TIGER

Journal Articles: 295 results
Orbital Exponent Optimization in Elementary VB Calculations of the Chemical Bond in the Ground State of Simple Molecular Systems  Valerio Magnasco
Orbital exponent optimization in the elementary ab-initio VB calculation of the ground states of H2+, H2, He2+, and He2 gives a fair description of the exchange-overlap component of the interatomic interaction that is important in the bond region.
Magnasco, Valerio. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1686.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Computational Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Valence Bond Theory
E = mc2: An Intuitive Derivation  James J. Leary and William H. Ingham
Einstein's famous equation E = mc2 is derived using a thought experiment that can easily be understood by any serious student of chemistry.
Leary, James J.; Ingham, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1651.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Instrumental Methods
The Periodic Table at a Glance (M. A. Beckett and A. W. G. Platt)  L. L. Pesterfield
The Periodic Table at a Glance is a good choice for the student who needs a quick review of the basics of inorganic chemistry but does not have the time to wade through a standard textbook.
Pesterfield, L. L. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1110.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Probing the Orbital Energy of an Electron in an Atom  James L. Bills
This article answers an appeal for simple theoretical interpretations of atomic properties. A theoretical snapshot of an atom, showing the screened nuclear charge and the electron to be ionized at its radius of zero kinetic energy, enables anyone to approximate its ionization energy.
Bills, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 473.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Main-Group Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Physical Properties |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Relativistic Effects and the Chemistry of the Heaviest Main-Group Elements  John S. Thayer
The heaviest main-group elements often show markedly different chemical properties than their lighter counterparts. Most of these differences arise from changes in the relative energies of the outer-shell atomic orbitals that can be explained by application of Einstein's theory of special relativity to electrons in atoms.
Thayer, John S. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1721.
Main-Group Elements |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Metals |
Organometallics |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
E = mc2 for the Chemist: When Is Mass Conserved?  Richard S. Treptow
Einstein's famous equation is frequently misunderstood in textbooks and popular science literature. Its correct interpretation is that mass and energy are different measures of a single quantity known as massenergy, which is conserved in all processes.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1636.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Thermodynamics
Measurement of the Isotopic Ratio of 10B/11B in NaBH4 by 1H NMR  Murray Zanger and Guillermo Moyna
A simple and remarkably accurate method for estimating the isotopic ratio between 10B and 11B through the use of 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is presented. The experiment relies on the splitting caused by 10B (I = 3) and 11B (I = 3/2) on the 1H signal of a proton directly bound to boron, a phenomenon readily observed on an aqueous sample of NaBH4. In combination with a brief lecture or prelaboratory presentation, this laboratory can serve to introduce students to magnetic properties as well as theoretical and experimental aspects of NMR spectroscopy as early as the freshman-level chemistry.
Zanger, Murray; Moyna, Guillermo. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1390.
Instrumental Methods |
Magnetic Properties |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Isotopes
Separation and Determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) with Cation-Exchange Chromatography and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. An Experiment for Quantitative Methods of Analysis  Ali Bazzi, Bette Kreuz, James Wuokila, and Ahmed Maqboul
This article reports on the separation and determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) with cation-exchange chromatography and flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. A sample containing the two ions is added to a column containing a cation-exchange resin; the Cr(VI) ions are not retained by the resin and are collected in the effluent. The Cr(III) ions are retained by the resin and eluted with an HCl solution. The separated ions are aspirated into an air/acetylene flame and the absorbance measurements are made at 357.9 nm and 0.2-nm slit width. The experiment has been implemented in a quantitative methods of analysis course.
Bazzi, Ali; Kreuz, Bette; Wuokila, James; Maqboul, Ahmed. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 435.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Ion Exchange |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Chromatography |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Electronegativity and the Bond Triangle  Terry L. Meek and Leah D. Garner
The dependence of bond type on two parameters, electronegativity difference (??) and average electronegativity (?av), is examined. It is demonstrated that ionic character is governed by the partial charges of the bonded atoms, and metallic character by the HOMOLUMO band gap.
Meek, Terry L.; Garner, Leah D. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 325.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Main-Group Elements
Effects of Exchange Energy and Spin-Orbit Coupling on Bond Energies  Derek W. Smith
It is shown that the ground states of atoms having pn configurations are stabilized by exchange energy (n = 2, 3, or 4) and/or spinorbit coupling (n = 1, 2, 4, or 5).
Smith, Derek W. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 886.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Main-Group Elements |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Ionic Bonding |
Covalent Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
Boiling Point versus Mass  Michael Laing
I am very pleased that Ronald Rich has written making these comments, because he is pre-eminent in this field, beginning with his early book, Periodic Correlations.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 642.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Boiling Point versus Mass   Ronald L. Rich
Laing gave a useful examination of the boiling points of small molecules versus molecular mass. However, a molecule escaping from a liquid is not closely analogous to a satellite breaking free from the earths gravitational field with the requirement of a minimum escape velocity, such that the required kinetic energy is proportional to the mass of the satellite at that escape velocity.
Rich, Ronald L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 642.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Liquids |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Analysis of an Air Conditioning Coolant Solution for Metal Contamination Using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. An Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Exercise Simulating an Industrial Assignment  Michael J. Baird
The analysis of eight metals in an ethylene glycolywater solution by atomic absorption spectroscopy provided a real-life assignment for students in an instrumental analysis course.
Baird, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 259.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Green Chemistry |
Industrial Chemistry |
Metals |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Photogalvanic Cells for Classroom Investigations: A Contribution for Ongoing Curriculum Modernization  Claudia Bohrmann-Linde and Michael W. Tausch
Laboratory experiments examining the fundamental processes in the conversion of light into electrical energy using photogalvanic cells have been developed. These simple cells are suitable for classroom investigations examining the operating principles of photogalvanic cells and the influence of different parameters on their efficiency.
Bohrmann-Linde, Claudia; Tausch, Michael W. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1471.
Electrochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production by Direct Sunlight: A Laboratory Experiment  Atif Koca and Musa Sahin
The experiment can be used to introduce students to the concept of a renewable and sustainable hydrogen energy system of the future, as well as its production techniques, and to demonstrate the use of a CdS/ZnS photocatalyst system for photocatalytic hydrogen production from direct sunlight.
Koca, Atif; Sahin, Musa. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1314.
Catalysis |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Determination of Minerals in Apples by ICP–AES  Mark Duxbury
A laboratory experiment is described that involves the elemental analysis of apples by inductively coupled plasmaatomic emission spectroscopy (IICPAES). The results of the experiment allow students to predict the cold-storage stability of apples.
Duxbury, Mark. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1180.
Agricultural Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
Instrumental Methods |
Nutrition |
Atomic Spectroscopy
The KLM-Shell Labels  William B. Jensen
In response to a reader's inquiry, this column traces the origins of the K, L, M labels for the shells of the Bohr atom.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 996.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The Place of Zinc, Cadmium, and Mercury in the Periodic Table  William B. Jensen
Explanation for why the zinc group belongs with the main group elements; includes several versions of periodic tables.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 952.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Main-Group Elements |
Transition Elements |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Ionization Energies of Atoms and Atomic Ions  Peter F. Lang and Barry C. Smith
Explanations for the apparently irregular first and second ionization energies of transition and inner transition elements.
Lang, Peter F.; Smith, Barry C. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 938.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Main-Group Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements |
Inner Transition Elements
The Noble Gas Configuration—Not the Driving Force but the Rule of the Game in Chemistry  Roland Schmid
Explains the covalent and ionic bonding behavior of main-group elements in terms of electromagnetic forces rather than the supposed "stability" of noble-gas configurations.
Schmid, Roland. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 931.
Molecular Modeling |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Main-Group Elements |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Reactions |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
Atomic Scale Imaging: A Hands-On Scanning Probe Microscopy Laboratory for Undergraduates  Chuan-Jian Zhong, Li Han, Mathew M. Maye, Jin Luo, Nancy N. Kariuki, and Wayne E. Jones Jr.
A combination scanning tunneling microscope (STM) - atomic force microscope (AFM) laboratory exercise aimed at enhancing understanding of atomic and molecular scale concepts and providing hands-on experience to help undergraduates grasp the basic theory and operation of scanning probe microscopy (SPM).
Zhong, Chuan-Jian; Han, Li; Maye, Mathew M.; Luo, Jin; Kariuki, Nancy N.; Jones, Wayne E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 194.
Materials Science |
Surface Science |
Nanotechnology |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Visualizing Atoms, Molecules, and Surfaces by Scanning Probe Microscopy  Kimberly Aumann, Karen J. C. Muyskens, and Kumar Sinniah
Examples of applications of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) in an undergraduate curriculum; includes investigating DNA, analysis of microchip memory arrays and circuitry, and visualizing filamentous actin.
Aumann, Kimberly; Muyskens, Karen J. C.; Sinniah, Kumar. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 187.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Instrumental Methods |
Materials Science |
Nanotechnology |
Surface Science |
Undergraduate Research |
Nucleic Acids / DNA / RNA
ORBITAL  Robert M. Hanson
Software for producing probability-based three-dimensional representations of atomic orbitals of the hydrogen atom and other single-electron systems; found on the Advanced Chemistry Collection CD-ROM, 3rd Edition.
Hanson, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 109.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Computational Chemistry
Periodic Table Live! 3rd Edition: Abstract of Special Issue 17  Nicholas B. Adelman, Jon L. Holmes, Jerrold J. Jacobsen, John W. Moore, Paul F. Schatz, Jaclyn Tweedale, Alton J. Banks, John C. Kotz, William R. Robinson, and Susan Young
CD-ROM containing an interactive journey through the periodic table; includes information about each element, biographies of discoverers, videos of reactions, sources and uses, macro and atomic properties, and crystalline structures.
Adelman, Nicholas B.; Holmes, Jon L.; Jacobsen, Jerrold J.; Moore, John W.; Schatz, Paul F.; Tweedale, Jaclyn; Banks, Alton J.; Kotz, John C.; Robinson, William R.; Young, Susan. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1487.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Solid State Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Reactions |
Crystals / Crystallography
Understanding and Interpreting Molecular Electron Density Distributions  C. F. Matta and R. J. Gillespie
A simple introduction to the electron densities of molecules and how they can be analyzed to obtain information on bonding and geometry.
Matta, C. F.; Gillespie, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1141.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
VSEPR Theory
How We Teach Molecular Structure to Freshmen  Michael O. Hurst
Examination of how textbooks discuss various aspects of molecular structure; conclusion that much of general chemistry is taught the way it is for historical and not pedagogical reasons.
