that garlic and vanillin gave the most accurate results when calculated NaOH molarities were compared to the standardized values. These olfactory indicators in acidbase titrations gave consistent results when tested by a diverse student population. The preparation times, cost, and safety issues are comparable to traditional titration experiments.
Neppel, Kerry; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.; Queen, Connie; Reed, Nicole. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 607.
Acids / Bases |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
A Quantitative Examination of Multiple Methods for Standardizing a Dilute Hydrochloric Acid Solution in an Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory  Nancy E. Meagher, Dana B. Bowens, and B. Shawn Clark
The objective of the project was to compare the different published methods for standardizing dilute hydrochloric acid solutions. There are three different suitable bases available for the process and multiple indicator choices. This article attempts to identify the most accurate method(s) for use in the undergraduate laboratory. Students were given an "unknown" solution of dilute HCl and assigned to standardize it by eight methods (32 titrations), reporting both their experimental results and preference for the different indicatorbase combinations.
Meagher, Nancy E.; Bowens, Dana B.; Clark, B. Shawn. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 428.
Acids / Bases |
Quantitative Analysis
Analysis of Natural Buffer Systems and the Impact of Acid Rain. An Environmental Project for First-Year Chemistry Students  David C. Powers, Andrew T. Higgs, Matt L. Obley, Phyllis A. Leber, Kenneth R. Hess, and Claude H. Yoder
The purpose of this project is to investigate the basic principles involved in acidbase buffer systems within the context of an environmental issue. It is designed for use in an introductory chemistry course. The students will learn about acidbase interactions and examine how a buffer system composed of a weak acid and its conjugate base can neutralize large quantities of strong acid while resisting drastic change in the pH of the system. Students will also analyze experimentally the various components of the most commonly occurring natural buffer system.
Powers, David C.; Higgs, Andrew T.; Obley, Matt L.; Leber, Phyllis A.; Hess, Kenneth R.; Yoder, Claude H. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 274.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium
Mage: A Tool for Developing Interactive Instructional Graphics  Stephen F. Pavkovic
This article demonstrates some of the advantages of the Mage program: (i) construction of instructional Mage data files is straightforward and results in clear, geometrically correct images; (ii) Mage images may be viewed directly from a Java-capable Web page; (iii) several other formats may be converted to kinemages in order to use the Mage applet. This paper also discusses a related student activity.
Pavkovic, Stephen F. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 167.
Molecular Properties / Structure
Analysis of Gold Ores by Fire Assay  Kristy M. Blyth, David N. Phillips, and Wilhelm van Bronswijk
This article describes a laboratory exercise for the analysis of gold using the fire-assay technique. This method of analysis not only provides students with an introduction to the technique of fire assay, but also covers some very interesting acidbase and redox chemistry. The gold is collected in a lead button while the remainder of the constituents find their way into a slag. The gold is recovered from the lead by absorption in a boneash cupel.
Blyth, Kristy M.; Phillips, David N.; van Bronswijk, Wilhelm. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1780.
Acids / Bases |
Industrial Chemistry |
Metals |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Cis and Trans Isomerization in Cyclic Alkenes: A Topic for Discovery Using the Results of Molecular Modeling  Susan E. Barrows and Thomas H. Eberlein
This article describes an activity in which students are led to discover the fundamental reasons behind the unusual instability of the trans isomers in medium-sized cycloalkenes by using the results of molecular modeling. Notably, students will make the unexpected discovery that twisting about p bonds is perhaps more facile than they had been led to believe.
Barrows, Susan E.; Eberlein, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1529.
Covalent Bonding |
Computational Chemistry |
Molecular Modeling |
Alkenes |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Unified Approximations: A New Approach for Monoprotic Weak Acid–Base Equilibria  Harry L. Pardue, Ihab N. Odeh, and Teweldemedhin M. Tesfai
This article describes a new approach to approximate calculations for monoprotic acidbase equilibria in otherwise pure water. The new approach, identified herein as unified approximations, uses a simple decision criterion to select between situations that should be treated as deprotonation and protonation reactions. The remaining treatment takes account of changes in concentrations of conjugate acidbase pairs for all situations and ignores autoprotolysis only for situations for which the analytical concentration of either the conjugate acid or conjugate base will always be larger than zero.
Pardue, Harry L.; Odeh, Ihab N.; Tesfai, Teweldemedhin M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1367.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
The Conversion of Carboxylic Acids to Ketones: A Repeated Discovery  John W. Nicholson and Alan Wilson
This article describes the history of the reaction converting carboxylic acids to ketones. The reaction has been rediscovered several times, yet has actually been known for centuries.
Nicholson, John W.; Wilson, Alan. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1362.
Synthesis |
Carboxylic Acids |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Exploring Organic Mechanistic Puzzles with Molecular Modeling  Gail Horowitz and Gary Schwartz
Molecular modeling projects in the form of mechanistic organic puzzles are described. Students, working in small groups, deduced reaction mechanisms and calculated heats of formation of intermediates and products in order to predict thermodynamic and kinetic selectivities of reaction. Student performance and degree of success is discussed. Projects are appropriate for students who have completed one semester of organic chemistry. A 3 - 4 hour laboratory period is required.
Horowitz, Gail; Schwartz, Gary. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1136.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Computational Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactive Intermediates
A Solid–State NMR Experiment: Analysis of Local Structural Environments in Phosphate Glasses  Stanley E. Anderson, David Saiki, Hellmut Eckert, and Karin Meise-Gresch
The solid state 31P NMR wideline spectra of a series of student-prepared sodium phosphate glasses can easily be measured using a standard multinuclear FTNMR spectrometer.
Anderson, Stanley E.; Saiki, David; Eckert, Hellmut; Meise-Gresch, Karin. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1034.
Solid State Chemistry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Synthesis of Chemiluminescent Esters: A Combinatorial Synthesis Experiment for Organic Chemistry Students  Robert Duarte, Janne T. Nielsen, and Veljko Dragojlovic
In this laboratory exercise, a peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence experiment has been integrated with a combinatorial synthesis experiment.
Duarte, Robert; Nielsen, Janne T.; Dragojlovic, Veljko. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1010.
Esters |
Synthesis |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Molecular Modeling of Non-Trivial Cyclohexane Derivatives: A Discovery Approach  Gail Horowitz
An experiment is described that utilizes molecular modeling to study the effects of sp2 hybridization, bond elongation, and heteroatom substitution upon the stabilities of the axial and equatorial conformers of cyclohexane.
Horowitz, Gail. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1006.
Molecular Modeling |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Computational Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Sulfuric Acid and Water: Paradoxes of Dilution  I. A. Leenson
The principal goal of this article is to elucidate some uncommon phenomena that can be observed in the process of diluting sulfuric acid with water.
Leenson, I. A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 991.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Effects of Exchange Energy and Spin-Orbit Coupling on Bond Energies  Derek W. Smith
It is shown that the ground states of atoms having pn configurations are stabilized by exchange energy (n = 2, 3, or 4) and/or spinorbit coupling (n = 1, 2, 4, or 5).
Smith, Derek W. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 886.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Main-Group Elements |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Ionic Bonding |
Covalent Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
Class Projects in Physical Organic Chemistry: The Hydrolysis of Aspirin  Peter S. Marrs
The students prepare a pHrate profile for the hydrolysis of aspirin and analyze this profile to determine the mechanism and type of catalysis of the hydrolysis at different pH values.
Marrs, Peter S. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 870.
pH |
Catalysis |
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics
Exploring the Structure–Function Relationship of Macromolecules at the Undergraduate Level  Belinda Pastrana-Rios
The undergraduate teaching initiatives discussed in this manuscript take advantage of a state-of-the-art visualization center devoted to teaching and research activities.
Pastrana-Rios, Belinda. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 837.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Biophysical Chemistry |
Biotechnology
Boron Clusters  William F. Coleman
The review paper by Russell N. Grimes on boron clusters reminds us both of the past impact that these interesting structures have had on the development of our understanding of cluster chemistry and on the future development of what one might refer to as "post-fullerene" clusters.
Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 768.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Lewis Acid–Base, Molecular Modeling, and Isotopic Labeling in a Sophomore Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory  Chip Nataro, Michelle A. Ferguson, Katherine M. Bocage, Brian J. Hess, Vincent J. Ross, and Daniel T. Swarr
Computational methods can be introduced to simulate IR spectra and to view the HOMO of the Lewis base and the LUMO of the Lewis acid. In addition to the computational exercise, NaBD4 can be used in the synthesis of the adduct in place of NaBH4. This allows the students to observe the effect of isotopic labeling on IR spectra.
Nataro, Chip; Ferguson, Michelle A.; Bocage, Katherine M.; Hess, Brian J.; Ross, Vincent J.; Swarr, Daniel T. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 722.
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Molecular Modeling |
Isotopes |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Use of Optical Rotation and NMR Signal Counting To Identify Common Aldoses  John Almy
An inexpensive, small scale experiment for second semester organic students describes the unambiguous identification of a common aldose "unknown" from five possible candidates: glucose, mannose, galactose, arabinose, or xylose
Almy, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 708.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Carbohydrates |
Microscale Lab |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry
Keynotes in Organic Chemistry (Andrew F. Parsons)  Joel M. Karty
As a result of the trend towards modularization of chemistry courses, the text attempts to meet the need for smaller, highly focused and accessible organic chemistry textbooks, which complement the very detailed standard texts, to guide students through the key principles of the subject.
Karty, Joel M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 651.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Thermodynamics
The Singlet States of Molecular Oxygen   Jean-Pierre Puttemans and Georges Jannes
Although the purpose of the article The Visible Spectrum of Liquid Oxygen in the General Chemistry Laboratory is an analysis of the two-moleculesone-photon absorption spectrum of oxygen, it nevertheless assigns arrangements of the electrons in an energy diagram to the two singlet states of molecular oxygen which do not seem to be correct in our opinion.
Puttemans, Jean-Pierre; Jannes, Georges. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 639.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
MO Theory |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
The Singlet States of Molecular Oxygen   Jean-Pierre Puttemans and Georges Jannes
Although the purpose of the article The Visible Spectrum of Liquid Oxygen in the General Chemistry Laboratory is an analysis of the two-moleculesone-photon absorption spectrum of oxygen, it nevertheless assigns arrangements of the electrons in an energy diagram to the two singlet states of molecular oxygen which do not seem to be correct in our opinion.
Puttemans, Jean-Pierre; Jannes, Georges. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 639.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
MO Theory |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
The Big Picture  William F. Coleman
Fully manipulable Chime versions of important biological molecules (such as chlorophyll), inks (such as pen ink), CFCs, hydrocarbon fuels, plastics (such as Lexan polycarbonate), and molecules with medical applications (such as aspirin and novocaine).
Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 604.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Microscale Synthesis of 1-Bromo-3-chloro-5-iodobenzene: An Improved Deamination of 4-Bromo-2-chloro-6-iodoaniline  Michael W. Pelter, Libbie S.W. Pelter, Dusanka Colovic, and Regina Strug
Overall, we find this procedure to be advantageous to the published methods owing to its requirement of less starting material, higher product yields, and a greatly simplified procedure.
Pelter, Michael W.; Pelter, Libbie S.W.; Colovic, Dusanka; Strug, Regina. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 111.
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Acid–Base and Precipitation Equilibria in Wine  Miguel Palma and Carmelo G. Barroso
A simple but effective experiment demonstrates the interactions between simultaneous equilibria involving hydrogen tartrate and helps students realize the importance of multiple equilibria in real-world systems.
Palma, Miguel; Barroso, Carmelo G. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 94.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
Alcohols |
Carboxylic Acids
An Acid Hydrocarbon: A Chemical Paradox  Jeffrey T. Burke
This article explores the use of paradox as a teaching and learning strategy. Specifically, students observe the acid-like paradoxical behavior of the hydrocarbon cyclopentadiene. This observation then serves as a springboard to an understanding of the non-benzenoid aromatics.
Burke, Jeffrey T. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 65.
Acids / Bases |
Aromatic Compounds
Stearic Acid  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for stearic acid.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 25.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Carboxylic Acids |
Acids / Bases |
Physical Properties
Triethanolamine  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for triethanolamine.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 24.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Physical Properties |
Alcohols
The pH at the First Equivalence Point in the Titration of a Diprotic Acid  Addison Ault
I read with interest the paper entitled Easy Derivation of pH  (pKa1 + pKa2)/2 Using Autoprotolysis of HA: Doubtful Value of the Supposedly More Rigorous Equation. I believe the validity of this simple result can be seen even more easily than this paper indicates.
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1382.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Using Hydrocarbon Acidities To Demonstrate Principles of Organic Structure and Bonding  Andrew P. Dicks
This article demonstrates the utility of hydrocarbon acidity as a teaching tool within the undergraduate classroom. Acidities of compounds containing only hydrogen and carbon vary by at least 50 orders of magnitude. Differences in acidities are rationalized by invoking principles of hybridization, resonance, induction, and aromaticity.
Dicks, Andrew P. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1322.
Acids / Bases |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Some Like It Cold: A Computer-Based Laboratory Introduction to Sequence and Tertiary Structure Comparison of Cold-Adapted Lactate Dehydrogenases Using Bioinformatics Tools  M. Sue Lowery and Leigh A. Plesniak
Students download sequences and structures from appropriate databases, create sequence alignments, and carry out molecular modeling exercises, and then form hypotheses about the mechanism of biochemical adaptation for function and stability. This laboratory is appropriate for biochemistry and molecular biology laboratory courses, special topics, and advanced biochemistry lecture courses, and can be adapted for honors high school programs.
Lowery, M. Sue; Plesniak, Leigh A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1300.
Enzymes |
Molecular Modeling |
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Protein Design Using Unnatural Amino Acids  Basar Bilgiçer and Krishna Kumar
Using examples from the literature, this article describes the available methods for unnatural amino acid incorporation and highlights some recent applications including the design of hyperstable protein folds.
Bilgiçer, Basar; Kumar, Krishna. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1275.
Amino Acids |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Biotechnology |
Proteins / Peptides |
Synthesis |
Molecular Properties / Structure
E-Mail Molecules—Individualizing the Large Lecture Class  Carl C. Wamser
All students in the organic chemistry class are assigned a unique set of nine molecules to report on as optional extra credit assignments. The molecules are taken from a list containing over 200 molecules on the class Web site; they represent an assortment of biologically relevant compounds, from acetaminophen to yohimbine.
Wamser, Carl C. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1267.
Molecular Properties / Structure
3DNormalModes  Michael P. Sigalas, Nickolas D. Charistos, Vasilios I. Teberekidis, and Constantinos A. Tsipis
3DNormalModes (for Windows-compatible computers) enables you or your students to choose one of 28 different molecules, orient it appropriately on the screen, choose any of its normal vibrational modes, and animate molecular vibrations in 3D.
Sigalas, Michael P.; Charistos, Nickolas D.; Teberekidis, Vasilios I.; Tsipis, Constantinos A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1222.
IR Spectroscopy |
Raman Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Desymmetrization of the Tetrahedron: Stereogenic Centers  Paul Lloyd-Williams and Ernest Giralt
While the regular tetrahedron is the more straightforward model and is preferable for rationalizing stereochemistry at the undergraduate level for molecules containing stereogenic centers , it is important that both the instructor and students be fully aware that the tetrahedral model represents a simplification and that the use of irregular tetrahedra would be physically more realistic.
Lloyd-Williams, Paul; Giralt, Ernest. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1178.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry
Acid–Base Titrations in Nonaqueous Solvents and Solvent Mixtures  Lajos Barcza and Ágnes Buvári-Barcza
Discussion of acid-base theory, the role of hydrogen bonding in acid-base reactions, and promoting, leveling, and differentiating effects.
Barcza, Lajos; Buvári-Barcza, Ágnes. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 822.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Teaching Introductory Organic Chemistry: 'Blooming' beyond a Simple Taxonomy  Michael D. Pungente and Rodney A. Badger
Applying Bloom's taxonomy to introductory organic chemistry classes in order to help students construct their own understanding of the material rather than simply memorize it; includes examples of questions at the various cognitive levels.
Pungente, Michael D.; Badger, Rodney A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 779.
Acids / Bases |
Learning Theories
Chemical Equilibria Involving Copper(II) Ethylenediamine Complexes  Roberto Zingales
Demonstration illustrating the formation of two different complexes when copper(II) ions react with ethylenediamine.
Zingales, Roberto. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 535.
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Reactions |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Precipitation / Solubility
Organic Functional Group Playing Card Deck  Michael J. Welsh
Organic functional group playing card deck used for review of the name and structure of organic functional groups that can be used to play any game that a normal deck of cards is used for.
Welsh, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 426.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmajor Courses |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Amides |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters |
Ethers |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis
C–H and C–D Bonds: An Experimental Approach to the Identity of C–H Bonds by Their Conversion to C–D Bonds  Alex T. Rowland
Three experiments that allow students to determine the relative reactivity of C-H bonds that are aliphatic, alpha, benzylic, or aromatic by the ease of substitution of deuterium for oxygen.
Rowland, Alex T. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 311.
Acids / Bases |
IR Spectroscopy |
Isotopes |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Undergraduate Research |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids
A Demonstration of Structure–Reactivity Relationships in Organic Chemistry  Thomas A. Newton
Demonstration of the correlation between the conductivity of aqueous solutions and the pKa values of various organic compounds.
Newton, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 294.
Acids / Bases |
Conductivity |
Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Conductivity
The Henderson—Hasselbalch Equation: Its History and Limitations  Robert de Levie
Points out that the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation is an approximation and not equivalent to the mass action law.
de Levie, Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 146.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium
Lattice Energetics  William J. Vining, Robert P. Grosso, Jr., and Justin T. Fermann
Software to help students understand the energetics and interactions between ions in a crystalline solid; found on the Advanced Chemistry Collection CD-ROM, 3rd Edition.
Vining, William J.; Grosso, Robert P., Jr.; Fermann, Justin T. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 108.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Solid State Chemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Ionic Bonding
Separation of Acids, Bases, and Neutral Compounds  Megumi Fujita, Helen M. Mah, Paulo W. M. Sgarbi, Manjinder S. Lall, Tai Wei Ly, and Lois M. Browne
Software to help students understand the theoretical basis and actual procedures for separating organic compounds from a mixture using liquid-liquid extraction; found on the Advanced Chemistry Collection CD-ROM, 3rd Edition.
Fujita, Megumi; Mah, Helen M.; Sgarbi, Paulo W. M.; Lall, Manjinder S.; Ly, Tai Wei; Browne, Lois M. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 107.
Acids / Bases |
Separation Science
Using the Cambridge Structural Database to Introduce Important Inorganic Concepts  Tiana V. Davis, M. Shahzad Zaveer, and Marc Zimmer
A series of inorganic exercises to introduce introductory inorganic students to the Cambridge Structural Database.
Davis, Tiana V.; Zaveer, M. Shahzad; Zimmer, Marc. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1278.
Computational Chemistry |
Coordination Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Organometallics |
Chemometrics
Organic Spectroscopy–A Capstone Experience  Jan M. Fleischer
Experiment requiring students to make decisions regarding the likely structure of their sample based upon an IR spectrum before a final analysis with NMR spectroscopy.
Fleischer, Jan M. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1247.
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Dendrimers: Branching Out of Polymer Chemistry  Eric E. Simanek and Sergio O. Gonzalez
Addresses synthetic concepts surrounding dendrimers including the use of protecting groups, functional group interconversions, and convergent and divergent synthetic strategies.
Simanek, Eric E.; Gonzalez, Sergio O. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1222.
Materials Science |
Synthesis |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Addition Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkylation |
Nucleophilic Substitution
Spectroscopy for Schools and Colleges [CD-ROM] (by the Royal Society of Chemistry and GlaxoWellcome)  Thomas H. Eberlein
Interactive CR-ROM to assist in learning the fundamentals of interpreting spectroscopy in organic chemistry.
Eberlein, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1204.
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Understanding and Interpreting Molecular Electron Density Distributions  C. F. Matta and R. J. Gillespie
A simple introduction to the electron densities of molecules and how they can be analyzed to obtain information on bonding and geometry.
Matta, C. F.; Gillespie, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1141.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
VSEPR Theory
Correction to Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Anthracene (re J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 553)  
Response to the question "Can an indicator solution change color upon dilution?"
J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1071.
Acids / Bases
Color Changes in Indicator Solutions  Addison Ault
Addresses the question "Can an indicator solution change color upon dilution?"
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1070.
Acids / Bases |
pH
1H NMR Measurement of the Trans–Cis Photoisomerization of Cinnamic Acid Derivatives  Basil Danylec and Magdy N. Iskander
Procedure that illustrates trans-cis photoisomerization.
Danylec, Basil; Iskander, Magdy N. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1000.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Photochemistry |
Stereochemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alcohols |
Esters |
Alkenes |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A Structure–Activity Investigation of Photosynthetic Electron Transport. An Interdisciplinary Experiment for the First-Year Laboratory  Kerry K. Karukstis, Gerald R. Van Hecke, Katherine A. Roth, and Matthew A. Burden
Investigation in which students measure the effect of several inhibitors (herbicides) on the electron transfer rate in chloroplasts and formulate a hypothesis between the inhibitor's activity and its structure as a means of using a physical technique to measure a chemical process in a biological system.
Karukstis, Kerry K.; Van Hecke, Gerald R.; Roth, Katherine A.; Burden, Matthew A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 985.
Biophysical Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds |
Plant Chemistry
An Evergreen: The Tetrahedral Bond Angle  Marten J. ten Hoor
Summary and analysis of derivations of the tetrahedral bond angle.
ten Hoor, Marten J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 956.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Experimental Design and Multiplexed Modeling Using Titrimetry and Spreadsheets  Peter de B. Harrington, Erin Kolbrich, and Jennifer Cline
Determining the acidity of three vinegar samples using multiplexed titrations and an MS Excel spreadsheet.
Harrington, Peter de B.; Kolbrich, Erin; Cline, Jennifer. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 863.
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
News from Online: What's New with Chime?  Liz Dorland
The Chime plug-in, resources, materials for student and classroom use, and structure libraries.
Dorland, Liz. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 778.
Molecular Properties / Structure
Impact of Incorporation of High Field FT-NMR Spectroscopy into the Undergraduate Chemistry Curriculum  David B. Ball and Randy Miller
Purchase of a high field FT-NMR spectrometer to incorporate 13C NMR spectroscopy into a year-long organic chemistry course.
Ball, David B.; Miller, Randy. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 665.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The Visible Spectrum of Liquid Oxygen in the General Chemistry Laboratory  Frazier Nyasulu, John Macklin, and William Cusworth III
Examination of the spectrum of liquid oxygen and testing several hypotheses to explain the pattern of spectral lines observed.
Nyasulu, Frazier; Macklin, John; Cusworth, William, III. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 356.
MO Theory |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The Mechanism of Aqueous Hydrolysis of Nitro Derivatives of Phenyl Phenylmethanesulfonate. An Organic Laboratory Experiment  S. D. Mulder, B. E. Hoogenboom, and A. G. Splittgerber
Synthesis, purification, and characterization of three esters.
Mulder, S. D.; Hoogenboom, B. E.; Splittgerber, A. G. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 218.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Resonance Theory |
Reactive Intermediates |
Equilibrium |
Esters |
Aromatic Compounds |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Easy Derivation... (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1183)  Stephen J. Hawkes
Analysis of pH derivation by averaging pK values.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 162.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
pH
Easy Derivation... (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1183)  Julian L. Roberts Jr.
Analysis of pH derivation by averaging pK values.
Roberts, Julian L., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 161.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
pH
Formic Acid  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for formic acid.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 157.
Acids / Bases |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Carboxylic Acids
Soap from Nutmeg: An Integrated Introductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  Marcio C. S. de Mattos and David E. Nicodem
A sequence of experiments in which trimyristin is extracted, isolated, and purified from nutmeg, then converted to a soap (sodium myristate) and acidified to produce myristic acid.
de Mattos, Marcio C. S.; Nicodem, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 94.
Natural Products |
Carboxylic Acids |
Consumer Chemistry |
Fatty Acids
Illustrating Poisson's Ratios with Paper Cutouts  D. J. Campbell and M. K. Querns
Demonstrating both positive and negative Poisson ratios.
Campbell, D. J.; Querns, M. K. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 76.
Materials Science |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Effect of Anisotropy on the Chemical Shift of Vinyl Protons in trans- and cis-1,2-Dibenzoylethylenes. A Small-Group or Recitation Activity  Roosevelt Shaw, David Roane, and Sean Nedd
Procedure to help students explain chemical shift differences for vinyl protons in alkene diastereomers.
Shaw, Roosevelt; Roane, David; Nedd, Sean. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 67.
Magnetic Properties |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Undergraduate Research |
Diastereomers |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkenes |
Photochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Tetrahedral Geometry and the Dipole Moment of Molecules  Sara N. Mendiara and L. J. Perissinotti
Determination of bond angles and moments of tetrahedral molecules.
Mendiara, Sara N.; Perissinotti, L. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 64.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chemometrics |
Covalent Bonding
pH of Sodium Acetate Solutions  Guy Schmitz
Example of buffering power in deviations of the pH of sodium acetate from calculated values.
Schmitz, Guy. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 29.
Acids / Bases |
Carboxylic Acids |
pH
Response to Potential-Energy-Only Models (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 155-156)  Frank Rioux and Roger L. DeKock
Example of buffering power in deviations of the pH of sodium acetate from calculated values.
Rioux, Frank; DeKock, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 29.
Acids / Bases |
Carboxylic Acids |
pH |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Electron Densities, Atomic Charges, and Ionic, Covalent and Polar Bonds  Ronald J. Gillespie
The terms ionic and covalent character are vague, qualitative, and ill-defined. In contrast, the analysis of the electron density by the AIM theory leads to clearly defined quantitative properties such as the charges on the atoms and the electron density at the bond critical point that provide a sound basis for discussing bonding and geometry.
Gillespie, Ronald J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1688.
Computational Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Ionic Bonding |
Covalent Bonding
Determination of Free Lime in Clinker and Cement by Iodometry. An Undergraduate Experiment in Redox Titrimetry  Oi-Wah Lau, Shiu-Fai Luk, Nina L. N. Cheng, and Hoi-Yin Woo
Experiment to determine the free lime in cement and clinker through iodometry.
Lau, Oi-Wah; Luk, Shiu-Fai; Cheng, Nina L. N.; Woo, Hoi-Yin. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1671.
Acids / Bases |
Industrial Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Separation Science
"Dishing Out" Stereochemical Principles  Harold Hart
Demonstrating the concepts of chiral centers and enantiomers using plastic dishes.
Hart, Harold. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1632.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Molecular Modeling |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enantiomers
Structure and Bonding (by Jack Barrett)  Michael Laing
Tutorial chemistry text.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1600.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
MO Theory |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Covalent Bonding |
VSEPR Theory
The Relative Acidities of Water and Methanol  Henry I. Abrash
Analysis of the disparity between the way the acidity constant of water is presented in general chemistry and organic chemistry textbooks.
Abrash, Henry I. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1496.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium
An Early Emphasis on Symmetry and a Three-Dimensional Perspective in the Chemistry Curriculum  Scott E. McKay and Steven R. Boone
Series of activities involving symmetry to improve the ability of students to visualize three-dimensional structures in and outside of chemistry.
McKay, Scott E.; Boone, Steven R. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1487.
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
The Role of Lewis Structures in Teaching Covalent Bonding  S. R. Logan
Difficulties with the Lewis theory of covalent bonding and upgrading it to the Molecular Orbital theory.
Logan, S. R. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1457.
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory |
Nonmajor Courses |
Learning Theories |
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Using Computer-Based Visualization Strategies to Improve Students' Understanding of Molecular Polarity and Miscibility  Michael J. Sanger and Steven M. Badger II
Study of how the use of visualization strategies associated with dynamic computer animations and electron density plots affect students' conceptual understanding of molecular polarity and miscibility.
Sanger, Michael J.; Badger, Steven M., II. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1412.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Solutions / Solvents |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics
The Importance of Non-Bonds in Coordination Compounds  Michael Laing
Significance of noncovalent interactions in determining the structure and behavior of coordination compounds.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1400.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Coordination Compounds |
Kinetics |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The Combined Effects of pH and Percent Methanol on the HPLC Separation of Benzoic Acid and Phenol  Seema M. Joseph and John A. Palasota
Investigating the combined effects of pH and percent methanol on the HPLC separation of benzoic acid and phenol.
Joseph, Seema M.; Palasota, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1381.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science |
Carboxylic Acids |
Aromatic Compounds |
Phenols
Synthesis and Analysis of a Solvatochromic Dye, 1-(p-Dimethylaminophenyl)-2-nitroethylene. An Advanced Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment  Dana L. Richter-Egger, Aaron Tesfai, Spencer J. Flamm, and Sheryl A. Tucker
Synthesis and analysis of 1-(p-dimethylaminophenyl)-2-nitroethylene.
Richter-Egger, Dana L.; Tesfai, Aaron; Flamm, Spencer J.; Tucker, Sheryl A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1375.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Undergraduate Research |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Dyes / Pigments |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkenes
A Serendipitous Extension for Illustrating Newman Projections  Andrs E. Ciolino, Claudia E. Domini, Olga I. Pieroni, and Bruno M. Vuano
Hand-held Newman projection models.
Ciolino, Andrés E.; Domini, Claudia E.; Pieroni, Olga I.; Vuano, Bruno M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1359.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Learning Theories |
Molecular Modeling
Investigation of Secondary Metabolites in Plants. A General Protocol for Undergraduate Research in Natural Products  Jonathan Cannon, Du Li, Steven G. Wood, Noel L. Owen, Alexandra Gromova, and Vladislav Lutsky
Typical experimental procedures to extract and isolate individual chemical constituents from a plant, suggestions for some simple procedures to test for selected bioactivity, and explain how the molecular structures of natural products may be determined using spectroscopic techniques.
Cannon, Jonathan; Li, Du; Wood, Steven G.; Owen, Noel L.; Gromova, Alexandra; Lutsky, Vladislav. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1234.
Chromatography |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Separation Science |
Plant Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Separation Science
Blood-Chemistry Tutorials: Teaching Biological Applications of General Chemistry Material  Rachel E. Casiday, Dewey Holten, Richard Krathen, and Regina F. Frey
Four, Web-based tutorials that deal with chemical processes in the blood and provide an integrated biological context for a variety of chemical concepts.
Casiday, Rachel E.; Holten, Dewey; Krathen, Richard; Frey, Regina F. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1210.
Applications of Chemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Proteins / Peptides |
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Orbitals in Chemistry: A Modern Guide for Students
by Victor M. Gil
  David Hanson
Analysis of atomic and molecular orbitals.
Hanson, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1184.
MO Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
On Chirality in Substituted Metallocenes Bearing Identical Substituents  Daisy de Brito Rezende and Ivan P. de Arruda Campos
Analysis of planar chirality in substituted metallocenes.
Rezende, Daisy de Brito; Campos, Ivan P. de Arruda. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1130.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Organometallics |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
How Do Organic Chemistry Students Understand and Apply Hydrogen Bonding?  J. Henderleiter, R. Smart, J. Anderson, and O. Elian
Examination of how students completing a two-semester organic sequence understand, explain, and apply hydrogen bonding to determine the physical attributes of molecules.
Henderleiter, J.; Smart, R.; Anderson, J.; Elian, O. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1126.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Learning Theories |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Lewis Structures in General Chemistry: Agreement between Electron Density Calculations and Lewis Structures  Gordon H. Purser
The internuclear electron densities of a series of X-O bonds (where X = P, S, or Cl) are calculated using quantum mechanics and compared to Lewis structures for which the formal charges have been minimized; a direct relationship is found between the internuclear electron density and the bond order predicted from Lewis structures in which formal charges are minimized.
Purser, Gordon H. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 981.
Covalent Bonding |
Computational Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Lewis Structures |
Quantum Chemistry
Gas Chromatography and Molecular Modeling. A Correlation Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory  John M. Simpson and Oswaldo Rivera
Correlation of gas chromatographic retention times for a series of aromatic hydrocarbons to two molecular descriptors (calculated molecular surface area and boiling point).
Simpson, John M.; Rivera, Oswaldo. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 942.
Chromatography |
Molecular Modeling |
Gas Chromatography |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The Bullvalene Story. The Conception of Bullvalene, a Molecule That Has No Permanent Structure  Addison Ault
Properties and chemistry of bullvalene, C10H10, a hydrocarbon with no permanent carbon-carbon bonds.
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 924.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Aromatic Compounds
A Method for Drawing the Cyclohexane Ring and Its Substituents  Veljko Dragojlovic
A simple method for drawing cyclohexanes.
Dragojlovic, Veljko. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 923.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Molecular Modeling in the Undergraduate Chemistry Curriculum  Martin B. Jones
Project to expose all chemistry students at all levels to computer-based molecular modeling.
Jones, Martin B. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 867.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory
A More Realistic Teaching Style in Spectroscopic Instruction  Mar Gómez Gallego, Santiago Romano, Miguel A. Sierra, and Enrique Nieto
A practical application of spectroscopic analysis in intermediate and advanced organic chemistry to determine reaction mechanisms and identify products; provides three specific problems.
Gallego, Mar Gómez; Romano, Santiago; Sierra, Miguel A.; Nieto, Enrique. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 765.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Learning Theories |
Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Qualitative Analysis
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Acetic Acid (glacial)  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for acetic acid (glacial).
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 721.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Carboxylic Acids
An Indexed Combinatorial Library: The Synthesis and Testing of Insect Repellents  William H. Miles, Kathy A. Gelato, Kristen M. Pompizzi, Aislinn M. Scarbinsky, Brian K. Albrecht, and Elaine R. Reynolds
An indexed combinatorial library of amides was prepared by the reaction of amines and acid chlorides; a simple test for insect repellency using fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) allowed the determination of the most repellent sublibraries.
Miles, William H.; Gelato, Kathy A.; Pompizzi, Kristen M.; Scarbinsky, Aislinn M.; Albrecht, Brian K.; Reynolds, Elaine R. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 540.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Synthesis |
Combinatorial Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Molecular Mechanics and Variable-Temperature 1H NMR Studies on N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide. An Undergraduate NMR and Molecular Modeling Experiment  Bruce L. Jensen and Raymond C. Fort Jr.
A combination of molecular modeling and variable-temperature NMR experiments is used to analyze the barrier to rotation about the amide bond of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). This approach utilizes the ability of computers to calculate the potential energy of a set of conformations obtained from a dihedral drive around the N-CO bond.
Jensen, Bruce L.; Fort, Raymond C. Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 538.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Amides
Simulating How a Virus Spreads through a Population: An Introduction to Acid-Base Chemistry in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Ronald M. Jarret
The traditional lab exercise that achieves separation of a mixture of 4-aminoacetophenone and benzoic acid by chemically active extraction has been expanded to include an exercise that uses materials from the extraction experiment to simulate how a virus spreads through a population.
Jarret, Ronald M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 525.
Acids / Bases |
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids
Introducing Stereochemistry to Non-science Majors  Hannia Luján-Upton
Two exercises to introduce concepts associated with stereochemistry such as "sameness", superimposability, chirality, enantiomers, optical activity, polarimetry, and racemic mixtures; one compares chirality in hands with the achiral nature of two textbooks, the other involves a murder mystery.
Luján-Upton, Hannia. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 475.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Stereochemistry |
Nonmajor Courses |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Protein Structure Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Puzzle with 37 names, terms, prefixes, and acronyms that describe protein structure.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 474.
Proteins / Peptides |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Teaching 1H NMR Spectrometry Using Computer Modeling  Yoichi Habata and Sadatoshi Akabori
Use of computer modeling for teaching 1H NMR spectroscopy is described. The direction of the induced magnetic field is clarified by displaying the electrostatic potential on the molecule, when the magnetic anisotropy effect is taught.
Habata, Yoichi; Akabori, Sadatoshi. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 121.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Modeling
WebSpectra: Online NMR and IR Spectra for Students  Craig A. Merlic, Barry C. Fam, and Michael M. Miller
WebSpectra is a World Wide Web site at UCLA through which organic chemistry students have convenient access to a library of problems in NMR and IR spectroscopy, ranging in difficulty from introductory to advanced. Students are presented with high-resolution spectra of unknown compounds in addition to the molecular formula.
Merlic, Craig A.; Fam, Barry C.; Miller, Michael M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 118.
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The Strength of the Hydrohalic Acids  Roland Schmid and Arzu M. Miah
This article brings to mind that the textbook acidity constants of the hydrohalic acids (except for HF) are erroneous because of outmoded conjectures about the HX solubilities. Here we invoke theoretical calculations of HX solubilities based on current solvation models.
Schmid, Roland; Miah, Arzu M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 116.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Dog with Ball Joins Flying Bird
(re
J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1656)  Richard S. Treptow
Comparing structural models to simple figures.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 31.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Carboxylic Acids |
Molecular Modeling
Hybridization and Structural Properties
(re
J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 888-890)  Victor M. S. Gil
Clarifying cause-effect relationships between orbital hybridization and structural properties.
Gil, Victor M. S. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 31.
MO Theory |
Instrumental Methods |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Hybridization and Structural Properties
(re
J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 888-890)  Victor M. S. Gil
Clarifying cause-effect relationships between orbital hybridization and structural properties.
Gil, Victor M. S. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 31.
MO Theory |
Instrumental Methods |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Infrared Spectroscopy in the General Chemistry Lab  Margaret A. Hill
Three laboratory exercises in which students learn to interpret infrared spectra for simple structural identification. A polymer identification lab uses familiar household polymer samples and teaches students how to use infrared spectral data to determine what bond types are present in the polymers. In a second lab, students learn to prepare potassium bromide pellets of fluorene derivatives and identify them by their functional group differences. The final exercise combines IR with several other lab techniques to identify an organic acid from a field of fourteen possibilities.
Hill, Margaret A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 26.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A Microscale Oxidation Puzzle  Michael W. Pelter, Rebecca M. Macudzinski, and Mary Ellen Passarelli
We have adapted oxidation of an alcohol with sodium hypochlorite solution to a "puzzle" approach by using a diol as the substrate for oxidation. The diols under investigation have both a primary and a secondary hydroxyl group. The assignment is to perform the reaction and determine the structure of the product through interpretation of the IR spectrum.
Pelter, Michael W.; Macudzinski, Rebecca M.; Passarelli, Mary Ellen. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1481.
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
Alcohols |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Periplanar or Coplanar?  Saul Kane and William H. Hersh
The prefix peri, derived from the Greek for "near", was chosen to make the meaning "approximately planar". However, the current common usage of syn and antiperiplanar is planar, which is incorrect. In the interests of proper language, we suggest that future authors instead use "syn-coplanar" and "anti-coplanar".
Kane, Saul; Hersh, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1366.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Pólya's Isomer Enumeration Method: A Unique Exercise in Group Theory and Combinatorial Analysis for Undergraduates  S. Pevac and G. Crundwell
The use of Plya's isomer enumeration method (IEM) to determine the number of deuterated isomers of boat cyclohexane, C6H12-xDx, is explained in detail. Determining the total number of deuterated chair cyclohexanes is left as a supplemental exercise.
Pevac, S; Crundwell, Guy. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1358.
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Enantiomers |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Easy Derivation of pH Is Approxiimately Equal To (pKa1 + pKa2) / 2 Using Autoprotolysis of HA-: Doubtful Value of the Supposedly More Rigorous Equation  Stephen J. Hawkes
[H+]2 Ka1Ka2 can be derived in only two lines by recognizing that the principal reaction in a solution of HA- is its autoprotolysis. The supposedly rigorous equation derived in many texts gives pH values that are no more reliable.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1183.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium
An Introductory Polymer Chemistry Course for Plastics Technology Students  Mary G. Chisholm and Paul E. Koch
Teaching the fundamentals of organic chemistry using a molecular drawing and modeling software package interfaced with a polymer database, which can predict polymer properties based on their structure.
Chisholm, Mary G.; Koch, Paul E. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1147.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Should Gaseous BF3 and SiF4 Be Described as Ionic Compounds?  Arne Haaland, Trygve Helgaker, Kenneth Ruud, and D. J. Shorokhov
Analysis suggesting that representing BF3 and SiF3 as ionic compounds may be misleading.
Haaland, Arne; Helgaker, Trygve; Ruud, Kenneth; Shorokhov, D. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1076.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
Organic Acids without a Carboxylic Acid Functional Group  G. V. Perez and Alice L. Perez
This paper presents several organic molecules that have been labeled as acids but do not contain a carboxylic acid functional group. Various chemical principles such as pKa, tautomerization, aromaticity, conformation, resonance, and induction are explored.
Perez, G. V.; Perez, Alice L. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 910.
Acids / Bases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Phenols |
Carboxylic Acids |
Aromatic Compounds
Elucidation of Molecular Structure Using NMR Long-Range Coupling: Determination of the Single Isomer Formed in a Regiospecific Reaction  Samuel Delagrange and Françoise Nepveu
The experiment presented in this article introduces students to the main concepts of two essential NMR techniques for investigating molecular structure. Heteronuclear multiple bond connectivity (HMBC) and proton-coupled 13C NMR are used to determine which isomer, from a possible two, is formed by a regiospecific reaction. The demonstration, based on long-range coupling between quaternary carbons and protons on neighboring carbons, is presented step by step.
Delagrange, Samuel; Nepveu, Françoise. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 895.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Carboxylic Acids |
Reactions |
Diastereomers
The Discovery Approach to NMR: Development of Chemical-Shift Additivity Tables and Application to Product Identification  Eric Bosch
A discovery-based approach to the preparation and application of chemical-shift additivity tables is presented to give students insight into the development of NMR spectral prediction software.
Bosch, Eric. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 890.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The R/S System: A New and Simple Approach to Determining Ligand Priority and a Unified Method for the Assignment and Correlation of Stereogenic Center Configuration in Diverse Stereoformulas  Dipak K. Mandal
A new approach providing an "at-a-glance" priority order of ligands attached to a stereogenic center in organic molecules and a unified method for assigning and correlating stereogenic center absolute configuration in diverse stereochemical representations is presented.
Mandal, Dipak Kumar. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 866.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A Simple Method of Drawing Stereoisomers from Complicated Symmetrical Structures  A. Haudrechy
A practical and systematic method to establish the number and relationships of stereoisomers in cases of complex molecular symmetry is described.
Haudrechy, Arnaud. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 864.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The Story of the Wagner-Meerwein Rearrangement  Ludmila Birladeanu
This paper tells the story of the long, arduous journey toward comprehending the mechanism of molecular rearrangements. This work involved the greatest chemists of the 19th and 20th centuries, among whom two names stand out: Georg Wagner, who showed what happens in these strange reshufflings of atoms, and Hans Meerwein, who showed how it happens. The resulting insight revolutionized the theory of organic chemistry.
Birladeanu, Ludmila. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 858.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactive Intermediates |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Application of the Correlation Method to Vibrational Spectra of C60 and Other Fullerenes: Predicting the Number of IR- and Raman-Active Bands  Kazuo Nakamoto and Michael A. McKinney
The C60 molecule (Buckyball/soccer ball) exhibits only 4 IR and 10 Raman bands although it possesses 174 (3 x 60 - 6) normal vibrations. This striking reduction in the number of observed bands is evidently due to the molecule's extremely high symmetry (Ih point group).
Nakamoto, Kazuo; McKinney, Michael A. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 775.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Group Theory / Symmetry |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Raman Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Enantiomeric and Diastereoisomeric Relationships: A Practical Approach  V. Durieu, G. Martiat, M. Ch. Vandergeten, F. Pirsoul, F. Toubeau, and Agnès Van Camp
An experiment in organic chemistry in which the students prepare, purify, and characterize optical isomers. The three optical isomers of the bisoxalamides obtained by the reaction of racemic 1-phenylethylamine with diethyloxalate are separable by flash chromatography into the racemic mixture of (R,R) + (S,S) oxalamides and the (R,S) meso compound.
Durieu, V.; Martiat, G.; Vandergeten, M. Ch.; Pirsoul, F.; Toubeau, F.; Van Camp, Agnès. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 752.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Separation Science |
Enantiomers |
Diastereomers |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Synthesis
SOS: A Mnemonic for the Stereochemistry of Glucose  Ronald Starkey
The mnemonic SOS (Same, Opposite, Same) can be helpful to recall the stereochemistry in either D-glucose or L-glucose. It refers to the configurations of C-2, C-3, and C-4 relative to that of C-5 in an aldohexose.
Starkey, Ronald. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 734.
Carbohydrates |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Melting Point and Molecular Symmetry  R. J. C. Brown and R. F. C. Brown
In 1882 Thomas Carnelley observed that high molecular symmetry is associated with high melting point. The application of the rule to a number of different molecular crystals is discussed. The rule applies to different categories of crystal for different reasons, which can be explained by thermodynamic analysis.
Brown, R. J. C.; Brown, R. F. C. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 724.
Liquids |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Thermodynamics |
Physical Properties |
Aromatic Compounds |
Crystals / Crystallography
Epoxide Chemistry: Guided Inquiry Experiment Emphasizing Structure Determination and Mechanism  H. G. Krishnamurty, Niveta Jain, and Kiran Samby
An operationally simple three-step synthesis of an a-hydroxy acid based on epoxide chemistry. The focus of the experiment is on the preparation of the chalcone epoxide and its reaction with hot alcoholic alkali. The experiment leads to an unpredicted reaction product.
Krishnamurty, H. G.; Jain, Niveta; Samby, Kiran. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 511.
Epoxides |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis
Reply to Coulombic Models in Chemical Bonding  Smith, Derek W.
Coulombic vs molecular orbital models for explaining the molecular shapes of ionic molecules.
Smith, Derek W. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 445.
Ionic Bonding |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
MO Theory
Coulombic Models in Chemical Bonding  Sacks, Lawrence J.
Coulombic vs molecular orbital models for explaining the molecular shapes of ionic molecules.
Sacks, Lawrence J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 445.
Ionic Bonding |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
MO Theory
RasMol and Mage in the Undergraduate Biochemistry Curriculum  Steven W. Weiner, Paul F. Cerpovicz, Dabney W. Dixon, Donald B. Harden, Donna S. Hobbs, and Donna L. Gosnell
Mage and RasMol, free visualization software used to view and manipulate three-dimensional images of proteins and nucleic acids, have been incorporated extensively in the undergraduate biochemistry courses at several institutions in the University System of Georgia. Some teaching and learning activities using RasMol and Mage, and new educational resources, including the GLACTONE Web site and a CD-ROM, are described.
Weiner, Steven W.; Cerpovicz, Paul F.; Dixon, Dabney W.; Harden, Donald B.; Hobbs, Donna S.; Gosnell, Donna L. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 401.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Molecular Modeling to Predict Regioselectivity of Hydration Reactions  Kate J. Graham, Kathleen Skoglund, Chris P. Schaller, William P. Muldoon, and John B. Klassen
Students oxidize several isomeric alkenes using acid-catalyzed hydration, oxymercuration/demercuration, and hydroboration to compare the regioselectivity of the different techniques. The product mixtures are subsequently analyzed by GC and IR. To explain the results fully, students use the Spartan 5.0 molecular modeling package to predict the regioselectivity of these hydration reactions.
Graham, Kate J.; Skoglund, Kathleen; Schaller, Chris P.; Muldoon, William P.; Klassen, John B. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 396.
Computational Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactive Intermediates |
IR Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
Molecular Recognition |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Multicomponent Reactions: A Convenient Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Experiment  Ricardo Bossio, Stefano Marcaccini, Carlos F. Marcos, and Roberto Pepino
Two experiments for the synthesis of a -lactam and a succinimide, based on a 4-component Ugi condensation. The experimental procedures for both syntheses are identical except for the choice of the starting amine, whose electron richness is controlled by the presence or absence of an electron-withdrawing group.
Bossio, Ricardo; Marcaccini, Stefano; Marcos, Carlos F.; Pepino, Roberto. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 382.
Synthesis |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Thermal Denaturation of Proteins Studied by UV Spectroscopy  Natasa Poklar and Gorazd Vesnaver
UV spectroscopy has been widely used for monitoring the unfolding of proteins. During temperature-induced denaturation the protein absorbance changes with temperature until the process of unfolding is completed. A determination of DH(Td) and DS(Td) for a-chymotrypsinogen A at pH 3.0 is demonstrated.
Poklar, Natasa; Vesnaver, Gorazd. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 380.
Biophysical Chemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Undergraduate Research |
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Isolating trans-Anethole from Anise Seeds and Elucidating Its Structure: A Project Utilizing One- and Two-Dimensional NMR Spectrometry  Joseph W. LeFevre
This three-week project involves isolating and purifying a natural product and determining its structure. trans-Anethole is isolated from anise seeds by steam distillation and liquid-liquid extraction. The crude product is analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and purified by flash chromatography.
LeFevre, Joseph W. . J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 361.
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Separation Science |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Microwave Irradiation Reactions: Synthesis of Analgesic Drugs  Gholam A. Mirafzal and Jolene M Summer
Over-the-counter analgesics such as aspirin, acetanilide, phenacetin, and acetaminophen are conveniently prepared in a microwave at 30% power for five minutes. Recrystallization from appropriate solvents results in solid products in good to excellent yields.
Mirafzal, Gholam A.; Summer, Jolene M. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 356.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Synthesis |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Esters
Cyclohexane: Boat Form Revisited  Ronald R. Sauers
Organic chemistry textbooks often cite an outdated structure for the boat conformer of cyclohexane that is based on ideal bond angles and distances. This article corrects these mistaken values.
Sauers, Ronald R. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 332.
Computational Chemistry |
Molecular Modeling |
Quantum Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A Simple Secondary Amine Synthesis: Reductive Amination Using Sodium Triacetoxyborohydride  Merle W. Carlson, James T. Ciszewski, Micah M. Bhatti, Wesley F. Swanson, and Anne M. Wilson
A reductive amination experiment for a second-semester organic chemistry class. It utilizes an imine intermediate and sodium triacetoxyborohydride, a mild reducing agent. The progress of the reaction is followed by TLC as the starting materials (the aldehyde and primary amine), the imine intermediate, and the secondary amine product are visible under ultraviolet light.
Carlson, Merle W.; Ciszewski, James T.; Bhatti, Micah M.; Swanson, Wesley F.; Wilson, Anne M. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 270.
Synthesis |
Chromatography |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Quantifying Molecular Character  P. G. Nelson
Wells and Jensen's classification of substances according to structure type is quantified, enabling substances having an intermediate structure to be classified precisely. Jensen's concept of the "degree of nonmolecularity" of a substance and the opposite quality, degree of molecular character, are also quantified.
Nelson, Peter G. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 245.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Solid State Chemistry
Linking the Lab Experience with Everyday Life: An Analytical Chemistry Experiment for Agronomy Students  Sônia Maria N. Gimenez, Maria Josefa S. Yabe, Neide K. Kondo, Rodrigo O. Mouriño, and Graziela Cristina R. Moura
Samples of soils and plants prepared by students were introduced. Soil was treated with molasses residue, organic matter (chicken manure and humus obtained from goat excrement), and lime. The response of plants to the different soil treatments increased student interest in chemical analyses.
Gimenez, Sônia Maria N.; Yabe, Maria Josefa S.; Kondo, Neide K.; Mouriño, Rodrigo O.; Moura, Graziela Cristina R. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 181.
Acids / Bases |
Agricultural Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Learning Theories
A Visual Demonstration of Supramolecular Chemistry: Observable Fluorescence Enhancement upon Guest-Host Inclusion  Brian D. Wagner, Penny J. MacDonald, and Maryam Wagner
A simple yet striking demonstration of supramolecular host-guest inclusion and fluorescence based on the extraordinarily large observed fluorescence enhancement of the probe ANS by a modified -cyclodextrin.
Wagner, Brian D.; MacDonald, Penny J.; Wagner, Maryam. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 178.
Photochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Correction to Using Overhead Projectors to Simulate X-ray Diffraction Experiments.  Dragojlovic, Veljko
Correction to Figure 1 [1999, 76, 1240-1241]
Dragojlovic, Veljko J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 160.
Crystals / Crystallography |
X-ray Crystallography |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Keep Going with Cyclooctatetraene!  Addison Ault
This paper shows how some simple properties of cyclooctatetraene can indicate important ideas about the structure of cyclooctatetraene.
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 55.
Aromatic Compounds |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Identifying Softwoods and Hardwoods by Infrared Spectroscopy  Brady Barker and Noel L. Owen
Infrared spectra of 45 softwoods and hardwoods have been recorded. The wavenumber values of the carbonyl stretching vibration and one of the ring-breathing modes of lignin are used to distinguish softwoods from hardwoods. The differences between the absorption bands for the softwoods and hardwoods in each instance are shown to be statistically significant.
Barker, Brady; Owen, Noel L. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1706.
Carbohydrates |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Plant Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Environmental Chemistry Using Ultrasound  Belinda K. Wilmer, Edward Poziomek, and Grazyna E. Orzechowska
In this demonstration, we describe a simple method for presenting the usefulness of sonication in environmental chemistry. When an aqueous solution of carbon tetrachloride is sonicated, it degrades to produce HCl and HOCl. These products cause a reduction of pH, which can be observed visually with a pH indicator.
Wilmer, Belinda K.; Poziomek, Edward; Orzechowska, Grazyna E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1657.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
pH
Comments on the Treatment of Aromaticity and Acid-Base Character of Pyridine and Pyrrole in Contemporary Organic Chemistry Textbooks  Hugh J. Anderson and Ludwig Bauer
Presentations of aromaticity and acid-base character of pyridine and pyrrole in 18 contemporary organic chemistry textbooks were surveyed.
Anderson, Hugh J.; Bauer, Ludwig. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1151.
Acids / Bases |
Aromatic Compounds
The Use of Molecular Modeling and VSEPR Theory in the Undergraduate Curriculum to Predict the Three-Dimensional Structure of Molecules  Brian W. Pfennig and Richard L. Frock
Despite the simplicity and elegance of the VSEPR model, however, students often have difficulty visualizing the three-dimensional shapes of molecules and learning the more subtle features of the model, such as the bond length and bond angle deviations from ideal geometry that accompany the presence of lone pair or multiple bond domains or that result from differences in the electronegativity of the bonded atoms, partial charges and molecular dipole moments, and site preferences in the trigonal bipyramidal electron geometry.
Pfennig, Brian W.; Frock, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1018.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
VSEPR Theory
A General Simulator for Acid-Base Titrations  Robert de Levie
General formal expressions are provided to facilitate the automatic computer calculation of acid-base titration curves of arbitrary mixtures of acids, bases, and salts, without and with activity corrections based on the Davies equation.
de Levie, Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 987.
Acids / Bases |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
An Integrated Molecular Modeling and Melting Point Experiment for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Thomas Poon, Sheri A. Bodolosky, and Cynthia M. Norris
An introductory organic chemistry laboratory experiment that introduces students to the utility and caveats of computational chemistry is described. Molecular modeling software is used to determine the net dipoles and surface areas of six unknown solids. These and other noncomputational results are then correlated with data from melting point determinations of the unknowns.
Poon, Thomas; Bodolosky, Sheri A.; Norris, Cynthia M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 983.
Computational Chemistry |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Instrumental Methods
Preparation and Identification of Benzoic Acids and Benzamides: An Organic "Unknown" Lab  Douglass F. Taber, Jade D. Nelson, and John P. Northrop
The reaction of an unknown substituted benzene derivative with oxalyl chloride and aluminum chloride gives the acid chloride. Hydrolysis of the acid chloride gives the acid, and reaction of the acid with concentrated aqueous ammonia gives the benzamide. The equivalent weight of the acid can be determined by titration; given this information and the melting points of the acid and the benzamide, it is possible to deduce the structure of the initial unknown.
Taber, Douglass F.; Nelson, Jade D.; Northrop, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 828.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids
A New Method To Convert the Fischer Projection of Monosaccharide to the Haworth Projection  Qing-zhi Zhang and Shen-song Zhang
The D,L-configuration of a sugar in Haworth projection can be directly determined by designating the R,S-configuration of the highest-numbered asymmetric carbon; that is, the most distant carbon from the anomeric carbon. The R-configuration at this carbon corresponds to the D-family, and S- to the L-family.
Zhang, Qing-zhi; Zhang, Shen-song. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 799.
Carbohydrates |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Bird-in-the-Hand Method for Determination of Absolute Configuration in Fischer Projections  Edward Siloac
The bird-in-the-hand technique allows for easy visualization and identification of stereogenic centers on Fischer projections. It uses the student's hand as a molecular model to simplify the stereochemistry of Fischer projections.
Siloac, Edward. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 798.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Sharpless Asymmetric Dihydroxylation: Effect of Alkene Structure on Rates and Selectivity  Alan C. Spivey, R. Hanson, N. Scorah, and S. J. Thorpe
Each student is assigned an alkene and performs three dihydroxylation reactions: one racemic and two enantioselective variants. The products are characterized by 1H NMR, IR, MS, [a]D20, and chiral chromatography (HPLC or GC). Comparison by the students of their results with those reported in the literature, particularly the extensive work of Sharpless, allows an exploration of the validity of Sharpless's mnemonic for predicting the stereochemical outcome of these reactions.
Spivey, Alan C.; Hanson, R.; Scorah, N.; Thorpe, S. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 655.
Synthesis |
Catalysis |
Stereochemistry |
Organometallics |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Organic Chemistry (by Joseph M. Hornback)  R. Daniel Libby
This text uses reaction mechanisms as the organizing principle, introduces structure where it is necessary to support the reactions to be studied, and considers synthesis after the mechanisms of appropriate reactions have been discussed.
Libby, R. Daniel. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 611.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A Simplified Method for Finding the pKa of an Acid-Base Indicator by Spectrophotometry  George S. Patterson
Experiments on determining the pKa of an acid-base indicator by visible spectroscopy are often found in analytical and physical chemistry lab texts. The procedure described here is a modification suitable for general chemistry lab students.
Patterson, George S. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 395.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Oxidation Numbers  Gion Calzaferri
Assigning oxidation numbers to organic compounds and Jrgensen's axioms.
Calzaferri, Gion. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 362.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Oxidation State
Melting Point Range and Phase Diagrams- Confusing Laboratory Textbook Descriptions  Kenn E. Harding
This paper proposes use of a modified phase diagram as a better tool for students to understand the relationship of observed melting point behavior and a physically correct phase diagram.
Harding, Kenn E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 224.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Effect of Experience on Retention and Elimination of Misconceptions about Molecular Structure and Bonding  James P. Birk and Martha J. Kurtz
A test designed to uncover misconceptions in molecular structure and bonding was administered to students from high school through graduate school and to some college faculty. The study tracked the disappearance of these misconceptions over a time span of 10 years of student experience, along with the development of accepted conceptions.
Birk, James P.; Kurtz , Martha J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 124.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Learning Theories
Spectroscopy of Simple Molecules  C. Baer and K. Cornely
A spectroscopy experiment in which students utilize IR and NMR spectroscopy to identify the structures of three unknowns from a list of 15 carefully chosen simple organic molecules. In taking IR and NMR spectra, students learn to use state-of-the-art instrumentation that is used by practicing chemists.
Baer, Carl; Cornely, Kathleen. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 89.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Conformation Interchange in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy  Keith C. Brown, Randy L. Tyson, and John A. Weil
Intramolecular dynamics are readily discernible by use of nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. A relatively simple laboratory tutorial experiment demonstrating such motion, an internal interchange of conformations, in a readily available nitroaromatic hydrazine (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazine in liquid solution) is presented and discussed.
Brown, Keith C.; Tyson, Randy L.; Weil, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1632.
Magnetic Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Aromatic Compounds
Stereowordimers-Minding Your P's and Q's  Edward G. Neeland
The use of words having different colored sides is a excellent way to introduce stereochemical concepts that might not be easily grasped when using molecular examples. We have found that concepts such as enantiomers, diastereomers, identical molecules, chirality, achirality, mirror planes of symmetry, and internal planes of symmetry are readily understood by students when using stereowordimer examples.
Neeland, Edward G. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1573.
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Photodimerization of Maleic Anhydride  Zhang, Zhijun
Why the photodimerization of maleic anhydride produces the cis, tans, cis product.
Zhang, Zhijun J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1515.
Photochemistry |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkenes
Buffers Plus  Richard W. Ramette
In 1989 JCE Software published The Acid-Base Package: A Collection of Useful Programs for Proton Transfer Systems. This DOS program has been fully upgraded by the same author to the world of Windows 95.
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1504.
Acids / Bases
A Very Simple Method Way to Convert Haworth Representation to Zigzag Representation  Janine Cossy and Véronique Bellosta
A very simple method to convert Haworth representation of hexoses and pentoses to zigzag representation is proposed
Cossy, Janine; Bellosta, Véronique. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1307.
Carbohydrates |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A Modified Synthesis of the Insect Repellent DEET  Peter H. Knoess and Edward G. Neeland
In the preparation of the insect repellent DEET, lab procedures prepare the intermediate m-toluoyl chloride by heating m-toluic acid with thionyl chloride for times ranging from 15 to 45 minutes. The acid chloride is then worked up under Schotten-Baumann conditions to yield DEET.
Knoess, Peter H.; Neeland, Edward G. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1267.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids
Tetrahedral Bond Angle  Ferreira, Ricardo
Easy way to calculate the terahedral bond angle.
Ferreira, Ricardo J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1087.
Molecular Properties / Structure
A Strategy for Incorporating 13C NMR into the Organic Chemistry Lecture and Laboratory Courses  Perry C. Reeves and Chris P. Chaney
The use of spectroscopy in establishing the structures of molecules is an important component of the first course in Organic Chemistry. However, the point in the course at which these techniques are best introduced remains uncertain. We suggest that carbon nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy should be introduced at an early stage of the lecture course, specifically while studying the alkanes, and used extensively for structure determination throughout the course.
Reeves, Perry C.; Chaney, Chris P. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1006.
Instrumental Methods |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Covalent and Ionic Molecules: Why Are BeF2 and AlF3 High Melting Point Solids whereas BF3 and SiF4 Are Gases?  Ronald J. Gillespie
Calculated ionic charges show that BF3 and SiF4 are predominately ionic molecules yet in contrast to BeF2 and AlF3 they exist as gases at room temperature and form molecular solids rather than infinite three-dimensional "ionic" solids at low temperature. Whether or not ionic molecules form a three-dimensional infinite ionic lattice or a molecular solid depends more on relative atomic (ionic) sizes than on the nature of the bonding in the isolated molecule.
Gillespie, Ronald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 923.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Solids |
Gases |
Ionic Bonding
A Simple Qualitative Molecular-Orbital/Valence-Bond Description of the Bonding in Main Group "Hypervalent" Molecules  Owen J. Curnow
A multicenter valence-bond/molecular-orbital bonding scheme for main group "hypervalent" molecules is proposed which extends the 3-center-4-electron (3c-4e) bonding model of Rundle and Pimentel to include 4c-6e, 5c-8e, and 6c-10e bonds. This model allows the determination of bond orders and a rationalisation of bond distances.
Curnow, Owen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 910.
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Main-Group Elements |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Models and Molecules - A Workshop on Stereoisomers  Robert W. Baker, Adrian V. George, and Margaret M. Harding
A molecular model workshop aimed at first year university undergraduates has been devised to illustrate the concepts of organic stereochemistry. The students build models to teach the relationship within, and between, conformational isomers, enantiomers, and diastereomers.
Baker, Robert W.; George, Adrian V.; Harding, Margaret M. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 853.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Modeling |
Enantiomers |
Diastereomers
NMR Spectroscopy: Processing Strategies (by Peter Bigler)   Nancy S. Mills
Part of a four-volume series planned to deal with all aspects of a standard NMR experiment, this text, and the accompanying exercises based on data contained on a CD-ROM, goes a long way to fill in the gaps and clarify misunderstandings about NMR processing.
Mills, Nancy S. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 696.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Spectra Interpretation of Organic Compounds (by Erno Pretsch and Jean Thomas Clerc)  Phyllis A. Leber
An interactive spectroscopy course via the iterative solution of 15 spectral problems. An ancillary CD-ROM containing the SpecTeach version of the SpecTool software is provided with the text.
Leber, Phyllis A. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 695.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Letters to the Editor  
The author points out that in a previous article, "Why Is Bismuth Subchloride Soluble in Acid," a key reaction which aids in the dissolving of bismuth subchloride is omitted.
J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 523.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility
Illustrating Tetrahedral Carbons in Organic Compounds  Stella D. Elakovich
This paper describes a method of illustrating the tetrahedral nature of carbons using an overhead projector and molecular models.
Stella D. Elakovich. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 479.
Learning Theories |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Incorporating Organic Name Reactions and Minimizing Qualitative Analysis in an Unknown Identification Experiment  Claire Castro and William Karney
The authors have developed a new type of unknown identification experiment for the introductory organic chemistry laboratory. The unknown sample the student is provided with is the product of an organic name reaction. The student is only informed of the starting material and conditions used in the compound's synthesis, and must then: (1) deduce the compound's structure, (2) determine the name reaction and corresponding mechanism that yields the compound, and (3) present his/her results to the class.
Claire Castro and William Karney. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 472.
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Perspectives on Structure and Mechanism in Organic Chemistry (by Felix A. Carroll)  William J. le Nobel
In his preface, Carroll writes that he hoped to meet two goals: to present the concepts that are central to the understanding and practice of physical organic chemistry, and to emphasize the role of complementary models in the formulation of these concepts.
William J. le Nobel. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 417.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Organic Chemistry (by Maitland Jones, Jr. )  Michael S. Holden
The general framework that Jones uses is that of Lewis acids reacting with Lewis bases, with an emphasis on the interaction of filled and empty orbitals. Again and again, as you work your way through the text, there are examples of reactions being explained by the overlap of orbitals.
Holden, Michael S. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 291.
Lewis Acids / Bases
Buffer Solutions: The Basics (by R. J. Beynon and J. S. Easterby)  Wheeler Conover
The concept of buffers, pH measurements, pH electrodes, and preparation of buffers are explained primarily for biologists and biochemists.
Conover, Wheeler. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 153.
Acids / Bases |
pH
What Is the Geometry at Trigonal Nitrogen?  K. P. Sudlow and A. A. Woolf
The geometry of trigonal nitrogen is discussed from VSEPR, crystallographic, and computational studies. The VSEPR theory is valid unless hydrogen bonding is strong enough or dispersal of nitrogen lone pair density is possible over receptive groups.
Sudlow, K. P.; Woolf, A. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 108.
Learning Theories |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Computational Chemistry |
VSEPR Theory |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
The Diels-Alder Reaction of 2,4-Hexadien-1-ol with Maleic Anhydride: A Novel Preparation for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Course  Keith F. McDaniel and R. Matthew Weekly
The reaction of 2,4-hexadien-1-ol with maleic anhydride provides an excellent exercise for undergraduate laboratory courses. In addition to the expected Diels-Alder reaction, which takes place readily in refluxing toluene, subsequent intramolecular cleavage of the resulting bicyclic anhydride by the pendant hydroxy group generates a lactone. Thus, two important organic reactions can be carried out in a single laboratory session.
McDaniel, Keith F.; Weekley, R. Matthew. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1465.
Synthesis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alcohols
Correction to J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1055-1059   Martin B. Hocking
Correction to structure 5.
Hocking, Martin B. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1384.
Molecular Properties / Structure
Protecting Groups in Carbohydrate Chemistry  Sigthór Pétursson
The most important protecting groups in carbohydrate chemistry are reviewed. The paper is aimed at those beginning to specialize in synthetic carbohydrate chemistry and at teachers with other specialties who wish to go beyond the content of general organic chemistry textbooks.
Petursson, Sigthor. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1297.