Hurst, Michael O. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 763.
Covalent Bonding |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Lewis Structures |
VSEPR Theory |
Valence Bond Theory |
MO Theory
Response to Lowe's Potential-Energy-Only Models  Lowe, John P.
Discussion of the suitability of a potential-only model for the successive ionization energies of sulfur for an introductory chemistry course.
Lowe, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 430.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Response to Lowe's Potential-Energy-Only Models (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 155-156)  Frank Rioux and Roger L. DeKock
Discussion of the suitability of a potential-only model for the successive ionization energies of sulfur for an introductory chemistry course.
Rioux, Frank; DeKock, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 429.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Colorful Azulene and Its Equally Colorful Derivatives  Robert S. H. Liu
Analysis of azulene and related compounds for an explanation of their respective colors.
Liu, Robert S. H. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 183.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
MO Theory |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkenes
The Mendeleev-Seaborg Periodic Table: Through Z = 1138 and Beyond  Paul J. Karol
Extending the periodic table to very large atomic numbers and its implications for the organization of the periodic table, consideration of relativistic effects, and the relative stability of massive and supermassive atomic nuclei.
Karol, Paul J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 60.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Astrochemistry
Response to Potential-Energy-Only Models (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 155-156)  Frank Rioux and Roger L. DeKock
Example of buffering power in deviations of the pH of sodium acetate from calculated values.
Rioux, Frank; DeKock, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 29.
Acids / Bases |
Carboxylic Acids |
pH |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Semimetallicity?  Stephen J. Hawkes
Analysis of whether semimetals are semiconductors and distinctions between metals, semimetals, and nonmetals.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1686.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nonmetals |
Physical Properties |
Solid State Chemistry |
Conductivity
Structure and Bonding (by Jack Barrett)  Michael Laing
Tutorial chemistry text.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1600.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
MO Theory |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Covalent Bonding |
VSEPR Theory
Visualizing the Photochemical Steady State with UV-Sensitive Beads (re J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 77, 648A-648B)  Jerry A. Bell
Analysis of the temperature dependence of the color intensity of UV-sensitive beads.
Bell, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1594.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Kinetics |
Photochemistry |
Chemometrics
Boiling Points of the Family of Small Molecules CHwFxClyBrz: How Are They Related to Molecular Mass?  Michael Laing
Investigating the role of molecular mass in determining boiling points of small molecules.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1544.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Liquids |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
An In-Depth Look at the Madelung Constant for Cubic Crystal Systems  Robert P. Grosso Jr., Justin T. Fermann, and William J. Vining
A simple, clear, and visual method by which the Madelung constant can be taught to students.
Grosso, Robert P., Jr.; Fermann, Justin T.; Vining, William J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1198.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Coordination Compounds |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solid State Chemistry |
Solids |
Thermodynamics |
X-ray Crystallography
Orbitals in Chemistry: A Modern Guide for Students
by Victor M. Gil
  David Hanson
Analysis of atomic and molecular orbitals.
Hanson, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1184.
MO Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Light Emission at Electrodes: An Electrochemiluminescence Demonstration  Ed Bolton and Mark M. Richter
Upon application of a 3-volt potential to a platinum electrode immersed in a Ru(bpy)32+-C9H21N solution, an orange glow, readily visible in a semi-darkened room, is produced at the electrode.
Bolton, Ed; Richter, Mark M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 641.
Electrochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry
Screening Percentages Based on Slater Effective Nuclear Charge as a Versatile Tool for Teaching Periodic Trends  Kimberley A. Waldron, Erin M. Fehringer, Amy E. Streeb, Jennifer E. Trosky, and Joshua J. Pearson
Using charge shielding to identify and explain trends within the periodic table.
Waldron, Kimberley A.; Fehringer, Erin M.; Streeb, Amy E.; Trosky, Jennifer E.; Pearson, Joshua J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 635.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Electronegativity and Bond Type: Predicting Bond Type  Gordon Sproul
Important limitations with using electronegativity differences to determine bond type and recommendations for using electronegativities in general chemistry.
Sproul, Gordon. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 387.
Covalent Bonding |
Materials Science |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Ionic Bonding |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Metallic Bonding
Chemiluminescence of Tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II): A Glowing Experience  Ed Bolton and Mark M. Richter
When Mg powder or turnings are added to a CH3CN-H2O (50:50 v/v) solution mixture containing 1 mM Ru(bpy)32+ and 40 mM S2O82- (CH3CN = acetonitrile, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, S2O82 = peroxydisulfate) at pH 1.2, a bright orange emission results that is easily visible in a darkened room.
Bolton, Ed; Richter, Mark M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 47.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry
Ernest Rutherford, Avogadro's Number, and Chemical Kinetics Revisited (about J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 998-1003)  James E. Sturm
Quantifying the link between Rutherford's observations and Avogadro's number.
Sturm, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1278.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Kinetics |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Rate Law
Ernest Rutherford, Avogadro's Number, and Chemical Kinetics Revisited (about J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 998-1003)  James E. Sturm
Estimation of temperatures in heaven and hell based on biblical information.
Sturm, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1278.
Nonmajor Courses |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Kinetics |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
The M&M® Superposition Principle  John B. Miller
A macroscopic physical system for demonstrating the relationships of quantum mechanical operators, eigenfunctions, expectation values, and superposition of delectable wave functions is described. Small candies or similar objects with a variety of values of physical properties serve as surrogates for abstract quantum wave functions.
Miller, John B. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 879.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
News from Online: Learning Communities  Carolyn Sweeney Judd
Summary of a variety of online, chemistry resources.
Judd, Carolyn Sweeney. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 808.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Comments on Kinetic, Potential, and Ionization Energies  John P. Lowe
Despite the importance of kinetic energy changes in ionization processes, it is not necessary to explicitly include them when modeling ionization energies: the virial theorem allows one to use potential-energy-only models. A simple potential-energy-only model calculation of the ionization energies of sulfur illustrates the shell structure of this atom.
Lowe, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 155.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Analysis of Soft Drinks Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Mentorship  Arkim Wilson, Craig Myers, George Crull, Michael Curtis, and Pamela Pasciak Patterson
This mentorship was designed to expose a student to the laboratory routine for a chemist at Bristol Myers Squibb Company (BMS). The student visited BMS, collaborated with BMS scientists, and actually completed a project on site. He was asked to determine the identity of an unknown sample of soft drink retrieved from a fictitious crime scene using NMR spectroscopy.
Wilson, Arkim; Myers, Craig; Crull, George; Curtis, Michael; Pasciak, Pamela M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1414.
Instrumental Methods |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Student / Career Counseling
Chemiluminescence Demonstration Illustrating Principles of Ester Hydrolysis Reactions  Andrew G. Hadd, David W. Lehmpuhl, Laura R. Kuck, and John W. Birks
Peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence, the most efficient nonenzymatic chemiluminescence reaction known, is used to demonstrate mechanistic features of analogous ester hydrolysis reactions.
Hadd, Andrew G.; Lehmpuhl, David W.; Kuck, Laura R.; Birks, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1237.
Kinetics |
Photochemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Esters
Optimizing Signal-to-Noise Ratio in Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Using Sequential Simplex Optimization  Richard J. Stolzberg
Students adjust the level of four variables to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) in the flame atomic absorption determination of calcium. They observe that three of the four variables, flame observation height, burner horizontal position, and fuel-to-air ratio, affect S/N. The fourth variable, volume of water in a graduated cylinder, has no effect on S/N.
Stolzberg, Richard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 834.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The Genius of Slater's Rules  James L. Reed
With only a few modifications a procedure has been developed that yields the one-electron energies for atoms and ions with a level of detail very well suited for instruction in the structure and properties of atoms. It provides for the computation of very reasonable values for such properties as ionization energies, electron affinities, promotion energies, electronic transitions, and even XPS and ESCA spectra.
Reed, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 802.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Spectroscopy
Homogeneous Immunoassays: Historical Perspective and Future Promise  Edwin F. Ullman
The founding and growth of Syva Company is examined in the context of its leadership role in the development of homogeneous immunoassays. The simple mix and read protocols of these methods offer advantages in routine analytical and clinical applications.
Ullman, Edwin F. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 781.
Biotechnology |
Enzymes |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Free Radicals |
Photochemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Proteins / Peptides
Letters  
Consideration of kinetic energy in interpreting atomic ionization energies is redundant.
Richman, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 605.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
The Ubiquitous Metaphors of Chemistry Teaching  Herbert Beall
The understanding and the confusion resulting from any scientific metaphor thus have to be considered when it is used. For example, a common chemical metaphor for the electron distribution about an atom is a cloud. Some of the entailments of this metaphor are apt, such as the diffuse nature of a cloud. Others, such as the ability of a cloud to evaporate, are not appropriate.
Beall, Herbert. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 366.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Chemistry of the Heaviest Elements-One Atom at a Time  Darleane C. Hoffman and Diana M. Lee
A 75-year perspective of the chemistry of the heaviest elements, including a 50-year retrospective view of past developments, a summary of current research achievements and applications, and some predictions about exciting, new developments that might be envisioned within the next 25 years.
Hoffman, Darleane C.; Lee, Diana M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 331.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Isotopes |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Separation Science |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Applications of Atomic Spectrometry to Regulatory Compliance Monitoring, 2nd Edition (by Stephen W. Jenniss, Sidney A. Katz, and Richard W. Lynch)  Doreen Mehs
Describes analytical atomic spectrometry methods including the theory behind the method, the design of the instruments used, calibration methods, sample collection and preservation, sample preparation, quality control and assurance, and an extensive collection of official methods drawn from several regulatory agencies.
Mehs, Doreen. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 170.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Calibration
A Random Number Model for Beer's Law-Atom Shadowing  R. Scott Daniels
In this model, atoms are considered to have photon-capture cross-sectional areas and to exist in some finite volume. Where by chance one atom lies directly behind another, the first atom is said to cast a shadow on the second, thereby preventing the second atom from participating in the attenuation of radiation at that instant. This model not only produces the linear Beer's law relationship, but it also provides a simple and visual model from which the law can be demonstrated with the use of a computer-spreadsheet random number generator.
Daniels, R. Scott. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 138.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Learning Theories |
Solutions / Solvents
Demonstrating Electron Transfer and Nanotechnology: A Natural Dye-Sensitized Nanocrystalline Energy Converter  Greg P. Smestad and Michael Gratzel
A unique solar cell fabrication procedure has been developed using natural anthocyanin dyes extracted from berries. It can be reproduced with a minimum amount of resources in order to provide an interdisciplinary approach for lower-division undergraduate students learning the basic principles of biological extraction, physical chemistry, and spectroscopy as well as environmental science and electron transfer.