Carbohydrates |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Synthesis
Pi-Electron Delocatlization in Organic Molecules with C-N Bonds  Vernon G. S. Box and Hing Wan Yu
Molecular modeling can provide great stimulation to the pedagogical process if students and teachers use this tool to examine the structural aspects of organic molecules whose structures have been determined by X-ray crystallography. An example of this is provided by one of our undergraduate research projects that examined delocalization in p-systems.
Box, Vernon G. S.; Yu, Hing Wan. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1293.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
X-ray Crystallography
Fostering Curiosity-Driven Learning through Interactive Multimedia Representations of Biological Molecules  Abby L. Parrill and Jacquelyn Gervay
A series of QuickTime movies have been developed and are available over the World Wide Web (WWW) to help evoke student curiosity about organic chemistry. When viewed in series the movies start with a 'big picture' view based on crystallographic data and narrow in on the basic concepts needed to understand that scientific observation.
Parrill, Abby L.; Gervay, Jacquelyn. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1141.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Two Comments on Bond Angles  P. Glaister
The alternative approach of using the scalar (or dot) product of vectors enables the determination of the bond angle in a tetrahedral molecule in a simple way. There is, of course, an even more straightforward derivation suitable for students who are unfamiliar with vectors, or products thereof, but who do know some elementary trigonometry.
Glaister, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1086.
Molecular Properties / Structure
Organic Chemistry, 2nd ed. and Core Organic Chemistry by Marye Anne Fox and James K. Whitesell  reviewed by Samuel S. Stradling
An introductory organic text developed around the structure/mechanism format.
Stradling, Samuel S. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1045.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Mechanisms of Reactions
An Inexpensive Demountalbe IR Cell Fitted with Glass Windows  Keiichi Ohno, Hiroatsu Matsuura, Haruhiko Tanaka
An inexpensive demountable IR cell fitted with glass windows is proposed for studying hydrogen bonding in solutions.
Ohno, Keiichi; Matsuura, Hiroatsu; Tanaka, Haruhiko. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 961.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Solutions / Solvents |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Hydrogen Bonding
Buffer Index and Buffer Capacity for a Simple Buffer Solution  Veronica Chiriac, Gabriel Balea
Many papers that present the buffering effect of the simple buffer solution consider the notion of buffer index and buffer capacity as being equivalent. Moreover, IUPAC defies them as the same thing. According to the definition of the authors who have introduced these two units, the paper shows that there is a large difference between them.
Chiriac, Veronica ; Balea, Gabriel. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 937.
Theoretical Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Dissociation Constant for a Monoprotic Acid (response re J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 74, 792)
The authors reply:
  R. Garcia-Domenech, J. V. de Julian-Ortiz, G. M. Anton-Fos, Jorge Galvez-Alvarez
Answers questions raised by related letter.
Garcia-Domenech, R.; Julian-Ortiz, J. V. de; Anton-Fos, G. M.; Galvez-Alvarez, Jorge . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 899.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Dissociation Constant for a Monoprotic Acid (re J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 74, 792)  Richard W. Ramette
Questions for classroom consideration raised by the original article.
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 880.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Potentiometric Measurement of Transition Ranges and Titration Errors for Acid/Base Indicators  Paul A. Flowers
The pH and visually-assessed color of a millimolar strong acid/base system are monitored as a function of added titrant volume, and the resultant data plotted to permit determination of the indicator's transition range and associated titration error.
Flowers, Paul A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 846.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Potentiometry |
Chemometrics
Molecules, Crystals, and Chirality  Il-Hwan Suh, Koon Ha Park, William P. Jensen, David E. Lewis*
The development of the concept of chirality from the early work of Pasteur, van't Hoff and Le Bel to the work of Cahn, Ingold and Prelog is presented, and the constraints that chirality imposes on the symmetry of molecules - that chiral molecules may not possess an improper axis of rotation - is discussed.
Suh, Il-Hwan; Park, Koon Ha ; Jensen, William P.; Lewis, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 800.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
X-ray Crystallography
An Inexpensive Kit for Constructing Models of Crystals  Michael Laing
This simple kit comprises five trays, each of 25 square wells, and a lid. It can be used to construct primitive cubic, FCC, BCC, diamond, zinc blende, NaCl, CsCl, rutile, fluorite, perovskite structures. The trays are square tissue culture Petri dishes (multiwell plates). Atoms are represented by glass marbles.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 795.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Materials Science |
Solid State Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Old MacDonald Named a Compound: Branched Enynenynols  Dennis Ryan
An imaginary teacher of organic chemistry thinks up some whimsical compounds for his students to name using IUPAC nomenclature rules.
Ryan, Dennis. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 782.
Learning Theories |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Alcohols |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Molecular Properties / Structure
IR MENTOR PRO 2.0  reviewed by John C. Cochran
IR Mentor Pro:2.0 appears to be the ultimate reference source for infrared spectroscopy of organic molecules. This on-line database contains more than six hundred IR band assignments arising from over two hundred functional groups.
Cochran, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 764.
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Perfect Strangers: Inorganic Photochemistry and Nucleic Acids  Pamela J. Carter, Suzanne A. Ciftan, Mark F. Sistare, H. Holden Thorp
The applications of inorganic photochemistry to nucleic acid chemistry are discussed. A brief review of nucleic acid structure is given. Methods for probing DNA using emissive inorganic complexes are discussed. Photoreactions that damage DNA by hydrogen atom transfer from sugar or electron abstraction from guanine are presented.
Carter, Pamela J.; Ciftan Suzanne A.; Sistare, Mark F.; Thorp, H. Holden. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 641.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The Synthesis, Characterization, and Lewis Acidity of SnI2 and SnI4  Richard W. Schaeffer, Benny Chan, Michael Molinaro, Susan Morissey, Claude H. Yoder, Carolyn S. Yoder, and Stephanie Shenk
In this project the student has the opportunity to learn about: a) the direct synthesis of compounds from the elements, b) stoichiometry and limiting reagent, c) isolation by recrystallization, d) use of inert atmosphere, e) identification by melting point, gravimetric analysis, powder x-ray diffraction, and NMR spectroscopy, and f) at least one method for determination of relative Lewis acidity.
Schaeffer, Richard W. ; Chan, Benny ; Molinaro, Michael; Morissey, Susan ; Yoder, Claude H.; Yoder, Carolyn S.; Shenk, Stephanie. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 575.
Acids / Bases |
Synthesis |
Stoichiometry |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
NMR Spectroscopy
Sheldon Shore, Small Boranes, and Ammonia  Robert W. Parry
The paper discusses the early studies on "the diammoniate of diborane" and emphasizes how continuing work done by Sheldon Shore at Ohio State University extended the work on the boranes and answered here-to-fore vexing structural problems on intermediates in the borane and borane-ammonia system.
Parry, Robert W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 512.
Acids / Bases |
Coordination Compounds |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Synthesis
The Chemistry of Paper Preservation: Part 4. Alkaline Paper  Henry A. Carter
The use of alkaline paper can minimize the problem of acidity for new papers. This study focuses on the chemistry involved in the sizing of both acid and alkaline papers and the types of fillers used. The advantages and potential problems in alkaline paper making are also discussed.
Carter, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 508.
Acids / Bases |
Industrial Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Correction  
Correction in equation 1.
J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 480.
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Catalytic Transfer Hydogenation Reactions for Undergraduate Practical Programs  R. W. Hanson
A brief review of catalytic transfer hydrogenation (CTH) reactions is given. Attention is drawn, particularly, to the utility of ammonium formate as the hydrogen donor in this type of reaction.
Hanson, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 430.
Catalysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Identification of Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Alcohols: An Experiment in Spectrophotometry, Organic Chemistry, and Analytical Chemistry  I. A. Leenson
A simple method is presented that enables students to distinguish in a few minutes between primary, secondary and tertiary alkyl alcohols. This method is based on peculiarities of absorption spectra in the near-UV region of alkyl nitrites, the products of alcohol nitrosation.
Leenson, I. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 424.
Alcohols |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
The TCICA Test for Distinguishing Primary and Secondary Alcohols  Gene A. Hiegel and Afshin K. Chaharmohal
Simple primary and secondary alcohols can easily be distinguished by their rate of oxidation with trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCICA). The TCICA test is conducted by adding the unknown to a solution of TCICA in acetonitrile containing hydrochloric acid and measuring the time for a precipitate to form. Primary alcohols react slowly and secondary alcohols react rapidly.
Hiegel, Gene A.; Chaharmohal, Afshin K. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 423.
Alcohols |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Why is Bismuth Subchloride Soluble in Acid?  Damon Diemente
It is shown that the solubility of BiOCl can be explained as a consequence of the shifting of hydrolysis equilibriums upon the addition of acid. Two demonstrations suitable for classroom use are presented, with detailed discussion of each.
Diemente, Damon. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 398.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents
Discovery-Based Stereochemistry Tutorials Available on the World Wide Web  Abby L. Parrill and Jacquelyn Gervay
The WWW offers the ability to develop interactive, discovery-based tutorials for use as study tools, and multimedia offers significant improvements in the display of three-dimensional objects. As part of a chemical education research program, three stereochemistry tutorials were developed to capitalize on these advantages.
Parrill, Abby L.; Gervay, Jacquelyn. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 329.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
What are Isodesmic Reactions?  D. A. Ponomarev and V. V. Takhistov
The heat of isodesmic (formal) reaction Q is systematically used as a measure of deviations from the additivity of bond energies. For molecules these Q values are applied to quantification of strain energies in cyclic compounds, to evaluation of aromaticity of benzene, to explanation of the reasons for deviation from additivity in the heats of formation for disubstituted benzenes and some alkenes.
Ponomarev, D. A.; Takhistov, V. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 201.
Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Reduction of Carboxylic Acids with Sodium Borohydride and an Electrophile  Jan William Simek, Thad Tuck, and Kelly Courter Bush
Integration of new reduction conditions into a procedure applicable to the first-year organic chemistry laboratory, where reduction of the carboxylic acid group has remained an obstacle, notwithstanding the use of borane or LiAlH4 (2) on the microscale. The NaBH4 method with either electrophile can be modified to any scale; in our hands, the use of I2 as the electrophile performed better at the semimicro scale than the H2SO4 method.
Simek, Jan William; Tuck, Thad; Bush, Kelly Courter . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 107.
Carboxylic Acids |
Aromatic Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction
An Analogy To Assist Understanding of Splitting Patterns in NMR Spectra  Dianne A. Thoben and Thomas H. Lowry
An analogy to the "point of view shot" as used in the movies is used to help students understand and interpret splitting patterns in proton NMR spectra.
Thoben, Dianne A.; Lowry, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 68.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
An Organoleptic Laboratory Experiment  John M. Risley
Compounds in ten different classes of organic molecules that are used in the fragrance and food industry are provided to students. Students whiff the vapors of each compound and describe the organoleptic properties using a set of terms utilized in the fragrance and food industry. A set of questions guides students to an understanding of the relationship between structure of molecules and smell.
Risley, John M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1181.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Consumer Chemistry |
Physical Properties |
Nonmajor Courses |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters |
Ethers |
Phenols
Optical Basicity: A Practical Acid-Base Theory for Oxides and Oxyanions  J. A. Duffy
The optical basicity concept relies on the Lewis approach to acids and bases and was developed for dealing with chemical problems in non-aqueous, non-protonic media such as silicates, phosphates and borates which are important in glass making and (as slags) for refining steel.
Duffy, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1138.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases
Determination of the Dissociation Constant for Monoprotic Acid by Simple pH Measurements  R. García-Doménech, J. V. de Julián-Ortiz, G. M. Antón-Fos, and J. Galvez Alvarez
The dissociation constant for a weak monoprotic acid may be calculated in aqueous alkaline solution by straightforward pH measurements, before and after the addition of the acid, and with the advantage of not having to standardize the solutions.
García-Doménech, R.; de Julián-Ortiz, J. V.; Antón-Fos, G. M.; Alvarez, J. Galvez. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 792.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
PC Calculations Using Gaussian for Windows  Darren L. Williams, Phillip R. Minarik, and Joseph W. Nibler
187. The Gaussian for Windows program is applied to an ab initio calculation for HCl of structural and electronic properties which are often measured experimentally in undergraduate physical chemistry laboratories.
Darren L. Williams, Phillip R. Minarik, and Joseph W. Nibler. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 608.
Molecular Properties / Structure
A Simpler Approach to "Apparent" pKa's  Kildahl, Nicholas
Addition to a recent article on pH, indicating an approach which emphasizes the chemistry behind the titration of a weak acid.
Kildahl, Nicholas J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 598.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
The Helium-Neon Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectrum of Molecular Iodine: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment  John S. Muenter
The wavelength analyzed fluorescence spectrum provides accurate values of spectroscopic properties for the ground state electronic configuration of I2. From these spectroscopic properties students calculate the bond length, harmonic oscillator force constant, and a Birge-Sponer estimate of the bond dissociation energy.
Muenter, John S. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 576.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Lasers
All Positive Ions Give Acid Solutions in Water  Stephen J. Hawkes
The acidity of aqueous solutions of positive ions is never zero although many texts say incorrectly that most metals of Groups I and II and some others are not acidic.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 516.
Acids / Bases |
Metals |
Solutions / Solvents |
pH
A Simple Experiment Demonstrating the Temperature Effect in Supramolecular Chemistry  Pawel K. Zarzycki and Henryk Lamparczyk
The aim of the experiment described in this article is to demonstrate the temperature influence on creation of an inclusion complex in which beta-cyclodextrin is the host molecule and phenolophtalein is the guest.
Zarzycki, Pawel K.; Lamparczyk, Henryk. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 459.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Carbohydrates |
Separation Science
The Teaching of Precipitation Equilibrium: A New Approach  Ana M. V. S. V. Cavaleiro
In this paper we present a simplified integrated approach to the calculation of the solubility in water of a salt, and the pH of the saturated solution, taking into account the acid-base reactions of the anion.
Cavaleiro, Ana M. V. S. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 423.
Precipitation / Solubility |
pH |
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases
Stretch and Bend Modes  McGlinn, Clifford J.
Process to simplify drawing the normal modes of vibration for a molecule.
McGlinn, Clifford J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 286.
Molecular Properties / Structure
Procedure Modification for the Use of Corn Starch Packing Puffs for Titration Endpoints  Judith M. Bonicamp
This short article describes the use of Eco-Foam cornstarch packing puffs to make starch indicator solution.
Bonicamp, Judith M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 258.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Carbohydrates
CO, N2, NO, and O2--Their Bioinorganic Chemistry: Principles and Applications in Bioinorganic Chemistry--VIII  Ei-Ichiro Ochiai
The biochemistries of CO2, N2, NO, and O2 are discussed in terms of their basic chemistry.
Ochiai, Ei-Ichiro. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 130.
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Diffusion Rates on the Overhead Projector: Amines Compared to HCl  Sally Solomon, Chinhyu Hur, and Alan Lee
Diffusion rates of selected amines are compared to that of HCl using a method very similar to those described for NH3 versus HCl diffusion.
Solomon, Sally; Hur, Chinhyu; Lee, Alan. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 81.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Transport Properties
Chemistry on the Web  Richard D. Mounts
181. Information on obtaining, installing, and using Web browsers and Web viewers is included. Chemical MIME objects, which are 3-dimensional representations of molecular structures, are used as examples of a type of resource available on the Web that is of special interest to chemists.
Mounts, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 68.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Low Cost 3-D Viewing of Chemical Structures  Wong, Yue-Ling; Yip, Ching-Wan
Generating 3-D stereoscopic projections using a anaglyphic (red-blue) pair processed with Adobe PhotoShop.
Wong, Yue-Ling; Yip, Ching-Wan J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A237.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Visual Basic and Dynamic Data Exchange: Controlling Windows Applications  Porter, Timothy L.; Maxka, Jim; Abes, John
Description of general methods of controlling HyperChem through Visual Basic and dynamic data exchange (DDE).
Timothy L. Porter; Jim Maxka and John Abes. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A236.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Organic Qualitative Analysis at the Microscale Level  Craig, Rhoda E. R.; Kaufman, Kurt K.
Project requiring students to identify pure unknowns and the components of mixtures using a variety of chromatography and spectrometry techniques.
Craig, Rhoda E. R.; Kaufman, Kurt K. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A102.
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases
In Focus. Protein Structure (Darb, N. J.; Creighton, T. E.; Rickwood, David; Male, David)  
Continuing series.
J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A94.
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A Guide to the Complete Interpretation of Infrared Spectra of Organic Structures (Roeges, Noel P. G.)  
Monograph.
J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A93.
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Principles of Molecular Recognition (Buckingham, A. D.)  
Monograph.
J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A73.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Surface Science
Abuses of Molecular Mechanics: Pitfalls to Avoid  Kenny Lipkowitz
Delineation of the common abuses and pitfalls to avoid when using molecular mechanics.
Lipkowitz, Kenny B. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1070.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Computational Chemistry |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics
A Straightforward Method for Assigning Stereochemical Lambda/Delta Descriptors to Octahedral Coordination Compounds  Santiago Herrero and Miguel Angel Usón
A straightforward method for assigning stereochemical ?/? descriptors to octahedral coordination compounds.
Herrero, Santiago; Uson, Miguel Angel. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1065.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Coordination Compounds |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Environmental Laboratory Exercise: Analysis of Hydrogen Peroxide by Fluorescence Spectroscopy  Judith Weinstein--Lloyd and Jai H. Lee
Procedure in which students analyze precipitation samples for trace concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (a deleterious air pollutant) using fluorescence spectroscopy.
Weinstein-Lloyd, Judith; Lee, Jai H. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1053.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Free Radicals |
Photochemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Atmospheric Chemistry
Diastereospecific Synthesis of an Epoxide: An Introductory Experiment in Organic Synthetic and Mechanistic Chemistry  James A. Ciaccio
A two-step epoxide synthesis that can be presented to students in the form of two mechanistic "puzzles" that probe the stereoselectivity of two important reactions: halohydrin formation from alkenes and epoxide formation via intramolecular Williamson ether synthesis.
Ciaccio, James A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1037.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis |
Epoxides |
Alkenes
A Simple, Discovery-Based Laboratory Exercise: The Molecular Mass Determination of Polystyrene  Greg A. Slough
Identification of an unknown polymer using silica gel TLC sheets and IR spectroscopy.
Slough, Greg A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1031.
Stoichiometry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Thin Layer Chromatography
A Dating Analogy for Acid-Base Titration Problems  Ronald DeLorenzo
Analogy to help students understand the consequences of concentrating or diluting unknowns before titrating them.
DeLorenzo, Ronald. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1011.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases
Using Copper sulfate as a Classification Test for Amino Acids and Amines  Christine K. F. Hermann
Using copper sulfate to test for amino acids and amines that do not dissolve well in water.
Hermann, Christine K. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 940.
Amino Acids |
Laboratory Management |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Qualitative Analysis
Pyrrole: From Dippel to Du Pont   Hugh J. Anderson
Outline of the discovery, isolation, and development of uses for pyrrole.
Anderson, Hugh J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 875.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
A Low-Cost Matrix Isolation Experiment: For the Undergraduate Laboratory   Mark Flair and T. Rick Fletcher
Method for generating and observing the reaction intermediate formed by photolysis of Cr(CO)6 in a low temperature solid matrix illustrating some of the principles of photochemistry and the relationship of spectroscopy to molecular structure.
Flair, Mark; Fletcher, T. Rick. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 753.
Photochemistry |
Organometallics |
Reactive Intermediates |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
From Titration Data to Buffer Capacities: A Computer Experiment for the Chemistry Lab or Lecture  Roy W. Clark, Gary D. White, Judith M. Bonicamp, and Exum D. Watts
Provides titration curve data that students can plot and analyze using spreadsheets to develop student understanding of pH, derivatives, buffer capacity, and the behavior of dilute buffers; includes sample graphs and analysis.
Clark, Roy W.; White, Gary D.; Bonicamp, Judith M.; Watts, Exum D. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 746.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics
Animation of Imaginary Frequencies at the Transition State  Higgins, Robert H.
176. Computer simulations of reactions mechanisms using HyperChem and ChemPlus software.
Higgins, Robert H. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 703.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Reactive Intermediates |
Computational Chemistry |
Nucleophilic Substitution
Animation of Imaginary Frequencies at the Transition State  Robert H. Higgins
176. Software tutorial for strengthening spatial skills and an understanding of stereochemistry in exploring molecular structures.
Higgins, Robert H. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 699.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Modeling
Using Models to Understand and Design Sweeteners  D. Eric Walters
Review of the ways in which models have been used to help us understand the relationship between chemical structure and sweet taste.
Walters, D. Eric. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 680.
Food Science |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Industrial Chemistry |
Molecular Modeling
"Double Unknown " Microscale Preparation and COSY Analysis of an Unknown Ester:
An Introductory 2D-NMR Experiment
  Stephen E. Branz, Robert G. Miele, Roy K. Okuda, and Daniel A. Straus
Proton NMR activity designed to highlight the power of the technique to analyze structures and not merely confirm the identity of known substances.
Branz, Stephen E.; Miele, Robert G.; Okuda, Roy K.; Straus, Daniel A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 659.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Alcohols |
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters
Two Paired "Le Chatelier" Reactions  John J. Cawley
Procedure involving acid-catalyzed esterfication and base-catalyzed hydrolysis to illustrate the ideas of equilibrium, percent yield, and Le Chtelier's principle; both reactions result in percentage yields greater than the equilibrium constant would suggest.
Cawley, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 657.
Catalysis |
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases
Common Textbook and Teaching Misrepresentations of Lewis Structures   Laila Suidan, Jay K. Badenhoop, Eric D. Glendening, and Frank Weinhold
Clarifying leading Lewis structures using computational software.
Suidan, Laila; Badenhoop, Jay K.; Glendening, Eric D.; Weinhold, Frank. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 583.
Lewis Structures |
Covalent Bonding |
Quantum Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Resonance Analogy Using Cartoon Characters  Starkey, Ronald
Using Charlie Brown and Dennis the Menace as an analogy for resonance hybrids (specifically benzene).
Starkey, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 542.
Covalent Bonding |
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The Conformational Behavior of n-Pentane: A Molecular Mechanics and Molecular Dynamics Experiment  Mencarelli, Paolo
174. Use of HyperChem to investigate the conformational behavior of n-pentane.
Mencarelli, Paolo J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 511.
MO Theory |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Conformational Analysis |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Molecular Modeling
Non-Koopmans' Molecules  Duke, Brian J.; O'Leary, Brian
Analysis of the validity of the molecular orbital description of the ionization process.
Duke, Brian J.; O'Leary, Brian J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 501.
MO Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure
MolVib 2.0  Huber, Daniel; Wagner, Paul
Software to illustrate molecular vibrations.
Huber, Daniel; Wagner, Paul J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 492.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
The Sassafras Tree and Designer Drugs: From Herbal Tea to Ecstasy  French, Larry G.
Using historical development of material from the sassafras tree and elicit synthesis of the drug ecstasy (MDMA) as a venue for presenting methodology for amine synthesis in organic chemistry.
French, Larry G. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 484.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Synthesis |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Steric Hindrance by Bromination of Alkylbenzenes: Experimental Demonstration  Cooley, James H.; Abobaker, Nagib M.
Procedure to illustrate the influence of steric hindrance on organic chemistry in which students must decide what data to collect and how to interpret it.
Cooley, James H.; Abobaker, Nagib M. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 463.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Synthesis |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Aromatic Compounds |
Stereochemistry
Introductory Crystallography in the Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory  Bond, Marcus R.; Carrano, Carl J.
Suggestions for integrating a X-ray crystallography into the undergraduate chemistry laboratory; includes recommendations for instrumentation, computer hardware and software.
Bond, Marcus R.; Carrano, Carl J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 451.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Ascorbic Acid Determination in Natural Orange Juice: As a Teaching Tool of Coulometry and Polarography  Bertotti, Mauro; Vaz, Jorge Moreira; Telles, Rogerio
Procedure for determining the concentration of ascorbic acid in orange juice using electroanalytical techniques (coulometry and polarography).
Bertotti, Mauro; Vaz, Jorge Moreira; Telles, Rogerio J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 445.
Electrochemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
A Simple Demonstration of the Ion-Pairing Effect on the Solubility of Charged Molecules  Hervas, Manuel A.; Fabara, Carlos E.
Demonstration to illustrate the effect of ion-pair formation on the solubility of charged molecules.
Hervas, Manuel A.; Fabara, Carlos E. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 437.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Solutions / Solvents
Use of Degrees of Unsaturation in Solving Organic Structural Problems  Klemm, LeRoy H.
Using degrees of unsaturation to assist in determining a molecular structure from a formula.
Klemm, LeRoy H. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 425.
Molecular Properties / Structure
Chemical Education via MOLGEN  Benecke, C.; Grund, R.; Kerber, A.; Laue, R.; Wieland, T.
173. Bits and pieces, 53. Software used to produce all the isomers for a given chemical formula.
Benecke, C.; Grund, R.; Kerber, A.; Laue, R.; Wieland, T. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 403.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Modeling
A Self-Paced Computer Tutorial on the Concepts of Symmetry  Potillo, Loretta A.; Kantardjieff, Katherine A.
173. Bits and pieces, 53. Computerized, animated, interactive tutorial for physical chemistry students on topics of symmetry.
Potillo, Loretta A.; Kantardjieff, Katherine A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 399.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Group Theory / Symmetry
3,9-Diaryl-2,4,8,10-Tetraoxaspiro[5.5]Undecanes by Rapid Microscale Preparation: Products with Instructive NMR Spectra  Clark, Thomas J.
Organic synthesis designed to produce product with an interesting structure to illustrate the effects of conformation and symmetry on NMR spectra; includes sample data and analysis.
Clark, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 375.
Synthesis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Synthesis |
Microscale Lab
Hammett Correlations of Amide Proton Chemical Shifts: An Organic or Spectroscopy Experiment  Setliff, F. L.; Soman, N. G.; Toland, A. D.
Experiment designed to illustrate the quantitative relationship between an easily measurable property (amide proton NMR chemical shift) and the electronic effect of several different substituents on substituted benzanilides; includes sample data and analysis.
Setliff, F. L.; Soman, N. G.; Toland, A. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 362.
Synthesis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Amides
"Crack" - A High-Interest Compound Illustrating Important Concepts in General Chemistry  Hoyt, William
Using crack and cocaine as examples of amine acid-base chemistry.
Hoyt, William J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 322.
Acids / Bases |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Esters
Determination of the R or S Configuration of Tetrahedral Stereocenters: A Graphical Flowchart Approach  Starkey, Ronald
Using graphical flowcharts to determine R or S configurations through higher shell comparisons for long-chain, highly branched, and cyclic organic structures.
Starkey, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 315.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Computation of the Cartesian Coordinates of Buckminsterfullerene  Senn, Peter
Method for determining the cartesian coordinates of buckminsterfullerene (C60) using a calculator; includes a planar model of C60.
Senn, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 302.
Main-Group Elements |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Acid Volatile Sulfides (AVS) in Sediment: An Environmental Chemistry Experiment  Brouwer, Henry
Experimental procedure for measuring acid volatile sulfides in environmental samples.
Brouwer, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 182.
Acids / Bases
Which Organic Molecule Should I Pick?  Perkins, Robert
Examples of questions requiring students to demonstrate their understanding of organic structures, nomenclature, isomerism, and chemical reactivity.
Perkins, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 124.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enantiomers |
Diastereomers
Calculating Equilibrium Concentrations by Iteration: Recycle Your Approximations  Weltin, E.
Using graphing calculators, spreadsheets, and iteration analysis to approximate equilibrium concentrations and judge their accuracy; includes data and analysis.
Weltin, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 36.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Chemometrics
The Ritter Reaction: Trapping a Carbocation with a Nitrile  Crouch, R. David
An organic experiment involving the Ritter reaction that yields an unpredictable product.
Crouch, R. David J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A200.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Amides |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Microwave Synthesis of Tetraphenylcyclopentadienone and Dimethyl Tetraphenylphthalate  Elder, John W.
Procedure for using a microwave to synthesize tetraphenylcyclopentadienone and dimethyl tetraphenylphthalate.
Elder, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A142.
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Esters |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
The Modern Student Laboratory: Determination of the Thermodynamic Dissociation Constant of a Weak Acid by Potentiometric Acid-Base Titration: A Three-Hour Laboratory Experiment  Partanen, Jaako I.; Karki, Merja H.
Improvements upon an earlier potentiometric titration.
Partanen, Jaako I.; Karki, Merja H. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A120.
Acids / Bases |
Potentiometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Small Scale Determination of the pKa Values for Organic Acids  Flash, Patrick
Determination and interpretation of the pKa values for a series of organic acids as a concrete example of the effect of structure on acid strength.
Flash, Patrick J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A6.
Acids / Bases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Carboxylic Acids
Platinum(II) Chemistry Monitored by NMR Spectroscopy  Berry, David E.
Preparation and characterization of three platinum coordination compounds.
Berry, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 899.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Coordination Compounds
Using Formal Charges in Teaching Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry  DeWit, David G.
Using the concept of formal charges to predict bond properties, determine molecular structure, and explain reactivities and the tendency to polymerize.
DeWit, David G. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 750.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Lewis Structures |
Polymerization
Molecular Models Constructed in an Easy Way: Part 3. Models Constructed by Using Octahedral Units as Building Blocks  He, Fu-cheng; Liu, Lu-bin; Li, Xiang-yuan
Using octahedral units to construct paper models that are useful for teaching stereo- and coordination chemistry.
He, Fu-cheng; Liu, Lu-bin; Li, Xiang-yuan J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 734.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Coordination Compounds
The Resolution of (+-)-alpha-Methylbenzylamine-A Safer Way  Krause, Josef G.
Preventing boil over during the resolution of (+/-)-alpha-methylbenzylamine.
Krause, Josef G. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 596.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Laboratory Management
Inverse Problem of Isomer Enumeration  Novak, Igor
How an isomeric enumeration can be performed on a small molecule generating a vast number of possibilities from a few structural and chemical elements.
Novak, Igor J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 512.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Molecular Modeling for the Introductory Organic Chemistry Courses  Keeffe, James R.
Award in the Course and Curriculum Development (CCD) program for FY1994.
Keeffe, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 508.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
An Informative Model of Haworth Structures  Rowe, H. Alan.
Exercise that gives students experience in manipulating Hawthorn structures.
Rowe, H. Alan. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 131.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Carbohydrates
The Lewis Structure: An Expanded Perspective  Reed, James L.
A simple bridge between the molecular orbital and valence bond models.
Reed, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 98.
Lewis Structures |
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Models of 2-Butanone: Using Graphics To Illustrate Complementary Approaches to Molecular Structure and Reactivity  Hanks, T. W.
157. Ways in which a graphics workstation can be used to illustrate various concepts of molecular structure.
Hanks, T. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 62.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Stereochemistry |
Quantum Chemistry |
MO Theory
Grasping the Concepts of Stereochemistry  Barta, Nancy S.; Stille, John R.
An alternative procedure for the determination of R or S configuration for chiral molecules.
Barta, Nancy S.; Stille, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 20.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chirality / Optical Activity
A New Approach To Teaching Organic Chemical Mechanisms  Wentland, Stephen H.
Describing the mechanisms of organic reactions using five simple steps or operations.
Wentland, Stephen H. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 3.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Addition Reactions |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Elimination Reactions |
Resonance Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A convenient method of esterification of fatty acids: An undergraduate organic laboratory experiment  Di Raddo, Pasquale
A convenient method of esterification of fatty acids for undergraduate organic chemistry lab.
Di Raddo, Pasquale J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 1034.
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters |
Gas Chromatography |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Fatty Acids
Determining Hammett sigma and rho values: Improvements on a published student experiment  Hathaway, Bruce A.; Olesen, Bjorn
Modifications and improvements to laboratory experiments written for an organic chemistry lab text.
Hathaway, Bruce A.; Olesen, Bjorn J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 953.
Esters |
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics |
Synthesis
A simple, colorful demonstration of solubility and acid/base extraction using a separatory funnel   Kelly, T. Ross
A simple, colorful demonstration of solubility and acid/base extraction using a separatory funnel.
Kelly, T. Ross J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 848.
Separation Science |
Acids / Bases
Theoretical analysis of one-one complexometric titration curves  Tianlin, Wang; Fengling, Liu; Liming, Feng
Using one-one complexometric titration curves to help students locate maximum breakpoint relative to the equivalence point.
Tianlin, Wang; Fengling, Liu; Liming, Feng J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 796.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Quantitative analysis by FTIR: Thin films of copolymers of ethylene and vinyl acetate.  Mathias, Lon J.; Hankins, Marie G.; Bertolucci, Craig M.; Grubb, Tina L.; Muthiah, Jeno.
Quantitation of coploymers of ethylene and vinyl acetate using FTIR.
Mathias, Lon J.; Hankins, Marie G.; Bertolucci, Craig M.; Grubb, Tina L.; Muthiah, Jeno. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A217.
IR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Quantitative Analysis |
Alkenes |
Carboxylic Acids
Ammonia balloon  Mattson, Bruce
Demonstrating ammonia's aqueous solubility using a container whose volume changes.
Mattson, Bruce J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1029.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
An easily constructed model: The boat form of a six-membered ring composed of six distorted tetrahedral penetrating each other  Yamana, Shukichi
Instructions for constructing a model of the boat form of a six-membered ring using six empty envelopes.
Yamana, Shukichi J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 964.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Stereochemistry
Finding the face-centered cube in the cubic closest packed structure  Birk, James P.; Coffman, Phillip R.
Demonstrating that the cubic closest packed structure is identical to the face-centered cubic using a physical model; includes instructions for constructing the model.
Birk, James P.; Coffman, Phillip R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 953.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Metals
Cautionary note regarding the phenol color test by ferric chloride in acidic solution  Hasegawa, Tadashi; Usui, Toyokazu
Effect of acids on the phenol color test by ferric chloride.
Hasegawa, Tadashi; Usui, Toyokazu J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 840.
Phenols |
Qualitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases
An alternative analogy for the dissociation of oxyhemoglobin  Rao, T. S.; Dabke, R. B.; Patil, D. B.
An alternative analogy for the dissociation of oxyhemoglobin to explain why successive oxygen molecules are bound less strongly than preceding ones.
Rao, T. S.; Dabke, R. B.; Patil, D. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 793.
Molecular Properties / Structure
Structure, chirality, and FT-NMR in sophomore organic chemistry  Chapman, Orville L.; Russell, Arlene A.
An experimental approach (NMR) to teaching organic structure.
Chapman, Orville L.; Russell, Arlene A. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 779.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Stereochemistry |
Elimination Reactions
An experimental introduction to molecular weight averages of polymers: A simple experiment that uses paper clips  Tarazona, Maria Pilar; Saiz, Enrique
A procedure that helps students understand why a polymer can have more than one molecular weight.
Tarazona, Maria Pilar; Saiz, Enrique J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 765.
Chemometrics |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The square knot and the granny knot: An analogy for diastereomers.  Tavernier, Dirk.
Few of the diastereomorphs generated by joining two man-made chiral objects have different names; the author is aware of just one example - the square knot and the granny knot.
Tavernier, Dirk. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 627.
Diastereomers |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity
An introduction to fullerene structures: Geometry and symmetry.  Boo, W. O. J.
The formidable task of organizing the fullerenes can be simplified greatly by categorizing them by their symmetries.
Boo, W. O. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 605.
Alkenes |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers
The synthesis of E-beta-bromostyrene: An experiment illustrating the use of IR bending modes to distinguish E and Z isomers and the concept of kinetic and thermodynamic controlled reactions.  Strom, Laura A.; Anderson, James R.; Gandler, Joseph R.
An experiment illustrating the concept of thermodynamic and kinetically controlled reactions to produce E and Z isomers (respectively); the use of IR to distinguish E and Z isomers; and the different properties of E and Z isomers (only the E isomer has a pleasant odor).
Strom, Laura A.; Anderson, James R.; Gandler, Joseph R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 588.
Synthesis |
IR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics |
Alkenes |
Diastereomers |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Schiff base puzzle project.  Todd, David.
Students pick an unknown substituted aniline and a substituted benzaldehyde, produces the corresponding Schiff base from them, and compares its melting point to those of 25 possible Schiff bases (their structures and melting points being given).
Todd, David. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 584.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
A method for building simple physical models: Representing the structures of nucleic acids  Benedetti, Giorgio; Morosetti, Stefano.
A low-resolution model made from inexpensive and common materials that retains the essentials structural features of a three-dimensional high-resolution structure.
Benedetti, Giorgio; Morosetti, Stefano. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 569.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Precipitation of a murder: A creative use of strychnine chemistry in Agatha Christie's The Mysterious Affair at Styles.  Southward, Robin E.; Hollis, W. Gary, Jr.; Thompson, David W.
Discussion of the chemistry involved in this mystery and its analysis by students.
Southward, Robin E.; Hollis, W. Gary, Jr.; Thompson, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 536.
Applications of Chemistry |
Toxicology |
Acids / Bases
Teaching molecular modeling: An introductory course for chemists, implemented at the Universite de Montreal  Dugas, Hermann
139. Objectives of molecular modeling in chemistry, and purpose, goal, and outline of a molecular modeling course.
Dugas, Hermann J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 533.
Molecular Modeling |
Computational Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Why equivalent bonds appear as distinct peaks in photoelectron spectra.  Simons, Jack.
If there are four equivalent bonds in CH4, why are there not four equal vibrational energies?; also considers H2O and NH3.
Simons, Jack. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 522.
Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The nature of the chemical bond - 1992  Pauling, Linus
Commentary on errors in an earlier article on the nature of the chemical bond.
Pauling, Linus J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 519.
Covalent Bonding |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Using spin-spin decoupling NMR for structure elucidation in the extraction of cinnamaldehyde.  Ganjian, I.; Baumgarten, R. L.; Valenzuela, R. J.
Interesting extraction in which students learn to interpret spectra and see the power of second-order spectral analysis in NMR work.
Ganjian, I.; Baumgarten, R. L.; Valenzuela, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 511.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Separation Science |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A comparison and contrast of selected saturated and unsaturated hydrides of group 14 elements: C2H6, Si2H6, Ge2H6, and C2H2, Si2H2, Ge2H2.  DeLeeuw, Bradley J.; Grev, Roger S.; Schaefer, Henry F. III.
The structure of compounds containing group 14 elements such as germanium and silicon provides an interesting opportunity for comparison with corresponding carbon compounds.
DeLeeuw, Bradley J.; Grev, Roger S.; Schaefer, Henry F. III. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 441.
Nonmetals |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Illustration of Mn and Mw in chain-growth polymerization using a simplified model: An undergraduate polymer chemistry laboratory exercise  Snyder, Donald M.
This exercise helps to attain three pedagogical objectives. Laying out the chains illustrates that a polymer is composed of a mixture of various chain lengths, the random-number assembly of the chain illustrates the statistical aspects of chain growth, the limited number of chains and chain length of the chain allows direct calculation of the number of chains and the weight averages of the chains.
Snyder, Donald M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 422.
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure
An expanded Fieser model suitable for a large classroom  Levinson, Alfred S.; Zupan, Rudolph
In organic chemistry, one area in which models are indispensable is in introducing the conformational analysis of cyclopentane and cyclohexane rings.
Levinson, Alfred S.; Zupan, Rudolph J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 369.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Solving equilibrium problems   Ruekberg, Ben
An equation with more than three terms is not cause for despair.
Ruekberg, Ben J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 344.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Flash photochemical measurements in the physical chemistry laboratory: Kinetics of deactivation of electronically excited aromatic molecules by oxygen  Clark, Lisa M.; Hayes, Susan E.; Hayes, David M.; McFarland, Jeffrey M.; Miller, Robin L.; Shalmi, Craig L.; Soltis, Marabeth G.; Susnow, Roberta; Strong, Robert L.
In this experiment, students examine the kinetics by which molecular oxygen deactivates the electronically excited triplet states of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phenanthrene in hexane solution.
Clark, Lisa M.; Hayes, Susan E.; Hayes, David M.; McFarland, Jeffrey M.; Miller, Robin L.; Shalmi, Craig L.; Soltis, Marabeth G.; Susnow, Roberta; Strong, Robert L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 336.
Aromatic Compounds |
Photochemistry |
Kinetics |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Graphical presentation of acid-base reactions: Using a computer-interfaced autotitrator  Lake, Michele E.; Grunow, David A.; Su, Meng-Chih
136. The goal of this project is to help students see what occurs in the solution at every single step during the course of a titration.
Lake, Michele E.; Grunow, David A.; Su, Meng-Chih J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 299.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Weight-average molecular weights: How to pick a football team  Pilar, Frank L.
Author uses a football team analogy to help student understand how the weight-average definition is computed.
Pilar, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 280.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
Semitopological representation of electronic structure of complex boron hydrides and ions using styx numbers  Dikshit, S. K.; Singh, Ramsharan
The equations of balance for boron hydrides do not always give unequivocal answers, but do assist by limiting the structure considered.
Dikshit, S. K.; Singh, Ramsharan J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 274.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
MO Theory
The new method of rapid determination of chiral molecule configuration: The triangle method  Yongsheng, Han; Cailan, Wang
This paper describes a new method for applying the Cahn-Ingold-Prelog rules to determine the configuration of a chiral molecule directly from its Fischer projection formula.
Yongsheng, Han; Cailan, Wang J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 273.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Acidities of oxoacids: Correlation with charge distribution  Meek, Terry L.
In an attempt to ascertain whether acidity can be correlated with some molecular parameter, the charge distribution within 24 oxoacid molecules and their conjugate base anions were examined by calculating the partial positive or negative charge on each atom.
Meek, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 270.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Estimation of pKa in the first excited singlet state: A physical chemistry experiment that explores acid-base properties in the excited state.  Marciniak, B.; Kozubek, H.; Paszyc, S.
The acid-base reactions in excited states are some of the most elementary processes both in photochemistry and biochemistry and are, therefore, well-suited to form the basis for an undergraduate physical chemistry experiment.
Marciniak, B.; Kozubek, H.; Paszyc, S. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 247.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Photochemistry
Symmetry elements and molecular achirality  Chen, Guo-Qiang
The reliability of a prediction of achirality of a molecule by inspecting a rotating plane of symmetry is ensured by following the demonstration.
Chen, Guo-Qiang J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 159.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Molecular anthropomorphism: A creative writing exercise  Miller, Larry L.

Miller, Larry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 141.
Molecular Properties / Structure
Isomerization of dimethyl maleate to dimethyl fumarate: An undergraduate experiment illustrating amine-catalyzed alkene isomerization, stereochemical principles, sublimation, and product identification by spectroscopic methods  Fryhle, Craig B.; Rybak, Carol M.; Pulley, Kenneth E.
An undergraduate experiment illustrating amine-catalyzed alkene isomerization, stereochemical principles, sublimation, and product identification by spectroscopic methods.
Fryhle, Craig B.; Rybak, Carol M.; Pulley, Kenneth E. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1050.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Diastereomers |
Gas Chromatography |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Catalysis
A simple way to draw the chair and boat conformations of cyclohexane  Leriverend, Pierre
Undergraduate students in chemistry and biochemistry have difficulty in representing cyclohexane according to the main conformations known as the chair and boat form. This author puts forth a suggestion to make this easier for students.
Leriverend, Pierre J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 957.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Molecular mechanics in the undergraduate curriculum  Sauers, Ronald R.
The author outlines recent experience with the introduction of molecular mechanics methodology via computer aided analysis of molecular geometry and energy. Students gained appreciation for the interplay of molecular forces that govern equilibrium energy and molecular forces of organic molecules.
Sauers, Ronald R. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 816.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Thermodynamics |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Multifunctional base unknowns in the introductory analytical chemistry lab  Werner, Jonathan A.; Werner, T. C.
The authors look at mathematical descriptions of acid-base equilibria and emphasize the nature of the assumptions that are being made to simplify the mathematics.
Werner, Jonathan A.; Werner, T. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 600.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
An NMR study of the stereochemistry of the fumarase-catalyzed hydration of fumaric acid  Olsen, Julie A.; Olsen, Robert J.
An NMR study of the stereochemistry of the fumarase-catalyzed hydration of fumaric acid.
Olsen, Julie A.; Olsen, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 436.
Acids / Bases |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Enzymes |
Molecular Modeling |
Diastereomers
An internal comparison of the intermolecular forces of common organic functional groups: A thin-layer chromatography experiment  Beauvais, Robert; Holman, R. W.
Due to the latest trends in organic chemistry textbook content sequences, it has become desirable to develop an experiment that is rapid, simple, and general, that would compare and contrast the various functional group classes of organic molecules in terms of their relative polarities, dipole moments, and intermolecular forces of attraction.
Beauvais, Robert; Holman, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 428.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alcohols |
Carboxylic Acids |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
Qualitative Analysis |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A problem for buffer buffs  Leis, J. Ramon; Pena, M. Elena; Herrero-Latorre, C.
An exam problem particularly for undergraduates studying chemistry as part of some other discipline such as biochemistry, biology, or medicine.
Leis, J. Ramon; Pena, M. Elena; Herrero-Latorre, C. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 141.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
pH
A One-Step Synthesis of Cinnamic Acids Using Malonic Acid: The Verley-Doebner Modification of the Knoevenagel Condensation  Kolb, Kenneth E.; Field, Kurt W.; Schatz, Paul F.
With this procedure malonic acid itself, rather than its diester, can be effectively condensed with benzaldehyde to produce trans-cinnamic acid.
Kolb, Kenneth E.; Field, Kurt W.; Schatz, Paul F. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A304.
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Acids / Bases |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Carboxylic Acids
A comparison of three software programs to solve acid/base problems  Nagel, Edgar H.
Compares the use of a spreadsheet (Quattro), Eureka, and MathCad to calculate the pH of monosodium salt solutions of diprotic acids.
Nagel, Edgar H. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A302.
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics |
pH
Synthesis of iodohexane via hydroboration-iodination: A microscale organic laboratory experiment involving air-sensitive compounds  Gooch, E. Eugene
Use of ICl and organoborane intermediates to prepare iodohexane that parallels similar methods that introduce iodine radionuclides into fatty acids for use as heart imaging agents via positron emission tomography.
Gooch, E. Eugene J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A232.
Synthesis |
Microscale Lab |
Carboxylic Acids |
Medicinal Chemistry
Organic Nomenclature (Lampman, Gary)  Damey, Richard F.
An interactive tutorial / drill for naming organic compounds.
Damey, Richard F. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A220.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Ethers |
Alcohols |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Phenols
Desktop Molecular Modeller (Appleyard, John; Crabbe, James C.)  Smith, Douglas A.
Desktop Molecular Modeller is a molecular modeling, editing, and display package.
Smith, Douglas A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A164.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
ATOMS - Atomic Structure Display (Dowty, Eric)  Jacobson, Robert A.
The intent of this program is to provide a ready means of displaying structures of molecules, polymers and/or crystals.
Jacobson, Robert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A163.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Crystals / Crystallography
Modified Gran plots of very weak acids on a spreadsheet   Chau, F. T.; Tse, H. K.; Cheng, F. L.
The Gran plot methodology has been utilized very often for analysis of acid-base titration curves.
Chau, F. T.; Tse, H. K.; Cheng, F. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A8.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Titrations of monoprotic acids with sodium hydroxide contaminated by sodium carbonate (the author replies)   Michalowski, Tadeusz
A basic assumption made in the original article does not reflect the most common practical situation; therefore, some of the conclusions can be misleading if taken as general rules.
Michalowski, Tadeusz J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1072.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Titrations of monoprotic acids with sodium hydroxide contaminated by sodium carbonate  Bombi, G. Giorgio; Macca, Carlo; Michalowski, Tadeusz
A basic assumption made in the original article does not reflect the most common practical situation; therefore, some of the conclusions can be misleading if taken as general rules.
Bombi, G. Giorgio; Macca, Carlo; Michalowski, Tadeusz J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1072.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
A short program for the automatic calculation of pH in solutions having many acids or bases  Campanario, Juan Miguel; Ballesteros, Reyes
121. Bits and pieces, 45. A computer program for calculating the pH of mixtures having many acids or bases.
Campanario, Juan Miguel; Ballesteros, Reyes J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1036.
Acids / Bases |
pH
An easily constructed model of twin trigonal pyramids penetrating each other  Yamana, Shukichi
A model of twin trigonal pyramids penetrating each other made from two sealed envelopes.
Yamana, Shukichi J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1029.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry
Endocharm and its production in organic chemistry by mastery learning  Afzal, Dawood; Delaware, Dana L.; Fountain, Kenneth R.
Using concept maps in organic chemistry and the difference between rote and meaningful learning.
Afzal, Dawood; Delaware, Dana L.; Fountain, Kenneth R. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1011.
Learning Theories |
Acids / Bases
A general approach for calculating polyprotic acid speciation and buffer capacity  King, D. Whitney; Kester, Dana R.
A set of general equations for calculating the speciation of polyprotic acids.
King, D. Whitney; Kester, Dana R. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 932.
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics
Calculation of equilibrium constant in esterification reactions  Sarlo, Edward; Svoronos, Paris; Kulas, Patricia
Procedure for measuring the equilibrium constant in esterification reactions.
Sarlo, Edward; Svoronos, Paris; Kulas, Patricia J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 796.
Esters |
Alcohols |
Carboxylic Acids |
Equilibrium
A modified graphical method for acid-base equilibria  Nakagawa, Kuniaki
A method based on logarithmic diagrams for finding the pH values for various systems in acid-base equilibria.
Nakagawa, Kuniaki J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 673.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
pH
Molecular models constructed in an easy way: Part 2. Models constructed by using tetrahedral units as building blocks  He, Fu-cheng; Liu, Lu-bin; Li, Xiang-yuan
How a group of molecular models can be constructed from tetrahedral units made from paper ribbon.
He, Fu-cheng; Liu, Lu-bin; Li, Xiang-yuan J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 650.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Avoid misleading the students  Rich, Ronald L.
Chemists have a long-standing habit, misleading at least to students, of saying that strong bases produce acids in various reactions.
Rich, Ronald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 629.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions
State-of-the-art pH electrode quality control for measurements of acidic, low ionic strength waters  Stapanian, Martin A.; Metcalf, Richard C.
The relationship between the pH measurement error and the resulting percentage error in [H+] determination is derived, including the use of variable activity coefficients.
Stapanian, Martin A.; Metcalf, Richard C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 623.
Acids / Bases |
pH
Proton NMR simulator  Black, Kersey A.
Software designed to help students learn how to correlate proton NMR spectral data with molecular structure.
Black, Kersey A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 589.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Cotton swabs help to visualize structures  Ali, Saqib; Mazhar, M.
Using cotton swabs help to visualize atomic and molecular structures.
Ali, Saqib; Mazhar, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 558.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Molecular models constructed in an easy way: Part 1. Models of tetrahedron, trigonal bipyramid, octahedron, pentagonal bipyramid, and capped octahedron  He, Fu-cheng; Liu, Lu-bin; Li, Xiang-yuan
An improved technique for making various molecular models using polyhedral units constructed from a strip of paper.
He, Fu-cheng; Liu, Lu-bin; Li, Xiang-yuan J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 556.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A mnemonic scheme for interconverting Fischer projections of open-chain monosaccharides and Haworth projections of corresponding alpha- and beta-anomeric forms  Mitschele, Jonathan
Rules that make it easy for students to recognize alpha- and beta-anomers and the D and L forms of monosaccharides in their Hawthorn projections.
Mitschele, Jonathan J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 553.
Carbohydrates |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry
Molecular diffusion coefficients: Experimental determination and demonstration.  Fate, Gwendolyn; Lynn, David G.
This demonstration highlights the dependence of molecular transport on molar mass and temperature.
Fate, Gwendolyn; Lynn, David G. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 536.
Transport Properties |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Lewis structure skills: Taxonomy and difficulty levels  Brady, Joseph A.; Milbury-Steen, John N.; Burmeister, John L.
The Office of Academic Computing and Instructional Technology at the University of Delaware committed itself to developing an intelligent tutoring system for drawing Lewis dot structures. An early prototype collected considerable data about student performance, which revealed the relative difficulty of the required skills.
Brady, Joseph A.; Milbury-Steen, John N.; Burmeister, John L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 491.
Molecular Properties / Structure
The Ka values of water and the hydronium ion for comparison with other acids  Campbell, Mark L.; Waite, Boyd A.
A primary interest in establishing the correct Ka values for water and the hydronium ion is to be able to compare the strengths of these species acting as acids with the strengths of other compounds acting as acids.
Campbell, Mark L.; Waite, Boyd A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 386.
Acids / Bases |
Water / Water Chemistry |
pH
Molecular structure and chirality (Author response)  Lechner, Joseph H.
When right and left hands are perceived as isolated segments of the body, possessing a mirror-image relationship, with the understanding that they cannot be superimposed, then the true sense of chirality is imparted.
Lechner, Joseph H. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 358.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Molecular structure and chirality   Brand, David J.
The statement that a pair of hands is "chiral" was misleading and would unnecessarily frustrate students.
Brand, David J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 358.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Nucleophilic aromatic substitution: A microscale organic experiment  Avila, Walter B.; Crow, Jeffrey L.; Utermoehlen, Clifford M.
This experiment demonstrates one feasible route in preparing ortho-substituted benzoic acids and is also an example of nucleophilic aromatic substitution chemistry.
Avila, Walter B.; Crow, Jeffrey L.; Utermoehlen, Clifford M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 350.
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Aromatic Compounds |
Microscale Lab |
Carboxylic Acids
Thermal decomposition of a natural manganese dioxide: A laboratory experiment for undergraduate students  Puerta, M. C.; Valerga, P.
This is a very instructive experiment that combines experimental work, theoretical discussion, and literature investigation.
Puerta, M. C.; Valerga, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 344.
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Thermal Analysis |
Solid State Chemistry
A chemiluminescent ammonia fountain   Thomas, Nicholas C.
Two popular and dramatic demonstrations offered to student audiences that virtually guarantee their undivided attention are the ammonia fountain and chemiluminescence experiments.
Thomas, Nicholas C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 339.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
The nature of the chemical bond--1990: There are no such things as orbitals!  Ogilivie, J. F.
The author discusses the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics, the laws and theories, and the relationship of quantum-mechanics to atomic and molecular structure, as well as their relevance to chemical education.
Ogilivie, J. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 280.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Photohydration of pyridine: Modification of an undergraduate kinetics experiment  Morine, Gerald H.
In a previous article in this Journal an undergraduate experiment on photochemical kinetics was presented. This author is offering modifications to the original experiment.
Morine, Gerald H. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 266.
Photochemistry |
Kinetics |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Heterocycles
Solution of acid-base equilibria by successive approximations  Olivieri, Alejandro C.
The use of the method of successive approximations for solving acid-base equilibria, in conjunction with an intuitive, chemically based analysis is presented.
Olivieri, Alejandro C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 229.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium
An efficient method for the treatment of weak acid/base equilibria  Burness, James H.
The use of the ionization ratio concept enables students to perform many of the calculations for aqueous acid/base equilibria more quickly and efficiently.
Burness, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 224.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases
The hydrolysis of salts derived from a weak monoprotic acid and a weak monoprotic base  Cardinali, Mario Emilio; Giomini, Claudio; Marrosu, Giancarlo
The limitations as well as the conditions under which this simplified approach to the hydrolysis of salts from a weak acid and a weak base can yield almost exact results are discussed.
Cardinali, Mario Emilio; Giomini, Claudio; Marrosu, Giancarlo J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 221.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions
The extent of acid-base reactions  Thompson, Ralph J.
How to calculate the equilibrium constant of an acid-base reaction.
Thompson, Ralph J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 220.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions |
Equilibrium
Independent coordinates of molecular structures and group theory  Ermer, Otto
The author describes a simple and safe group theoretical method for the systematic evaluation of the number of independent structural parameters.
Ermer, Otto J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 209.
MO Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure
BUFCALC: A program for the calculation of buffers of specified pH, ionic strength, and buffer capacity  Lambert, William J.
111. A Turbo Pascal program named BUFCALC has been written for the IBM PC for the calculation of buffer "recipes" given the appropriate thermodynamic dissociation constant(s).
Lambert, William J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 150.
Acids / Bases |
pH
Molecular electronic terms and molecular orbital configurations  Mazo, R. M.
This paper answers the question, which molecular electronic terms can arise from a given electronic configuration?
Mazo, R. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 135.
MO Theory |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A polymer viscosity experiment with no right answer  Rosenthal, Lois C.
The experiment entails a class effort to prepare a calibration curve relating molecular weight and intrinsic viscosity, and use of the calibration curve to determine unknown molecular weight.
Rosenthal, Lois C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 78.
Calibration |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Acid content of beverages: A general chemistry experiment involving the resolution of apparent anomalies  Fuchsman, William H.; Garg, Sandhya
The authors connect the chemistry of strong and weak acids not only to the world outside the laboratory but also to the kinds of problem solving that engages real scientists.
Fuchsman, William H.; Garg, Sandhya J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 67.
Acids / Bases |
Food Science |
pH
Demonstrations for nonscience majors: Using common objects to illustrate abstract concepts  Laurita, William
Some concrete examples of common chemical phenomena designed for a class of nonscience majors.
Laurita, William J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 60.
Nonmajor Courses |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Frank C. Whitmore and steric hindrance: A duo of centennials   Mosher, Harry S.; Tidwell, Thomas T.
The 1888 discovery of steric hindrance by Kehrmann was followed nearly a half century later by Whitmore's paper in 1932 that used studies of the reactivities of crowded organic compounds to develop a general theory of molecular rearrangement and to establish the role of carbocations as both viable and important reaction intermediates.
Mosher, Harry S.; Tidwell, Thomas T. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 9.
Molecular Properties / Structure
Modelling and analyzing chemical equilibria on a spreadsheet: Acid-base systems  Leharne, Stephen
Using a spreadsheet to compute how the concentration of an aqeous species varies with some master variables (such as pH or ligand concentrations) and show this variation graphically.
Leharne, Stephen J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A239.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Making stereo pair views with Molecular Editor  Robinson, Trevor
This program is useful for building, rotating, and observing molecular structures.
Robinson, Trevor J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A62.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry
Illustrating the inductive effect on acid strength of carboxylic acids  Kolb, Kenneth E.; Kolb, Doris
The effect of various substituents on acid strength can be easily demonstrated using aqueous solutions of various carboxylic acids containing a suitable indicator.
Kolb, Kenneth E.; Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1034.
Acids / Bases |
Carboxylic Acids
An easily constructed bicapped trigonal prism model  Yamana, Shukichi
Using a two sealed envelopes to construct a bicapped trigonal prism model.
Yamana, Shukichi J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1021.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry
An easily constructed triangulated dodecahedron model  Yamana, Shukichi
Using a sealed envelope to construct a triangulated dodecahedron model.
Yamana, Shukichi J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1019.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry
A facile Huckel molecular orbital solution of Buckminsterfullerene using chemical graph theory  Dias, Jerry Ray
A Huckel molecular orbital solution of C60 without employing group theory.
Dias, Jerry Ray J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1012.
Molecular Properties / Structure
Identifying polar and nonpolar molecules  Tykodi, R. J.
A scheme based on the ideas of molecular symmetry for determining the polar / nonpolar nature of simple molecules.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1007.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
Sherlock Holmes and the yellow prisms  Waddell, Thomas G.; Rybolt, Thomas R.
A chemical mystery featuring Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson.
Waddell, Thomas G.; Rybolt, Thomas R. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 981.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Toxicology |
Acids / Bases
Separation of a five-component mixture in the microscale laboratory  O'Hara-Mays, Ellen P.; Yuen, George U.
The separation and purification of a five-component mixture consisting of a strong organic acid (bezoic acid), a weak organic acid (2-naphthol), an organic base (pyridine), and two neutral compounds (1-chlorobutane and toluene).
O'Hara-Mays, Ellen P.; Yuen, George U. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 961.
Separation Science |
Microscale Lab |
Acids / Bases
The acid-base package: A collection of useful programs for proton-transfer systems  Hawkes, Stephen J.
Four programs that deal with the types of acid-base calculations normally encountered in introductory and analytical chemistry courses.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 830.
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics
Kinetics of the fading of phenolphthalein in alkaline solution  Nicholson, Lois
The fading of phenolphthalein in alkaline solution can serve as the basis for an experiment illustrating first-order kinetics.
Nicholson, Lois J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 725.
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics
The significance of the bond angle in sulfur dioxide  Purser, Gordon H.
Discussion of the bonding in and structure of SO2.
Purser, Gordon H. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 710.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Viewing stereo drawings  Srinivasan, A. R.; Olson, Wilma K.
Using stereo triptych representations in place of conventional stereo diagrams.
Srinivasan, A. R.; Olson, Wilma K. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 664.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry
Selective reductions in the teaching laboratory  Jones, Alan G.
Reductions of nitrophenylethanone, aminophenylethanone, and nitrophenylethanol.
Jones, Alan G. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 611.
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
IR Spectroscopy
An easily constructed monocapped antiprism model  Yamana, Shukichi
An monocapped antiprism model easily constructed from a sealed, empty envelope and useful for teaching stereochemistry.
Yamana, Shukichi J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 576.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry
Using an oval to represent carbohydrates with hexopyranose rings  Fulkrod, John E.
An shorthand alternative to representing hexopyranose rings using chair conformation structures.
Fulkrod, John E. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 485.
Carbohydrates |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Absolutely "simple" configuration in Fischer projection formula  Reddy, K. R. N.
A table from which one can easily assign the absolute configuration in Fischer projection formula after designating priorities of the substituents directly bonded to the chiral center.
Reddy, K. R. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 480.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Stereochemistry
Drawing different views of the chair form of substituted cyclohexanes  Richardson, W. S.
A set of rules to instruct students in a method for drawing chair structures of cyclohexane after rotation about the central axis.
Richardson, W. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 478.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry
Fourier analysis and structure determination. Part III. X-ray crystal structure analysis  Chesick, John P.
We wish to continue the discussion on imaging tools with the discussion of single crystal X-ray crystal analysis.
Chesick, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 413.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Properties / Structure
An alternative procedure for titration curves of a mixture of acids of different strengths  Castillo S., Carlos A.; Jaramillo A., Alonso
An alternative procedure is presented that allows us to get the same kind of information using a single equation plus a graph, that would normally be determined by two plots.
Castillo S., Carlos A.; Jaramillo A., Alonso J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 341.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Potentiometry
Searching Chemical Abstracts Online in undergraduate chemistry: Part 2. Registry (structure) File: molecular formulas, names, and name fragments  Krumpolc, Miroslav; Trimakas, Diana; Miller, Connie
This data base, essentially a subject index, consists of substance names, their Registry Numbers and characteristics, and actual structural representations.
Krumpolc, Miroslav; Trimakas, Diana; Miller, Connie J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 26.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Molecular graphics, version 1.0 (Robinson, B.H.; Connell,E.; Gladden, J.)  Pearson, Myrna S.; Houser, John J.
Two reviews for a program for displaying molecular structure on the PC family of computers.
Pearson, Myrna S.; Houser, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A330.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The synthesis of methyl salicylate: Amine diazotization.  Zanger, Murray; McKee, James R.
Unlike many organic chemistry labs, this experiment does not expose students to carcinogenics, nor does it smell bad.
Zanger, Murray; McKee, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1106.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aromatic Compounds
The perils of carbonic acid and equilibrium constants  Jencks, William P.; Altura, Rachel A.
It is important to remember that the small amounts of carbon dioxide that are usually present in water can have large effects on acid-base equilibria of dilute solutions and that dilute solutions of most weak acids and bases undergo significant protonation or hydrolysis when they are dissolved in water.
Jencks, William P.; Altura, Rachel A. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 770.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Shedding a new light on solubility calculations   Stolzberg, Richard J.
Precipitate formation, fractional precipitation and precipitate dissolution can be investigated in a series of lecture demonstrations suitable for general chemistry or quantitative analysis.
Stolzberg, Richard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 621.
Quantitative Analysis |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A colorful demonstration to simulate orbital hybridization  Emerson, David W.
A simple, colorful demonstration involving nothing more than several beakers of colored water can speed up student comprehension of hybrid orbitals at the introductory level.
Emerson, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 454.
Covalent Bonding |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Teaching relative acidity in the undergraduate organic chemistry course  Traynham, James G.
The concept of acidity become difficult for students to understand when an instructor goes beyond a few familiar compounds.
Traynham, James G. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 348.
Acids / Bases
Organic lecture demonstrations  Silversmith, Ernest F.
Organic chemistry may not be known for its spectacular, attention getting chemical reactions. Nevertheless, this author describes a few organic chemistry reactions that put points across and generate interest. This article provides a convenient sources of demonstrations and urges others to add to the collection. Demonstrations concerning: carbohydrates, spectroscopy, proteins, amines, carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, and much more.
Silversmith, Ernest F. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 70.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Acids / Bases |
Physical Properties |
Alkenes |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols
On the boiling points of the alkyl halides  Correla, John
Most textbooks spend some time discussing the relationship between boiling point and molecular structure, however, their reasons behind this relationship differ. This variation among textbooks warrants further investigation and discussion in order to uncover which of the factors are the major contributors to the variation of boiling point.
Correla, John J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 62.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Physical Properties |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The Molecular Animator (Howbert, J. Jeffrey)  Smith, Alan G.
Allows molecules to be viewed in three-dimensions.
Smith, Alan G. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A286.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The mounting of stereo slides for projecting molecular models  Hayman, H. J. G.
Procedure for successfully mounting stereo slides for projecting molecular models.
Hayman, H. J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1041.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Molecular structure and chirality  Brand, David J.; Fisher, Jed
Clarification of the meaning of the term chiral and its application to both chiral and achiral molecules.
Brand, David J.; Fisher, Jed J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1035.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers
Molecular vibration demonstrations  Turrell, George; Demol, Robert
Two dynamic models that illustrate the normal-mode vibrations of the water and benzene molecules.
Turrell, George; Demol, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1025.
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Structural theories applied to taste chemistry  Kuang-chih, Tseng; Hua-zhong, He
Explaining various tastes from viewpoints of structural theories in chemistry.
Kuang-chih, Tseng; Hua-zhong, He J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1003.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry
A general approach for teaching hydrolysis of salts  Aquirre-Ode, Fernando
Proposes a general, rigorous, and relatively simple approach for the hydrolysis of 1-1 electrolytes.
Aquirre-Ode, Fernando J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 957.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Advances in acid-base Gran plot methodology  Schwartz, Lowell M.
By suitable modifications in the data analysis, Gran plot methodology can be extended to acidic or basic analyte solutions that would be difficult to treat by the conventional equations.
Schwartz, Lowell M. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 947.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
From shadows to three dimensions: Stereographic images using Dreiding models and the Macintosh  Strauss, Michael J.; Gribble, Gordon
Printing stereographic images using ChemDraw.
Strauss, Michael J.; Gribble, Gordon J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 850.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Ab initio calculations on a microcomputer  Reed, Lynne H.; Murphy, Arthur R.
86. Bits and pieces, 35. Program that performs a Hartee-Fock-Roothaan calculation for a two-electron diatomic molecule on Apple II+ and IIe computers.
Reed, Lynne H.; Murphy, Arthur R. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 789.
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Quantum Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chemometrics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Assigning absolute configuration: Another view  Hambly, Gordon F.
Should we be teaching a two-dimensional gimmick when stereochemistry is so vital to organic chemistry?
Hambly, Gordon F. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 732.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Assigning absolute configuration  Bunting, John W.
Ayorinde's method has a feature that has the potential for creating considerable confusion among students.
Bunting, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 731.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Werner and Jorgensen: Presenting history with a computer  Whisnant, David M.