Smestad, Greg P.; Grtzel, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 752.
Photochemistry |
Plant Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Dyes / Pigments |
Nanotechnology |
Separation Science |
Spectroscopy
Experimental 4s and 3d Energies in Atomic Ground States  James L. Bills
A new definition is given for the effective charge Zf. HF orbital energies e4s and e3d are used in concert with I4s and I3d to answer four questions: Why does the 4s sublevel fill before 3d? Why is ionization easier for 4s than 3d? When 4s23dn has e3d < e4s, why doesn't 4s23dn -> 4s13dn+1? Why are Cr and Cu each 4s13dn+1 instead of 4s23dn?
Bills, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 589.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Deducing the Shell Model from Ionization Energies and the Use of Models in Introductory Chemistry  Ronald J. Gillespie, Richard S. Moog, and James N. Spencer
A major objection of Rioux and DeKock is the statement in the authors' earlier paper that electron repulsion is responsible for the relative ionization energies of H and He. The commentators work clearly shows that a quantum mechanical treatment of this problem reveals that kinetic energy considerations play a crucial role in these values. However, although their criticism is appropriate in the context of this more sophisticated QM treatment, it does not in any way invalidate the authors original paper, the goal of which was to provide a model, namely the shell model, for the electronic structure of atoms that is consistent with experimental ionization energies.
Gillespie, Ronald J.; Moog, Richard S.; Spencer, James N. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 539.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
The Crucial Role of Kinetic Energy in Interpreting Ionization Energies  Frank Rioux and Roger L. DeKock
The experimental ratio of the ionization energies of H and He is 1.81. The authors show that it is not correct to interpret this ratio using a classical Coulombic potential energy model. Rather a quantum mechanical model is required in which both kinetic and potential energy play a role.
Rioux, Frank; DeKock, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 537.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
News from Online: Photons and Lasers  Carolyn Sweeney Judd
Online resources related to light and lasers.
Judd, Carolyn Sweeney. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 526.
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Demonstrations on Paramagnetism with an Electronic Balance  Adolf Cortel
The demonstration shows the paramagnetism of common inorganic compounds by measuring the force with which they are attracted by a magnet over the plate of an electronic balance.
Cortel, Adolf. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 61.
Magnetic Properties |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Observation of Magnetic Repulsion Acting on Nitrogen Bubble on Water Surface - A Simple Experiment of Studying Diamagnetic Property of Nitrogen  Yukinori Matsuyama, Takashi Yasuoka, Syunmei Mitsuzawa, Tunetaka Sasaki
Observation of the paramagnetic property by a simple experiment showing the attraction of an oxygen bubble on the water surface to a magnet has been reported. In this article, we report the opposite behavior magnetic repulsion observed for a nitrogen bubble by the same method. [Third author's first name misspelled in hard copy and PDF.]
Matsuyama, Yukinori; Yasuoka, Takashi; Mitsuzawa, Syunmei; Sasaki, Tunetaka. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 943.
Learning Theories |
Magnetic Properties |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Atomic and Molecular Structure in Chemical Education: A Critical Analysis from Various Perspectives of Science Education  Georgios Tsaparlis
The perspectives employed in this paper are (i) the Piagetian developmental perspective, (ii) the Ausbelian theory of meaningful learning, (iii) the information processing theory, and (iv) the alternative conceptions movement. The implications for teaching and curriculums are discussed.
Tsaparlis, Georgios. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 922.
Learning Theories |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Constructivism
Determination of DeltaH for Reactions of the Born-Haber Cycle  Richard S. Treptow
Review of the many experimental methods used to determine ?H for the various steps of the cycle for the formation of sodium chloride. Two topics given special attention are the choice of standard state of the electron and the importance of distinguishing lattice enthalpy from lattice energy.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 919.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Thermodynamics
A Coordination Geometry Table of the d-Block Elements and Their Ions  D. Venkataraman, Yuhua Du, Scott R. Wilson, Keith A. Hirsch, Peng Zhang, Jeffrey S. Moore
Quantitative data on the frequency with which a particular d-block element or ion adopts certain coordination geometries organized within a single table.
Venkataraman, D.; Du, Yuhua; Wilson, Scott R.; Hirsch, Keith A.; Zhang, Peng; Moore, Jeffrey S. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 915.
Coordination Compounds |
Metals |
Transition Elements |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Teaching Chemistry with Electron Density Models  Gwendolyn P. Shusterman and Alan J. Shusterman
This article describes a powerful new method for teaching students about electronic structure and its relevance to chemical phenomena. This method, developed and used for several years in general chemistry and organic chemistry courses, relies on computer-generated three-dimensional models of electron density distributions.
Shusterman, Gwendolyn P.; Shusterman, Alan J. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 771.
Learning Theories |
Computational Chemistry |
Molecular Modeling |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
The Onium Compounds  Nicolay V. Tsarevsky, Vera Slaveykova, Stefan Manev, Dobri Lazarov
The onium salts are of significant interest for theoretical and structural chemistry, and for organic synthesis, while the application of different onium salts is immense.
Tsarevsky, Nicolay V.; Slaveykova, Vera; Manev, Stefan; Lazaroz, Dobri. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 734.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Efficient Light-to-Electrical Energy Conversion: Nanocrystalline TiO2 Films Modified with Inorganic Sensitizers  Gerald J. Meyer
The basic features of the sensitized nanocrystalline solar cell are presented. An emphasis is placed on the molecular electron transfer processes that convert and inhibit the conversion of visible photons to an electrical current. New strategies for improving this technology and future research directions are also discussed.
Meyer, Gerald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 652.
Dyes / Pigments |
Materials Science |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Electrochemistry |
Nanotechnology |
Coordination Compounds
Perfect Strangers: Inorganic Photochemistry and Nucleic Acids  Pamela J. Carter, Suzanne A. Ciftan, Mark F. Sistare, H. Holden Thorp
The applications of inorganic photochemistry to nucleic acid chemistry are discussed. A brief review of nucleic acid structure is given. Methods for probing DNA using emissive inorganic complexes are discussed. Photoreactions that damage DNA by hydrogen atom transfer from sugar or electron abstraction from guanine are presented.
Carter, Pamela J.; Ciftan Suzanne A.; Sistare, Mark F.; Thorp, H. Holden. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 641.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The authors Reply to "Why the 4s Orbital Is Occupied before the 3d"   Melvyn P. Melrose and Eric Scerri
Value of the frozen orbital approximation.
Melrose, Melvyn P.; Scerri, Eric. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 616.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Why the 4s Orbital Is Occupied before the 3d  James L. Bills
Epsilon values for Cr and Cu.
Bills, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 616.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Dymystification at What Cost? (re J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 617 and 627)  R. J. Gillespie, J. N. Spencer, R. S. Moog
Rationale for using Allen's scale of electronegativities.
Gillespie, R. J.; Spencer, J. N.; Moog, R. S. . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 480.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Dymystification at What Cost? (re J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 617 and 627)  Eric Scerri
Errors and questionable rationale for using Allen's scale of electronegativities.
Scerri, Eric. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 480.
Atomic Properties / Structure
A Spreadsheet Template for Quantum Mechanical Wavepacket Propagation  John C. Hansen, Donald J. Kouri, David K. Hoffman
A spreadsheet template has been developed which can propagate a one-dimensional quantum mechanical wave function through a specified time-step. Repeated propagation results in a sequence of graphs which can be interpreted as "frames" of a movie. The wave function is represented by a set of its values on an evenly spaced grid. The initial state and the potential energy function may be set by the user.
Hansen, John C.; Kouri, Donald J.; Hoffman, David K. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 335.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Electron Affinities of the Alkaline Earth Metals and the Sign Convention for Electron Affinity  John C. Wheeler
It has been known since 1987, both theoretically and experimentally, that the ion Ca- is stable. It is now certain that Sr-, Ba-, and Ra- are also stable, and accurate values for the electron affinities of Ca-, Sr-, and Ba- have been determined. Recommended values for these electron affinities, in the units commonly employed in introductory texts and with the sign convention used here, are 2.37, 5.03, and 13.95 kJ/mol for Ca, Sr, and Ba, respectively.
Wheeler, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 123.
Metals |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The Role of Electrostatic Effects in Organic Chemistry  Kenneth B. Wiberg
Electrostatic effects on the properties of organic compounds are reviewed to demonstrate the importance of electronegativity differences between the atoms forming a bond. Bond dissociation energies are generally found to increase as the electronegativity difference increases, and the bonds have increased ionic character.
Wiberg, Kenneth B. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1089.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
Selection Rules For Processes Involving Photon-Molecule Interaction: A Symmetry-Conservation-Based Approach Bypassing Transition Matrix Elements  Mihir Chowdhury
The deduction of selection rule for a photon-induced transition in an atom/molecule is usually a lengthy process , we invoke the principle that the total symmetry of the initial state is preserved in the final state taking both molecular and photon wave functions into consideration.
Chowdhury, Mihir. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 743.
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Electronic Configuration Pattern Found in Pascal's Triangle  Robert L. Duncan
A simple method for revealing the electronic configuration pattern within Pascal's Triangle is discussed. The origin of this unique pattern may be part of a combinatoric and is suggested a link may be made to quantum mechanics. Based on this triangular array an alternate representation of the Periodic Table is presented.
Duncan, Robert L. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 742.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Why the 4s Orbital Is Occupied before the 3d  Melvyn P. Melrose and Eric R. Scerri
It is demonstrated that the difference between the total energies of two electronic configurations can be expressed as an orbital energy difference, provided that the configurations differ only in the assignment of one electron and that each of the energies of the differentiating orbitals corresponds to an ionization energy in its own configuration.
Melrose Melvyn; Scerri, Eric R. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 498.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The Role of Electron-Density Transfer and Electronegativity in Understanding Chemical Reactivity and Bonding  Russell S. Drago and Ngai M. Wong
The Electrostatic-Covalent-Transfer, ECT, model provides a fit of bond energies for a large data base whose accuracy for the full data set exceeds that of any other reported approach.
Drago, Russell S.; Wong, Ngai M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 123.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Visualizing Five Equivalent d Orbitals  David, Carl W.
Using Mathematica to translate notational orbitals into contour diagrams.
David, Carl W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A238.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
Wiley Series in Ion Chemistry and Physics. Unimolecular and Bimolecular Ion-Molecule Reaction Dynamics (Ng, Cheuk-Yiu; Baer, Tomas; Powis, Ivan)  
Continuing series.