85. A computer simulation designed to illustrate the process of science - how theories develop, how change occurs, and how scientists behave.
Whisnant, David M. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 688.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Coordination Compounds
Stereoelectronic effects, tau bonds, and Cram's rule  Wintner, Claude E.
Review of stereoelectronic effects and outline of the suggestion that the "bent bond" (tau bond) be used as a model for the double bond.
Wintner, Claude E. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 587.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Protein structure prediction in color  Davis, Lawrence C.; Radke, Gary A.
84. Implementing the Chuo and Faslar method for prediction of secondary structure and the Kyte and Doolittle method for predicting "hydropathic character" on an Apple IIe computer with color graphics.
Davis, Lawrence C.; Radke, Gary A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 582.
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Molecular structure: Property relationships  Seybold, Paul G.; May, Michael; Bagal, Ujjvala A.
How molecular structure can be represented mathematically and how this can lead to a better understanding of the connection between molecular structures and properties.
Seybold, Paul G.; May, Michael; Bagal, Ujjvala A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 575.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alcohols
Use of polar maps in conformational analysis  Ounsworth, James P.; Weller, Larry
A relatively simple procedure to identify different or similar conformations of large ring structures (generating polar maps of torsional angles).
Ounsworth, James P.; Weller, Larry J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 568.
Conformational Analysis |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
An acidity scale for binary oxides  Smith, Derek W.
A numerical scale of acidity / basicity for oxoacid salts.
Smith, Derek W. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 480.
Acids / Bases
How soft is mercury?  Rustad, Douglas S.
The conclusion that the softness of the Hg(II) ion varies going from the gas phase to different solvents is incorrect.
Rustad, Douglas S. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 470.
Acids / Bases
Spectroscopic analysis using the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum  Crandall, Elbert W.
Review of the use of near-IR to study simple compounds (amines, hydroxyl, and carbonyl compounds) and polymers.
Crandall, Elbert W. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 466.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Alcohols |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Passivation of copper in acid medium  Alonso, C.; Ocon, P.
Determining and explaining the polarization curve of copper in a 70% solution of phosphoric acid.
Alonso, C.; Ocon, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 459.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
A convenient, low-cost method for determining sulfate in acid rain  Johns, Nicholas; Longstaff, Stephen J.
Adapting the thoron colorimetric method for determining low sulfate concentrations quickly, simply, and accurately.
Johns, Nicholas; Longstaff, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 449.
Acids / Bases |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis
Electron spectroscopic methods in teaching  Allan, Michael
Presents several spectra in a format suitable for teaching applications with the intention of promoting the use of electron energy-loss spectroscopy in teaching the electronic structure of atoms and molecules at an elementary level.
Allan, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 418.
Spectroscopy |
Quantum Chemistry |
Photochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
MO Theory
On a common graphical flaw in the carboxylic acid/alcohol relative acidity argument  McClard, Ronald W.
Why are carboxylic acids so much more acidic than aliphatic alcohols?
McClard, Ronald W. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 416.
Carboxylic Acids |
Alcohols |
Acids / Bases
A novel pictorial approach to teaching molecular motions in polyatomic molecules  Verkade, John G.
A procedure in which the "generator orbital" approach can be utilized to teach students how to generate the vibrational, rotational, and translational modes of molecules in a completely pictorial manner.
Verkade, John G. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 411.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A simple formula for the number of rings in a cyclic molecule  Reddy, P. Anantha
A simple formula that determines the number of rings from the number of ring atoms and bonds present in a cyclic system.
Reddy, P. Anantha J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 400.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
A safe, convenient method of generating bromine for qualitative analysis  Slayden, Suzauee W.; Do, Thuy H.; Smiley, Kimberly Y.; Nelson, Donna J.
A safe, convenient method of generating bromine used as a qualitative test for unsaturation, active methylene groups, phenols, and amines.
Slayden, Suzauee W.; Do, Thuy H.; Smiley, Kimberly Y.; Nelson, Donna J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 368.
Qualitative Analysis |
Alkenes |
Phenols |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Laboratory Management
Supercoiled DNA: Biological significance  Sinden, Richard R.
An introduction to DNA supercoiling, including the effects of DNA supercoiling on DNA structure and biological reactions.
Sinden, Richard R. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 294.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Biological Cells
Color images of molecules  Farrell, John J.
81. Bits and pieces, 33. BASICA program that draws three-dimensional images of complex molecules.
Farrell, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 240.
Molecular Properties / Structure
The nomenclature of relative stereochemistry: Choosing between likes and preferences  Brook, Michael A.
The commonly used descriptors for relative stereochemistry are introduced and compared.
Brook, Michael A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 218.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity
The structure of bis(trimethylsilyl) amides: A multinuclear NMR project  Samples, Majorie S.; Yoder, Claude H.; Schaeffor, Charles D., Jr.
A project designed to illustrate the great value of observing nuclei other than 1H and 13C (29Si, 14N, 17O).
Samples, Majorie S.; Yoder, Claude H.; Schaeffor, Charles D., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 177.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Amides |
NMR Spectroscopy
ChemPlate and Hopkins, a template and font for drawing molecular structures with the Macintosh computer  Hwu, Jih Ru.; Wetzel, John M.; Robl, Jeffrey A.
80. Features, use, and results of ChemPlate and Hopkins, software for drawing molecular structures with a Macintosh computer.
Hwu, Jih Ru.; Wetzel, John M.; Robl, Jeffrey A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 135.
Molecular Properties / Structure
Classroom demonstrations of polymer principles. Part I. Molecular structure and molecular mass  Rodriguez, F.; Mathias, L. J.; Kroschwitz, J.; Carraher, C. E., Jr.
Suggestions for models and techniques to illustrate the structure of polymers, copolymers, molecular mass, osmotic pressure, light scattering, and dilute solution viscosity.
Rodriguez, F.; Mathias, L. J.; Kroschwitz, J.; Carraher, C. E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 72.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
Stretched elastomers: A case of decreasing length upon heating  Clough, S. B.
Demonstrating and explaining the decrease in length of a heated rubber band.
Clough, S. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 42.
Thermodynamics |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Configurations of glucose and other aldoses: New twists and reflections an old problems  Bentley, Ronald; Popp, Janet L.
Develops a comprehensive treatment of the configurations of aldoses in terms of the concept of rotational symmetry.
Bentley, Ronald; Popp, Janet L. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 15.
Carbohydrates |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A BASIC program for the calculation of elemental compositions from structural formulas  Smith, Roger A.; Spencer, Robin W.
78. Bits and pieces, 32. The authors have written a computer program in BASIC that will calculate the molecular weights and elemental compositions from a structural formula.
Smith, Roger A.; Spencer, Robin W. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 1076.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry
FACES (features associated with chemical entities): II. Hydrocarbon isomers and their graphs  Larsen, Russell D.
The FACES program is modified in order to be able to display the structural features of compounds.
Larsen, Russell D. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 1067.
Molecular Properties / Structure
Simple rule for the conversion of Fischer monosaccharide projection formulas into Haworth representations  Argiles, J. M.
Many students struggle with memorizing Haworth structures, the authors provide some insight on this topic to help students.
Argiles, J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 927.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enantiomers |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Carbohydrates |
Molecular Modeling
Ion-selective electrode in organic analysis: A salicylate electrode  Chan, W. H.; Wong, M. S.; Yip, C. W.
The project presented in this paper demonstrates to students the principles and techniques of using the ion-selective electrode in organic analysis.
Chan, W. H.; Wong, M. S.; Yip, C. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 915.
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Electrochemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
The synthesis of 5,5'-diphenylhydantoin: A novel benzil-benzilic acid rearrangement  Pankaskie, Marvin C.; Small, Laverne
A novel benzil-benzilic acid rearrangement.
Pankaskie, Marvin C.; Small, Laverne J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 650.
Synthesis |
Heterocycles |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Synthetic design on a pocket computer  Pollet, Patrick
73. Bits and pieces, 29. The program presented in this article is an implementation of the Hendrickson protocol for systematic synthetic design.
Pollet, Patrick J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 624.
Molecular Properties / Structure
Teaching the concept of resonance with transparent overlays  Richardson, W. S.
The overlap method can be useful in the development of the concept of a partial charge on the atoms of an ion.
Richardson, W. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 518.
Resonance Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Stress the twofold axis of the threo isomer  Tavernier, D.
The author weighs in on the the controversy of the threo and erythro nomenclature.
Tavernier, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 511.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers |
Diastereomers
Coulombic models in chemical bonding. II. Dipole moments of binary hydrides  Sacks, Lawrence J.
A discussion of Coulumbic models and their aid in understanding chemical bonding.
Sacks, Lawrence J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 373.
Electrochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Selective oxidation in the presence of a heterocycle  Bowles, K. Dean; Quincy, David A.; McKenna, John I.; Natale, N. R.
The process of weighing the advantages and disadvantages of various oxidation methods are presented in this paper.
Bowles, K. Dean; Quincy, David A.; McKenna, John I.; Natale, N. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 358.
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Heterocycles |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Carboxylic Acids
Relative stabilities of organic compounds using Benson's additivity rules  Vitale, Dale E.
The author comments that students regard organic chemistry as a subject that is a "catalog of loosely related, descriptive examples" and suggests that the relationship between structure and energy could be treated earlier and more explicitly to avoid this misconception and stress the quantitative aspect of this branch of chemistry.
Vitale, Dale E. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 304.
Thermodynamics |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Reduction of cyclohexanone with sodium borohydride in aqueous alkaline solution: a beginning organic chemistry experiment  Hudak, Norman J.; Sholes, Anne H.
A beginning organic chemistry experiment that involves the reduction of cyclohexanone with sodium borohydride in aqueous alkaline solution.
Hudak, Norman J.; Sholes, Anne H. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 161.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Alcohols
Stereochemistry (Ramsay, O. Bertrand)  Kauffman, George B.
Provides a survey of stereochemistry from its inception to the 1960s.
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, A189.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Molecular size and Raoult's Law  Kovac, Jeffrey
An additional cause for deviations from Raoult's Law that is rarely, if ever, mentioned in freshman chemistry texts.
Kovac, Jeffrey J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1090.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Gases
Stereoscopic projection in organic chemistry: Bridging the gap between two and three dimensions  Rozzelle, Arlene A.; Rosenfeld, Stuart M.
Using stereo slide projections in presenting molecular structure in organic chemistry, and how to make stereo slides with a 35 mm SLR camera.
Rozzelle, Arlene A.; Rosenfeld, Stuart M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1084.
Molecular Properties / Structure
The molecular structure conundrum  Woolley, R. G.
Further discussion on two key points made in the original, referenced article.
Woolley, R. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1082.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Quantum Chemistry |
Stereochemistry
Use of the "cubic snake" as a molecular model  Gilon, Chaim
Using a "cubic snake" to model macromolecules.
Gilon, Chaim J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1074.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Proteins / Peptides |
Enzymes
Computer-assisted quantitative infrared conformational analysis of alpha, beta-unsaturated ketones  Tisnes, P.; Perry, M.
Investigates the s-cis <> s-trans conformational equilibrium of alpha, beta-unsaturated ketones.
Tisnes, P.; Perry, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 903.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Conformational Analysis |
IR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantitative Analysis
Identification of the stable conformer of cyclohexane by vibrational spectroscopy  Garcia, M. V.; Redondo, M. I.
A laboratory experiment that uses group theory to help interpret infrared and Raman spectra of cyclohexane.
Garcia, M. V.; Redondo, M. I. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 887.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Raman Spectroscopy |
Conformational Analysis |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Group Theory / Symmetry
Van der Waals compression of hydrogen atoms by geminal alkyl groups  Qureshi, Mohammad Ismail
The intramolecular van der Waals compression has a wider role in determining the chemical shifts of protons than hitherto believed.
Qureshi, Mohammad Ismail J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 861.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Hypervalent molecules and peripheral orbitals  Chu, San-Yan; Lee, Shyi-Long
An introduction to systems in which the carbon atom violates the octet rule.
Chu, San-Yan; Lee, Shyi-Long J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 857.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Coordination Compounds
The titrimetric determination of acetylsalicylic acid in analgesic tablets  Braun, Robert D.
Example of a titrimetric method in a nonaqueous amphiprotic solvent (methanol).
Braun, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 811.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Acids / Bases
A simple, inexpensive molecular weight measurement for water-soluble polymers using microemulsions  Mathias, Lon J.; Moore, D. Roger
Experiment uses a microemulsion and its characteristic thermal phase change to determine the molecular weights of polyoxyethylene samples.
Mathias, Lon J.; Moore, D. Roger J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 545.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Micelles
A simple method to determine the geometry of triatomic systems  Thuraisingham, R. A.; Epa, V. C.
A method based on the first-order perturbation theory applied to the extended Huckel method to determine the geometry of triatomic systems.
Thuraisingham, R. A.; Epa, V. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 486.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory |
MO Theory
Metal complexes as color indicators for solvent parameters  Soukup, Rudolf W.; Schmid, Roland
Review of the use of metal ions as color indicators for both the sigma-donor and sigma-acceptor abilities of solvents; briefly describes several experiments involving such metal complexes.
Soukup, Rudolf W.; Schmid, Roland J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 459.
Metals |
Coordination Compounds |
Lewis Acids / Bases
Visualization of buffer action and the acidifying effect of CO2  Schonbeck, Niels D.
Includes a discussion of the physiological buffering of CO2 in the human body.
Schonbeck, Niels D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 436.
Acids / Bases |
pH
A simple demonstration of buffer action  Duerst, Marilyn D.
A simple yet impressive visual demonstration of buffer action.
Duerst, Marilyn D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 435.
Acids / Bases |
pH
MOLPIX - A program for generating and displaying molecular structures  Johnston, Milton D., Jr.
60. Bits and pieces, 23. Software that generates complete molecular structures given bond lengths and angles.
Johnston, Milton D., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 413.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Hydrogen bonded ionic species of salts of easily accessible acids and bases: An undergraduate laboratory experiment  Chawla, B.; Chaudhry, Sarita
A physical-organic chemistry experiment on conductance behavior of H-bonded species of six salts of easily accessible, nitrogen-containing bases and halogenoacetic acids.
Chawla, B.; Chaudhry, Sarita J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 347.
Hydrogen Bonding |
Acids / Bases
Buffer capacity of various acetic acid-sodium acetate systems: A lecture experiment  Donahue, Craig J.; Panek, Mary G.
Uses indicators to illustrate the response of two buffers with the same initial pH value but differing buffer capacities.
Donahue, Craig J.; Panek, Mary G. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 337.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Dyes / Pigments |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Carboxylic Acids
Determination of stereochemical relationships  Ayorinde, Folahan O.
A sequence of steps to enable students to arrive with relative ease at correct stereochemical relationships.
Ayorinde, Folahan O. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 297.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers |
Diastereomers
Periodic and aperiodic close packing: A spontaneous hard-sphere model  van de Waal, B. W.
Constructing models of small aggregates of atoms or molecules from balloons and marbles.
van de Waal, B. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 293.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Organometallics
The R/S system: A method for assignment and some recent modifications  Eliel, Ernest L.
A method that can be applied to all three-dimensional formulas.
Eliel, Ernest L. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 223.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Molecular geometry  Desseyn, H. O.; Herman, M. A.; Mullens, J.
We should teach our students that many factors influence molecular geometry and that the relative importance of these factors is complicated; considers the VSEPR, Mulliken-Walsh, and electrostatic force theories.
Desseyn, H. O.; Herman, M. A.; Mullens, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 220.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory
A short set of 13C-NMR correlation tables  Brown, D. W.
The object of these tables is to enable a student to calculate rapidly approximate d values for 13C nuclei in as wide a variety of compounds as possible.
Brown, D. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 209.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amides |
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters
A proposed new convention for graphic presentation of molecular geometry and topography  Maehr, Hubert
A review of the popular conventions for drawing molecular structures and a proposal to define strictly graphic symbols in terms of topographic and geometric descriptor properties.
Maehr, Hubert J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 114.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Periodicity in the acid-base behavior of oxides and hydroxides  Rich, Ronald L.
The aqueous solubilities of many important hydrous oxides and hydroxides are displayed, for various elements, as functions of pH.
Rich, Ronald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 44.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
MOLEC, Review II (Owen, G. Scott; Currie, James O.)  Hull, Leslie
A molecular structures graphics program that offers a variety of different ways of looking at molecular geometries.
Hull, Leslie J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, A246.
Molecular Properties / Structure
MOLEC, Review I (Owen, G. Scott; Currie, James O.)  Coleman, William F.
A molecular structures graphics program that offers a variety of different ways of looking at molecular geometries.
Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, A245.
Molecular Properties / Structure
Chain Structure and Conformation of Macromolecules (Bovey, Frank A.; Jelinski, Lynn W.)  Carraher, Charles E., Jr.
The first seven chapters are based on lectures delivered in 1981 at MIT.
Carraher, Charles E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, A209.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Conformational Analysis |
NMR Spectroscopy
Electric birefringence: A simple apparatus for determining physical parameters of macromolecules and colloids  Trimm, Harold H.; Parslow, Kevin; Jennings, Barry R.
A simplified electric birefringence apparatus that can be used to measure both the dimensions and dipole moments of many macromolecules.
Trimm, Harold H.; Parslow, Kevin; Jennings, Barry R. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1114.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties |
Colloids |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A simple polarimeter and experiments utilizing an overhead projector  Dorn, H. C.; Bell, H.; Birkett, T.
Design and application of an overhead polarimeter that relies on small amounts of chiral solution and provides a "dual beam" light source for direct comparison of plane-polarized light emerging from chiral and achiral media.
Dorn, H. C.; Bell, H.; Birkett, T. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1106.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A polymer-solution thermometer revisited  Norman, Jack C.
The slight difference in the structure of two polymers leads to what appears to be a marked difference in the temperature dependencies of their solubilities.
Norman, Jack C. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1094.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Precipitation / Solubility
Three-dimensional pointers for stereoscopic projection  Hayman, H. J. G.
Three solutions to the problem of pointing at parts of a stereoscopic projection.
Hayman, H. J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1065.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Using the QCPE holdings in chemical education: Molecular models in the organic chemistry laboratory  Lipkowitz, Kenny
A laboratory experiment that compares the strengths and weaknesses of mechanical and computer models.
Lipkowitz, Kenny J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1051.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Conformational Analysis |
NMR Spectroscopy
Models for illustrating chirality at two centers  Feldman, Martin R.
This note suggests common objects that can be used as models to illustrate chirality at two centers, and to introduce the concepts of diastereomers and the meso configuration.
Feldman, Martin R. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1050.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Diastereomers |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers
Interconversion among polyhedra: A novel, dynamic, and inexpensive model  Ramalingam, S. K.; Raman, M.; Paulraj, K.
Ball-and-spring models used to demonstrate the ready interconvertibility of related polyhedra.
Ramalingam, S. K.; Raman, M.; Paulraj, K. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1049.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A method for drawing cyclohexane chairs  Cheer, Clair J.
A method for drawing cyclohexane chairs.
Cheer, Clair J. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 947.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
The possible chirality of tetrahedral carbon atoms with two substituents of identical constitution  Schafer, Lothar; Van Alsenoy, C.; Van Den Enden, L.
Because of differences in bond angles, species of the form Cabc2 may in fact be chiral.
Schafer, Lothar; Van Alsenoy, C.; Van Den Enden, L. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 945.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers
The molecular structure conundrum: Can classical chemistry be reduced to quantum chemistry?  Weininger, Stephen J.
An analysis of the fundamental questions raised by author R. G. Woolley about how molecular structure should be understood in quantum mechanical terms.
Weininger, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 939.
Quantum Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Examples of diastereomers  Bell, William
Using right- and left-handed doors as examples of familiar objects that exhibit enantiomerism.
Bell, William J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 901.
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Empirical NMR chemical shift correlations for methyl and methylene protons  Friedrich, Edwin C.; Runkle, Katherine Gates
Provides Shoolery-type chemical shift substituent constants and observed and calculated chemical shifts of XCH2Y protons for selected methylene derivatives.
Friedrich, Edwin C.; Runkle, Katherine Gates J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 830.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Why teach solution equilibrium?  Butler, James N.
What are the most important aspects of solution equilibrium to teach at the elementary level?
Butler, James N. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 784.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases |
pH
Use of Plexiglas planes with molecular model kits  Fulkrod, John E.
Using Plexiglass to serve as a plane of reference in molecular models of organic molecules.
Fulkrod, John E. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 773.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Synthesis and testing of the insecticide carbaryl  Thadeo, Peter F.; Mowery, Dwight F.
Carbaryl, 1-naphthyl-N-methylcarbamate, is synthesized from alpha-naphthol and triethylamine.
Thadeo, Peter F.; Mowery, Dwight F. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 742.
Synthesis |
Applications of Chemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Metallo complexes: An experiment for the undergraduate laboratory  Kauffman, George B.; Karbassi, Mohammad; Bergerhoff, Gunter
Theory, nomenclature, structure, and preparative methods of metallic complexes; the experiment prepares several metallo complexes according to procedures modified from the literature and their properties are observed.
Kauffman, George B.; Karbassi, Mohammad; Bergerhoff, Gunter J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 729.
Coordination Compounds |
Metals |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Synthesis
Analysis of functional groups by solubility and infrared analysis  Turek, William N.
An experiment that introduces students to infrared spectroscopy while familiarizing them with the solubility behavior of various organic compounds.
Turek, William N. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 709.
Precipitation / Solubility |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Introductory use of infrared spectra: A formalized approach  McMinn, Dennis
A strategy for introducing the interpretation of IR spectra by looking for the presence (or absence) of peaks in six key regions
McMinn, Dennis J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 708.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Interpreting infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of simple organic compounds for the beginner  Ingham, A. M.; Henson, R. C.
Flowcharts to help the beginner become proficient in interpreting infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of simple organic compounds.
Ingham, A. M.; Henson, R. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 704.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
An alternative method of learning characteristic spectroscopic signals  Butler, J. Keith
Producing a colored chart correlating functional groups with shifts of frequency.
Butler, J. Keith J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 703.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
To space or not to space- that is the question  Hurd, Charles D.
The use of spaces in the words "chloro acids" and "keto esters".
Hurd, Charles D. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 667.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases |
Esters
"Absolutely" simple stereochemistry  Beauchamp, Philip S.
Using the arm and fingers to determine the stereochemistry of chiral centers.
Beauchamp, Philip S. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 666.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity
[Brand] rand the name with the linkage of the same  Garrett, James M.
Tool for helping to remember the configuration of the glucosidic linkages in maltose and cellobiose.
Garrett, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 665.
Carbohydrates |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Using the protein alpha-helix in teaching  Van Woert, Howard C., Jr.
Application of the cited article in a molecular models laboratory.
Van Woert, Howard C., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 565.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Modeling |
Hydrogen Bonding
The dependence of strength in plastics upon polymer chain length and chain orientation, an experiment emphasizing the statistical handling and evaluation of data  Spencer, R. Donald
Experiment to give students a practical understanding of how statistics can be applied to the evaluation of experimental results and greatly enhance the ability to solve scientific problems.
Spencer, R. Donald J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 555.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Chemometrics
Synthesis of benzoic acid using household bleach  Perkins, Robert
Conversion of acetophenone to benzoic acid (the haloform reaction) using household bleach.
Perkins, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 551.
Synthesis |
Carboxylic Acids |
Aromatic Compounds
R/S: Apple stereochemistry program  Barone, Rene; Meyer, Roger; Arbelot, Michel
51. Bits and pieces, 20. Computer program for helping students to learn R/S conventions.
Barone, Rene; Meyer, Roger; Arbelot, Michel J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 524.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers |
Enrichment / Review Materials
A new method for the preparation of derivatives of carboxylic acids  Brindle, Ian D.; Chassie, Susan
Preparation technique using potassium fluoride. From the "State-of-the-Art Symposium for Chemical Educators: Chemistry of the Food Cycle".
Brindle, Ian D.; Chassie, Susan J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 347.
Synthesis |
Carboxylic Acids
The evaluation of strain and stabilization in molecules using isodesmic reactions  Fuchs, Richard
The stabilities of cyclic hydrocarbons are analyzed using isodesmic and metathetical isodesmic reactions.
Fuchs, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 133.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Aromatic Compounds
The bonds of conformity: W. A. Noyes and the initial failure of the Lewis theory in America  Saltzman, Martin D.
Though their theoretical framework proved to be faulty, W. A. Noyes and several of his American contemporaries were among the first chemists to utilize the electron to explain organic structure and reactions.
Saltzman, Martin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 119.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
The effect of neutral ions on acid-base balance  Poplin, Loyd E.
Illustrates errors regarding and clarifies the role of neutral ions in acid-base balance.
Poplin, Loyd E. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 117.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Specification of R/S in a multichiral molecule (3)  Aronson, John N.
Any system, simple or complex, cannot be used successfully to relate the R, S designations to Fischer projections if an incorrect two-dimensional projection is made of the three-dimensional model of the structure.
Aronson, John N. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 90.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Specification of R/S in a multichiral molecule (2)  Milakofsky, Louis
Suggested method has been presented before.
Milakofsky, Louis J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 90.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Specification of R/S in a multichiral molecule (1)  Diehl, Justin W.
Suggested method becomes extremely difficult for a multichiral molecule.
Diehl, Justin W. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 90.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity
IR spectrum of a fictitious hydride   Moeller, Michael B.
42. Bits and pieces, 15. This exercise provides an excellent introduction to spectroscopy and the ability to determine molecular parameters from spectral data.
Moeller, Michael B. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 569.
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Two-dimensional chirality in three-dimensional chemistry  Wintner, Claude E.
The author points out a valuable way to enhance students' understanding of 3-dimensional stereochemistry: through the concept of 2-dimensional chirality.
Wintner, Claude E. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 550.
Stereochemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The photochemical isomerization of maleic to fumaric acid: an undergraduate organic chemistry experiment  Castro, Albert J.; Ellenberger, Suzanne R.; Sluka, James P.
An undergraduate organic chemistry experiment in the photochemical isomerization of maleic to fumaric acid.
Castro, Albert J.; Ellenberger, Suzanne R.; Sluka, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 521.
Acids / Bases |
Photochemistry |
Constitutional Isomers
A quick and simple conversion of carboxylic acids into their anilides of heating with phenyl isothiocyanate  Ram, Ram N.; Kumar, Pradeep; Mukerjee, Arya K.
In this article, the authors report a quick and easy procedure using phenyl isothiocyanate, which is ideally suited to students.
Ram, Ram N.; Kumar, Pradeep; Mukerjee, Arya K. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 508.
Carboxylic Acids |
Aromatic Compounds |
Phenols |
Reactions
The flat and direct way to R and S configurations: two-dimensional designation of absolute configuration  Brun, Y.; Leblanc, P.
Teaching stereochemistry poses a challenge to teachers when representations are two-dimensional. These authors suggest a method where students convert wedge representations into Fischer projections. This offers some pedagogical advantages.
Brun, Y.; Leblanc, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 403.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Stereochemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers
Molecular association and structure of hydrogen peroxide  Gigure, Paul A.
The typical textbook treatment of molecular association and structure of hydrogen peroxide, and the implications of these concepts for the physical properties of hydrogen peroxide tend to be oversimplified and inaccurate.
Gigure, Paul A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 399.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Hydrogen Bonding
The synthesis of 4,4'-di-tertbutyl biphenyl: a sophomore organic chemistry experiment  Horne, Deane A.
A brief note providing a sequence of experiments for an introductory organic course that is inexpensive and does not pose a health hazard.
Horne, Deane A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 246.
Acids / Bases |
Aromatic Compounds |
Catalysis |
Alkylation |
Solutions / Solvents
3-Ketoesters by malonic synthesis  Pollet, Patrick L.
This essay reviews a synthesis strategy.
Pollet, Patrick L. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 244.
Synthesis |
Carboxylic Acids |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkylation
Absolute configuration in a Fischer projection: a simple approach  Bhushan, Ravi; Bhattacharjee, G.
First year undergraduates find it hard to assign absolute configuration to a chiral center when the lowest priority group is either to the left or right of the horizontal line.
Bhushan, Ravi; Bhattacharjee, G. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 191.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
The misuse of the circle notation to represent aromatic rings  Belloli, Robert C.
This chemistry educator has noticed confusion and erroneous conclusions resulting from the overuse and misuse of the circle notation to represent aromaticity in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
Belloli, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 190.
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Drawing of ball and stick type molecular models with hidden line elimination   Nakano, Hidehiko; Sangen, Osamu; Yamamoto, Yoshitake
37. Bits and pieces, 14. These authors have developed a simple computer program for drawing molecular structures by microcomputers.
Nakano, Hidehiko; Sangen, Osamu; Yamamoto, Yoshitake J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 98.
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Animated 3-D graphical display of line drawings of molecules   Hull, L. A.
37. Bits and pieces, 14. This note describes an application of a 3-D routine, designed for use in game development, to the animation of molecular graphics displays on an Apple II+.
Hull, L. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 96.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
A computer program for representing molecules as 3-D models   Kalcher, K.
37. Bits and pieces, 14. A computer program is described here that was developed to give students an adequate impression of sterical configurations by drawing molecules where spheres represent the atoms and connection lines between the bonds.
Kalcher, K. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 96.
Molecular Properties / Structure
Correct representation of conformational equilibria  Fulop, F.; Bernath, G.; Szabo, J. A.; Dombi, Gy
This article draws attention to a recurring error in representations of conformations of carbocyclic compounds in the literature.
Fulop, F.; Bernath, G.; Szabo, J. A.; Dombi, Gy J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 95.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Degas' dancers: an illustration for rotational isomers  Hargittai, Istvan
Two drawings by Degas provide an opportunity to introduce the concepts of staggered and eclipsed conformations of A2B-BC2 molecules in a concrete, interesting, and aesthetic way.
Hargittai, Istvan J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 94.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Constitutional Isomers |
Diastereomers
Poly(ethylene glycol): a poor chemist's crown  Balasubramanian, D.; Chandani, Bina
The authors highlight that acyclic poly(ethylene glycol)(PEG) displays complexion properties that are similar to those of crown ethers, and thus PEG can successfully replace crown ethers in instructional laboratories.
Balasubramanian, D.; Chandani, Bina J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 77.
Molecular Properties / Structure
Some experiments in sulfur-nitrogen chemistry  Banister, Arthur J.; Smith, Nigel
A survey of the main structural types of sulfur-nitrogen compounds, and syntheses suitable for undergraduate experiments, that illustrate four of the five types of cyclic species.
Banister, Arthur J.; Smith, Nigel J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 1058.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Synthesis
Structural parameters of methyl iodide by infrared spectroscopy  McNaught, Ian J.
A study of the rotation-vibration spectrum of methyl chloride permits calculation of band origins of the fundamentals, Coriolis coupling constants of the degenerate modes, rotation constants, and bond lengths and force constants.
McNaught, Ian J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 879.
IR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
APPLESEARCH - A mass spectral search system  Traeger, John C.
32. Bits and pieces, 12.
Traeger, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 779.
Mass Spectrometry |
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The estimation of Avogadro's number using cetyl alcohol as the monolayer  Feinstein, H. I.; Sisson, Robert F., III
Results and calculations using cetyl alcohol as the monolayer in estimating Avogadro's number.
Feinstein, H. I.; Sisson, Robert F., III J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 751.
Stoichiometry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chemometrics
Isobutylene revisited: An experiment introducing both qualitative and quantitative application of NMR spectroscopy  Tremelling, Michael J.; Hammond, Christina N.
The product distribution is a contradiction to the general rule that the more highly substituted alkene is more stable.
Tremelling, Michael J.; Hammond, Christina N. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 697.
Alkenes |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Addition Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A forensic science laboratory experiment: Molecular weights of drugs and diluents by osmometry  Rothchild, Robert
Using an osmometer to characterize different drugs, diluents, and adulterants commonly encountered in samples of forensic interest.
Rothchild, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 672.
Forensic Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Molecular Properties / Structure
An easily conducted free radical substitution for organic chemistry courses  Pavlis, Robert R.
The photobromination of 1,2-diphenylethane into its dibromo derivative, (2R) (3S) 1,2-dibromo-1,2-diphenylethane.
Pavlis, Robert R. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 658.
Free Radicals |
Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Photochemistry |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Aromatic Compounds
Determination of chiral molecule configuration in Fischer projections  Epling, Gary A.
A non-mathematical procedure that students can use to master and remember the determination of R or S configuration.
Epling, Gary A. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 650.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enantiomers
Reactions between chiral molecules: A handy analogy  Richardson, W. S.
Simulating a reaction between R and S structures through the shaking of hands.
Richardson, W. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 649.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enantiomers |
Reactions
Some simple AX and AX2 structures  Wells, A. F.
Examines three of the simplest crystalline structures, that of sodium chloride, rutile, and fluorite.
Wells, A. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 630.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Crystals / Crystallography
An easily constructed icosahedron model  Yamana, Shukichi
A model constructed from a single, sealed envelope.
Yamana, Shukichi J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 578.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Crystals / Crystallography
A simple method for specifying the R/S configuration about a chiral center  Idoux, John P.
A method for specifying the R/S configuration about a chiral center that does not require the use of a three-dimensional model or the visualization of such a model or the memorization of an arbitrary number system.
Idoux, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 553.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Introduction to infrared spectroscopy: A simple undergraduate experiment  Reeder, Deborah M.; Sridharan, Srinivasa
The objective is to obtain two IR spectra, one on an aliphatic compound and the other on an aromatic compound in a first-semester organic laboratory.
Reeder, Deborah M.; Sridharan, Srinivasa J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 503.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Cobalt(III) ammines-"Werner" complexes: An undergraduate experiment  Greenaway, Anthony M.; Lancashire, Robert J.
Students synthesize dodecaammine--hexol-tetracobalt(III) bromide, the compound associated with Alfred Werner's theory of the octahedral configuration of transition metal ion complexes.