J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A94.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Wiley Series in Ion Chemistry and Physics: Low Energy Ion-Surface Interactions (Rabalais, J. Wayne; Baer, Tomas; Ng, Cheuk-Yiu; Powis, Ivan)  
Monograph.
J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A42.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Surface Science
Simplifying Difficult Mathematical Concepts in Chemistry Courses  Russell W. Maatman
Two syllabi, "Origin of the Spatial Quantum Numbers n, l, and ml" and "Introduction to the Rate Laws of Chemical Reactions", that specifically and completely outline the mathematical development of these concepts.
Maatman, Russell W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1089.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Chemometrics |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Examining the Shapes of Atomic Orbitals Using Mathcad  Ramachandran, B.
180. Bits and pieces, 55. Describes how three-dimensional contour plots of spherical harmonics may be generated using MathCad.
Ramachandran, B. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1082.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
Ladder-Operator Treatment of the Radial Equation for the Hydrogenlike Atom  Donald D. Fitts
A new approach to the solution of the radial equation for the hydrogenlike atom using the ladder-operator method.
Fitts, Donald D. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1066.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Moseley's Work on X-Rays and Atomic Number  C. W. Haigh
Explanation of the relationship between Moseley's work in determining atomic numbers, the spectrum of the hydrogen atom, the Bohr theory, and Slater's rules for screening constants.
Haigh, C. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1012.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
What Does It Mean?: Reflections on Concentration, Activity, and Electrode Potential  Pietro Lanza
Explanation of electrode potential and the mechanism of the electrode process for determining concentration.
Lanza, Pietro. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1009.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Electrochemistry
Ion-Pair Complexation in Moderately Strong Aqueous Acids  Lowell M. Schwartz
Discussion/analysis of ion association in aqueous solution, particularly ion pairing involving the hydronium ion.
Schwartz, Lowell M. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 823.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Singlet Oxygen at the Laundromat  David Keeports
Method for demonstrating the production of singlet molecular oxygen.
Keeports, David . J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 822.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Computer-Generated Ternary Phase Diagrams   Leon L. Combs and Gregory W. Lynn
175. Bits and pieces, 54. Application of software (Monte Carlo) to obtain statistical thermodynamic properties of particles viewed as local harmonic oscillators.
Combs, Leon L.; Lynn, Gregory W. . J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 606.
Thermodynamics |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
Understanding Electron Spin  Boeyens, Jan C. A.
Explanation and clarification of electron spin.
Boeyens, Jan C. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 412.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Three-Dimensional Graphical Visualization of One-Electron Atomic Orbitals  Ramachandran, B.; Kong, P. C.
173. Bits and pieces, 53. Software to produce contour plots of atomic orbitals.
Ramachandran, B.; Kong, P. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 406.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Where the Electrons Are  Barth, Roger
173. Bits and pieces, 53. Software for realistic modeling of electronic orbitals using contour plots of probability densities.
Barth, Roger J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 401.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Characterization of Low-Valent Nickel Complexes Stabilized by Bis(diphenylphosphino)methane Using Multinuclear NMR and IR Spectroscopy.  Trumpy, Valory A.; Oriskovich, Tracy A.; Gallaher, Thomas N.; Schreiner, Serge
Experimental method for the synthesis of zero-valent nickel complexes containing bis(diphenylphosphino)methane and identification through NMR and IR spectroscopy; sample data and analysis included.
Trumpy, Valory A.; Oriskovich, Tracy A.; Gallaher, Thomas N.; Schreiner, Serge J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 357.
Metals |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Coordination Compounds |
Synthesis
Isoelectronic Series: The Stability of Their Members  Sima, Jozef
Explanation for the existence and stability of isoelectronic series members.
Sima, Jozef J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 310.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Thermodynamics |
Quantum Chemistry
An Easily Constructed Salicylate-Ion-Selective Electrode for Use in the Instructional Laboratory  Creager, Stephen E.; Lawrence, Kyle D.; Tibbets, Craig R.
Construction and use of a salicylate-ion-selective electrode; includes a calibration curve.
Creager, Stephen E.; Lawrence, Kyle D.; Tibbets, Craig R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 274.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Ion Selective Electrodes
Change of Forms of Cadmium in the Aquatic Environment  Wu, R. S. S.
Procedure for determining the concentration of cadmium in water samples and changes in that concentration under varying conditions.
Wu, R. S. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 264.
Metals |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis
Use of Electrochemical Concentration Cells to Demonstrate the Dimeric Nature of Mercury(I) in Aqueous Media  Bhattacharya, Deepta; Peters, Dennis G.
Experimental procedure for demonstrating that divalent mercury is monovalent in aqueous solution; includes data and analysis.
Bhattacharya, Deepta; Peters, Dennis G. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 64.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Electronegativities of the Noble Gases  Meek, Terry L.
Analysis of various techniques for determining electronegativity values for the noble gases.
Meek, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 17.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Main-Group Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Gases
The Hydride Ion and Its Loosely Bound Outer Electron  Li, Wai-Kee
The author is giving credit for a conclusion on the electron configuration of the hydrogen atom that was incorrectly referenced to him.
Li, Wai-Kee J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1098.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Orbital Bartending  Barbaro, John
This analogy is a means for students to better understand the the hybridization of carbon's atomic orbitals.
Barbaro, John J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1012.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The Periodic Table of Atoms: Arranging the Elements by a Different Set of Rules  Treptow, Richard S.
The periodic table found in this paper is based on the properties of free gaseous atoms rather than atoms in a chemical environment.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1007.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Instability of Large Nuclides with Respect to Decay by alpha-Particle Emission  Logan, S. R.
Criterion for predicting decay by alpha-particle emission and nuclear binding energy as a function of mass number.
Logan, S. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 888.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Nuclear Shapes: From the Mundane to the Exotic  Yates, Steven W.
The shape and stability of atomic nuclei.
Yates, Steven W. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 837.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Simulations and Interactive Resources  Martin, John S.
12 Simulations and Interactive Resources (SIRs) including Periodic Table Displays, Electron Orbits and Orbitals, Electron Configurations, Barometers and Manometers, Vapor Pressure, Ideal Gas Behavior, Heat Capacity and Heat of Reaction, Approach to Equilibrium, The Law of Chemical Equilibrium, Titration Curves, Electrochemical Cells, and Rate of Reaction.
Martin, John S. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 667.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Gases |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Rate Law
Transition Metals and the Aufbau Principle  Vanquickenborne, L. G.; Pierloot, K.; Devoghel, D.
Explanation of why the ground state configuration of the neutral transition metals is in most cases 3dn4s2, and why the ground state configuration of the corresponding ions is obtained by preferentially removing the 4s electrons.
Vanquickenborne, L. G.; Pierloot, K.; Devoghel, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 469.
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Atomic Spectra-Graph  Surovell, Todd
Displays the emission spectra of over 80 elements; data are encapsulated into Microsoft Excel spreadsheets.
Surovell, Todd J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 422.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy
Inexpensive Instrumental Analysis: II: Introductory Spectroscopy  Ramaley, Louis; Young, Kathleen; Guy, Robert D.; Stephens, Roger
A simple atomic flame spectrometer and a solution spectrophotometer that are easily constructed yet provide accurate and reliable results.
Ramaley, Louis; Young, Kathleen; Guy, Robert D.; Stephens, Roger J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 353.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Simple Expression between Critical Radius Ratio and Coordination Number  Toofan, Jahansooz
Critical radius ratios for common coordination numbers and their derivation.
Toofan, Jahansooz J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 147.
Atomic Properties / Structure
A Simple Mathematical Approach to Experimental Ionization Energies of Atoms: A New Method for Estimating the Extent of Shielding  Robertson, Norah E.; Boggioni, Sergio O.; Henriquez, Francisco E.
A simple mathematical approach to experimental ionization energies of atoms using a new method for estimating the extent of shielding.
Robertson, Norah E.; Boggioni, Sergio O.; Henriquez, Francisco E. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 101.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The Caltech chemistry animation project   Lewis, Nathan S.
Animations are being produced on subjects such as: atomic and molecular orbitals, lattices, VSPER, nucleophilic substitution, stereochemistry, sigma and pi bonding, and many more.
Lewis, Nathan S. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 739.
Stereochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
MO Theory |
Crystals / Crystallography
The physical basis of Hund's rule: Orbital contraction effects  Shenkuan, Ni
Explanation of the fundamental theoretical foundation of Hund's rule.
Shenkuan, Ni J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 800.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Electronegativity and atomic charge  Reed, James L.
Because electronegativity is such a fundamental concept, it should be continually developed in sophistication throughout the curriculum; considers the energy function, atomic charges, and chemical reactivities.
Reed, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 785.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Comments invited on changes in definition of "atomic weight"  Richardson, D. E.
Invitation to comment on changes in definition of "atomic weight" by the Commission on Atomic Weights and Isotopic Abundances of IUPAC.
Richardson, D. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 736.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Argon-potassium atomic weight inversion in the periodic table.  Arnikar, H. J.
An explanation for the Ar-K inversion in terms of the nuclear characteristics of the naturally occurring isotopes of these elements.
Arnikar, H. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 687.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Geochemistry |
Isotopes
The nature of the chemical bond - 1992  Pauling, Linus
Commentary on errors in an earlier article on the nature of the chemical bond.
Pauling, Linus J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 519.
Covalent Bonding |
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Experiment in quantization: Atomic line spectra  Shields, George C.; Kash, Michael M.
This experiment offers a simple and visual method for determining the wavelength of spectral lines.
Shields, George C.; Kash, Michael M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 329.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Spectroscopy
A spectacular demonstration of flame tests   Thomas, Nicholas C.; Brown, Rachel
The authors present an alternate flame test demonstration that utilizes guncotton as the combustible material.
Thomas, Nicholas C.; Brown, Rachel J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 326.
Atomic Properties / Structure
More about the particle-in-a-box system: The confinement of matter and the wave-particle dualism  Volkamer, Klaus; Lerom, Michael W.
Since the particle-in-a-box system (PIB model) is mathematically so simple, it can be used to provide illustrations of many important quantum mechanical concepts without obscuring the principles with mathematical details.
Volkamer, Klaus; Lerom, Michael W. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 100.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A tutorial on the use of curved arrows in organic chemistry  Turek, William N.
133. Bits and pieces, 47. The use of curved arrows in organic chemistry is an excellent way to illustrate the flow of electrons as reactants form intermediates or products.
Turek, William N. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 45.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Developmental instruction: Part II. Application of the Perry model to general chemistry  Finster, David C.