Greenaway, Anthony M.; Lancashire, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 419.
Coordination Compounds |
Synthesis |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A colorful extraction experiment  Hobbs, Gregory D.; Woodyard, James D.
Separating differently colored organic compounds (azobenzene, benzoic acid, and m-nitroaniline).
Hobbs, Gregory D.; Woodyard, James D. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 386.
Acids / Bases |
Separation Science
The negatively-charged nitrogen in ammonium ion and derived concepts of acidity, basicity, proton affinity, and ion energetics  Greenberg, Arthur; Winkler, Robert; Smith, Barbara L.; Liebman, Joel F.
The concept of atomic charges is intimately related to those of acidity, basicity, proton affinity, and ion energetics; among the plethora of numbers derived by calculation and experiment lie simple and useful rules for the understanding and prediction of chemical behavior.
Greenberg, Arthur; Winkler, Robert; Smith, Barbara L.; Liebman, Joel F. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 367.
Acids / Bases |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The problem of syn- versus anti-addition: An organic chemistry laboratory experiment  Silversmith, Ernest F.
An experiment that allows a student to determine whether an addition to a carbon-carbon double bond proceeds in syn- or anti-fashion.
Silversmith, Ernest F. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 346.
Addition Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis |
Alkenes
Sulcatol: Synthesis of an aggregation pheromone  Black, Shirley-Ann; Slessor, Keith N.
Synthesis of the aggregation pheromone of the ambrosia beetle, an insect pest of harvested timber in the Pacific North Coast.
Black, Shirley-Ann; Slessor, Keith N. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 255.
Synthesis |
Natural Products |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Applications of Chemistry
The analysis of an amine mixture: An introductory analysis experiment  Williams, T. R.
Analysis of a binary mixture of amines in which students are asked to identify each component and determine the weight percentage of each compound.
Williams, T. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 202.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Nuclear magnetic resonance coupling constants and electronic structure in molecules  Venanzi, Thomas J.
Describes the theory of NMR spin-spin coupling constants, the nature of the three types of coupling mechanisms contributing to the overall spin-spin coupling constant, and the results for two different types of coupling constants in molecules (carbon-carbon and carbon-nitrogen coupling).
Venanzi, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 144.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Diastereomers, geometric isomers, and rotation about bonds  McCullough, John J.
A simple and consistent introduction to the stereochemistry of carbon, diastereomers, and geometric isomers.
McCullough, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 37.
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Was there a conspiracy when Kekul's first German benzene-structure paper was frequently listed as published in 1865?  Wotiz, John H.; Rudofsky, Susanna
The question of whether Kekul was deliberately ambiguous cannot be answered without a search through editorial files and personal correspondence.
Wotiz, John H.; Rudofsky, Susanna J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 23.
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Amperometric determination of phenol bromination kinetics  Cohen, R.; Matzek, C.; Schlosser, S.; Huber, C. O.
A laboratory that allows students to explore bromination substitution reactions as examples of important non-aqueous solution kinetics including the role of a catalyst, the relationship between rate laws and mechanisms, and acid-base properties.
Cohen, R.; Matzek, C.; Schlosser, S.; Huber, C. O. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 823.
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics |
Catalysis |
Electrochemistry |
Reactions
Protein denaturation: A physical chemistry project lab  Pickering, Miles; Crabtree, Robert H.
This experiment links physical chemistry with biology and can be done with in advanced freshman course.
Pickering, Miles; Crabtree, Robert H. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 513.
Proteins / Peptides |
Biophysical Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Structure-resonance theory for pericyclic transition states  Herndon, William C.
The purpose of this article is to show that structure-resonance theory can be used to understand the effects of structure or substituents on the rates of thermal pericyclic reactions.
Herndon, William C. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 371.
Aromatic Compounds |
Resonance Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A helpful stereochemical instructional tool  England, Don
The figure found in this note has been helpful in aiding student understanding of stereochemistry.
England, Don J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 31.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers
Preparation of solid derivatives by differential scanning calorimetry  Crandall, E. W.; Pennington, Maxine
Derivatives of alcohols, amines, phenols, aldehydes, ketones, and haloalkanes are prepared and their phase transitions observed using a differential scanning calorimeter.
Crandall, E. W.; Pennington, Maxine J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 824.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Phenols |
Physical Properties |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Rubber gloves, rubber balls, and optical activity  Perkins, Robert
Several demonstrations aimed at helping students to understand optical activity.
Perkins, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 809.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enantiomers
A novel method of representing orbitals in three dimensions  Chenier, Philip J.
Suggested convention for drawing orbitals in three dimensions.
Chenier, Philip J. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 788.
Molecular Properties / Structure
Preparation of 1,1-Diphenyl-1-hydroxy-3-butanone  Rivett, D. E. A.
Exemplifies the use of a protecting group in organic synthesis.
Rivett, D. E. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 751.
Synthesis |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Conversion of (+)-Limonene to (-)-Carvone: An organic laboratory sequence of local interest  Rothenberger, Otis S.; Krasnoff, Stuart B.; Rollins, Ronald B.
Orange oil is converted to one of the components of spearmint oil; the detectable odor difference is due to stereochemical factors.
Rothenberger, Otis S.; Krasnoff, Stuart B.; Rollins, Ronald B. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 741.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Synthesis |
Separation Science |
Industrial Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Enantiomers
Dissociation of a weak acid  Ladd, M. F. C.
An earlier treatment of the equilibrium of a weak acid in water gives, for certain ranges of concentration, significantly incorrect results.
Ladd, M. F. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 669.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Facile assignment of R,S designations to Fischer projections  Price, Howard C.
Suggests a method of assigning R,S designations to Fischer projections that easier than that described in the cited article.
Price, Howard C. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 528.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers
A simple demonstration of conformational equilibrium  Partridge, D. A.
The infrared spectra of solutions of pinacol in tetrachloromethane with different molarities are compared to identify the presence of intermolecular hydrogen-bonding.
Partridge, D. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 508.
Equilibrium |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Conformational Analysis |
Hydrogen Bonding |
IR Spectroscopy
The effect of free radical stability on the rate of bromination of hydrocarbons  Doheny, Anthony J.; Loudon, G. Marc
The effect of alkyl free radical stability on the rate of free radical halogenation of hydrocarbons can be convincingly demonstrated by the comparative photobromination of the arenes toluene, ethylbenzene, and cumene.
Doheny, Anthony J.; Loudon, G. Marc J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 507.
Free Radicals |
Reactions |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Photochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Organosilicon chemistry. Part II  West, Robert; Barton, Thomas J.
Stereochemistry and reaction mechanisms, reactive intermediates, bioactive organosilanes, organosilanes in organic synthesis, and sources of silicon compounds.
West, Robert; Barton, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 334.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactive Intermediates
Bent bonds and multiple bonds  Robinson, Edward A.; Gillespie, Ronald J.
Considers carbon-carbon multiple bonds in terms of the bent bond model first proposed by Pauling in 1931.
Robinson, Edward A.; Gillespie, Ronald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 329.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Alkenes |
Alkynes
Name the compound contest (Corridor demonstration)  Koubek, Edward
Providing molecular models for students to identify for credit or prizes.
Koubek, Edward J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 308.
Molecular Properties / Structure
Purple benzene revisited  Doheny, Anthony J., Jr.; Ganem, Bruce
A variant of the referenced demonstration using crown ethers.
Doheny, Anthony J., Jr.; Ganem, Bruce J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 308.
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Ethers
Rotation of plane-polarized light: A simple model  Hill, Roger R.; Whatley, Barrie G.
A simple model that explains why enantiomers of a chiral compound rotate light in different directions.
Hill, Roger R.; Whatley, Barrie G. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 306.
Photochemistry |
Molecular Modeling |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Imposed orientation of dye molecules by liquid crystals and an electric field  Sadlej-Sosnowska, Nina
Experiments with N-5-pyrrolidinopenta-2,4-dienylidene-2,4-dinitroaniline, designed to expose students to the technique of orienting polar molecules in an electric field.
Sadlej-Sosnowska, Nina J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 223.
Dyes / Pigments |
Electrochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The valence bond interpretation of molecular geometry  Smith, Derek W.
Shows that the valence bond theory not only provides an attractive means of describing the bonding in a molecule but can also explain its geometry.
Smith, Derek W. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 106.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory
Bioactivity in organic chemistry courses  Ferguson, Lloyd N.
Considers the antibacterial activity of hydroxy compounds, the carcinogenicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, structure-activity correlations, and bioactivity.
Ferguson, Lloyd N. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 46.
Aromatic Compounds |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Optical illusions in drawings of cyclohexane derivatives  Feldman, Martin R.
An optical illusion in the representation of chair cyclohexanes.
Feldman, Martin R. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 659.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers |
Diastereomers |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Prochirality and the English beer glass  Sanders, J. K. M.
The English beer glass represents an ideal model for illustrating the concepts of prochirality and assymetric induction.
Sanders, J. K. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 594.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers
Reappraisal of thermochemical radii for complex ions  Jenkins, H. D. B.; Thakur, K. P.
Recalculations of thermochemical radii originally reported by Kapustinskii.
Jenkins, H. D. B.; Thakur, K. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 576.
Molecular Properties / Structure
Musical molecular weights and other non-linear properties of gases  Davenport, Derek A.; Howe-Grant, Mary; Srinivasan, Viswanathan
Relative thermal conductivities of gases, relative viscosities of gases, and relative velocities of sound propagation in gases.
Davenport, Derek A.; Howe-Grant, Mary; Srinivasan, Viswanathan J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 523.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Gases
Friedel-Crafts acylation: An experiment incorporating spectroscopic structure determination  Schatz, Paul F.
Students use IR and NMR methods to determine the product of an aromatic substitution.
Schatz, Paul F. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 480.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Aromatic Compounds
Loosely-bound diatomic molecules  Balfour, W. J.
Over the past decade, careful spectroscopic studies have established the existence of bound rare gas and alkaline earth diatomic molecules.
Balfour, W. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 452.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Determination of chiral molecule configuration using the 1,2,5 Rule  Dietzel, Richard Adams
Determining R / S configurations using the 1,2,5 rule.
Dietzel, Richard Adams J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 451.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers
Low cost, easily-made templates for chemical line formulas  Gill, G. Bryon
Making stencils to facilitate the drawing of cage structures and other molecular systems.
Gill, G. Bryon J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 441.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Conformations of substituted ethanes  Kingsbury, Charles A.
Provides a state-of-the-art view of conformational analysis, with an emphasis on sp3 hybridized acyclic molecules.
Kingsbury, Charles A. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 431.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Conformational Analysis |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Diastereomers
Excretion of ingested ascorbic acid: An easy, interesting undergraduate experiment  Sirota, G. R.; MacInnis, W. K.; Rasmussen, P. W.
The student ingests ascorbic acid and then measures the amount excreted in his urine using a microfluorometric procedure.
Sirota, G. R.; MacInnis, W. K.; Rasmussen, P. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 421.
Carboxylic Acids |
Vitamins |
Quantitative Analysis
Computation of the number of isomers of coordination compounds containing different monodentate ligands  Chung, Chung-Sun

Chung, Chung-Sun J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 398.
Chemometrics |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Coordination Compounds |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers
Purification by sub-zero temperature washing  Chu, Samuel S.-T.
Separating an ester from the carboxylic acid from which it was synthesized.
Chu, Samuel S.-T. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 384.
Synthesis |
Esters |
Carboxylic Acids |
Laboratory Management
Entropy and rubbery elasticity  Nash, Leonard K.
Thermodynamic analysis of the polymeric molecules of rubber.
Nash, Leonard K. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 363.
Thermodynamics |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Statistical Mechanics
Computer-assisted instruction in stereochemical configuration analysis  Bishop, Marvin; Nowak, Maria

Bishop, Marvin; Nowak, Maria J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 318.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Conformational Analysis |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Chemical toxicology. Part I. Organic compounds  Carter, D. E.; Fernando, Quintus
General principles of toxicology, and particular consideration of aliphatics, aromatic, and halogenated hydrocarbons; alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ethers, and ketones; sulfides, mercaptans, and carbon disulfide; nitrogen-containing compounds; and carcinogens.
Carter, D. E.; Fernando, Quintus J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 284.
Toxicology |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
Ethers |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Lipids
A nonaqueous conductimetric titration for the analysis of alkaloids in cigarette tobacco  Brand, M. J.; Hiller, J. M.; Mohan, M. S.
A conductimetric titration in glacial acetic acid is used to determine total alkaloids in cigarette tobacco.
Brand, M. J.; Hiller, J. M.; Mohan, M. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 207.
Electrochemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Quantitative Analysis
Biopolymer models of nucleic acids  Barrett, Edward J.
Space-filling models used to represent amino acids and the structure of DNA and RNA.
Barrett, Edward J. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 168.
Molecular Biology |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Amides and hydrazides from amine and hydrazine hydrochlorides  Shama, Sami A.; Tran, Thuran L.
The Schotten-Baumann procedure is extensively used for the preparation of carboxylic acid derivatives in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory.
Shama, Sami A.; Tran, Thuran L. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 816.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids |
Synthesis
A synthesis of o-chlorocinnamic acid utilizing a Meerwein reaction. An undergraduate organic experiment  Cleland, George H.
The authors share an experimental procedure that converts an o-chloroaniline to o-chlorocinnamic acid.
Cleland, George H. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 814.
Carboxylic Acids |
Synthesis
p-Carboxystyrene. A Wittig procedure in aqueous medium  Broos, Rene; Tavernier, Dirk; Anteunis, Marc
In this paper, the authors present a student preparation of p-carboxyl group, as it makes the reaction product soluble in alkaline and insoluble in acid medium, provides for an easy way of separation.
Broos, Rene; Tavernier, Dirk; Anteunis, Marc J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 813.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Carboxylic Acids |
Separation Science
D. I. Mendeleev's conceptions concerning the structure of complex compounds  Solov'ev, Yu. I.
Mendeleev was of the first to formulate the problem of discovering similar features of various classes of compounds (ammoniates, crystalline hydrates, double salts) and to use these features as the basis for developing general conceptions about their structures.
Solov'ev, Yu. I. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 494.
Coordination Compounds |
Metals |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Synthesis of chrysanthemic acid: A multistep organic synthesis for undergraduate students  Schatz, Paul F.
This laboratory is geared toward intermediate organic chemistry laboratory courses that will acquaint students, predominantly chemistry majors, with the strategies and techniques in carrying out a multistep synthesis.
Schatz, Paul F. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 468.
Synthesis |
Acids / Bases |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Stereochemistry
Phase transfer catalysis: An interim project  Reeves, W. Preston
The authors have found that experiments in phase transfer catalysis provide students with a very profitable interim project.
Reeves, W. Preston J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 433.
Catalysis |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Separation Science
Chemical predictions from pKa values  Hassanali, A.
The problem presented here develops student understanding of both pKa calculations and organic acids.
Hassanali, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 378.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Chemometrics
Sodium nitroprusside reagent II-A solvent modification  Dougherty, Charles M.; Baumgarten, Reuben L.; Markowska, Maria; Battey, York C.
The authors report an improvement classification test for aliphatic and aryl amines.
Dougherty, Charles M.; Baumgarten, Reuben L.; Markowska, Maria; Battey, York C. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 341.
Qualitative Analysis |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Catalysis
Balloon models for organic molecules  Niac, G.
A balloon model can be used to demonstrate properties of small, organic molecules.
Niac, G. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 303.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alcohols |
Alkenes |
VSEPR Theory
Favorskii rearrangement in bridged polycyclic compounds  Chenier, Philip J.
Favorskii rearrangement in bridged polycyclic compounds: This can be classified as an intramolecular rearrangement from carbon to carbon, involving a migrating group Z moving without its electrons from migrating origin A to an electron-rich terminus B.
Chenier, Philip J. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 286.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Carboxylic Acids |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds
Unified calculation of titration curves  Stairs, Robert A.
A method of calculation is presented that the author hopes will supplement the traditional methods based on appropriate approximations.
Stairs, Robert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 99.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
pH
Derivatives of oxo acids III. Functional derivatives  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy
The authors consider some general aspects of nomenclature for the so-called functional derivatives of the inorganic oxo acids.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 30.
Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
New model for demonstrating the octant rule  Murphy, William S.
A robust Perspex model of the octant system that is ideal for both individual and classroom demonstration.
Murphy, William S. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 686.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
From the concept of relative configuration to the definition of erythro and threo  Gielen, Marcel
Defines the relative configuration of two chiral centers and uses this concept to define erythro and threo.
Gielen, Marcel J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 673.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers
Quarternary ammonia salts: Some recent applications in organic synthesis  Varughese, Pothen
Presents a variety of applications for quarternary ammonia salts, including as reaction media, a reagent for mesylation, catalytic hydrogenation, and micellar and phase-transfer catalysis.
Varughese, Pothen J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 666.
Synthesis |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Micelles |
Catalysis
Compact compact  Nelson, Gregory V.
Using a cardboard mailing tube to demonstrate the rigidity of the folding pattern and the flexibility of a non-helical region in a protein.
Nelson, Gregory V. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 578.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Proteins / Peptides
Synthesis in an integrated curriculum  Yoder, Claude H.
Outline of a four-year chemistry program culminating in a senior course "Synthesis and Determination of Structure," for which a separate outline is provided.
Yoder, Claude H. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 572.
Synthesis |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Why did Adolf Baeyer propose a planar, strained cyclohexane ring?  Ramsay, O. Bertrand
Considers the question "Why did Adolf Baeyer propose a planar, strained cyclohexane ring?"
Ramsay, O. Bertrand J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 563.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Molecular weight determination of weak acids  Wilson, Stephen A.; Weber, James H.
The use of virial equations for the calculation of molecular weights of weak acids from colligative property experiments.
Wilson, Stephen A.; Weber, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 513.
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Acids / Bases |
pH
Addendum to "Simple demonstration of optical activity"  Dean, Walter K.
Modifications to an earlier demonstration on optical activity.
Dean, Walter K. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 494.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enantiomers
A Device for easy demonstration of optical activity and optical rotatory dispersion  Kinney, John B.; Skinner, James F.
Describes a portable device that can be used for the simultaneous demonstration of both optical activity and optical rotatory dispersion for individual students and for a class with an overhead projector.
Kinney, John B.; Skinner, James F. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 494.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enantiomers |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Substituent effects in electrophilic aromatic substitution. A laboratory in organic chemistry  Gilow, Helmuth
The acid catalyzed bromination of aromatic substrates with hydrobromous acid.
Gilow, Helmuth J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 450.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Aromatic Compounds |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Catalysis
Drinking-straw polyhedral models in structural chemistry  Mak, Thomas C. W.; Lam, C. N.; Lau, O. W.
Instructions for constructing a variety of molecular and crystal structures based on various ways of packing regular and semi-regular polyhedra made from plastic drinking straws.
Mak, Thomas C. W.; Lam, C. N.; Lau, O. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 438.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Belousov's oscillating reaction in acid medium other than sulfuric acid  Mishra, H. C.; Singh, C. M.
Reports of the existence of oscillatory phenomenon in the Mn+2 catalyzed reaction between citric acid and potassium bromate in phosphoric and nitric acids.
Mishra, H. C.; Singh, C. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 377.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions |
Catalysis
Exact equation for calculating titration curves for dibasic salts  Knudson, George E.; Nimrod, Dale
A computer program that calculates titration curves for dibasic salts.
Knudson, George E.; Nimrod, Dale J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 351.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
pH
Calculation of potentiometric titration curves. The master variable concept  Still, Ebbe; Sara, Rolf
Provides compact algorithms for the calculation of some potentiometric titration curves.
Still, Ebbe; Sara, Rolf J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 348.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases
Organic derivatives of oxo acids. Part I. Acids, salts, and esters of group VIA elements / Knowledge is ready cash  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy
Nomenclature of organic derivatives of oxo acids and their salts and esters that are derived from the polybasic acids of the nonmetallic elements of Group IIIA through Group VIA.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 299.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases |
Esters
Simplified molecular model of t-RNA for use as a teaching aid  Dugas, Hermann
An easily constructed model of t-RNA.
Dugas, Hermann J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 298.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Hydrogen Bonding
New skeletal-space-filling models. A model of an enzyme active site  Clarke, Frank H.
Reviews the molecular modeling systems available for representing organic and biochemical structures; includes requirements and coordinates for a model of the alpha chymotrypsin active site.
Clarke, Frank H. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 230.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enzymes |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Recognition
Purple benzene: Solubilization of anions in organic solvents  Herriott, Arthur W.
Demonstrates the preference of a typical salt for solution in water rather than nonpolar benzene; a quaternary ammonium salt, though soluble in water, is more soluble in benzene.
Herriott, Arthur W. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 229.
Aromatic Compounds |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A Dramatic and relevant demonstration of ring strain  Kelly, T. Ross
Addition of the cyclobutane alpha-pinene to crystalline iodine results in an exceptionally exothermic reaction.
Kelly, T. Ross J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 228.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Reactions
Visual aid for acid-base concepts  Olson, Virgil K.; Osteryoung, Janet; Christie, Joseph H.; Turner, John A.
Three plots that the authors have found particularly useful in concisely illustrating a number of acid-base concepts relating to buffer capacity and acid-base titrations.
Olson, Virgil K.; Osteryoung, Janet; Christie, Joseph H.; Turner, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 220.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Cycloamyloses  Bergeron, Raymond J.
Examines an unusual carbohydrate system of current interest in the hope of generating some enthusiasm for the topic.
Bergeron, Raymond J. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 204.
Carbohydrates |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Enzymes |
Spectroscopy
A demonstration of polymer crosslinking and gel formation without heating  Ross, Joseph H.
Produces an elastic gel at room temperature and provides an effective demonstration of gel properties to use in a discussion of lyophilic colloids.
Ross, Joseph H. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 110.
Polymerization |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Colloids
Il'ya Il'ich Chernyaev (1893-1966) and the trans effect  Kauffman, George B.
The life of Il'ya Il'ich Chernyaev and the trans effect.
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 86.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Coordination Compounds
Vitalizing the lecture. Lap-dissolve projection  Harpp, David N.; Snyder, James P.
Describes and provides examples of the lap-dissolve effect, a technique that uses two 35mm slide projectors to convey changing images in a large lecture setting.
Harpp, David N.; Snyder, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 68.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Computer simulation of acid-base behavior  Hefter, Jesse; Zuehlke, Richard W.
Simulates the spectrophotometric determination of the pK of an acid-base indicator.
Hefter, Jesse; Zuehlke, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 63.
Acids / Bases
Stereoscopic diagrams prepared by a desk calculator and plotter  Hayman, H. J. G.
Using a programmable desk calculator with plotter for drawing "ball and line" stereopairs.
Hayman, H. J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 31.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Frank C. Whitmore and the first successful explanation of some intramolecular rearrangements  Saltzman, Martin D.
In 1932 Frank C. Whitmore presented a beautifully succinct and detailed pathway using the octet concept of Lewis to show the common basis of many intramolecular rearrangements discovered during the 19th and early 20th centuries.
Saltzman, Martin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 25.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Lewis Structures
How to see molecules in 3-D: A low cost device for stereoscopic views  Gelbard, C.
Students may find some difficulties in visualizing in space the molecules drawn in their handbook. Teaching stereochemistry and reaction mechanism is made easier by the aid of stereoscopic devices such as the one described in this note.
Gelbard, C. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 792.
Stereochemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Experiments with butane lighter fluid  Davenport, Derek A.
Non-disposable butane lighters make possible useful semi-quantitative experiments.
Davenport, Derek A. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 306.
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkylation
Imidazole - Versatile today, prominent tomorrow  Matuszak, C. A.; Matuszak, A. J.
Imidazole chemistry has pedagogical utility for all the organic chemistry students pursing careers in the life sciences.
Matuszak, C. A.; Matuszak, A. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 280.
Grignard Reagents |
Aromatic Compounds |
Heterocycles |
Phenols |
Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Coordination Compounds |
Hydrogen Bonding
Compact compacts  Evilia, R. F.
The referenced method requires unrealistically accurate pH measurements to yield acceptable results.
Evilia, R. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 806.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
The resolution of racemic acid: A classic stereochemical experiment for the undergraduate laboratory  Kauffman, George B.; Myers, Robin D.
Includes historical background of Pasteur's work and a procedure for investigating the relations between the tartaric acids, racemic acid, and their sodium ammonium salts.
Kauffman, George B.; Myers, Robin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 777.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers
The octant rule: Its place in organic stereochemistry  Murphy, William S.
Considers optical rotatory dispersion and circular dichroism, the Cotton effect and the octant rule, and applications of the octant rule.
Murphy, William S. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 774.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Conformational Analysis
Some reflections on the topological structure of covalent molecules  Rouvray, D. H.
Presents a method that involves a description of the possible topological structures a chemical species may adopt, subject to the constraints imposed by the valence.
Rouvray, D. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 768.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Conformational analysis - The last 25 years  Eliel, Ernest L.
Reviews the development of conformational analysis.
Eliel, Ernest L. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 762.
Conformational Analysis |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The Gabriel synthesis of benzylamine: An undergraduate organic experiment  Nigh, W. G.
The Gabriel synthesis involves the reaction of the conjugate base of phthalimide and an alkyl halide to give an alkyl phthalimide which is subsequently hydrolyzed to the primary alkyl amine; the reaction is important historically for the synthesis of pure primary amines uncontaminated by secondary or tertiary by-products.
Nigh, W. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 670.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
A space-filling model of the active site region of carboxypeptidase A  Sebastian, John F.; Butkus, John C.
A three-dimensional CPK space-filling model of the active site of carboxypeptidase A.
Sebastian, John F.; Butkus, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 660.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Enzymes |
Amino Acids
Construction of models which demonstrate planes  Clark, Thomas J.
Models demonstrating planes of interest can be easily constructed from framework molecular models and polystyrene casting resin.
Clark, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 628.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Oil formation. An "unexpected" difficulty in an elementary organic laboratory experiment  Lewis, Dennis A.
A chemical extraction experiment that involves the separation of an unknown solid organic acid (a substituted benzoic acid) and an unknown solid organic base requires students to adjust to an "unexpected" situation.
Lewis, Dennis A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 601.
Acids / Bases
Collision and transition state theory approaches to acid-base catalysis  Dunford, H. B.
Shows that the description of acid-catalyzed chemical reactions in terms of transition state acid dissociation constants is formally equivalent to the collision theory approach, in which dissociation constants of acid groups on initial reactants are utilized.
Dunford, H. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 578.
Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Kinetics |
Equilibrium
Calculation of the number of cis-trans isomers in a "symmetric" polyene  Har-zvi, Ron; Wittes, Janet Turk
A problem in which students are to derive a general expression for the number of cis-trans isomers in a "symmetric" straight chain polyene when there are n double bonds.
Har-zvi, Ron; Wittes, Janet Turk J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 545.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Diastereomers |
Alkenes
The recognition of chemical types by odor. The effect of steric hindrance at the functional group  Brower, K. R.; Schafer, Rollie
Results of a series of tests in which organic chemists attempt to identify functional groups and other structural features of unknown organic compounds solely on the basis of odor, and a discussion on the effect of steric hindrance.
Brower, K. R.; Schafer, Rollie J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 538.
Molecular Properties / Structure
A molecular model for SN2 reactions  Newman, Melvin S.
Plan for a homemade mechanical model designed to demonstrate many of the features of SN2 reactions.
Newman, Melvin S. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 462.
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions
Accident, suicide, or murder? A question of stereochemistry  Hart, Harold
A murder mystery by Dorothy Sayers in which the resolution of the crime depends entirely on stereochemistry.
Hart, Harold J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 444.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
An alternative procedure to writing Lewis structures  Imkampe, Karl
Using simple molecular orbital pictures to represent all the resonance structures of larger organic molecules.
Imkampe, Karl J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 429.
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Resonance Theory
Easily constructed models for demonstrating stereochemical nonrigidity in four- and six-coordinate complexes  Levenson, Robert A.
Availability of templates and instructions for paper models that demonstrate stereochemical nonrigidity in four- and six-coordinate complexes.
Levenson, Robert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 386.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Coordination Compounds |
Transition Elements |
Metals
A simple procedure for point group classification  Krubsack, Arnold J.
A flow chart that allows anyone with a basic knowledge of symmetry to deduce rapidly the specific point group of any given compound.
Krubsack, Arnold J. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 368.
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Allied health chemistry laboratory. Amino acids, insulin, proteins, and skin  Dever, David F.
Describes an allied health chemistry laboratory involving amino acids, insulin, proteins and skin that begins with the construction of molecular models of amino acids and proteins.
Dever, David F. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 338.
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Nonmajor Courses |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Applications of Chemistry
Strand polarity: Antiparallel molecular interactions in nucleic acids  Davidson, Michael W.; Wilson, W. David
121. The illustrations in many biochemistry textbooks indicates a parallel polarity in DNA, but in truth DNA is antiparallel.
Davidson, Michael W.; Wilson, W. David J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 323.
Molecular Properties / Structure
The low cost construction of inorganic polymer models using polyurethane  Mrvosh, M. E.; Daugherty, K. E.
Procedures for constructing inorganic polymer models using polyurethane.
Mrvosh, M. E.; Daugherty, K. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 239.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
A simple model of an a[alpha]-helix  Hiegel, Gene A.
A simple model of an a[alpha]-helix made from a toilet tissue tube.
Hiegel, Gene A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 231.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Preparation and color of azo-dyes  Mosher, Melvyn W.; Ansell, Jay M.
A simple experiment to relate the color of certain substituted azo-dyes to their visible absorption spectra.
Mosher, Melvyn W.; Ansell, Jay M. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 195.
Dyes / Pigments |
Synthesis |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Aromatic Compounds |
Student-Centered Learning
Rediscovery in a course for nonscientists. Use of molecular models to solve classical structural problems  Wood, Gordon W.
Describes exercises using simple ball and stick models that students with no chemistry background can solve in the context of the original discovery.
Wood, Gordon W. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 177.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers |
Nonmajor Courses
Determining homotopic, enantiotopic, and diastereotopic faces in organic molecules  Ayral Kaloustian, Semiramis; Kaloustian, Moses K.
Presents a simple set of rules, based on considerations of symmetry, that allows a succinct classification of the five types of molecular faces of interest to the organic chemist and the biochemist.
Ayral Kaloustian, Semiramis; Kaloustian, Moses K. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 56.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Diastereomers
Early theories of metal-ammines. A brief historical review from Graham to Claus (1837-1856)  Kauffman, George B.
This article considers the development of some earlier theories of the constitution of the most familiar coordination compounds: the metal-ammines-which led up to the classic paper of Carl Ernst Claus.
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 522.
Coordination Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Metals
Preparation of succinct acid from maleic anhydride: A simple organic laboratory reduction  Kolb, Kenneth E.; Pacey, Gilbert E.
In the experiment described in this paper reduction is accompanied in good yield using readily available chemicals and simple equipment in a short experiment.
Kolb, Kenneth E.; Pacey, Gilbert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 345.
Acids / Bases
Preparative reduction of benzil: Use of a polarographic analyzer and simple current booster  Carney, J. H.; Mullis, O. J.
The authors report a simple laboratory experiment which demonstrates some of the preparative and mechanistic electrochemistry of ketones in acid solution. The also describe a simple and inexpensive apparatus for preparative scale electrochemistry.
Carney, J. H.; Mullis, O. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 343.
Electrochemistry |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A crossed aldol condensation for the undergraduate laboratory  Angres, Isaac; Zieger, Herman E.
This two-step experiment for undergraduate organic chemistry students illustrates three basic ideas: organic chemistry students illustrate three basic ideas (1) crossed aldol condensation; (2) the acidity of benzylic hydrogen in hydrocarbons; and (3) reduction of a double bond in hydride transfer.
Angres, Isaac; Zieger, Herman E. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 64.
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Acids / Bases |
Alcohols
A stereochemical model for illustrating pseudorotation of five-coordinate atoms  Riess, Jean G.
Design of an inexpensive, articulated model that simulates intramolecular isomerization or fluxional behavior on five-coordinate atoms.
Riess, Jean G. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 850.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
A demonstration of charge-transfer complex formation using octachlorofulvalene  West, Robert; Smith, R. Martin
A striking demonstration of charge-transfer complexation can be carried out using the unusual molecule octachlorofulvalene.
West, Robert; Smith, R. Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 723.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Aromatic Compounds
Molecular oxygen adducts of transition metal complexes  Klevan, Leonard; Peone, Joseph, Jr.; Madan, Stanley K.
Reviews the chemistry of transition metal complexes that are able to bind reversibly to molecular oxygen, particularly complexes of iridium, rhodium, and cobalt.
Klevan, Leonard; Peone, Joseph, Jr.; Madan, Stanley K. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 670.
Transition Elements |
Coordination Compounds |
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Metals |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The paramagnetism of O2  Lethbridge, J. W.; Davies, M. B.
A simple but more spectacular demonstration of the paramagnetism of O2.
Lethbridge, J. W.; Davies, M. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 656.
Magnetic Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The boat form of cyclohexane as viewed by Midwestern sailors (the author replies)  Hart, Harold
Possible confusion regarding the boat analogy in describing the positions of hydrogens in cyclohexane.
Hart, Harold J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 656.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
The boat form of cyclohexane as viewed by Midwestern sailors  Lyle, Gloria; Lyle, Robert E.
Possible confusion regarding the boat analogy in describing the positions of hydrogens in cyclohexane.
Lyle, Gloria; Lyle, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 655.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A simple demonstration of enantiomerism  Richards, K. E.
Design for a wooden box containing a mirror that uses a molecular model to demonstrate enantiomerism.
Richards, K. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 632.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers |
Chirality / Optical Activity
A nonaqueous gravimetric titration. Determination of 8-hydroxyquinoline with p-toluenesulfonic acid in acetonitrile  Kratochvil, B.; Findlay, E. J.; Harris, W. E.
This experiment demonstrates the techniques of gravimetric titrimetry and photometric end-point detection.