The Perry scheme offers a framework in which teachers can understand how students make meaning of their world, and specific examples on how instructors need to teach these students so that the students can advance as learners.
Finster, David C. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 752.
Learning Theories |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Chemometrics |
Descriptive Chemistry
There are no such things as orbitals-Act two!  Simons, Jack
What is the role of molecular orbital theory in chemistry instruction?
Simons, Jack J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 131.
MO Theory |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
MolVib: Visualizing molecular vibrations  Huber, Daniel
A software program that features animations that aid in visualizing molecular vibrations. This program can be used appropriately in several levels of chemistry.
Huber, Daniel J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 39.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Simple Inorganic Substances: A New Approach (Sanderson, R.T.)  Kauffman, Goerge B.
This book stresses the cause-and-effect relationship between the structures of atoms and the properties of their compounds, with an emphasis on providing a thorough understanding of the most familiar and important inorganic compounds.
Kauffman, Goerge B. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A26.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Descriptive Chemistry
Hydrogen atom orbitals  Liebl, Michael
Program includes a short discussion of Schroedinger's equation and calculates radial, spherical harmonic, and total wave function solutions for hydrogen orbitals.
Liebl, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 922.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Periodic chart pedagogy  Yoder, Claude H.; Yoder, Carolyn S.
Questions based upon a hypothetical set of quantum numbers and their relationships; includes answers.
Yoder, Claude H.; Yoder, Carolyn S. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 759.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Keeping track of directions of atomic orbitals: A useful device in organic chemistry  Talaty, Erach R.
The usefulness of keeping track of the directions of atomic orbitals.
Talaty, Erach R. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 655.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Alkenes |
Alkynes
How do electrons get across nodes? A problem in the interpretation of the quantum theory  Nelson, P. G.
Suggested responses to the question "How do electrons get across nodes?".
Nelson, P. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 643.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Calculating percent boundary surfaces for hydrogenlike s orbitals - An undergraduate computer assignment  Schwartz, Leslie J.
115. Bits and pieces, 44. This article describes a student programming exercise to calculate percent boundary surfaces for s orbitals.
Schwartz, Leslie J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 504.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The periodicity of electron affinity  Myers, R. Thomas
In general, the values of electron affinity for the elements can be understood in terms of their ground state electron configuration, and the screening (effective nuclear charge) exerted on the added electron by the electrons already present in the neutral atom.
Myers, R. Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 307.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Lattice enthalpies of ionic halides, hydrides, oxides, and sulfides: Second-electron affinities of atomic oxygen and sulfur  Holbrook, Jack B.; Sabry-Grant, Ralph; Smith, Barry C.; Tandel, Thakor V.
These simple empirical relationships which allow lattice enthalpies of ionic compounds to be determined readily from observed internuclear separations are investigated here.
Holbrook, Jack B.; Sabry-Grant, Ralph; Smith, Barry C.; Tandel, Thakor V. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 304.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Ionic Bonding
The nature of the chemical bond--1990: There are no such things as orbitals!  Ogilivie, J. F.
The author discusses the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics, the laws and theories, and the relationship of quantum-mechanics to atomic and molecular structure, as well as their relevance to chemical education.
Ogilivie, J. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 280.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A formula for calculating atomic radii of metals  Ping, Mei; Xiubin, Lei; Yuankai, Wen
In this paper, the authors present a theoretical formula for calculating metallic radii.
Ping, Mei; Xiubin, Lei; Yuankai, Wen J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 218.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Metals
From "electrum" to positronium  Kragh, Helge
The present paper outlines the early history of the positronium concept, roughly from 1934 to the discovery in 1951.
Kragh, Helge J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 196.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Molecular electronic terms and molecular orbital configurations  Mazo, R. M.
This paper answers the question, which molecular electronic terms can arise from a given electronic configuration?
Mazo, R. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 135.
MO Theory |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A student experiment to demonstrate the energy loss and straggling of electrons in matter  de Bruin, M.; Huijgen, F. W. J.
The experiment described has been applied routinely for several years in introductory courses in the application of radiation and isotopes. The results obtained give direct insight into the characteristics of the phenomena associated with the absorption of energetic electrons in matter.
de Bruin, M.; Huijgen, F. W. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 86.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Isotopes
Demonstrations for nonscience majors: Using common objects to illustrate abstract concepts  Laurita, William
Some concrete examples of common chemical phenomena designed for a class of nonscience majors.
Laurita, William J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 60.
Nonmajor Courses |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Teaching the shapes of the hydrogenlike and hybrid atomic orbitals  Allendoerfer, Robert D.
The purpose of this article to show that, in this age of computer graphics, the "difficult to obtain" argument no longer has merit and to give an example of where the standard treatment gives insufficient attention to detail in describing the nodal surfaces of hybrid orbitals.
Allendoerfer, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 37.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The most useful actinide isotope: Americium-241  Navratil, James D.; Schulz, Wallace W.; Seaborg, Glenn T.
This paper briefly reviews Americium's discovery, nuclear and chemical properties, and its uses with an emphasis on its production and separations chemistry.
Navratil, James D.; Schulz, Wallace W.; Seaborg, Glenn T. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 15.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Separation Science |
Applications of Chemistry
Student comparisons of analytical chemical methods in undergraduate chemistry courses  Harrison, Aline M.; Peterman, Keith E.
Four experiments in which different analytical methods are used to make the same measurement for purposes of comparison.
Harrison, Aline M.; Peterman, Keith E. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 772.
Gravimetric Analysis |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Enzymes |
Quantitative Analysis
Transition metal configurations and limitations of the orbital approximation  Scerri, Eric R.
Points out a misconception concerning the "building up" of the transition elements and their first ionization energies that is reinforced by many chemistry texts.
Scerri, Eric R. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 481.
Transition Elements |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The three forms of molecular oxygen  Laing, Michael
Analysis of three different electronic states of the O2 molecule and applications to organic reactions.
Laing, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 453.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Hund's Rule-Like Behavior among Humans!  Nambi, Parthasarathy
On my Metro bus ride to work every day, I have consistently observed Hund's rule-like behavior among humans.
Nambi, Parthasarathy J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 359.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Ammonium hydroxide does not exist  Yoke, John
No matter how the s and three p orbitals are hybridized, nitrogen can form a maximum of only four bonds.
Yoke, John J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 310.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The mass spectrum of sulfur  Dudek, Gerald; Dudek, Emily P.
The concepts of isotopic abundance, mass defect, fragmentation, and nuclear binding energies are all illustrated in the readily interpretable spectrum of a nonorganic material.
Dudek, Gerald; Dudek, Emily P. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 304.
Mass Spectrometry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Atomic calculations with a one-parameter, single integral method  Baretty, Reinaldo; Garcia, Carmelo
The purpose of this article is to present an energy function containing a single integral and one variational parameter.
Baretty, Reinaldo; Garcia, Carmelo J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 45.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Chemometrics
A colorful demonstration to simulate orbital hybridization  Emerson, David W.
A simple, colorful demonstration involving nothing more than several beakers of colored water can speed up student comprehension of hybrid orbitals at the introductory level.
Emerson, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 454.
Covalent Bonding |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Periodic contractions among the elements: Or, on being the right size  Mason, Joan
Contraction across the row, irregularities in the build up of the periodic table, the second row anomaly relativistic contraction and expansion among the heavier elements, post-transition anomaly, periodicities of physicochemical properties.
Mason, Joan J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 17.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The Heisenberg uncertainty principle: An application to the shell structure of atoms and orbit descriptions of molecules  Hartcourt, Richard D.
A further novel use of the uncertainty principle to deduce the 2n2 shell occupancy rule for atoms.
Hartcourt, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1070.
Atomic Properties / Structure
A numerical algorithm technique for deriving Russell-Saunders (R-S) terms  Kiremire, E. M. R.
Another simple, versatile, and systematic numerical method of deriving the R-S terms as part of the interpretation of atomic and electronic spectra.
Kiremire, E. M. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 951.
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Approximation of spherical polyatomic thermochemical radii of general formula MXnz-  Solis Correa, Hugo; Gomez Lara, Jacabo
A method to calculate the approximate thermochemical radii for polyatomic ions of general formula MXnz-.
Solis Correa, Hugo; Gomez Lara, Jacabo J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 942.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Electronegativity: A mnemonic rule  Kapellos, S.; Mavrides, A.
A rule for the electronegativities of the second and third row elements.
Kapellos, S.; Mavrides, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 941.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Reexamining the diagonal relationships  Hanusa, Timothy P.
Li(I) and Mg(II) are better paired with / compared to other ions rather than one another.
Hanusa, Timothy P. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 686.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Hydrogen atom spectrum using an AA spectrophotometer  Douglas, John; von Nagy Felsobuki, Ellak I.
Using an AA spectrophotometer to measure the Balmer series of the hydrogen atom spectrum.
Douglas, John; von Nagy Felsobuki, Ellak I. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 552.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Electron spectroscopic methods in teaching  Allan, Michael
Presents several spectra in a format suitable for teaching applications with the intention of promoting the use of electron energy-loss spectroscopy in teaching the electronic structure of atoms and molecules at an elementary level.
Allan, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 418.
Spectroscopy |
Quantum Chemistry |
Photochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
MO Theory
A novel pictorial approach to teaching molecular motions in polyatomic molecules  Verkade, John G.
A procedure in which the "generator orbital" approach can be utilized to teach students how to generate the vibrational, rotational, and translational modes of molecules in a completely pictorial manner.
Verkade, John G. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 411.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Atomic Properties / Structure
An upward view of the periodic table: Getting to the bottom of it  Guenther, William B.
Develops the 18-group basis of the periodic table; shows that, while the 1-18 designations can give unambiguous information to students, no printed designations are needed for teaching; and shows how to obtain unique, physical group definitions that avoid the problems of conflicting and changeable chemical interpretations.
Guenther, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 9.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The squeezed-earth problem   Rhodes, Gale
This take-home-exam question promotes a discussion in class and demonstrates the conceptual difficulties in understanding protons and neutrons.
Rhodes, Gale J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 970.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Solid State Chemistry
Microcomputer use in practical and simulated experiments of gamma rays scattering by outer shell electrons  Cabrol, D.; Mallet, G.; Chauvet, T.
65. Bits and pieces, 26. A computer is used to review Compton scattering, guide students in setting up the experimental apparatus, check the calibration of instruments, produce a simulated spectrum, and extend the investigation through an interactive simulation.
Cabrol, D.; Mallet, G.; Chauvet, T. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1026.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Separation of lithium from magnesium sodium, and potassium  Werner, Wolfgang
Method for separating and detecting lithium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium
Werner, Wolfgang J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 808.
Separation Science |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
IUPAC table of atomic weights to four significant figures  Greenwood, N. N.; Peiser, H. S.
Masses for the first 103 elements scaled so the mass of 12C is exactly 12.
Greenwood, N. N.; Peiser, H. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 744.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Revised atomic form periodic table  Strong, Frederick C., III
A circular periodic table.
Strong, Frederick C., III J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 456.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Orbital shape representations  Kikuchi, Osamu; Suzuki, Keizo
The use of two-dimensional polar plots and three-dimensional contour surfaces to represent atomic orbitals.
Kikuchi, Osamu; Suzuki, Keizo J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 206.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Qualitative identification of potassium ions using didymium glasses  Wood, William F.
Students using the didymium glasses of glass blowers have no trouble determining the presence or absence of potassium in flame tests when their unknown contains sodium.
Wood, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1024.
Qualitative Analysis |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Suitable light sources and spectroscopes for student observation of emission spectra in lecture halls  Hughes, Elvin, Jr.
Assembly of a simple, rugged spectroscope suitable for the lecture hall.
Hughes, Elvin, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 908.
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The ''anomalous" electron affinity of lead: An example of isoelectronic behavior  Chamizo, Jose Antonio
Relativistic effects can explain the anomalous properties of many heavy metals.
Chamizo, Jose Antonio J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 874.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Metals
Electronic structure prediction for transition metal ions  Nance, Lewis E.
A useful mnemonic for the electronic structure for M (II) elements.
Nance, Lewis E. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 339.
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Oxidation State |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Models to depict hybridization of atomic orbitals  Stubblefield, C. T.
Six models of hybridization: linear, trigonal, tetrahedral, planar, trigonal bipyrimidal, and octahedral.
Stubblefield, C. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 158.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Covalent Bonding |
Coordination Compounds
Atomic volume and allotropy of the elements  Singman, Charles N.
Presents reliable values of atomic volumes determined through X-ray methods, as well as allotropic forms of the elements under nonstandard temperatures and pressures.
Singman, Charles N. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 137.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Metals |
Transition Elements
A convenient lecture demonstration of fluorescence   Burrows, Hugh D.
In introducing fluorescence in courses in photochemistry, spectroscopy, or analytical chemistry it is valuable to have a demonstration showing clearly its characteristics, particularly that the emitted light is as longer wavelengths than the absorbed light and that the fluorescence decays very rapidly when the source of excitation is removed.
Burrows, Hugh D. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 228.
Spectroscopy |
Photochemistry |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Determination of sodium in salt substitute by flame emission spectroscopy  Goodney, David E.
Using this procedure a student should be able to report the ppm Na in a salt substitute with an error of a few percent.
Goodney, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 875.
Food Science |
Consumer Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Presenting the Bohr atom  Haendler, Blanca L.
A more significant consideration of the role of the Bohr theory in the development of quantum mechanics would have many benefits for introductory and advanced chemistry classes.
Haendler, Blanca L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 372.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
The negatively-charged nitrogen in ammonium ion and derived concepts of acidity, basicity, proton affinity, and ion energetics  Greenberg, Arthur; Winkler, Robert; Smith, Barbara L.; Liebman, Joel F.
The concept of atomic charges is intimately related to those of acidity, basicity, proton affinity, and ion energetics; among the plethora of numbers derived by calculation and experiment lie simple and useful rules for the understanding and prediction of chemical behavior.
Greenberg, Arthur; Winkler, Robert; Smith, Barbara L.; Liebman, Joel F. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 367.
Acids / Bases |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Illustrating the problem described by Heisenberg's uncertainty principle  Cosser, Ronald C.
A simple overhead projector demonstration illustrating Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle.
Cosser, Ronald C. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 300.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Groups and subgroups in the periodic table of the elements: A proposal of modification in the nomenclature  Araneo, Antonio
A proposal to eliminate the "A" and "B" designations of subgroups and replace them with letters referring directly to the electronic structures of atoms.
Araneo, Antonio J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 784.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Atomic Properties / Structure
4s Sometimes is below 3d - the author replies  Pilar, Frank L.
Reply to criticism of original article.
Pilar, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 767.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
4s Sometimes is below 3d  Carlton, Terry S.
Seeks to correct flaws in cited article.
Carlton, Terry S. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 767.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Theoretical justification of Madelung's rule  Wong, D. Pan
Provides theoretical and physical meaning to the sequence of filling electron shells of neutral atoms in the periodic table dictated by Madelung's rule.
Wong, D. Pan J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 714.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Electrons, bonding, orbitals, and light: A unified approach to the teaching of structure and bonding in organic chemistry courses  Lenox, Ronald S.
A suggested list of topics and methods for teaching introductory organic students bonding concepts.
Lenox, Ronald S. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 298.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Lewis Structures |
Spectroscopy |
Covalent Bonding
Participatory lecture demonstrations  Battino, Rubin
Examples of participatory lecture demonstrations in chromatography, chemical kinetics, balancing equations, the gas laws, the kinetic-molecular theory, Henry's law, electronic energy levels in atoms, translational, vibrational, and rotational energies of molecules, and organic chemistry.
Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 39.
Chromatography |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Kinetics |
Stoichiometry |
Gases |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Elemental evolution and isotopic composition  Rydberg, J.; Choppin, G. R.
Reviews elemental abundances and the processes of elemental creation.
Rydberg, J.; Choppin, G. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 742.
Astrochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Isotopes |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Geochemistry
Atomic wave functions  Fitzpatrick, Noel; Wilson, Owen
A booklet containing wave functions drawn using a Calcomp plotter is available.
Fitzpatrick, Noel; Wilson, Owen J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 676.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Converting atomic spectral line widths from frequency to wavelength  Lovett, R. J.; Parsons, M. L.
A method that illustrates the conversion from frequency to wavelength in a readily understandable fashion requiring only the visualization of a spectral line shape and some algebra.
Lovett, R. J.; Parsons, M. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 615.
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Instrumental Methods
Novel pictorial approach to teaching MO concepts in polyatomic molecules  Hoffman, D. K.; Ruedenberg, K.; Verkade, J. G.
Methods used in a one-quarter course to familiarize students with the general applicability of delocalized and localized molecular orbitals to polyatomic systems; includes examples of delocalized and localized molecular orbitals of XeF2, C3H3+, CH4, and CO2.
Hoffman, D. K.; Ruedenberg, K.; Verkade, J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 590.
MO Theory |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Huckel calculations using a programmable pocket calculator  Murgich, Juan
Programmable calculators allow the direct calculations of simple pi-molecular orbitals of the Huckel or Mulliken-Wolfsberg-Helmholz type.
Murgich, Juan J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 421.
Chemometrics |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
303-308. Six practical, environmental chemistry application questions and their answers. Q303 submitted by Jerry Ray Dias.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 369.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Metals |
Toxicology |
Coordination Compounds |
Membranes |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Chemical aspects of Bohr's 1913 theory  Kragh, Helge
The chemical content of Bohr's 1913 theory has generally been neglected in the treatises on the history of chemistry; this paper regards Bohr as a theoretical chemist and discusses the chemical aspects of his atomic theory.
Kragh, Helge J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 208.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Theoretical Chemistry
Simple models for tough concepts  Cavagnol, Richard M.; Barnett, Thomas
One of the most challenging aspects of instructional interaction is the presentation of dynamic chemical concepts interaction is the presentation of dynamic chemical concepts in a way that is both believable and understandable. The authors have devised a series of models that are simple, inexpensive, and require very little time or skill to construct. They allow students to visualize a whole spectrum of phenomena from atomic structure to enzyme-substrate interactions.
Cavagnol, Richard M.; Barnett, Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 643.
Enzymes |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Transport Properties
LXXXVI. Atomic spectroscopy atomization systems (Continued)  Dresser, R. D.; Mooney, R. A.; Heithmar, E. M.; Plankey, F. W.
Reviews recent advances in electrically heated non-flame atomizers.
Dresser, R. D.; Mooney, R. A.; Heithmar, E. M.; Plankey, F. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, A451.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy
LXXXVI. Atomic spectroscopy atomization systems [part one]  Dresser, R. D.; Mooney, R. A.; Heithmar, E. M.; Plankey, F. W.
Reviews recent advances in flame atomizers, including burners, nebulizers, and flames.
Dresser, R. D.; Mooney, R. A.; Heithmar, E. M.; Plankey, F. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, A403.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The "anomalous" ionization potential of bismuth  Smith, Derek, W.
Draws attention to a less well known anomaly in atomic ionization potentials and offers an explanation, considering particularly the "anomalous" ionization potential of bismuth.
Smith, Derek, W. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 576.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The experimental values of atomic electron affinities. Their selection and periodic behavior  Chen, E. C. M.; Wentworth, W. E.
Presents experimental values of atomic electron affinities and discusses their determination.
Chen, E. C. M.; Wentworth, W. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 486.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Converting a television system into a quantitative atomic emission spectrograph  Richtol, H. H.; Reeves, R. R.; Nelson, D. L.
The conversion involves placing a transmission grating over the lens of a television camera that is focussed on a discharge tube.
Richtol, H. H.; Reeves, R. R.; Nelson, D. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 198.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Methods for obtaining Russell-Saunders term symbols from electronic configurations  Hyde, Kenneth E.
Illustrates and comments on several procedures available for dealing with more complex electron configurations.
Hyde, Kenneth E. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 87.
Atomic Properties / Structure
A microstate-generating computer program  Phillips, David A.
A Basic program has been written that generates the microstates (LS coupling) for any partially filled s, p, d or f subshell.
Phillips, David A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 863.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Regularities and relations among ionization potentials of nontransition elements  Liebman, Joel F.
Provides several semiempirical procedures for investigating ionization potentials.
Liebman, Joel F. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 831.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Electron affinity. The zeroth ionization potential  Brooks, David W.; Meyers, Edward A.; Sicilio, Fred; Nearing, James C.
It is the purpose of this article to present the merits of adopting the terminology zeroth ionization potential to describe the energy change that occurs when a gaseous anion loses an electron.
Brooks, David W.; Meyers, Edward A.; Sicilio, Fred; Nearing, James C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 487.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
More on the close-packing of atoms  Benedict, H. Courtney
A physical model illustrating the differences between 6-, 4-, and 3-fold axes of symmetry.
Benedict, H. Courtney J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 419.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Solids |
Molecular Modeling |
Crystals / Crystallography
d orbitals in main group elements  Brill, T. B.
An exposition on some of the reasons there are questions regarding the involvement of d orbitals in bonding among the main group elements and several alternative explanations for using d orbitals in this respect.
Brill, T. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 392.
Main-Group Elements |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Visualization of the atomic absorption of mercury vapor by use of a fluorescent screen  Argauer, Robert J.; White, Charles E.
Presents a demonstration to visualize the presence of metallic mercury vapor.
Argauer, Robert J.; White, Charles E. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 27.
Toxicology |
Gases |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Model to illustrate bonding and symmetry of transition metal complexes  Betteridge, D.
Describes a physical model used to demonstrate the combination of atomic orbitals of the transition metal ion with those on surrounding ligands to give molecular orbitals.
Betteridge, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 824.
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Coordination Compounds |
Molecular Modeling |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Group Theory / Symmetry
Transparent 3-D models of electron probability distributions  McClellan, A. L.
The authors describe transparent, three-dimensional models in which regions of high electron probability seem to float in space, without definite boundaries and with the "internal" variations of probability density clearly visible.
McClellan, A. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 761.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
A new way of presenting atomic orbitals  Linnett, J. W.; Bordass, W. T.
Uses three-dimensional contour diagrams to plot and illustrate electron distributions and atomic orbitals.
Linnett, J. W.; Bordass, W. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 672.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Nuclear overlapping of s electrons  McMillan, J. A.; Halpern, T.
Reviews the basic theory underlying electron configurations and interprets the electronic density at the nucleus of the s orbitals plotted as a function of atomic number.
McMillan, J. A.; Halpern, T. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 644.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Forces and quantum field theory  Brescia, Frank
This article seeks to explain the nature of forces between nucleons in terms of the quantum field theory for the general reader using a simple analogy.
Brescia, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 642.
Quantum Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Role of f electrons in chemical binding  Johnson, O.
Data presented suggests that f electrons, by their ineffective screening of the nuclear charge, exert an indirect effect on the binding strength of actions.
Johnson, O. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 431.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Metals |
Transition Elements
The periodic systems of D. I. Mendeleev and problems of nuclear chemistry  Gol'danskii, V. I.; translated by Avakian, Peter
Examines the acquisition and identification of new chemical elements and the structure of the eighth period of the periodic table.
Gol'danskii, V. I.; translated by Avakian, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 406.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Metals
Contour diagrams for relativistic orbitals  Szabo, Attila
The purpose of this article is to amplify an earlier JCE article regarding taking pictorial representations of atomic orbitals too literally.
Szabo, Attila J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 678.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; House, J. E., Jr.; Campbell, J. A.
(1) When is the rule valid that the rate of reaction approximately doubles with a ten-degree temperature rise? - answer by House. (2) On the colors of transition metal complexes. (3) On an electrolysis experiment in which an acid solution is used to minimize the hydrolysis of Cu 2+. - answer by Campbell.
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; House, J. E., Jr.; Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 674.
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Transition Elements |
Coordination Compounds |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Acids / Bases
On the discovery of the electron  Morrow, B. A.
Thomson's experiment resolved the controversy concerning the corpuscular or wave nature of cathode rays, while Millikan's experiment resolved the controversy concerning the continuous or discrete nature of electrical phenomena.
Morrow, B. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 584.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The graphical representation of hydrogen-like wave functions  Perlmutter-Hayman, Berta
Clarifies concepts and graphs related to the representation of hydrogen-like wave functions.
Perlmutter-Hayman, Berta J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 428.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Improving potassium flame tests  Strong, Frederick C., III
Describes ways for optimizing the classical flame test for potassium.
Strong, Frederick C., III J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 178.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Qualitative Analysis
Increased-valence theory of valence  Harcourt, R. D.
Describes several "increased valence" formulas for molecular systems with one or more sets of pour electrons distributed among three atomic orbitals of three atoms.
Harcourt, R. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 779.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Valence Bond Theory
Stereo plots of hydrogen-like electron densities  Cromer, Don T.
Presents a series of stereo plots of computer-generated, hydrogen-like electron densities.
Cromer, Don T. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 626.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Anticipating valences  Carraher, Charles E., Jr.
Comments on an earlier published article.
Carraher, Charles E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 351.
Atomic Properties / Structure
A model for illustrating d orbitals  Baker, Wilbur L.
This model illustrates the directional properties of the d orbitals.
Baker, Wilbur L. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 135.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The five equivalent d orbitals  Powell, Richard E.
Several textbooks assert that there is no way of choosing the five d orbitals so they have the same shape but differ only in their orientation.
Powell, Richard E. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 45.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Computer programs for the calculation of overlap integrals  Offenhartz, Peter O'Donnell
Describes three programs developed for the calculation of the overlap of atomic orbitals.
Offenhartz, Peter O'Donnell J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 604.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The use of tables of data in teaching: The students discover laws about ionization potentials  Haight, G. P., Jr.
Students are asked to see what they can discover in a table of ionization potentials of the elements like that presented in most general chemistry textbooks.
Haight, G. P., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 468.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The electron repulsion theory of the chemical bond. I. New models of atomic structure  Luder, W. F.
Describes the electron repulsion theory of electron configuration and applies it to representative elements.
Luder, W. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 206.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Metals
Models illustrating d orbitals involved in multiple bonding  Barrett, Edward J.
Describes the use of Framework Molecular Orbital Models to illustrate the d orbitals involved in multiple bonding
Barrett, Edward J. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 146.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Covalent Bonding
Some aspects of d-orbital participation in phosphorus and silicon chemistry  Bissey, Jack Edwin
Investigates several aspects of d-orbital participation in phosphorus and silicon chemistry.
Bissey, Jack Edwin J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 95.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Flame spectroscopy. Parts 1-3 (Mavrodineanu, Radu; Boiteux, Henri)  West, Allen C.

West, Allen C. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A176.
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Instrumentation for atomic absorptionPart two  Kahn, Herbert L.
Considers sources of atomic absorption, single-element hollow cathodes, manufacturers and lamp life, vapor discharge lamps, multi-element lamps, high brightness lamps, monochromators and detectors, and flame emission operation.
Kahn, Herbert L. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A103.
Instrumental Methods |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Instrumentation for atomic absorptionPart one  Kahn, Herbert L.
Examines the advantages, analytical possibilities, interferences, sensitivities, and instrumental systems of atomic absorption.
Kahn, Herbert L. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A7.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Electronegativities and group IVA chemistry  Payne, Dwight A., Jr.; Fink, Frank Hall
The teacher of inorganic chemistry should present the representative elements of group IVA and their properties as an intellectual and empirical form of investigation rather than as a mere collection of information.
Payne, Dwight A., Jr.; Fink, Frank Hall J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 654.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Fusion reactions under the microscope  Benedetti-Pichler, A. A.; Vikin, Joe
An electrically heated wire is used to identify a variety of cations and anions according to colors observed under a microscope.
Benedetti-Pichler, A. A.; Vikin, Joe J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 421.
Reactions |
Qualitative Analysis |
Atomic Properties / Structure
V - Atomic orbitals  Berry, R. Stephen
Examines atomic orders of magnitude and the Bohr atom, matter waves, one- and many-electron systems, and the correlation problem.
Berry, R. Stephen J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 283.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Atomic orbitals: Limitations and variations  Cohen, Irwin; Bustard, Thomas
The three most widely used methods of arriving at a set of atomic orbitals afford respective hydrogen-like orbitals, self-consistent field orbitals, and various analytical approximations such as the Slater or Morse orbitals, all of which may differ greatly in shape and size from each other.
Cohen, Irwin; Bustard, Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 187.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry
Tangent-sphere models of molecules. III. Chemical implications of inner-shell electrons  Bent, Henry A.
While a study of atomic core sizes might seem to hold little promise of offering interesting insights into the main body of chemical theory, it is demonstrated here that from such a study emerges a picture of chemical bonding that encompasses as particular cases covalent, ionic, and metallic bonds.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 302.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
On the shapes of f orbitals  Ogryzlo, E. A.
Contour plots are a more appropriate representation of an f orbital than polar plots.
Ogryzlo, E. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 150.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Simplified d orbital models assist in teaching coordination concepts  Nicholson, Douglas G.
Presents a three-dimensional model, containing representatives of all lobes of the five d orbitals, prepared for each of the tetrahedral, square planar, and octahedral coordination configurations.
Nicholson, Douglas G. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 148.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Coordination Compounds
Shapes of atoms  Johnson, Ronald C.; Rettew, R. R.
Examines the shapes of various atoms as a function of occupied orbitals.
Johnson, Ronald C.; Rettew, R. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 145.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Domain representations of orbitals  Adamson, Arthur W.
Presents orbital domains and physical models to represent them as a more accurate way of visualizing atoms.
Adamson, Arthur W. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 140.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Behavior of electrons in atoms: Structure, spectra, and photochemistry of atoms (Hochstrasser, Robin M.)  Gregory, N. W.

Gregory, N. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 62.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Quantum Chemistry
Emission spectroscopy. Part two  Wiberley, Stephen E.; Richtol, Herbert H.
Examines commercial monochromators.
Wiberley, Stephen E.; Richtol, Herbert H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A5.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy
Atomic orbital molecular models  Martins, George
Atomic orbital molecular models are constructed using molded white expanded polystyrene in the form of spheres and teardrops.
Martins, George J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 658.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
MO Theory
Precise atomic and molecular models  Adler, Alan D.; Steele, William J.
Presents designs for skeletal or lattice and space-filling models
Adler, Alan D.; Steele, William J. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 656.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Letters  Gates, Henry S.
Brings the reader's attention to work done by Petit and Dulong in revising a large number of atomic weights in order to bring all of their reported atomic heat capacities into agreement with the hypothesis that atomic heat capacity is the same for all elements.
Gates, Henry S. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 575.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
Atomic structure and chemical bonding (Seel, F.; Greenwood, N. N.; Stadler, H. P.)  Murmann, R. Kent

Murmann, R. Kent J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 518.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Metallic Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
An atomic and molecular orbital models kit  Stone, A. Harris; Siegelman, Irwin
The models presented here allows one to see the overlap that constitutes covalent bonds.
Stone, A. Harris; Siegelman, Irwin J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 395.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Geometry of the f orbitals  Becker, Clifford
Presents physical models of the f orbitals.
Becker, Clifford J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 358.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The shapes of the f orbitals  Friedman, H. G., Jr.; Choppin, G. R.; Feuerbacher, D. G.
Presents pictures of the f orbitals and discusses their ligand field splitting.
Friedman, H. G., Jr.; Choppin, G. R.; Feuerbacher, D. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 354.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory
Atomic and molecular models made from vinyl covered wire  Larson, G. Olof.
This paper presents a series of scalar models made from vinyl covered wire.
Larson, G. Olof. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 219.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Electronic structure, properties, and the periodic law (Sisler, Harry H.)  Eblin, Lawrence P.

Eblin, Lawrence P. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 172.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A simple model of the d orbitals  Douglas, Bodie E.
Presents a simple model of the d orbitals constructed from plastic sponges.
Douglas, Bodie E. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 40.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Emission spectroscopy. Part one  Wiberley, Stephen E.; Richtol, Herbert H.
Examines the general principles of emission spectroscopy, quantitative analysis through emission spectroscopy, and excitation sources.
Wiberley, Stephen E.; Richtol, Herbert H. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A927.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantitative Analysis
Contour surfaces for atomic and molecular orbitals  Ogryzlo, E. A.; Porter, Gerald B.
Describes the determination of and illustrates contour surfaces for atomic and molecular orbitals.
Ogryzlo, E. A.; Porter, Gerald B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 256.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Atomic spectra (Kuhn, H. G.)  Strickler, S. J.

Strickler, S. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A918.
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Three-dimensional models of atomic orbitals  Hoogenboom, Bernard E.
Using balloons to illustrate three-dimensional models of atomic orbitals.
Hoogenboom, Bernard E. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 40.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Molecular models featuring molecular orbitals  Brumlik, George C.
Molecular models have been constructed that attempt to represent atomic and molecular orbitals as accurately as the current theories of valence and pertinent experimental evidence permit.
Brumlik, George C. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 502.
Molecular Modeling |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
MO Theory
Paddle-wheel Crookes tube  Campbell, J. A.
The effect in the Crookes paddle-wheel tube is the same as in the light radiometer and should be interpreted in the same way.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 480.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Electronic configuration of metal oxides  O'Reilly, D. E.
Examines the properties of metal oxides in light of crystal field theory, covalency, catalysis, and energy bands.
O'Reilly, D. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 312.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Metals |
Transition Elements |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Catalysis
Editorially Speaking  Kieffer, William K.
The editor addresses questions regarding the sizes of subatomic particles.
Kieffer, William K. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 105.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The shape of the 2p and related orbitals  Cohen, Irwin
Some texts mistake graphs of the angular variation of the 2p and related wave functions for actual geometric descriptions of these orbitals.
Cohen, Irwin J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 20.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Distribution of atomic s character in molecules and its chemical implications  Bent, Henry A.
Explains the shape of simple molecules using the distribution of atomic s character.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 616.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
The structure of the nucleus  Flowers, B. H.
Describes the liquid drop, shell, and optical models of the atomic nucleus.
Flowers, B. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 610.
Atomic Properties / Structure
The law of Dulong and Petit  Fitzgerel, Robert K.; Verhoek, Frank H.
In 1819, Dulong and Petit found that when the atomic weight of an element was multiplied by its specific heat, the number obtained was approximately the same for all elements.
Fitzgerel, Robert K.; Verhoek, Frank H. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 545.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Letters (the author replies)  Thompson, H. Bradford
The author acknowledges minor errors in an earlier published article.
Thompson, H. Bradford J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 438.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
Letters  Cohen, Irwin
Points out minor errors in an earlier published article.
Cohen, Irwin J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 438.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
A complete table of electronegativities  Little, Elbert J., Jr.; Jones, Mark M.
Provides a complete periodic table of electronegativity values.
Little, Elbert J., Jr.; Jones, Mark M. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 231.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Dynamic projector display for atomic orbitals and the covalent bond  Thompson, H. Bradford
An overhead projector is used to display the combination of simple atomic orbitals to form hybrid and molecular orbitals.
Thompson, H. Bradford J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 118.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding
The principle of minimum bending of orbitals  Stewart, George H.; Eyring, Henry
The authors present a theory of valency that accounts for a variety of organic and inorganic structures in a clear and easily understood manner.
Stewart, George H.; Eyring, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 550.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Elimination Reactions
Atomic and molecular orbital models  Lambert, Frank L.
Describes the design and use of atomic and molecular orbital models made from styrofoam.
Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 217.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
The electron chart  Eichinger, Jack W., Jr.
Presents a periodic wall chart organized according to the increasing energy of valence electrons.
Eichinger, Jack W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 70.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
An adjustable periodic chart for lecture purposes  Estok, George K.
This periodic table can be converted from the short to the long and extra-long forms.
Estok, George K. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 618.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Letters to the editor  Foster, Laurence S.
Thanks a reader for pointing out a misstatement in an earlier article involving atomic mass units and avograms.
Foster, Laurence S. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 477.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Letters to the editor  Mayper, Stuart A.
Points out a misstatement in an earlier article involving atomic mass units and avograms.
Mayper, Stuart A. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 477.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The coordinate bond and the nature of complex inorganic compounds. I. The formation of single covalent bonds  Busch, Daryle H.
The factors determining the stabilities of complex inorganic compounds are considered in terms of thermochemical cycle; it is pointed out that the stabilities of complexes increase as the percent covalent character in their bonds increases, and weak covalent bonds will occur in any given instance.
Busch, Daryle H. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 376.
Coordination Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Metals |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Why is hydrofluoric acid a weak acid? An answer based on a correlation of free energies, with electronegativities  Pauling, Linus
The puzzling behavior of hydrofluoric acid is explained by considering the factors that determine the free energy of hydrogen halogenide molecules and hydrohalogenide ions.
Pauling, Linus J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 16.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Atomic-weight variations in nature  Boggs, James E.
Atoms of the same element may have different masses (due to isotopic differences) depending on their source.
Boggs, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 400.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Isotopes
Electronegativities in inorganic chemistry: A revision of atomic charge data  Sanderson, R. T.
Presents a table containing data for the estimation of charges on combined atoms.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 140.
Atomic Properties / Structure
A jig for making atomic models  Decker, Beulah F.; Asp, E. T.
Presents a simple hand-operated instrument for boring holes in cork balls at positions of interatomic bonds and examples of models constructed using this device.
Decker, Beulah F.; Asp, E. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 75.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
The Lanthanide contraction  Douglas, Bodie E.
The discussions of the nature and magnitude of the lanthanide contraction and its relationship to size changes in the periodic table as a whole are usually misleading to the student.
Douglas, Bodie E. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 598.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A cut-out chart of the periodic system  Clauson, Jennie E.
Colored discs in a cylinder of transparent plastic represent the arrangement of elements in the periodic table. Also provides a chart that can be cut out and turned into a similar cylinder.
Clauson, Jennie E. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 550.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
One more periodic table  Sanderson, R. T.
This periodic table is constructed to highlight electronic differences.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 481.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Electronegativities in inorganic chemistry. III  Sanderson, R. T.
The purpose of this paper is to illustrate some of the practical applications of electronegativities and charge distribution.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 238.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Acids / Bases
BerzeliusPioneer atomic weight chemist  MacNevin, William Marshall
Examines the many methods employed by Berzelius in determining atomic weights.
MacNevin, William Marshall J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 207.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Electronegativities in inorganic chemistry: (II)  Sanderson, R. T.
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the application of electronegativity to ions and the estimation of the partial charge on combined atoms.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 2.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Atomic structure and the photoelectric effect  Brockett, Clyde P.
The ubiquitous and inexpensive 110-volt, 2-watt neon glow lamp appears to have been overlooked as a device well suited to a brief but telling demonstration of a few key principles of atomic structure that underlie the study of electrovalence and comparative chemistry.
Brockett, Clyde P. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 498.
Atomic Properties / Structure
An introduction to the electron theory of metals  Lefever, Robert A.
This discussion is intended to provide a general background for the understanding of metal physics as well as a basis for more advanced study.
Lefever, Robert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 486.
Metals |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Letters  Bowden, S. T.
The author calls for the standardization of the periodic table.
Bowden, S. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 426.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Demonstration of the intermediate position of cobalt between iron and nickel  Goldstein, Ernst M.
The different oxidizability of ferrous, cobaltous, and nickelous hydroxides, together with increasing color deepness of the oxidation products, can be used to demonstrate that cobalt is intermediate in its properties between iron and nickel.
Goldstein, Ernst M. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 387.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Qualitative Analysis
Letters  Azcuenaga-Chacon, J. V.
The author suggests that valence electrons be called "valentrons."
Azcuenaga-Chacon, J. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 155.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters  Hakala, Reino W.
The author points out a reference to a relationship between atomic weight and atomic number.
Hakala, Reino W. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 44.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Electronegativities in inorganic chemistry  Sanderson, R. T.
This is the first of a series of short papers intended to demonstrate the application of a broadened concept of electronegativity toward explaining chemistry.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 539.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Letters  Ferreira, Ricardo Carvalho
The author points out earlier work associated with a recent Journal article dealing with the periodic table and the transition elements.
Ferreira, Ricardo Carvalho J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 372.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Transition Elements
The long form of the periodic table  Glockler, George; Popov, A. I.
The authors comment on the independent publication of a periodic table similar to one they produced earlier.
Glockler, George; Popov, A. I. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 358.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A space model of the periodic system of elements  Clauson, Jennie E.
Illustrates a three-dimensional model of the periodic system of elements.
Clauson, Jennie E. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 250.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A periodic table showing the relative sizes of elements and their ions  Klingenberg, Joseph; Springman, Leroy
Describes a periodic chart representing the relative sizes of atoms and ions that was constructed by a senior undergraduate.
Klingenberg, Joseph; Springman, Leroy J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 81.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The periodic table: The 6d-5f mixed transition group  Coryell, Charles D.
With relatively few modifications, the Bohr-type periodic table presented by Glocker and Popov can be made to reflect more instructively the rather complex relationships obtained in the neighborhood of the 4f or gadolinium transition group and, more importantly, in the 6d-5f sequence extending from actinium through the region of uranium and the synthetic earths to element 103.
Coryell, Charles D. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 62.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Atomic structure models for clay minerals  Perkins, Alfred T.
Describes the use of ceramic clay to produce atomic structure models for clay minerals.
Perkins, Alfred T. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 388.
Atomic Properties / Structure
Valency and the periodic table  Glockler, George; Popov, Alexander I.
Presents a modification of the Bohr-Thomsen-Akhumov periodic table stressing patterns to found among the rare earth elements.
Glockler, George; Popov, Alexander I. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 212.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Oxidation State |
Transition Elements |
Atomic Properties / Structure