Kratochvil, B.; Findlay, E. J.; Harris, W. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 629.
Gravimetric Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Photochemistry
Determining the molecular weight of N-fatty acids by thin layer chromatography  Singh, Eric J.; Zuspan, Frederick P.
Simple procedure for determining the molecular weight of N-fatty acids by thin layer chromatography.
Singh, Eric J.; Zuspan, Frederick P. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 625.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Fatty Acids
Photochemical and thermal interconversion of cis and trans isomers. An organic laboratory experiment  Silversmith, Ernest F.; Dunson, Fay C.
The photoisomerization of trans-1,4-diphenyl-2-butene-1,4-dione to the cis isomer.
Silversmith, Ernest F.; Dunson, Fay C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 568.
Photochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Diastereomers |
Stereochemistry
A graphical-analytical iterative procedure for equivalence point determinations  Sellers, Neal G.; Caruso, Joseph A.
An iterative approach has been developed that combines graphical measurements with analytical calculations to give an exact potentiometric endpoint irrespective of the stoichiometry of the reaction and magnitude of the associated equilibrium constants.
Sellers, Neal G.; Caruso, Joseph A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 547.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Mobius molecules  Eckert, J. M.
Examples of molecules that possess a Mobius topology, including circular DNA.
Eckert, J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 458.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
A questionable method of distinguishing maleic and fumaric acids  Noldan, Lawrence R.; Pollard, Bruce
Fumaric acid causes no change in the blue color of ditto print, but maleic acid turns it a bright green.
Noldan, Lawrence R.; Pollard, Bruce J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 457.
Acids / Bases |
Qualitative Analysis
Coordination compound analysis program  Miller, Joel S.; Goedde, Andreas O.
A Fortran IV program has been developed in order to simplify the calculation of the molecular weight, formula, and elemental percentages of organic and especially coordination compounds.
Miller, Joel S.; Goedde, Andreas O. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 431.
Coordination Compounds |
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Lewis acid-base equilibria. An undergraduate laboratory experiment  Brice, L. K.
Describes an experiment involving the spectrophotometric determination of formation constants of Lewis adducts formed between metal halides and organic bases in diethyl ether as a solvent.
Brice, L. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 430.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Quantitative Analysis
Synthesis of a photochromic benzothiazolinic spiropyran  Guglielmetti, R.; Meyer, R.; Dupuy, C.
The purpose of this type of experiment is to elucidate structure of the different compounds gradually prepared starting from reaction mechanisms and chiefly from spectroscopic data given perviously to students.
Guglielmetti, R.; Meyer, R.; Dupuy, C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 413.
Photochemistry |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Films of rotating molecular models. The stereoscopic effect  McGrew, LeRoy; Kitzman, Kathy
A method of motion picture photography that offers a three-dimensional effect useful for the illustration of molecular structure with less effort than previous methods of stereo photography.
McGrew, LeRoy; Kitzman, Kathy J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 407.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Stereochemistry
Determination of the relative and absolute configurations of (-)menthol and (+)neomenthol. An introductory stereochemistry experiment  Barry, J.
This activity serves to familiarize students with stereochemistry and the conformational analysis of cyclohexane systems.
Barry, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 292.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alcohols |
Conformational Analysis
A simple demonstration of O2 paramagnetism. A macroscopically observable difference between VB and MO approaches to bonding theory  Saban, G. H.; Moran, T. F.
A simple apparatus to demonstrate the paramagnetic behavior of oxygen.
Saban, G. H.; Moran, T. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 217.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Magnetic Properties |
MO Theory |
Covalent Bonding
Sterospecificity in the palm of your hand  Treptow, Richard S.
A simple demonstration to illustrate the reaction between two optically active agents.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 131.
Stereochemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The helix coil transition of DNA  Steinert, Roger; Hudson, Bruce
The design and use of a photometer to detect the transition of DNA from the double helix to random coil form.
Steinert, Roger; Hudson, Bruce J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 129.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
Five questions requiring an application of chemical principles and their solutions.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 128.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Proteins / Peptides |
pH |
Carbohydrates |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Demonstrating the nomenclature for absolute configurations in octahedral complexes  Alexander, M. Dale
Using cardboard octahedral and transparent cylinders to help students visualize the nomenclature for absolute configurations in octahedral complexes.
Alexander, M. Dale J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 125.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Coordination Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Oxoacids and their salts  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Reviews the conventions for naming oxoacids and their salts.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 123.
Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Marine natural products. Pigments  Chang, Clifford W. J.
Examines the chemistry of natural pigments found in sea urchins and sea lilies, including spinochromes and carotenoids.
Chang, Clifford W. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 102.
Natural Products |
Dyes / Pigments |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The absorption of light by oriented molecules  Wilson, R. Marshall; Gardner, Edward J.; Squire, Richard H.
Designed to expose students to classical techniques of organic dye synthesis.
Wilson, R. Marshall; Gardner, Edward J.; Squire, Richard H. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 94.
Photochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Dyes / Pigments |
Synthesis
The odor of optical isomers. An experiment in organic chemistry  Murov, Steven L.; Pickering, Miles
The experiment described involves the separation and characterization of l-carvone from spearmint oil and d-carvone from caraway seed oil.
Murov, Steven L.; Pickering, Miles J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 74.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers |
Stereochemistry |
Separation Science
Extraction of acid with aqueous base  Silversmith, Ernest F.
This is a visual demonstration of the principle that acidic organic substances can be extracted from an organic solvent via conversion to a salt, and the latter extracted from the aqueous solution via reconversion to the acid form.
Silversmith, Ernest F. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A694.
Acids / Bases
The difference in oxidizing strength of dilute and concentrated nitric acid  Glasoe, Paul K.
H2S gas is bubbled through dilute and concentrated HNO3.
Glasoe, Paul K. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A644.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction
Experimental illustration of chemical principles in organic chemistry lectures  Haberfield, Paul
Lists a series of demonstrations used in the second semester of a one year organic chemistry course.
Haberfield, Paul J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 702.
Electrophilic Substitution |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Nucleophilic Substitution
Polybasic weak acids indistinguishable from monobasic ones by acid-base titrimetry  Meites, Louis
Presents a general equation describing the statistical ratio of the ith an (i + 1)th dissociation constants of a j-basic acid and shows that any such acid whose dissociation constants conform to those ratios will give a titration curve indistinguishable from that obtained for a monobasic acid at an appropriate concentration.
Meites, Louis J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 682.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Simple harmonic motion - A graphic demonstration  Magliulo, Anthony R.
A kymograph is adapted to the study of the vibration of a linear diatomic molecule.
Magliulo, Anthony R. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 640.
Molecular Properties / Structure
Visualization of molecular orbitals. Formaldehyde  Olcott, Richard J.
Using a computer to generate three dimensional charge density distributions of the formaldehyde molecule.
Olcott, Richard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 614.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Rapid calculation of molecular formulas from mass values  Lederberg, Joshua
Presents a table of mass fractions for all combinations of H, N, O, for the rapid calculation of molecular formulas from mass values.
Lederberg, Joshua J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 613.
Chemometrics |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Mass Spectrometry
Perfumes and the art of perfumery  Grant, Nancy; Naves, Renee G.
Examines the physical and chemical properties of perfumes, as well as several examples of compounds that constitute the essence of typical perfumes.
Grant, Nancy; Naves, Renee G. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 526.
Consumer Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Aromatic Compounds |
Applications of Chemistry
Complementary rules to define R or S configuration. Viewing molecules from any side  Cori, O.
Reviews the rules to specify the configuration of a chiral center.
Cori, O. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 461.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A modified Rast method for molecular weights  Wawzonek, Stanley
Avoiding problems associated with the Rast method for determining molecular weights.
Wawzonek, Stanley J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 399.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
A model for demonstrating helical dissymmetry  Magliulo, Anthony R.
Ordinary pipe cleaners can be used to illustrate the concept of helical dissymmetry.
Magliulo, Anthony R. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 391.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Prediction of periodic acid oxidation products  Blackman, David
Presents an even simpler approach than that offered in the cited article.
Blackman, David J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 379.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation State
An interactive NMR chemical shift search program  Heller, Stephen R.; Feldmann, Richard J.
A computer program has been developed to rapidly search for spectra containing specified chemical shifts from proton nmr spectral data.
Heller, Stephen R.; Feldmann, Richard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 291.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Benzenesulfonyl chloride does react with tertiary amines. The Hinsberg test in proper prospective  Gambill, C. R.; Roberts, T. D.; Shechter, H.
Addresses the long standing myths that tertiary amines do not react with nitrous acid or benzylsulfonyl chloride.
Gambill, C. R.; Roberts, T. D.; Shechter, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 287.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Qualitative Analysis
Location of the equivalence point in potentiometric titrations. A simulated laboratory exercise  Kozarek, W. J.; Fernando, Quintus
The simulated laboratory experiment described introduces the use of a small computer in the analytical chemistry laboratory and demonstrates the practical utility of Gran's method for the location of the equivalence point in potentiometric titrations.
Kozarek, W. J.; Fernando, Quintus J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 202.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Acids / Bases
Simplified infrared functional group correlation chart  Moye, Alfred L.; Cochran, T. A., Jr.
Provides a simplified infrared functional group correlation chart that presents only the most common functional groups for the beginning student.
Moye, Alfred L.; Cochran, T. A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 129.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Computer generated display and manipulation of a general molecule  Portigal, Larry D.; Minicozzi, William P.
Availability of the Molecular Display Program (MOLDSP) and algorithms written in Fortran IV that transform topological and geometrical information into dynamic molecular displays.
Portigal, Larry D.; Minicozzi, William P. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 790.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Inductive effects in the chlorination of 1-chlorobutane. An organic laboratory experiment  Reeves, Perry C.
The present paper describes the quantitative study of the directive effect of chlorine already present in the molecule on the orientation of incoming chlorine in the free radical halogenation of 1-chlorobutane.
Reeves, Perry C. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 636.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Dewar resonance energy  Baird, N. C.
In the present paper, some of the general properties of the Dewar Resonance Energy definition are developed. In particular, the DRE value for a compound is shown to be independent of the numerical values used to bond energies, and the use of DRE in judging the aromaticity of organic molecules is illustrated.
Baird, N. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 509.
Resonance Theory |
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Transannular carbene reactions. An intermediate organic laboratory experiment  Hecht, Stephen S.
The experiment described in this article has been used to integrate physical, organic, and inorganic chemistry and stresses the use of research techniques in understanding the relationship between structure and reactivity.
Hecht, Stephen S. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 340.
Spectroscopy |
Chromatography |
Aromatic Compounds |
Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The structure and properties of choleic acids. A biologically oriented organic experiment  Jesaitis, R. G.; Krantz, A.
The experiment described here introduces students to techniques which are often not introduced in the context of a laboratory experiment.
Jesaitis, R. G.; Krantz, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 137.
Acids / Bases |
Aromatic Compounds |
Stoichiometry |
Quantitative Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Spectral exercises in structural determination of organic compounds (Shapiro, Robert H.)  Rienheimer, J. D.

Rienheimer, J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A598.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy
Organic structure determination (Pasto, Daniel J.; Johnson, Carl R.)  Morrison, Harry

Morrison, Harry J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A490.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy
Control of peroxidizable compounds  Jackson, H. L.; McCormack, W. B.; Rondestvedt, C. S.; Smeltz, K. C.; Viele, I. E.
Provides information of the structure, examples, and safety considerations for compounds that can produce explosive peroxides.
Jackson, H. L.; McCormack, W. B.; Rondestvedt, C. S.; Smeltz, K. C.; Viele, I. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A175.
Molecular Properties / Structure
Detection of carboxylic acids by formation of ferric hydroxamates  Cleland, George H.; Knight, Duane W.
Offers an improved method for the detection of carboxylic acids through the formation of ferric hydroxamates.
Cleland, George H.; Knight, Duane W. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 781.
Carboxylic Acids |
Qualitative Analysis
Stereochemical correlations in the norbornane system  Markgraf, J. Hodge; Leung, Pak-Tong
In this experiment 2-norbornanone is converted to the epimeric 2-methyl-2-norbornanols by two routes; the structural assignments of the products are not specified, but must be determined from comparisons of various physical properties.
Markgraf, J. Hodge; Leung, Pak-Tong J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 707.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Synthesis
A model for demonstrating the rotation of polarized light by an asymmetric molecule  Berry, James P.
A nut and bolt (representing an asymmetric molecule and a beam of plane-polarized light) are used to illustrate that regardless of which face of the nut is up, one must rotate the bolt counterclockwise to cause it to pass downward through the nut.
Berry, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 659.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers
Solubility and the chemistry of the covalent bond: More on DDT - A substituted alkyl halide  Hill, John W.
Discusses applications of the insolubility of DDT in water and its solubility in covalent fatty tissues.
Hill, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 634.
Covalent Bonding |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Agricultural Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Is ammonia like water?  Gill, J. B.
This article sets out to compare some of the properties of the two most widely studied solvents, water and liquid ammonia, and in particular illustrate some comparative aspects that are not normally considered.
Gill, J. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 619.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Hydrogen sulfide under any other name still smells. A poisonous story  Brasted, Robert C.
The chemistry of hydrogen sulfide affords an excellent opportunity to integrate descriptive inorganic and coordination chemistry with biochemistry.
Brasted, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 574.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Coordination Compounds |
Enzymes |
Proteins / Peptides
The hexaphenylethane landmark falls  Smith, William B.
A reexamination of Gomberg's discovery that the treatment of triphenylmethyl chloride with silver results in hexaphenylethane has demonstrated that the dimer formed is not hexaphenylethane; a new product has been proposed.
Smith, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 535.
Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy
The alums: Interchangeable elements in a versatile crystal structure  Lambert, Jack L.; Lambert, Michael W.
Uses a physical model to examine the structure of alum, which exhibits a wide variety of interchangeable elements.
Lambert, Jack L.; Lambert, Michael W. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 465.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
A weevil's loss is our gain or sex strikes the pages on the Journal.  Brasted, Robert C.
The trans-isomer of the boll weevil sex attractant is a million times more active than the cis-isomer.
Brasted, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 447.
Natural Products |
Diastereomers |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Agricultural Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
A model to demonstrate the Walden inversion  Hamon, D. P. G.
Presents the design of a model capable of illustrating the Walden inversion.
Hamon, D. P. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 398.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Reactions
Inexpensive molecular models of metallocenes  Sutton, John R.
Describes the construction of sandwich compounds such a ferrocene.
Sutton, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 305.
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Coordination Compounds
A demonstration experiment on partial molar volumes  Coch, Juan A.; Lopez, Valentin
The partial molar volume of trichloroacetic acid can be determined by measuring the increase in volume when TCA is dissolved in water at constant temperature and pressure.
Coch, Juan A.; Lopez, Valentin J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 270.
Solutions / Solvents |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stoichiometry
Equivalence point potential in redox titrations  Heyn, Arno H. A.
Many analytical chemistry textbooks ignore or mistake the effect of [H+] on the equivalence point potential.
Heyn, Arno H. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 240.
Electrochemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases |
Solutions / Solvents
The synthesis of 2-nitroresorcinol: An experiment with sulfonic acids  Schaffrath, Robert E.
This synthesis is an ideal example using the -SO3H as a blocking group.
Schaffrath, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 224.
Synthesis |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The rearrangement of diazotized 4-bromobenzophenone hydrazone: A stereospecific reaction  Hawbeker, Byron L.
This procedure involves the synthesis of hydrazone and its subsequent diazotization / rearrangement to produce an anilide.
Hawbeker, Byron L. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 218.
Reactions |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Aromatic Compounds |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis
Computer programs for calculating equivalent conductivity and dissociation constants  Zimmerman, A. A.
Lists several computer programs available for calculating equivalent conductivity and dissociation constants.
Zimmerman, A. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 146.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A computer program for identifying organic compounds  Gasser, William; Emmons, John L.
This program is based on five determinations: melting or boiling point; elemental analysis for nitrogen, sulfur, and halogens; and the aluminum chloride-azoxybenzene test.
Gasser, William; Emmons, John L. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 137.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Qualitative Analysis
Preparation of the members of an homologous series: An organic chemistry experiment  Kolenbrander, Harold M.
This article describes an experiment involving the synthesis of S-alkyl derivatives of homocysteine.
Kolenbrander, Harold M. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 56.
Synthesis |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkylation
Some reflections on the use and abuse of molecular models  Peterson, Quentin R.
Examines the history of the application of molecular models and model types, and proposes the construction of a new type of model.
Peterson, Quentin R. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 24.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Analog computer simulation of log(K)-pH profiles  Lordi, Nicholas G.
This report describes the computer simulation of log (K)-pH profiles used to characterize aqueous phase stabilities of drugs, particularly hydrolytic degradations.
Lordi, Nicholas G. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 861.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Identification of an unknown ester: An analytical-organic experiment  Grob, Robert L.; Husk, G. Ronald
It is the student's challenge to hydrolyze an ester, separate and purify the resultant alcohol and acid, determine several physical and chemical characteristics, and arrive at a logical choice for its identity.
Grob, Robert L.; Husk, G. Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 769.
Quantitative Analysis |
Esters |
Alcohols |
Carboxylic Acids
Localized and delocalized molecular orbital description of methane  Bernett, William A.
The purpose of this article is to show that the relationship between localized and delocalized molecular orbitals can be easily demonstrated for the case of methane.
Bernett, William A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 746.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
MO Theory
LTE. Normalization of MO's  Hecht, Charles E.
The author suggests that the cited computer program be modified to normalize molecular orbitals.
Hecht, Charles E. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 700.
MO Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure
LTE. Rule of thumb for predicting optical activity  Mowery, Dwight F., Jr.
The author clarifies a point made in his earlier article.
Mowery, Dwight F., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 700.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enantiomers |
Stereochemistry
Molecular weight distributions of polymers  Rudin, A.
Examines different mathematic representations for the molecular weight of polymers.
Rudin, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 595.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Chemometrics
The two forms of aluminum isopropoxide: An NMR experiment  Worrall, I. J.
This experiment prepares tetrameric and trimeric forms of aluminum isopropoxide and analyzes the structure of each through PMR spectroscopy.
Worrall, I. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 510.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Lecture demonstrations of polymer structure using polarized light  Rodriguez, F.
Presents a series of lecture demonstrations of polymer structure using polarized light to make changes in polymer orientation apparent in a rather dramatic fashion.
Rodriguez, F. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 456.
Molecular Properties / Structure
Simplified molecular orbital approach to inorganic stereochemistry  Gavin, R. M., Jr.
The purpose of this paper is to outline the simplest of the Huckel-type molecular orbital models for inorganic molecules and to explore the information on molecular geometry implicit in this model.
Gavin, R. M., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 413.
MO Theory |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory
Dicyandiamide (cyanoguanidine)  Stockel, Richard F.
Examines evidence for the correct structure of dicyandiamide.
Stockel, Richard F. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 391.
Molecular Properties / Structure
Identification of carboxylic acids: Use of N-methylpiperazine and N-phenylpiperazine  Duff, J. G.; Yung, D. K.; Brenner, R. J.; Wilson, B. J.; Racz, W. J.
Demonstrates that N-phenylpiperazine is a useful reagent for the identification of carboxylic acids.
Duff, J. G.; Yung, D. K.; Brenner, R. J.; Wilson, B. J.; Racz, W. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 388.
Carboxylic Acids |
Qualitative Analysis
Criteria for optical activity in organic molecules  Mowery, Dwight F., Jr.
Develops criteria for predicting the possible existence of optical activity in organic molecules.
Mowery, Dwight F., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 269.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Wooden models of asymmetric structures  Nye, Martin J.
Wooden blocks are cut to represent molecules of a pair of enantiomers, and are constructed so that they may be readily stacked together to show crystal structure.
Nye, Martin J. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 175.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enantiomers |
Crystals / Crystallography
Molecular models  Chipman, Wilmon B.
Describes the use of rigid Dreiding molecular models to prepare models of strained ring species.
Chipman, Wilmon B. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 118.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
A simplified proof of the constitution and configuration of D-glucose  Frohwein, Y, Z.
Presents a simplified proof of the constitution and configuration of D-glucose for students being introduced to carbohydrate chemistry.
Frohwein, Y, Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 55.
Carbohydrates |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enantiomers |
Chirality / Optical Activity
A key to point group classification  Donohue, Jerry
Presents a dichotomous key for point group classification.
Donohue, Jerry J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 27.
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The chemistry of the OH group (Clapp, Leallyn B.)  Massie, Samuel P.

Massie, Samuel P. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A700.
Acids / Bases
Problems in spectroscopy - Organic structure determination by NMR, IR, UV, and mass spectra (Trost, Barry M.)  Danforth, Joseph D.

Danforth, Joseph D. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A242.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry
Molecular geometry: Bonded versus nonbonded interactions  Bartell, L. S.
Proposes simplified computational models to facilitate a comparison between the relative roles of bonded and nonbonded interactions in directed valence.
Bartell, L. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 754.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory |
Molecular Modeling |
Covalent Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Valence Bond Theory |
MO Theory
Preparation and standardization of constant boiling hydrochloric acid  McGuinness, E. T.; Clarke, K. S.
Presents a procedure for producing a calibration curve for the standardization of constant boiling hydrochloric acid.
McGuinness, E. T.; Clarke, K. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 740.
Acids / Bases |
Calibration |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Computer simulation of experimental data  Shwendeman, R. H.
This note describes some of the techniques in programming used to generate a sufficient variety of experimental data to provide each student with his own set of numbers for analysis in conjunction with the demonstration laboratory.
Shwendeman, R. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 665.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Gas Chromatography
Equations for potentiometric titration (the author replies)  Sturrock, Peter E.
Response to the cited letter.
Sturrock, Peter E. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 621.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Equations for potentiometric titration  Lomax, Ann; Bard, Allen J.
Examines some difficulties arising with assumptions made in a previously published experiment.
Lomax, Ann; Bard, Allen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 621.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
pH
Hard and soft acids and bases, HSAB, part 1: Fundamental principles  Pearson, Ralph G.
Using the principles of hard and soft acids and bases to estimate the strength and softness of an acid or base.
Pearson, Ralph G. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 581.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Coordination Compounds
Molecular models of metal chelates to illustrate enzymatic reactions  Hendrickson, H. Stewart; Srere, Paul A.
This paper describes an alternative to the Ogston model that uses a metal ion to discriminate between the symmetrical ends of the citrate molecule.
Hendrickson, H. Stewart; Srere, Paul A. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 539.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enzymes |
Organometallics |
Coordination Compounds
Simple models for polymer stereochemistry  Rodriguez, F.
Models made by drawing on folding transparent plastic sheets are proposed as being an alternative for illustrating polymer structures.
Rodriguez, F. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 507.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Diastereomers
Framework molecular models to illustrate Linnett's double quartet theory  Bumgardner, Carl L.; Wahl, George H., Jr.
Presents a convenient method for depicting electron arrangements using molecular models.
Bumgardner, Carl L.; Wahl, George H., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 347.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Structural chemistry in the nuclear age  Hamilton, Walter C.
Considers methods of neutron diffraction and scattering to examine light and heavy atoms and the structure of biological compounds and liquids.
Hamilton, Walter C. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 296.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Liquids |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Chromic acid oxidation of alcohols: A simple experiment on reaction rates  Lanes, Rose M.; Lee, Donald G.
In this experiment, students determine the relative rates of oxidation by adding quantities of several different alcohols to a solution of chromium(VI) in dilute sulfuric acid and visually monitoring the course of the reaction.
Lanes, Rose M.; Lee, Donald G. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 269.
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Acids / Bases |
Alcohols
Molecular symmetry and optical inactivity  Carlos, Jose L., Jr.
Presents a criterion for optical inactivity that is both sufficient and easily applicable.
Carlos, Jose L., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 248.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity
An easily constructed tetrahedron model  Yamana, Shukichi
A simple method for constructing a tetrahedron by folding paper.
Yamana, Shukichi J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 245.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The Eschweiler-Clark methylation of amines: An organic chemistry experiment  Pine, Stanley H.
In this procedure, benzylamine is converted to N,N-dimethylbenzylamine.
Pine, Stanley H. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 118.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Synthesis
Simple construction to determine protein molecular weights by the osmotic pressure method  Candlish, John K.
This short note presents a simple device to determine protein molecular weights through osmotic pressure.
Candlish, John K. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 93.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Proteins / Peptides |
Physical Properties
A proton magnetic resonance coordination number study. AlCl3 in aqueous solvent mixtures  Fratiello, Anthony; Schuster, Ronald E.
Coordination numbers can be evaluated directly and unambiguously by integrating separate nmr peaks.
Fratiello, Anthony; Schuster, Ronald E. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 91.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Coordination Compounds |
Spectroscopy
The chemistry of orthophosphoric acid and its sodium salts  Neidig, H. A.; Teates, T. G.; Yingling, R. T.
The purpose of this article is to suggest a number of possible laboratory investigations of the chemistry of phosphoric acid and its sodium salts involving potentiometric titration studies and thermochemical studies.
Neidig, H. A.; Teates, T. G.; Yingling, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 57.
Acids / Bases
A flow-chart approach to point group classification  Carter, Robert L.
Presents a flow chart for classifying molecular symmetry into point groups.
Carter, Robert L. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 44.
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Is there a neutral ammonium radical?  Wan, J. K. S.
Examines theoretical considerations and experimental approaches regarding the generation of a neutral NH4 molecule.
Wan, J. K. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 40.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Group 1. The Alkali Metals B. The Alkali Metals. Ammonium ion  Young, James A.
Demonstration of the formation of an ammonium amalgam.
Young, James A. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A1005.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Dissociation of weak acids and bases at infinite dilution  Stock, D. Irwin
It is all too easy to forget that in a solution of infinite dilution the solvent itself is ionized to an extent governed by its ionization constant, and that the concentration of its ions will appear in the expression for the dissociation constant of the solute.
Stock, D. Irwin J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 764.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Errors in representing structures of proteins and nucleic acids  Day, Richard A.; Ritter, Edmond J.
It is the exceptional modern textbook in biochemistry or organic chemistry that consistently represents the structures of proteins and nucleic acids as they are found to exist in nature.
Day, Richard A.; Ritter, Edmond J. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 761.
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The construction of solid tetrahedral and octahedral models  Sheppard, William J.
Describes the construction of solid tetrahedral and octahedral models from wooden blocks.
Sheppard, William J. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 683.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Le Chtelier's principle and rigorous ionic equilibria equations  Goldman, James A.
Presents an approach, exemplified by acid-base and solubility equilibria, that relates the concept of Le Chtelier's principle to rigorous ionic equilibria equations.
Goldman, James A. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 658.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Letter to the editor (the author replies)  Luder, W. F.
Replies to the concerns raised by the cited letter.
Luder, W. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 621.
Aromatic Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Letter to the editor  Sementsov, A.
Questions the configuration of benzene supported by the theory discussed in the cited paper.
Sementsov, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 621.
Aromatic Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Interactions of enzymes and inhibitors  Baker, B. R.
Examines the kinetics and interactions of enzymes and inhibitors and considers specifically lactic dehydrogenase, dihydrofolic reductase, thymidine phosphorylate, guanase, and xanthine oxidase.
Baker, B. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 610.
Enzymes |
Catalysis |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Recognition |
Hydrogen Bonding
Evaluation of titration analyses with logarithmic concentration diagrams  Yingst, Austin
Examines the use of logarithmic concentration diagrams in the evaluation of strong and weak acid-base titrations.
Yingst, Austin J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 601.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis
The intrinsic basicity of the hydroxide ion  Jolly, William L.
Examines the basicity of the hydroxide ion.
Jolly, William L. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 304.
Acids / Bases
Teaching aromatic substitution: A molecular orbital approach  Meislich, Herbert
This paper presents a way of teaching aromatic substitution using the concepts of alternate polarity and electron delocalization through extended pi-bonding.
Meislich, Herbert J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 153.
Aromatic Compounds |
MO Theory |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Stereochemical correlations in the camphor series  Markgraf, J. Hodge
This paper presents a series of experiments that require the student to interpret the effect of structure on the steric course of an oxidation and a reduction in a bicyclic system.
Markgraf, J. Hodge J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 36.
Stereochemistry |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A unified theory of bonding for cyclopropanes  Bernett, William A.
Examines various models for bonding in cyclopropanes.
Bernett, William A. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 17.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
MO Theory |
Molecular Modeling
College Chemistry (Mahan, Bruce H.)  Dresdner, Richard

Dresdner, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A990.
Molecular Properties / Structure
Enamine reactions for the undergraduate organic laboratory: A student water separator  Darling, S. D.
This note describes the design and efficiency of a device that facilitates the removal of water in reactions such as enamine preparation or esterfications.
Darling, S. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 665.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Esters |
Synthesis |
Separation Science
Calculation of molecular geometry by vector analysis: Application to six-membered alicyclic rings  Henshall, T.
Demonstrates the calculation of molecular geometry by vector analysis through an application to cyclohexane.
Henshall, T. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 600.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Theoretical error in acid-base titrations  Butcher, John; Quintus, Fernanado
The purpose of this report is to describe simple derivations of equations for titration error calculations for a number of acid-base titrations, and to show error curves for some typical cases.
Butcher, John; Quintus, Fernanado J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 546.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases
Improvements in the Victor-Meyer  Bader, Morris
Two improvements in the Victor-Meyer have simplified the apparatus and greatly increased the accuracy of molecular weight determinations.
Bader, Morris J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 500.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The interaction of chromium(III) ion with hydroxide ion. An experiment for the undergraduate inorganic laboratory  Reinhardt, Richard A.
In the interactions with hydroxide ion, at least three different types of reactions may be considered: protolysis, the formation of a sparingly soluble hydroxide, and the formation of polymeric species.
Reinhardt, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 382.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Qualitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases
Inexpensive space-filling display models  Kellett, J. C., Jr.; Martin, A. N.
Using rubber molds to reproduce existing models in plaster.
Kellett, J. C., Jr.; Martin, A. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 374.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Lewis acid-base titration in fused salts  Schlegel, James M.
Dichromate ion, a Lewis acid, is titrated with carbonate ion, a Lewis base, in a fused KNO3-NaNO3 solvent.
Schlegel, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 362.
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Polyethylene and pipecleaner models of biological polymers  Pollard, Harvey Bruce
An accurate method for modeling polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and proteins involves the use of pipecleaners, polyethylene tubing, and proteins.
Pollard, Harvey Bruce J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 327.
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Carbohydrates
Concepts of species and state in chemistry and molecular physics  Goodfriend, P. L.
This article examines the concepts of species and state in chemistry and molecular physics.
Goodfriend, P. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 95.
Quantum Chemistry |
Diastereomers |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Why liquid oxygen is blue  Ogryzlo, E. A.
Provides an explanation for why liquid oxygen is blue.
Ogryzlo, E. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 647.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A computer program for use in teaching chemical equilibrium  Zajicek, O. T.
Describes a computer program for use in teaching chemical equilibrium.
Zajicek, O. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 622.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
pH
The ionization of polyhydric acids: Numerical results for phosphoric acid  Cooke, S. L., Jr.
Presents calculated ionization values for phosphoric acid across the normal aqueous pH range.
Cooke, S. L., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 620.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium
NMR spectra: Appearance of patterns from small spin systems  Becker, Edwin D.
This article seeks to clarify some confusing points in the interpretation of NMR spectra.
Becker, Edwin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 591.
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Effect of amine structure on the relative acidity of conjugate acids  Griswold, Robert E.
the primary objectives of this experiment are to investigate the effect of structure of amines on the relative acidity of their conjugate acids and to study some of the factors affecting equilibrium constants.
Griswold, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 483.
Acids / Bases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Equilibrium |
pH
Applications of sodium-lead alloy in qualitative inorganic analysis  Edge, Robert A.; Fowles, Gerald W. A.
This note describes how sodium-lead alloy may be used n qualitative inorganic analysis, both as a reductant in acid and alkaline media, and as a source of sodium hydroxide for hydroxide precipitations.
Edge, Robert A.; Fowles, Gerald W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 436.
Qualitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases
Extensions in the use of plastic tetrahedral models  Fieser, Louis F.
Describes the modification of existing models to provide for the construction of specialized organic and inorganic structures and their use in teaching.
Fieser, Louis F. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 408.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Stereo molecular models  Godfrey, John C.
Presents a system of stereo molecular models designed by the author and their various applications.
Godfrey, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 404.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Tangent-sphere models of molecules. IV. Estimation of internuclear distances; The electronic structure of metals  Bent, Henry A.
Considers the R equation, back-bonding, steric effects and electron-pair-coordination-numbers, the "inert pair" effect, van der Waals radii and intermolecular distances, sodium vapor, gaseous metal fluorides and oxides, and metals.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 348.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Metals
An aid to visualizing fused ring systems  Vogel, George
Presents a method for visualizing fused ring systems without the use of models.
Vogel, George J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 278.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Diastereomers
A panoramic approach to the proof of configuration of aldohexoses  Rosenblatt, David H.
Presents a didactic approach to the classical proofs of configuration of aldohexoses.
Rosenblatt, David H. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 271.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Carbohydrates
Resolution of D,L-alpha-phenylethylamine: An introductory organic chemistry experiment  Ault, Addison
This experiment clarifies several of the concepts of optical isomerism and introduces the techniques of recrystallization, extraction, and distillation.
Ault, Addison J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 269.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Enantiomers |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Lineweaver-Burk treatment of acid-base dissociation  Solomons, C. C.
The advantage of using the Lineweaver-Burk treatment of acid-base dissociation before introducing the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation lies in the fact that K (dissociation) is determined by a straight-line relationship which is nonlogarithmic.
Solomons, C. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 225.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Hybridization in the description of homonuclear diatomic molecules  George, John W.
Presents energy levels for B2 and C2 molecules using hybrid atomic orbitals.
George, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 152.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
MO Theory
The effect of structure on chemical and physical properties of polymers  Price, Charles C.
Suggests using polymers to teach the effect of changes in structure on chemical reactivity, the effect of structure on physical properties, the role of catalysts, and the basic principles of a chain reaction mechanism.
Price, Charles C. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 13.
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Polymerization |
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Catalysis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The identification of molecular spectra (Pearse, R. W. B.; Gaydon, A. G.)  Strickler, S. J.

Strickler, S. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A398.
Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Precise atomic and molecular models  Adler, Alan D.; Steele, William J.
Presents designs for skeletal or lattice and space-filling models
Adler, Alan D.; Steele, William J. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 656.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
The rotation of optically pure 2-bromooctane  Traynham, James C.
This paper reviews the various values reported for the optical rotation of pure 2-bromooctane and makes a case for its most probable value.
Traynham, James C. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 617.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Effect of liquid NH3 on wood: A demonstration of the alcohol structure of cellulose  Hirsch, Phillis R.
A lecture demonstration of the plasticization of wood with liquid ammonia can be a very effective tool for teaching the alcohol structure of cellulose to any class studying basic organic chemistry.
Hirsch, Phillis R. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 605.
Carbohydrates |
Alcohols |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The amine catalyzed Perkin condensation: A class project  Ketcham, Roger
In this exercise students carry out the amine catalyzed Perkin condensations of substituted benzaldehydes with substituted phenylacetic acids to give alpha-phenyl-cis- and trans-cinnamic acids.
Ketcham, Roger J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 565.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Catalysis |
Reactions |
Synthesis
Models illustrating the helix-coil transition in polypeptides  Hayman, H. J. G.
Describes modifications of the Fisher-Hirschfelder-Taylor atom models whereby a model of a polypeptide molecule in the form of a random chain can easily be rolled up to give the alpha-helix configuration and then unrolled again to give once more a random chain.
Hayman, H. J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 561.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Proteins / Peptides
Illustrating conformational effects in acyclic systems  Sunderwirth, S. G.
A brief note describing a simple model for illustrating conformational effects.
Sunderwirth, S. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 557.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
The effect of mineral acid on methyl violet solutions  McKaig, Nelson, Jr.
Test results indicate that the four common strong mineral acids cause fading of methyl violet indicator.
McKaig, Nelson, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 441.
Qualitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Rotational and pseudorotational barriers in simple molecules  Miller, Sidney I.
This papers outlines the scope and variety of rotational barriers found in simple molecules.
Miller, Sidney I. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 421.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
The quinhydrone test for amines  Meek, Willoughby F.; Entrikin, John B.
Proposes modifications to the quinhydrone test for amines that allows for accurate classification.
Meek, Willoughby F.; Entrikin, John B. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 420.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Qualitative Analysis
Evidence for the configuration on carbon 1 of d-glucose  Sickels, Jackson P.; Schultz, Harry P.
The pyranose forms of alpha- and beta-D-glucose, because of the cyclohexane conformations of their six-membered rings, do not explain the results of the conductivity of these sugars in boric acid.
Sickels, Jackson P.; Schultz, Harry P. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 343.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Carbohydrates
Letters  Byer, Albert J.
Suggestion for obtaining sharp endpoints in the titration of saponified acids.
Byer, Albert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 288.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Framework molecular orbital models  Brumlik, George C.; Barrett, Edward J.; Baumgarten, Reuben L.
Presents "Framework Molecular Orbital Models," which outline the symmetry axes and the symmetry planes of atomic and molecular orbitals in three dimensions and show on relative scale how far these orbitals reach out into molecular space.
Brumlik, George C.; Barrett, Edward J.; Baumgarten, Reuben L. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 221.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A sophomore-level course in valence and molecular structure  Colter, Allan K.
Describes a course entitled "Valency and Structure" at the Carnegie Institute of Technology.
Colter, Allan K. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 127.
Molecular Properties / Structure
An introduction to the sequence rule: A system for the specification of absolute configuration  Cahn, R. S.
This paper describes the relatively simple methods that suffice for specifying the absolute configuration of the majority of optically active organic compounds - those containing asymmetric carbon atoms.
Cahn, R. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 116.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The stereochemistry of complex inorganic compounds  Busch, Daryle H.
Examines optical activity, absolute configuration, stereospecificity, linkage isomers, electronic isomers, and template reactions.
Busch, Daryle H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 77.
Stereochemistry |
Coordination Compounds |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Teaching organic stereochemistry  Eliel, Ernest L.
Focusses on suggestions for the teaching of stereochemistry in general chemistry.
Eliel, Ernest L. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 73.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry
Conformational analysis in the elementary organic course  Allinger, Norman L.
Examines the history of conformational analysis, examples of systems in which this analysis is important, and the use of current conformational analysis research in teaching.
Allinger, Norman L. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 70.
Conformational Analysis |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Three-dimensional effects in biochemistry  Ingraham, Lloyd L.
Explores stereospecificity and stereoselectivity; rigidity requirements; steric effects; and stereospecificity when not required mechanistically.
Ingraham, Lloyd L. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 66.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Catalysis |
Enzymes |
Molecular Recognition |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stereochemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers
A magnetic molecular model  Meszaros, Lajos
This short note describes a model of the ethane molecule that demonstrates qualitatively the low energy barrier in free rotation about the carbon-carbon bond.
Meszaros, Lajos J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 50.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Characteristic NMR spectral positions for hydrogen in organic structures  Mohacsi, Erno
This is a table indicating the characteristic NMR spectral positions for hydrogen in organic structures.
Mohacsi, Erno J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 38.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Vapor shadowgraphs  King, L. Carroll; Templer, A. D.
Demonstrates the differential absorption of ultraviolet light by various vapors.
King, L. Carroll; Templer, A. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A987.
Molecular Properties / Structure
The use of the Perkin reaction in organic chemistry classes  Buckles, R. E.
Provides suggestions for student research based on an earlier article published in the Journal.
Buckles, R. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A139.
Undergraduate Research |
Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Structures and reactions of organic compounds: An introduction (Grundon, M. F.; Henbest, H. B.)  James, Floyd L.

James, Floyd L. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 670.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Reactions
Clathrates: Compounds in cages  Hagan, Mary Martinette, B. V. M.
Introduces clathrate compounds and examines some of their uses and applications.
Hagan, Mary Martinette, B. V. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 643.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Applications of Chemistry |
Separation Science
Tangent-sphere models of molecules. II. Uses in Teaching  Bent, Henry A.
Tangent-sphere models can be used to represent highly strained bonds and multicentered bonds, atoms with expanded and contracted octets, inter- and intramolecular interactions, and the effects of electronegative groups, lone pairs, and multiple bonds on molecular geometry, bond properties, and chemical reactivity.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 523.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Cyclobutane chemistry. 1. Structure and strain energy  Wilson, Armin; Goldhamer, David
Examines the various conformations that have been proposed for particular four-membered rings.
Wilson, Armin; Goldhamer, David J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 504.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Demonstrating the Weissenberg effect with gelatin  Wiegand, James H.
Describes a simple apparatus to demonstrate the Weissenberg effect with gelatin.
Wiegand, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 475.
Molecular Properties / Structure
Plastic Dreiding models  Fieser, Louis F.
This article describes superior molecular models of a new type available at cost low enough to allow purchase by students.
Fieser, Louis F. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 457.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Chemical bonding and the geometry of molecules (Ryschkewitsch, George E.)  Eblin, Lawrence P.

Eblin, Lawrence P. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 441.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Semimicro modification of the Rast method for determining molecular weights  Cowles, E. J.; Pike, M. T.
Describes a semimicro modification of the Rast method for determining molecular weights that eliminates some of the drawbacks of some usual methods.
Cowles, E. J.; Pike, M. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 422.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Microscale Lab
Contour surfaces for atomic and molecular orbitals  Ogryzlo, E. A.; Porter, Gerald B.
Describes the determination of and illustrates contour surfaces for atomic and molecular orbitals.
Ogryzlo, E. A.; Porter, Gerald B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 256.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Random and systematic errors in the determination of association constants  Pasternak, R. A.; Brady, A. P.
Examines random and systematic errors in the context of studying association equilibria in solution of carboxylic acids and amides.
Pasternak, R. A.; Brady, A. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 254.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
Carboxylic Acids |
Amides
The decarboxylation of organic acid  March, Jerry
Simple aliphatic acids (except for acetic) do not give good yields of the corresponding alkanes through decarboxylation, although many organic chemistry textbooks cite this as a general method for the preparation of alkanes.
March, Jerry J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 212.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions |
Synthesis |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Carboxylic Acids
Models illustrating rotational isomerism in aliphatic chains  Hayman, H. J. G.
Describes a simple modification to Fisher-Hirschfelder-Taylor models which, without abolishing the possibility of rotation, gives additional stability to the staggered configurations of aliphatic chains.
Hayman, H. J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 208.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
The stereochemistry of (-) menthol: An organic laboratory experiment  Dunathan, H. C.
This experiment determines the relative configuration of (-) menthol in which students measure optical rotations, follows the rate of a mutarotation, evaluates rate constants, and carries out a reaction involving asymmetric induction.
Dunathan, H. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 205.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Oxidation / Reduction
Disc-shaped attachments for Dreiding-type molecular models  Kooyman, E. C.
This short note describes disc-shaped attachments for Dreiding-type molecular models that serve to represent the van der Waals radii of hydrogen atoms.
Kooyman, E. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 204.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Energy relations in teaching organic chemistry  Allinger, Norman L.
Discusses the use of energetics and reaction coordinate diagrams in the elementary organic course.
Allinger, Norman L. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 201.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The reaction of tertiary amines with nitrous acid  Hein, George E.
Examines the history of investigation into the reaction of tertiary amines with nitrous acid as an example of the inherently conservative nature of science and resistance to new concepts.
Hein, George E. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 181.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Chemistry of diphosphorus compounds  Huheey, James E.
Examines diphosphorus chemistry, including tri- and tetra- covalent diphosphorus compounds; optical activity in diphosphines; unsaturated diphosphorus compounds, cyclic compounds, and higher phosphines; reactions producing and destroying P-P bonds; and diphosphorus compounds as ligands.
Huheey, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 153.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Reactions |
Covalent Bonding |
Coordination Compounds
Intrinsic bond energies  Siegel, S.; Siegel, B.
Examines intrinsic bond energies drawn from spectroscopic data and focusses on beryllium hydride as an example.
Siegel, S.; Siegel, B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 143.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Letters to the editor  Cockburn, B. L.
Provides a mathematical treatment demonstrating the equivalence of all four C-H bonds in methane.
Cockburn, B. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 94.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Letters to the editor  Snatzke, G.
Provides a mathematical treatment demonstrating the equivalence of all four C-H bonds in methane.
Snatzke, G. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 94.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Graphical treatment simplifies acid-base equilibria calculations  Thomas, E. B.
In dealing with equilibria involving polybasic acids, considerable simplification of the calculation of the relative distribution of the various species with changes in pH may be obtained by a graphical treatment of the ratios involved.
Thomas, E. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 70.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
pH
A simple model to illustrate conformational effects in acyclic molecules  Tye, A.; LaPidus, J. B.
Describes a simple model that is effective for demonstrating rotational forms about a carbon-carbon bond because of its excellent visibility in large classrooms.
Tye, A.; LaPidus, J. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 28.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Nitric acid: Manufacture and uses (Miles, Frank Douglas)  Sisler, Harry H.

Sisler, Harry H. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A694.
Acids / Bases |
Industrial Chemistry
Letters  Koons, Lawrence F.
Calls attention to a demonstration similar to that described in an earlier article.
Koons, Lawrence F. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 318.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A versatile molecular model of cyclobutane  Wilson, Armin
Describes a versatile molecular model of cyclobutane constructed from brass tubing and used to illustrate ring strain.
Wilson, Armin J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 649.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Lecture demonstration models of cycloalkanes  Schultz, Harry P.
Describes large, sturdy, lecture demonstration models of cycloalkanes.
Schultz, Harry P. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 648.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Color and chemical constitution  Juster, Norman J.
Examines the principles of color production and chromophores, chromogens, and auxochromes.
Juster, Norman J. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 596.
Dyes / Pigments |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Inexpensive molecular models  Head, William F., Jr.
Describes the use of seamless, methacrylate spheres in constructing sturdy molecular models.
Head, William F., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 568.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Acids, Bases, and the Chemistry of the Covalent Bond (VanderWerf, Calvin A.)  Eblin, Lawrence P.

Eblin, Lawrence P. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 273.
Acids / Bases |
Covalent Bonding
The electronic structures and stereochemistry of NO2+, NO2, and NO2-  Panckhurst, M. H.
A comparison of the electronic structures and stereochemistry of NO2+, NO2, and NO2-.
Panckhurst, M. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 270.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Resonance Theory
Resolution by the method of racemic modification: A demonstration of analogy  Williams, Francis T.
Using shaking hands to demonstrate resolution by the method of racemic modification.
Williams, Francis T. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 211.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers
Lecture-size molecular models with magnetic couplings  Kenney, Malcolm E.
Describes the design and use of large, lecture-size molecular models held together by magnetic couplings.
Kenney, Malcolm E. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 129.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Determining ionization constants from ion exchange equilibrium measurements  Bonner, O. D.; Jackson, R.; Rogers, O. C.
This discussion shows how measurements of ion exchange equilibria may be used as a rapid and convenient method for the estimation of the ionization constants.
Bonner, O. D.; Jackson, R.; Rogers, O. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 37.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Ion Exchange |
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases
A titration controller for demonstrating the behavior of acid-base indicators  Stock, John T.
Presents a circuit diagram for a device that permits the automatic back-and-forth titration with acid and alkali of a solution containing an appropriate indicator.
Stock, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 633.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis
To the editor  Baker, Wilbur L.
The author provides a simple method for laying out the sites for bonds on spherical atoms.
Baker, Wilbur L. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 533.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Dipole moments of symmetrical organic molecules  Moulton, W. N.
Examines the use of dipole moments to assign cis or trans configurations to olefins.
Moulton, W. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 522.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Diastereomers
A simple test for nitric acid fumes  Chan, Alfred, Jr.
This simple test for nitric acid fumes relies on an ordinary kraft paper towel.
Chan, Alfred, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 412.
Acids / Bases |
Qualitative Analysis
Inexpensive Stuart-type molecular models  Hoover, William C.; Shriver, Duward
Describes a method for constructing Stuart-type molecular models using latex.
Hoover, William C.; Shriver, Duward J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 295.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Inorganic infrared spectroscopy  Ferraro, John R.
Focuses on the use of infrared spectroscopy in solving various problems in inorganic chemistry.
Ferraro, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 201.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Coordination Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Organometallics |
Ionic Bonding |
Covalent Bonding
An approach to complex equilibrium problems  Butler, James N.
Presents an approach to equilibrium problems that sets up enough equations relating the various concentrations present to define the system completely and then makes approximations that simplify the equations.
Butler, James N. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 141.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Antecedents to modern concepts of configurational symmetry in chemistry  Gorman, Mel
The application of geometric shapes to various scientific concepts is one of the oldest practices in the intellectual heritage of man.
Gorman, Mel J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 99.
Molecular Properties / Structure
Stereoisomerism of carbon compounds  Noyce, William K.
The purpose of this article is to suggest a different setting for the classification of the various types of stereoisomerism commonly encountered in organic chemistry, with the view to providing a better correlation with contemporary concepts of atomic and molecular structure.
Noyce, William K. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 23.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Pi and sigma bonding in organic compounds: An experiment with models  Hoffman, Katherine B.
This exercise is designed to portray the approximate shape of s, p, sp, sp2, and sp3 orbitals and to give a picture of their overlap in bond formation.
Hoffman, Katherine B. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 637.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Distribution of atomic s character in molecules and its chemical implications  Bent, Henry A.
Explains the shape of simple molecules using the distribution of atomic s character.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 616.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
The criterion for optical isomerism  Thompson, H. Bradford
The absence of planes or centers of symmetry is not a criterion for optical isomerism.
Thompson, H. Bradford J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 530.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Recent advances in stereochemistry: A survey  Cram, Donald J.
The purpose of this article is to provide illustrations of eight advances in stereochemistry, including absolute configuration, correlations between configuration and rotation, and conformational analysis.
Cram, Donald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 317.
Conformational Analysis |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Styrene iodochloride: A proof-of-structure experiment  Buckles, Robert E.; Knaack, Donald F.
This experiment provides a procedure whereby introductory organic students are able to determine the molecular structure of a synthesized product.
Buckles, Robert E.; Knaack, Donald F. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 298.
Molecular Properties / Structure
A separation and identification experiment for elementary organic chemistry laboratory  Laughton, Paul M.
The student selects a test tube containing two unknowns and is told only that they have been selected from two of three possible groups: a primary or tertiary amine, an aldehyde or ketone, and an acid or phenol. The components are to be separated, their physical properties determined, their categories assigned, and one specific derivative prepared for each.
Laughton, Paul M. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 133.
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Acids / Bases |
Phenols |
Physical Properties |
Synthesis
Conformational analysis in mobile systems  Eliel, Ernest L.
A review of conformational analysis and its application to mobile systems.
Eliel, Ernest L. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 126.
Conformational Analysis |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Strain and interatomic distances in small-ring molecules  Goldish, Elihu
The author presents a table of available molecular structures of three- and four-membered organic ring compounds and their derivatives.
Goldish, Elihu J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 408.
Molecular Properties / Structure
The unraveling of geometric isomerism and tautomerism  Ihde, Aaron J.
Examines the work of Van't Hoff in unraveling isomerism due to carbon-carbon double bonds using fumaric and maleic acids as exemplars.
Ihde, Aaron J. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 330.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers
Contributions of Butlerov to the development of structural theory  Leicester, Henry M.
Using the basic theory enunciated by Kekule and Couper in 1958, Alexander Mikhailovich Butlerov was able to establish the principles upon which organic chemistry made its greatest advances.
Leicester, Henry M. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 328.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
The experimental basis of Kekule's valence theory  Hiebert, Erwin N.
It is the object of this paper to discuss the experimental basis of Kekule's valence theory of 1858 as seen in the progressive stages of his own experimental career prior to that time.
Hiebert, Erwin N. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 320.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Kekule-Couper centennial symposium: Introduction  Benfey, O. T.
Though neglected by history, Archibald Scott Couper deserves equal claim with Kekule as an originator of the Structural Theory.
Benfey, O. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 319.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
The chemistry of silicic acid  Greenberg, S. A.
This article attempts to address the many incorrect concepts regarding silicic acid that still appear in textbooks and the literature.
Greenberg, S. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 218.
Acids / Bases
The dissociation constant of iodic acid: Experiments for the analytical laboratory  Ramette, Richard
This paper describes a replacement for an earlier equilibrium constant experiment.
Ramette, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 191.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium
The geometry of giant molecules  Price, Charles C.
The author examines a variety of specific examples of natural and synthetic polymer molecules and describes how their geometric molecular arrangements influence their properties.
Price, Charles C. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 160.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Proteins / Peptides |
Carbohydrates
Accurate molecular models  Godfrey, John C.
Describes the construction of molecular models that rely on plastics to represents as accurately as possible all of the physical characteristics of real molecules.
Godfrey, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 140.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Construction of molecular models  Anker, Rudolph M.
Describes the construction of simple, durable, and inexpensive molecular models consisting primarily of sponge rubber balls of varying sizes.
Anker, Rudolph M. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 138.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Simplified models of inorganic stereoisomers  Kauffman, George B.
The purpose of the proposed models is to demonstrate stereoisomerism as simply as possible.
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 82.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Stereochemistry |
Coordination Compounds
On the origin of characteristic group frequencies in infrared spectra  Dows, David A.
Examines the mechanics and energetics of vibrations in small and large molecules.
Dows, David A. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 629.
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
The principle of minimum bending of orbitals  Stewart, George H.; Eyring, Henry
The authors present a theory of valency that accounts for a variety of organic and inorganic structures in a clear and easily understood manner.
Stewart, George H.; Eyring, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 550.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Elimination Reactions
Acidity measurements with indicators in glacial acetic acid  Kolling, Orland W.
In the measurement of acidity in glacial acetic acid solutions of acids as strong as perchloric, the color change of a basic indicator may be used.
Kolling, Orland W. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 452.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Lewis Acids / Bases
Substituent effects on the benzene ring: A demonstration  Lambert, Frank L.
In a series of simple experiments it can be visually demonstrated that -OH, -OR, and -NR2 powerfully activate the benzene ring.
Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 342.
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Representation of polycyclic aromatic compounds  Bieber, Theodore I.
Reviews the representation of polycyclic aromatic compounds and the matter of pi-electron sharing by adjacent sextets.
Bieber, Theodore I. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 235.
Aromatic Compounds |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Isoelectronic molecules: The effect of number of outer-shell electrons on structure  Gillis, Richard G.
The purpose of this discussion is to demonstrate that the concept isoelectric molecules can be of considerable value to the instructor in developing the principles of structural chemistry, to the student in bridging the apparent gap between inorganic and organic chemistry, and the researcher in suggesting analogies that may yield interesting fields for investigation.
Gillis, Richard G. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 66.
Molecular Properties / Structure
Ciphered formulas in carbohydrate chemistry  Difini, Alvaro; Neto, Jose Difini
Describes the use of schematic formulas as an aid to rapidly representing configurations for monosaccharides.
Difini, Alvaro; Neto, Jose Difini J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 38.
Carbohydrates |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Letters to the editor  Mayper, Stuart A.
The author analyzes more closely a dismissed method for representing hexacovalent complexes with specific configurations.
Mayper, Stuart A. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 623.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Inexpensive molecular models for use in the laboratory  Tanaka, John
It has been found that satisfactory low-cost models can be made from wax.
Tanaka, John J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 603.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Letters to the editor  Nightingale, E. R., Jr.
The symmetry of the Charlot equation belies the ease with which it may be solved.
Nightingale, E. R., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 574.
Chemometrics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Letters to the editor  Hitchcock, David I.
The author clarifies mathematical expressions found in an earlier article.
Hitchcock, David I. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 520.
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Schematic models of biochemical polymers  Blackwell, R. Quentin
Demonstrates the use of plastic necklace beads to represent polysaccharides, peptides and proteins, and nucleotides.
Blackwell, R. Quentin J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 500.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Proteins / Peptides |
Carbohydrates
Letters to the editor  Freedman, Jules
Commentary on the D and L convention as applied to tartaric acid.
Freedman, Jules J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 362.
Acids / Bases |
Stereochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Letters to the editor  Pickering, Roger A.
Commentary on the D and L convention as applied to tartaric acid.
Pickering, Roger A. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 362.
Stereochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enantiomers |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Assignment of D and L prefixes to the tartaric acids  Vickery, Hubert Bradford
Discusses conventions regarding the assignment of D and L prefixes to the tartaric acids.
Vickery, Hubert Bradford J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 339.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enantiomers |
Stereochemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The numbers and structures of isomers of hexacovalent complexes  Bailar, John C., Jr.
The purpose of this article is to outline a simple method of counting the stereoisomers that can be theoretically formed by monodentate or polydentate ligands and of showing their structures.
Bailar, John C., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 334.
Coordination Compounds |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Some aspects of organic molecules and their behavior. II. Bond energies  Reinmuth, Otto
Examines bond and dissociation energies, the "constancy" of C-H and C-C dissociation energies, and some common types of organochemical reactions.
Reinmuth, Otto J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 318.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Reactions
Isotopic isomerism  Pinkus, A. G.
This paper provides a list of isotopic isomerism and examples as a guide in defining the various categories.
Pinkus, A. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 299.
Isotopes |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The use of exact expressions in calculating hydrogen ion concentrations  Nightingale, E. R., Jr.
If an exact expression for hydrogen ion concentration is to be obtained, approximations in the derivation cannot be permitted.
Nightingale, E. R., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 277.
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases
A magnetic model for complex ions and molecules  Wendlandt, Wesley W.
Describes a model with a coordination number of six that simplifies the attachment of coordinated groups.
Wendlandt, Wesley W. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 223.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Coordination Compounds
Atomic and molecular orbital models  Lambert, Frank L.
Describes the design and use of atomic and molecular orbital models made from styrofoam.
Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 217.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
A chart of the stereochemical relationships of the aldoses  Nelson, Peter F.
Provides a chart of the stereochemical relationships of the aldoses that allows students to review and visualize the Rosanoff classification by comparing the D and L enantiomeric forms.
Nelson, Peter F. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 179.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Carbohydrates |
Enantiomers |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Assignment of D and L prefixes to the tartaric acids: The Wohl conventions  Abernethy, John Leo
Examines the Wohl system for designating dextro- and levorotatory tartaric acids.
Abernethy, John Leo J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 150.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enantiomers |
Stereochemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Acids / Bases
Assignment of D and L prefixes to the tartaric acids: An unsettled stereochemical question  Nenitzescu, Costin D.
Examines the Wohl and Freudenberg systems of designating dextro- and levorotatory tartaric acids.
Nenitzescu, Costin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 147.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers |
Chirality / Optical Activity
More mnemonics  Hollenberg, W. C. J.
Offers a mnemonic for the ring structure of the aldohexoses.
Hollenberg, W. C. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 622.
Molecular Properties / Structure
Letters to the editor  Gorin, George
Amplifies the discussion of proper configurational prefixes for the tartaric acids.
Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 478.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Molecular-model examination in organic chemistry  James, Floyd L.
This note reports a successful scheme for making use of models in an organic chemistry examination.
James, Floyd L. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 408.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Some difficulties and common errors related to the designation of sugar configurations  Abernethy, John Leo
Examines some difficulties and common errors related to the designation of sugar configurations.
Abernethy, John Leo J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 88.
Carbohydrates |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers
Aromatic substitution by free radicals  Nelson, Peter F.
This article summarizes recent investigations upon orientation and reaction rates with respect to homolytic substitution.
Nelson, Peter F. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 606.
Free Radicals |
Aromatic Compounds |
Reactions |
Rate Law |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Amphoteric molecules, ions and salts  Davidson, David
It is the aim of this paper to call attention to the splendid opportunity amphoteric substances afford for the teaching of acid-base principles.
Davidson, David J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 550.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A mnemonic for dicarboxylic acids  Cox, Gerald J.
This short note provides a mnemonic for the names of the dicarboxylic acids.
Cox, Gerald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 363.
Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Carboxylic Acids
Nice Timing  Reprinted from the bulletin of Arthur D Little, Inc.
The first counting of molecular vibrations was done with ammonia molecules.
Reprinted from the bulletin of Arthur D Little, Inc. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 210.
Molecular Properties / Structure
Models of plane molecules  Harrell, Bryant; Corwin, Alsoph H.
Describes the construction of planar molecular models, particularly for ring systems.
Harrell, Bryant; Corwin, Alsoph H. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 186.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Introducing stereoisomerism  Schreiber, Kurt C.
Criticizes the traditional presentation of stereochemistry in isolation and offers a more integrated approach.
Schreiber, Kurt C. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 83.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nucleophilic Substitution
A general equation for approximate hydronium ion calculations  Drenan, James W.
Presents a general equation for simplifying calculations of the hydronium ion.
Drenan, James W. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 36.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
pH |
Chemometrics
A rapid method for the assembly of semi-diagrammatic molecular models  Zinsser, Hans H.
Mass-produced, airbrushed atoms on acetate film are used to produce three-dimensional images of molecular and crystalline structures.
Zinsser, Hans H. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 662.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Student experiments on derivatives of 1,2-diphenylethane  Fieser, Louis F.
Johannes Thiele's classical demonstration of 1,4-addition by reductive acetylation of benzil is used to present a number of interesting theoretical points and an opportunity to separate cis- and trans- isomers through chromatography.
Fieser, Louis F. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 291.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Diastereomers |
Chromatography
Electronegativities in inorganic chemistry. III  Sanderson, R. T.
The purpose of this paper is to illustrate some of the practical applications of electronegativities and charge distribution.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 238.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Acids / Bases
Calculating the concentrations of the species present in complex buffers  King, Edward L.
Presents a relatively simple approach by which the composition of even the most complicated buffer solutions can be calculated.
King, Edward L. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 183.
Chemometrics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Potentialities of protein isomerism  Asimov, Isaac
The permutations generated by structural isomerism in proteins could be demonstrated more convincingly and realistically if the amino acid compositions of actual proteins were taken into consideration.
Asimov, Isaac J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 125.
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Amino Acids |
Constitutional Isomers
Letters  Bent, Richard L.
Addresses issues raised regarding an earlier paper on isomerism and mesomerism.
Bent, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 648.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Resonance Theory |
Covalent Bonding
Letters  Ferreira, Ricardo Carvalho
Identifies some inconsistencies in an earlier paper on isomerism and mesomerism.
Ferreira, Ricardo Carvalho J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 647.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Resonance Theory |
Covalent Bonding
An aid to teaching electronic theory  Humffray, A. A.
This paper outlines the method used by the author in presenting the ideas of tautomerism and electronic theory.
Humffray, A. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 635.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Molecular models for lecture demonstrations in organic chemistry  Lambert, Frank L.
Describes the use of stock models constructed for specific lecture applications and stored to be used as needed.
Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 503.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Differentiating between primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols  Ritter, Frank O.
A primary or secondary aliphatic alcohol dissolved in pure glacial acetic acid decolorizes a water solution of KMnO4, while a tertiary alcohol fails to do so; a secondary alcohol will continue to react with KMnO4 solution if a little concentrated sulfuric acid is added, while a primary alcohol does not.
Ritter, Frank O. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 395.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alcohols |
Quantitative Analysis
Aspects of isomerism and mesomerism. III. Stereoisomerism  Bent, Richard L.
Examines the tetrahedral nature of carbon, multiple bonds, enantiomorphism, diastereoisomerism, and geometric isomerism.
Bent, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 328.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enantiomers |
Diastereomers |
Constitutional Isomers
The action of nitric acid on metals  Tillu, Mahadeo M.
A general equation for the action of nitric acid on metals has been computed.
Tillu, Mahadeo M. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 290.
Acids / Bases |
Metals |
Reactions
Aspects of isomerism and mesomerism. II. Structural isomerism  Bent, Richard L.
Examines the relationship between structural, optical, and geometric isomerism.
Bent, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 284.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Constitutional Isomers |
Enantiomers |
Diastereomers
Aspects of isomerism and mesomerism. I. (a) Formulas and their meaning (b) Mesomerism  Bent, Richard L.
Examines molecular, empirical, structural, configurational, and projection formulas, as well as mesomerism (electronic isomers) and various types of resonance.
Bent, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 220.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Resonance Theory
The evaluation of molecular formulas  Gillis, Richard G.
Provides two rules for evaluating a molecular formula in terms of the amount of unsaturation present through use of the "equivalent hydrocarbon" concept.
Gillis, Richard G. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 126.
Molecular Properties / Structure
The chemical properties of the methyl group  Bartlett, Paul D.
Summarizes the work that has gone into characterizing the properties and chemical behavior of the simple and ubiquitous methyl group.
Bartlett, Paul D. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 22.
Molecular Properties / Structure
The Versene complexes  Pecsok, Robert L.
Examines some of the analytical applications of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, with particular reference to polarography.
Pecsok, Robert L. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 597.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
pH approximations  McBay, Arthur J.
Describes the use of data from tables to approximate pH values.
McBay, Arthur J. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 526.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Modified Hinsberg procedure  Ritter, Frank O.
Improves the Hinsberg method for differentiating between primary, secondary, and tertiary amines.
Ritter, Frank O. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 506.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Qualitative Analysis
Letters  Miller, Julius Sumner
The author discusses the importance of mathematical competence in physical chemistry and physics.
Miller, Julius Sumner J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 262.
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Acids / Bases
Acid-base titration curves: An experiment in acidimetry  Hendel, James M.
The purpose of this activity is to introduce a bit of research into the quantitative analysis course and to illustrate the value of titration curves in deciding what indicator should be used for a particular acid-base titration.
Hendel, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 148.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis
The cause of optical inactivity  Mowery, Dwight Fay, Jr.
The cause of optical inactivity is often portrayed erroneously in textbooks.
Mowery, Dwight Fay, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 138.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Letters  Hackney, J. C.
The author suggests that it is inappropriate to assume "prior knowledge" in connection with the use of molecular weights in teaching quantitative analysis.
Hackney, J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 661.
Quantitative Analysis |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Structural chemistry of the interhalogen compounds  Fessenden, Elizabeth
Examines trends in the properties of the interhalogen compounds.
Fessenden, Elizabeth J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 619.
Molecular Properties / Structure
Valence and formulas taught with playing cards  Lionetti, Fabian
Describes the use of playing cards and a game called "Valence" to help students in organic chemistry understand valence, bonding, and molecular structure.
Lionetti, Fabian J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 599.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Osmotic pressure and molecular weight  Hitchcock, David I.
Discusses the use of osmotic pressure to establish the molecular weights of proteins and synthetic polymers.
Hitchcock, David I. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 478.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chemometrics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Proteins / Peptides
Teaching amino acid formulation  Patton, A. R.
Presents a device that aids in explaining the concept of dipolar ions necessary to an understanding of the behavior of amino acids and proteins.
Patton, A. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 471.
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides |
Acids / Bases |
pH
The effect of nitrous acid on the oxidizing power of nitric acid  Brasted, Robert C.
this demonstration illustrates that the oxidizing action of nitric acid may be considerably enhanced by small quantities of nitrous acid which are usually present.
Brasted, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 442.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
An experiment for the pH meter  Pecsok, Robert L.
These procedures are designed for a Beckman Model H-2 line operated pH meter and include standardization, measurement of pH, titration curve of phosphoric acid, standardization of base, and analysis of mixed phosphate solutions.
Pecsok, Robert L. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 252.
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
A method of estimating the boiling points of organic liquids  Pearson, D. E.
Discusses the relationship between the molecular structure of organic liquids and their boiling point.
Pearson, D. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 60.
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Molecular models of silicates for lecture demonstrations  Noyce, William K.
Describes the construction and use of molecular models of silicates for lecture demonstrations.
Noyce, William K. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 29.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling