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Journal Articles: 621 results
The Fuge Tube Diode Array Spectrophotometer  B. T. Arneson, S. R. Long, K. K. Stewart, and J. J. Lagowski
Presents details for adapting a diode array UVvis spectrophotometer to incorporate the use of polypropylene microcentrifuge tubesfuge tubesas cuvettes. The fuge tubes also can serve as reaction vessels, which permits the ready study of chemical systems involving heterogeneous phases by eliminating the need for tedious separations.
Arneson, B. T.; Long, S. R.; Stewart, K. K.; Lagowski, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1663.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solutions / Solvents |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Investigating the Stability of Benzoyl Peroxide in Over-the-Counter Acne Medications  Marina Canepa Kittredge, Kevin W. Kittredge, Melissa S. Sokol, Arlyne M. Sarquis, and Laura M. Sennet
Students use peroxide strips to investigate the stability of the benzoyl peroxide found in an over-the-counter acne medication when added to various solutions of water, ethanol, polyethylene glycol, and isopropyl myristate.
Canepa Kittredge, Marina; Kittredge, Kevin W.; Sokol, Melissa S.; Sarquis, Arlyne M.; Sennet, Laura M. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1655.
Consumer Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Nonmajor Courses |
Solutions / Solvents
The Correlation of Binary Acid Strengths with Molecular Properties in First-Year Chemistry  Travis D. Fridgen
This article replaces contradictory explanations for the strengths of different binary acids in first-year chemistry textbooks with a single explanation that uses a BornHaber cycle involving homolyic bond dissociation energies, electron affinities, and ion solvation enthalpies to rationalize trends in the strengths of all binary acids.
Fridgen, Travis D. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1220.
Acids / Bases |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics
Appreciating Oxygen  Hilton M. Weiss
Photosynthetic flora and microfauna utilize light from the sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates and oxygen. While these carbohydrates and their derivative hydrocarbons are generally considered to be fuels, it is the thermodynamically energetic oxygen molecule that traps, stores, and provides almost all of the energy that powers life on earth.
Weiss, Hilton M. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1218.
Bioenergetics |
Metabolism |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Photosynthesis |
Thermodynamics
Undergraduates' Understanding of Entropy  Arnd H. Jungermann
Szbilir and Bennett carried out an extensive investigation on undergraduates understanding of entropy. Though I agree in general with their statements that orderdisorder arguments form a misleading entropy concept, I would like to make some comments with regard to a certain part of their online supplement.
Jungermann, Arnd H. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1192.
Thermodynamics
Using Graphs of Gibbs Energy versus Temperature in General Chemistry Discussions of Phase Changes and Colligative Properties  Robert M. Hanson, Patrick Riley, Jeff Schwinefus, and Paul J. Fischer
The use of qualitative graphs of Gibbs energy versus temperature is described in the context of chemical demonstrations involving phase changes and colligative properties at the general chemistry level.
Hanson, Robert M.; Riley, Patrick; Schwinefus, Jeff; Fischer, Paul J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1142.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics
Does the Addition of Inert Gases at Constant Volume and Temperature Affect Chemical Equilibrium?  João C. M. Paiva, Jorge Gonçalves, and Susana Fonseca
This article examines three approaches, leading to different conclusions, for answering the question "Does the addition of inert gases at constant volume and temperature modify the state of equilibrium?"
Paiva, João C. M.; Gonçalves, Jorge; Fonseca, Susana. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1133.
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Thermodynamics
An Updated Equilibrium Machine  Emeric Schultz
Describes a device that can demonstrate equilibrium and the Le Châtelier principle, as well as kinetic and thermodynamic concepts. The device consists of a leaf blower attached to a plastic container divided into two chambers by a barrier of variable size and form. Styrofoam balls can be exchanged across the barrier when various air pressures are applied by the blower.
Schultz, Emeric. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1131.
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics
An Inexpensive Solution Calorimeter  Emma Kavanagh, Sam Mindel, Giles Robertson, and D. E. Peter Hughes
Describes the construction of a simple solution calorimeter, using a miniature bead thermistor as a temperature-sensing element, that has a response time of a few seconds and made it possible to carry out a thermometric reaction in under a minute.
Kavanagh, Emma; Mindel, Sam; Robertson, Giles; Hughes, D. E. Peter. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1129.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thermal Analysis |
Thermodynamics
Make a Match  Erika K. Jacobsen
Suggests using this month's JCE Classroom Activity in conjunction with the laboratory exercise that follows it.
Jacobsen, Erica K. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1090.
Calibration |
Carbohydrates |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Quantitative Analysis
Measuring the Density of a Sugar Solution  Karen I. Peterson
This experiment addresses the concept of equipment calibration for reducing systematic error. Students prepare and measure the densities of sucrose solutions with simple glassware that has been calibrated using the density of water. By careful work, students can determine the density to within 0.5%. allowing accuracy to be a major component of the final grade.
Peterson, Karen I. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1089.
Calibration |
Carbohydrates |
Physical Properties |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents
[#97] The Sweeter Side of Density  Michael Davis and Charles Henry
Students determine the density of different sugar solutions and then devise a method for layering them in a graduated cylinder. Dyeing the solutions with food coloring results in a rainbow-colored, heterogeneous mixture.
Davis, Michael; Henry, Charles. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1088A.
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Student-Centered Learning
Using Molecular Dynamics Simulation To Reinforce Student Understanding of Intermolecular Forces  Phillip R. Burkholder, Gordon H. Purser, and Renee S. Cole
This article presents a series of experiments incorporating molecular dynamics simulations which predict the motion of chemical species based on the application of empirical rules and a physical analysis of the forces that act between the species. These motions can then be shown in vivid graphical form.
Burkholder, Phillip R.; Purser, Gordon H.; Cole, Renee S. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1071.
Computational Chemistry |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
A Hand-Held Ammonia Fountain  Nicholas C. Thomas and Stephen Faulk
A plastic juice bottle, filled with ammonia gas generated by combining aqueous ammonia and sodium hydroxide, provides a convenient demonstration of the ammonia fountain and gas solubility.
Thomas, Nicholas C.; Faulk, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1063.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents
Energy  John W. Moore
Scientific Challenges in Sustainable Energy Technology, by Nathan S. Lewis of the California Institute of Technology, summarizes data on energy resources and analyses the implications for human society. Slides, text, and streaming audio/video are available at his Web site. There is much in this presentation that could (and should) be incorporated into chemistry pedagogy.
Moore, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 891.
Thermodynamics
EQVAPSIM: A Vapor–Liquid Equilibria of Binary Systems Computer Simulation by LabVIEW  A. Belletti, R. Borromei, and G. Ingletto
Reports the results of a program using LabVIEW software to simulate the construction of a phase diagram representing a liquidvapor equilibrium. The program models work in a real laboratory, including mistakes commonly made in this context.
Belletti, A.; Borromei, R.; Ingletto, G. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 879.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics |
Student-Centered Learning
Resolving Spectral Lines with a Periscope-Type DVD Spectroscope  Fumitaka Wakabayashi
Describes the periscope-type of DVD spectroscope and demonstrates the numerical analysis of its emission and absorption spectra. This improved design allows one to observe and photograph visible spectra more easily and clearly than earlier models; it thus has the potential to be a cost-effective, powerful, and versatile tool for science education.
Wakabayashi, Fumitaka. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 849.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Solutions / Solvents |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
A Simple Laboratory Experiment To Determine the Kinetics of Mutarotation of D-Glucose Using a Blood Glucose Meter  Carlos E. Perles and Pedro L. O. Volpe
A simple commercial blood glucose meter is used to follow the kinetics of mutarotation of D-glucose in aqueous solution. The results may be compared with those obtained using an automatic polarimeter.
Perles, Carlos E.; Volpe, Pedro L. O. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 686.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Bioanalytical Chemistry |
Carbohydrates |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Solutions / Solvents |
Stereochemistry
Easy-To-Make Cryophoruses  Rubin Battino and Trevor M. Letcher
This article describes some simple and easy-to-make cryophoruses, ideal for demonstrating evaporative cooling to students at all levels.
Battino, Rubin; Letcher, Trevor M. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 561.
Lipids |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics |
Liquids
Using Hydrogen Balloons To Display Metal Ion Spectra  James H. Maynard
Describes a procedure for igniting hydrogen-filled balloons containing metal salts to obtain the brightest possible flash while minimizing the quantity of airborne combustion products.
Maynard, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 519.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Gases |
Metals |
Solutions / Solvents
Pennies and Eggs: Initiation into Inquiry Learning for Preservice Elementary Education Teachers  Donald J. Wink and Jeong Hye Hwang-Choe
Describes two labs incorporating the Science Writing Heuristic in a course for preservice students in elementary education. The first lab is a discovery activity involving the change in composition and mass of pennies in 1982; the second uses flotation methods to separate hard-boiled and uncooked eggs.
Wink, Donald J.; Hwang-Choe, Jeong Hye. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 396.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Materials Science |
Solutions / Solvents |
Physical Properties
Investigating Students' Ability To Transfer Ideas Learned from Molecular Animations of the Dissolution Process  Resa M. Kelly and Loretta L. Jones
This study examines what features of the particulate nature of matter learned from viewing two animations of sodium chloride dissolution students would transfer to their descriptions of the participation of aqueous sodium chloride in a chemical reaction.
Kelly, Resa M.; Jones, Loretta L. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 303.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Constructivism
A Simple Experiment in the Separation of a Solid-Phase Mixture and Infrared Spectroscopy for Introductory Chemistry  Paul S. Szalay
In this guided-inquiry experiment, a two-component solid mixture of caffeine and ibuprofen is separated through a series of solution extractions and precipitations. The components are then analyzed using IR spectrophotometry to determine how effectively they were separated.
Szalay, Paul S. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 285.
Acids / Bases |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
IR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents
Understanding the Clausius–Clapeyron Equation by Employing an Easily Adaptable Pressure Cooker  Monica Galleano, Alberto Boveris, and Susana Puntarulo
Describes a laboratory exercise to understand the effect of pressure on phase equilibrium as described by the ClausiusClapeyron equation. The equipment required is a pressure cooker adapted with a pressure gauge and a thermometer in the lid, allowing the measurement of the pressure and the temperature of the chamber containing the water heated until vaporization.
Galleano, Monica; Boveris, Alberto; Puntarulo, Susana. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 276.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry
A Lab Experience To Illustrate the Physicochemical Principles of Detergency  J. A. Poce-Fatou, M. Bethencourt-Núñez, C. Moreno, F. J. Moreno-Dorado, and J. J. Pinto-Ganfornina
This article presents a lab to study the role of a surfactant and builder in laundry detergent efficiency as determined through measurements of the diffuse reflectances of polyester samples impregnated with linseed oil.
Poce-Fatou, J. A.; Bethencourt-Núñez, M.; Moreno, C.; Moreno-Dorado, F. J.; Pinto-Ganfornina, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 266.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Micelles |
Surface Science |
Thermodynamics
Connecting Solubility, Equilibrium, and Periodicity in a Green, Inquiry Experiment for the General Chemistry Laboratory  Kristen L. Cacciatore, Jose Amado, Jason J. Evans, and Hannah Sevian
Presents a novel first-year chemistry experiment that asks students to replicate procedures described in sample lab reports that lack essential information. This structure is designed to promote students' experimental design and data analysis skills as well as their understanding of the importance and essential qualities of written and verbal communication between scientists.
Cacciatore, Kristen L.; Amado, Jose; Evans, Jason J.; Sevian, Hannah. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 251.
Equilibrium |
Green Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Solutions / Solvents |
Stoichiometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Physical Chemistry: Thermodynamics (Horia Metiu)
Taylor & Francis, New York, London, 2006. 694 pp. ISBN: 978-0815340911 (paper). $49.95

Physical Chemistry: Statistical Mechanics (Horia Metiu)
Taylor & Francis, New York, London, 2006. 292 pp. ISBN: 978-0815340850 (paper). $44.95

Physical Chemistry: Kinetics (Horia Metiu)
Taylor & Francis, New York, London, 2006. 169 pp. ISBN: 978-0815340898 (paper). $44.95

Physical Chemistry: Quantum Mechanics (Horia Metiu)
Taylor & Francis, New York, London, 2006. 481 pp. ISBN: 978-0815340874 (paper). $44.95

  John Krenos
Metiu has created a significant set of volumes on undergraduate physical chemistry. The integration of Mathematica and Mathcad workbooks into the four texts provides instructors with an attractive new option in teaching.
Krenos, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 206.
Quantum Chemistry |
Statistical Mechanics |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics
An Experimental Approach to Teaching and Learning Elementary Statistical Mechanics  Frank B. Ellis and David C. Ellis
This article details demonstrations that show how equilibrium changes with temperature, energy, and entropy and involve exothermic and endothermic reactions, the dynamic nature of equilibrium, and Le Châtelier's principle.
Ellis, Frank B.; Ellis, David C. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 78.
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Statistical Mechanics |
Thermodynamics
New Analytical Method for the Determination of Detergent Concentration in Water by Fabric Dyeing  Set Seng, Masakazu Kita, and Reiko Sugihara
This article describes a high school classroom activity in which an acrylic fabric is used as the extraction medium in the analysis of detergent concentration rather than more harmful organic solvents. An handmade reflection photometer, assembled with inexpensive materials such as LED, PVC tube, and CdS sensor, is used to determine the detergent concentration.
Seng, Set; Kita, Masakazu; Sugihara, Reiko. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1803.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Water / Water Chemistry
Gas Clathrate Hydrates Experiment for High School Projects and Undergraduate Laboratories  Melissa P. Prado, Annie Pham, Robert E. Ferazzi, Kimberly Edwards, and Kenneth C. Janda
Presents a procedure for preparing and studying propane clathrate hydrate. This experiment introduces students to this unusual solid while stimulating a discussion of the interplay of intermolecular forces, thermodynamics, and solid structure.
Prado, Melissa P.; Pham, Annie; Ferazzi, Robert E.; Edwards, Kimberly; Janda, Kenneth C. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1790.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Applications of Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Hydrogen Bonding
Freezing Point of Milk: A Natural Way To Understand Colligative Properties  Mercedes Novo, Belén Reija, and Wajih Al-Soufi
Presents a laboratory experiment that illustrates the use of freezing point measurements to control milk quality and determine molecular weight.
Novo, Mercedes; Reija, Belén; Al-Soufi, Wajih. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1673.
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
Natural Products |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents
The Use of Limits in an Advanced Placement Chemistry Course  Paul S. Matsumoto, Jonathan Ring, and Jia Li (Lily) Zhu
This article describes the use of limits in topics usually covered in advanced placement or first-year college chemistry. This approach supplements the interpretation of the graph of an equation since it is usually easier to evaluate the limit of a function than to generate its graph.
Matsumoto, Paul S.; Ring, Jonathan; Zhu, Jia Li (Lily). J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1655.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Thermodynamics
The Chemical Composition of Maple Syrup  David W. Ball
Explores the complex chemical composition of maple syrup.
Ball, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1647.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Food Science |
Plant Chemistry |
Natural Products |
Solutions / Solvents
The Chemical Composition of Honey  David W. Ball
Explores the complex chemical composition of honey.
Ball, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1643.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Food Science |
Natural Products |
Solutions / Solvents
Configurational Entropy Revisited  Frank L. Lambert
Positional entropy should be eliminated from general chemistry instruction and replaced by emphasis on the motional energy of molecules as enabling entropy change.
Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1548.
Statistical Mechanics |
Thermodynamics
Mass-Elastic Band Thermodynamics: A Visual Teaching Aid at the Introductory Level  William C. Galley
Demonstrations of five spontaneous isothermal processes involving the coupling of a mass and elastic band and arising from combinations of enthalpy and entropy changes are presented and then dissected. Analogies are drawn between these processes and common spontaneous molecular events such as chemical reactions and phase transitions.
Galley, William C. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1147.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
Determining the Pressure inside an Unopened Carbonated Beverage  Hans de Grys
Determining the pressure of carbon dioxide inside a sealed soft drink can represents a challenging student exercise. Several methods are discussed for solving the problem, including applying the ideal gas law, gas collection via water displacement, and Henry's law.
de Grys, Hans. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1117.
Applications of Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Student-Centered Learning
Peer-Developed and Peer-Led Labs in General Chemistry  Lorena Tribe and Kim Kostka
Describes a student-developed and led laboratory curriculum as a model for producing a more student-centered and rich laboratory experience in general chemistry laboratories.
Tribe, Lorena; Kostka, Kim. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1031.
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Laboratory Management |
Thermodynamics |
Student-Centered Learning
Enthalpy of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures: An Inexpensive Apparatus  Rubin Battino, David A. Dolson, Michael R. Hall, and Trevor M. Letcher
Describes an inexpensive apparatus for the determination of the vapor pressure of a liquid as a function of temperature for the purpose of calculating enthalpy changes of vaporization. Also described are a simple air thermostat and an inexpensive temperature controller based on an integrated temperature sensor.
Battino, Rubin; Dolson, David A.; Hall, Michael R.; Letcher, Trevor M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 822.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Lipids |
Phenols |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
The Physical Meaning of the Mathematical Formalism Present in Limiting Chemical Equations; Or, How Dilute Is Dilute?  C. Contreras-Ortega, N. Bustamante, J. L. Guevara, C. Portillo, and V. Kesternich
Proposes general mathematical formulations to offer students a better understanding of the real scope of scientific expressions dealing with limiting physical conditions, such as those concerning dilute and concentrated solutions and low and high temperatures and pressures.
Contreras-Ortega, C.; Bustamante, N.; Guevara, J. L.; Portillo, C.; Kesternich, V. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 788.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents
"Mysteries" of the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics  Rubin Battino
Over the years the subject of thermodynamics has taken on an aura of difficulty, subtlety, and mystery. This article discusses common misconceptions and how to introduce the topic to students.
Battino, Rubin. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 753.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
Hydrophilic Inorganic Macro-Ions in Solution: Unprecedented Self-Assembly Emerging from Historical "Blue Waters"  Tianbo Liu, Ekkehard Diemann, and Achim Müller
The behavior of supramolecular structures in solution is different from that of simple ions, polymers, surfactant micelles, and colloids. New research involving polyoxometalates, which are fully hydrophilic but tend to self-associate into macro-ionic structures, may change our understanding of inorganic ionic solutions.
Liu, Tianbo; Diemann, Ekkehard; Müller, Achim. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 526.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Colloids |
Materials Science |
Nanotechnology |
Solutions / Solvents |
Spectroscopy |
Lasers |
Physical Properties
Using Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures To Determine the Vapor Pressure of a Volatile Liquid  Fred R. Hilgeman, Gary Bertrand, and Brent Wilson
This experiment, designed for a general chemistry laboratory, illustrates the use of Dalton's law of partial pressures to determine the vapor pressure of a volatile liquid.
Hilgeman, Fred R.; Bertrand, Gary; Wilson, Brent. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 469.
Gases |
Liquids |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
Cp/Cv Ratios Measured by the Sound Velocity Method Using Calculator-Based Laboratory Technology  Mario Branca and Isabella Soletta
The values ? = Cp /Cv (heat capacity at a constant pressure / heat capacity at constant volume) for air, oxygen, nitrogen, argon, and carbon dioxide were determined by measuring the velocity of sound through these gases at room temperature using Calculator-Based Laboratory Technology.
Branca, Mario; Soletta, Isabella. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 462.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Physical Properties
Flame Emission Spectrometry in General Chemistry Labs: Solubility Product (Ksp) of Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate  Frazier W. Nyasulu, William Cusworth III, David Lindquist, and John Mackin
In this general chemistry laboratory, flame emission spectrometry is used to determine the potassium ion concentration in saturated solutions of potassium hydrogen phthalate. From these data the solubility products, the Gibbs free energies of solution, the standard enthalpy of solution, and the standard entropy of solution are calculated.
Nyasulu, Frazier W.; Cusworth, William, III; Lindquist, David; Mackin, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 456.
Acids / Bases |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy |
Equilibrium |
Quantitative Analysis |
Thermodynamics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Introduction of Differential Scanning Calorimetry in a General Chemistry Laboratory Course: Determination of Thermal Properties of Organic Hydrocarbons  Ronald DAmelia, Thomas Franks, and William F. Nirode
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a rugged, easy-to-use instrumental method for thermal analysis determinations. The work described herein discusses the use of DSC in a general chemistry laboratory course to determine thermal properties such as melting points, ?fusionH, ?fusionS, and introduce the concept of polymorphism for organic hydrocarbons.
DAmelia, Ronald; Franks, Thomas; Nirode, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 453.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Instrumental Methods |
Physical Properties |
Thermal Analysis |
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Discovering the Thermodynamics of Simultaneous Equilibria. An Entropy Analysis Activity Involving Consecutive Equilibria  Thomas H. Bindel
This activity explores the thermodynamics of simultaneous, consecutive equilibria and is appropriate for second-year high school or AP chemistry. Students discover that a reactant-favored (entropy-diminishing) reaction can be caused to happen if it is coupled with a product-favored reaction of sufficient entropy production.
Bindel, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 449.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
More Thoughts on the Narra Tree Fluorescence  A. Ulises Acuña
The source of L. nephriticum and the substance responsible for the intense blue fluorescence in an earlier published demonstration may require further consideration.
Acuña, A. Ulises. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 231.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Natural Products |
Plant Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Acids / Bases
Effectiveness of a MORE Laboratory Module in Prompting Students To Revise Their Molecular-Level Ideas about Solutions  Lydia T. Tien, Melonie A. Teichert, and Dawn Rickey
This study investigates the effectiveness of a ModelObserveReflectExplain (MORE) laboratory module in prompting three different populations of general chemistry students to revise their molecular-level ideas regarding chemical compounds dissolved in water.
Tien, Lydia T.; Teichert, Melonie A.; Rickey, Dawn. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 175.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Conductivity |
Ionic Bonding |
Solutions / Solvents
pHantastic Fluorescence  Mark Muyskens
Students easily extract a fluorescent substance from shavings of a wood called narra. The fluorescence is dramatically pH dependent and can be turned on and off repeatedly using commonly available acid and base solutions.
Muyskens, Mark. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 768A.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Natural Products |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
pH |
Solutions / Solvents |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Popcorn—What's in the Bag?  Marissa B. Sherman and Thomas A. Evans
Three independent activities explore microwave popcorn, the nature of the packaging, and the popcorn produced.
Sherman, Marissa B.; Evans, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 416A.
Carbohydrates |
Nutrition |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Water / Water Chemistry
Entropy and the Shelf Model: A Quantum Physical Approach to a Physical Property  Arnd H. Jungermann
A quantum physical approach relying on energy quantization leads to three simple rules which are the key to understanding the physical property described by molar entropy values.
Jungermann, Arnd H. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1686.
Alcohols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Carboxylic Acids |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Physical Properties |
Quantum Chemistry |
Thermodynamics
Introduction of Differential Scanning Calorimetry in a General Chemistry Laboratory Course: Determination of Molar Mass by Freezing Point Depression  Ronald P. D'Amelia, Thomas Franks, and William F. Nirode
The work described herein uses differential scanning calorimetry to determine the molar mass of three unknowns (nonvolatile organic hydrocarbons) by freezing point depression.
D'Amelia, Ronald P.; Franks, Thomas; Nirode, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1537.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Thermal Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents
Job's Analysis of the Range of the "Dalton Syringe Rocket"  Natalie Barto, Brandon Henrie, and Ed Vitz
An apparatus for safely igniting fuel gas/oxygen mixtures in a syringe and measuring the distance that the syringe is propelled is presented. The distance (range) is analyzed by the method of continuous variation (Job's Method) to determine the stoichiometry of the reaction.
Barto, Natalie; Henrie, Brandon; Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1505.
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics |
Stoichiometry
Concentration Scales for Sugar Solutions  David W. Ball
Examines several special scales used to indicate the concentration of sugar solutions and their application to industry.
Ball, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1489.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Food Science |
Solutions / Solvents
Teaching Physical Chemistry Experiments with a Computer Simulation by LabVIEW  A. Belletti, R. Borromei, and G. Ingletto
This article reports on a computer simulation developed with the software LabVIEW of the physical chemistry experiment regarding the vapor pressure measurements of a pure liquid as a function of temperature, as well as a system of data collecting that emphasizes the similarities between the virtual and real experiment.
Belletti, A.; Borromei, R.; Ingletto, G. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1353.
Equilibrium |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Liquids |
Thermodynamics |
Gases |
Student-Centered Learning
Achieving Chemical Equilibrium: The Role of Imposed Conditions in the Ammonia Formation Reaction  Joel Tellinghuisen
The conditions under which chemical reactions occur determine which thermodynamic functions are minimized or maximized. This point is illustrated for the formation of ammonia in the ideal gas approximation using a numerical exercise.
Tellinghuisen, Joel. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1090.
Gases |
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
The Synthesis of Copper(II) Carboxylates Revisited  Kevin Kushner, Robert E. Spangler, Ralph A. Salazar, Jr., and J. J. Lagowski
Describes an electrochemical synthesis of copper(II) carboxylates for use in the general chemistry laboratory course for chemistry majors.
Kushner, Kevin; Spangler, Robert E.; Salazar, Ralph A., Jr.; Lagowski, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1042.
Carboxylic Acids |
Coordination Compounds |
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Solutions / Solvents |
Transition Elements |
Undergraduate Research |
Synthesis
Intermolecular and Intramolecular Forces: A General Chemistry Laboratory Comparison of Hydrogen Bonding in Maleic and Fumaric Acids  Frazier W. Nyasulu and John Macklin
This article presents a simple laboratory experiment that is designed to enhance students' understanding of inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonding by demonstrating the comparative effect of these phenomena on some chemical and physical properties.
Nyasulu, Frazier W.; Macklin, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 770.
Acids / Bases |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Thermodynamics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
The Fluorescence of Lignum nephriticum: A Flash Back to the Past and a Simple Demonstration of Natural Substance Fluorescence  Mark Muyskens
This article describes a simple but visually striking demonstration of fluorescence from the aqueous extract of the tropical hardwood Pterocarpus indicus.
Muyskens, Mark. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 765.
Acids / Bases |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Natural Products |
pH |
Solutions / Solvents |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Useful Work of a Process  Norman C. Craig
Acknowledgment of a flaw in the article, Lets Drive Driving Force Out of Chemistry.
Craig, Norman C. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 703.
Bioenergetics |
Biophysical Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
Useful Work of a Process  Bruno Lunelli
Clarifies a potentially misleading statement in the article, Lets Drive Driving Force Out of Chemistry.
Lunelli, Bruno. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 703.
Bioenergetics |
Biophysical Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
No "Driving Forces" in General Chemistry  Evguenii I. Kozliak
A simple and easy-to-remember explanation, that precipitation of a solid and/or formation of water are driving forces of those reactions or drive them to completion, still occurs among instructors.
Kozliak, Evguenii I. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 702.
Bioenergetics |
Biophysical Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
Sugar Dehydration without Sulfuric Acid  Todd P. Silverstein
Offers additional solutions to the cracked watch glass problem associated with an earlier published dehydration of sugar demonstration.
Silverstein, Todd P. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 701.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics
Sugar Dehydration without Sulfuric Acid  Edward F. Duhr, Allison S. Soult, John G. Maijub, and Fitzgerald B. Bramwell
The procedure for Sugar Dehydration without Sulfuric Acid: No More Choking Fumes in the Classroom! can lead to watch glass breakage and thereby a fire hazard.
Duhr, Edward F.; Soult, Allison S.; Maijub, John G.; Bramwell, Fitzgerald B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 701.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics
Sugar Dehydration without Sulfuric Acid  Edward F. Duhr, Allison S. Soult, John G. Maijub, and Fitzgerald B. Bramwell
The procedure for Sugar Dehydration without Sulfuric Acid: No More Choking Fumes in the Classroom! can lead to watch glass breakage and thereby a fire hazard.
Duhr, Edward F.; Soult, Allison S.; Maijub, John G.; Bramwell, Fitzgerald B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 701.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics
Demonstration of Absorbance Using Digital Color Image Analysis and Colored Solutions  Shane K. Kohl, James D. Landmark, and Douglas F. Stickle
This article describes a simple experiment in which the principle of absorbance may be demonstrated using digital color image analysis.
Kohl, Shane K.; Landmark, James D.; Stickle, Douglas F. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 644.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
New Highlights on Analyzing First-Order Kinetic Data of the Peroxodisulfate–Iodide System at Different Temperatures  J. Yperman and W. J. Guedens
A pseudo-first order kinetic experiment examining the peroxodisulfateiodide system is executed at different temperatures, making it possible to calculate the activation energy of this reaction.
Yperman, J.; Guedens, W. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 641.
Kinetics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Rate Law |
Thermodynamics
What Happens When Chemical Compounds Are Added to Water? An Introduction to the Model–Observe–Reflect–Explain (MORE) Thinking Frame  Adam C. Mattox, Barbara A. Reisner, and Dawn Rickey
This article describes a laboratory designed to help students understand how different compounds behave when dissolved in water, and introduces the modelobservereflectexplain (MORE) thinking frame, an instructional tool that encourages students to connect macroscopic observations with their understanding of the behavior of particles at the molecular level.
Mattox, Adam C.; Reisner, Barbara A.; Rickey, Dawn. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 622.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Conductivity |
Ionic Bonding |
Solutions / Solvents |
Stoichiometry
Give Them Money: The Boltzmann Game, a Classroom or Laboratory Activity Modeling Entropy Changes and the Distribution of Energy in Chemical Systems  Robert M. Hanson and Bridget Michalek
Described here is a short, simple activity that can be used in any high school or college chemistry classroom or lab to explore the way energy is distributed in real chemical systems and as an entry into discussions of the probabilistic nature of entropy.
Hanson, Robert M.; Michalek, Bridget. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 581.
Equilibrium |
Statistical Mechanics |
Thermodynamics
The Ultrasonic Soda Fountain: A Dramatic Demonstration of Gas Solubility in Aqueous Solutions  John E. Baur and Melinda B. Baur
An ultrasonic bath is used to accelerate the rate at which carbonated beverages equilibrate with the atmosphere. The resulting fountain, which can reach heights in excess of 3 meters, is a dramatic demonstration of the solubility of gases in liquids.
Baur, John E.; Baur, Melinda B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 577.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Kinetics |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
Computer Simulations of Salt Solubility  Victor M. S. Gil and João C. M. Paiva
Computer Simulations of Salt Solubility provides an animated, visual interpretation of the different solubilities of related salts based on simple entropy changes associated with dissolution: configurational disorder and thermal disorder.
Gil, Victor M. S.; Paiva, João C. M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 173.
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Computational Chemistry
A New Java Animation in Peer-Reviewed JCE WebWare  William F. Coleman and Edward W. Fedosky
Just added to JCE WebWare, Computer Simulations of Salt Solubility uses a Java applet and Web browser to present an animated illustration of differences in the solubility of salts due to differences in the entropy of solvation.
Coleman, William F.; Fedosky, Edward W. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 173.
Computational Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
Using Computer Simulations To Teach Salt Solubility. The Role of Entropy in Solubility Equilibrium  Victor M. S. Gil and João C. M. Paiva
Pairs of salts are discussed to illustrate the interpretation of their different behavior in water in terms of the fundamental concept of entropy. The ability of computer simulations to help improve students' understanding of these chemistry concepts is also examined.
Gil, Victor M. S.; Paiva, João C. M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 170.
Computational Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
Theoretical Insights for Practical Handling of Pressurized Fluids  Alfonso Aranda and María del Prado Rodríguez
Introduces the basic considerations for managing pressurized fluids, mainly liquefied and compressed gases.
Aranda, Alfonso; Rodríguez, María del Prado. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 93.
Applications of Chemistry |
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
Authors: Know the Hazards, Please!  Anne K. Bentley, Mohammed Farhoud, Arthur B. Ellis, George C. Lisensky, Anne-Marie L. Nickel, and Wendy C. Crone
The MSDS for commercial Ni plating solution states that the product is regulated as toxic and contains ingredients that are known to cause cancer.
Bentley, Anne K.; Farhoud, Mohammed; Ellis, Arthur B.; Lisensky, George C.; Nickel, Anne-Marie L.; Crone, Wendy C. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1775.
Solutions / Solvents |
Toxicology |
Nanotechnology |
Magnetic Properties
Authors: Know the Hazards, Please!  Jay A. Young
The article Template Synthesis and Magnetic Manipulation of Nickel Nanowires does not identify all of the important potential hazards involved; nickel compounds are known to be human carcinogens, and nickel and its compounds are mutagenic.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1775.
Solutions / Solvents |
Toxicology |
Nanotechnology |
Magnetic Properties
Authors: Know the Hazards, Please!  Jay A. Young
The article Template Synthesis and Magnetic Manipulation of Nickel Nanowires does not identify all of the important potential hazards involved; nickel compounds are known to be human carcinogens, and nickel and its compounds are mutagenic.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1775.
Solutions / Solvents |
Toxicology |
Nanotechnology |
Magnetic Properties
E = mc2 for the Chemist: When Is Mass Conserved?  Richard S. Treptow
Einstein's famous equation is frequently misunderstood in textbooks and popular science literature. Its correct interpretation is that mass and energy are different measures of a single quantity known as massenergy, which is conserved in all processes.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1636.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Thermodynamics
Sherlock Holmes and the Case of the Raven and the Ambassador's Wife: An Inquiry-Based Murder Mystery  Nathaniel Grove and Stacey Lowery Bretz
In the accompanying investigation, students help Sherlock Holmes solve the poisoning death of Holly Bernard-Schneider, the wife of the German ambassador to England. Hints are placed throughout the story to help students in their choice of experiments. These experiments include flame tests, qualitative analysis, molar mass determination using freezing point depression, and identification of crystal shapes. Though intended for use as a culminating activity, the unit can be easily modified to be used as separate modules throughout the course of the year.
Grove, Nathaniel; Bretz, Stacey Lowery. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1532.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Qualitative Analysis |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Student-Centered Learning
Toys in the Classroom  Jerry L. Sarquis and Arlyne. M. (Mickey) Sarquis
The chemical principles behind Shrinky Dinks, Happy Birds, and Hand Boilers are described and suggestions for hands-on activities for students are given.
Sarquis, Jerry L.; Sarquis, Arlyne. M. (Mickey). J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1450.
Solutions / Solvents
Improving Conceptions in Analytical Chemistry: ci Vi = cf Vf  Margarita Rodríguez-López and Arnaldo Carrasquillo Jr.
A common misconception related to analytical chemistry, which may be generalized as the failure to recognize and to account analytically for changes in substance density, is discussed. A cautionary example is made through the use of mass-based units of composition during volumetric dilution. The correct application of the volumetric dilution equation ci Vi = cf Vf is discussed. A quantitative description of the systematic error introduced by incorrect use of the volumetric dilution equation is also specified.
Rodríguez-López, Margarita; Carrasquillo, Arnaldo, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1327.
Industrial Chemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents
A Note on Dalton's Law: Myths, Facts, and Implementation  Ronald W. Missen and William R. Smith
The treatment of Dalton's law for gas mixtures commonly includes the improper designation "Dalton's law of partial pressures", rather than the correct "Dalton's law of additivity of (pure component) pressures". It also identifies the pure component pressure as the partial pressure, although these are only numerically equal for a mixture of ideal gases. The situation is clarified by examination of an appropriate statement of the law and definitions, eventually in operational form with reference to mixtures of nonideal gases.
Missen, Ronald Wi.; Smith, William R. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1197.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
Equilibria That Shift Left upon Addition of More Reactant  Jeffrey E. Lacy
Most textbook presentations of Le Chtelier's principle in general and physical chemistry do not include a discussion of constant pressure conditions for which addition of a reactant can shift the equilibrium to the left. We propose presentations of isothermal, open systems at constant pressure for both levels of study by using concepts and skills that the respective students already possess. In addition, we derive novel criteria based on the stoichiometry of the reaction that can be used to identify those equilibria that will shift left upon addition of more reactant.
Lacy, Jeffrey E. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1192.
Equilibrium |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Thermodynamics
Microscopic Description of Le Châtelier's Principle  Igor Novak
The analysis based on microscopic descriptors (energy levels and their populations) is given that provides visualization of free energies and conceptual rationalization of Le Châtelier's principle. The misconception "nature favors equilibrium" is highlighted.
Novak, Igor. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1190.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
The Reaction Quotient Is Unnecessary To Solve Equilibrium Problems: The Reaction Quotient (Q) IS Useful After All  Todd P. Silverstein
Paul Matsumoto was absolutely correct in writing The Reaction Quotient Is Unnecessary To Solve Equilibrium Problems.
Silverstein, Todd P. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1149.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
The Reaction Quotient Is Unnecessary To Solve Equilibrium Problems: The Reaction Quotient (Q) IS Useful After All  Todd P. Silverstein
Paul Matsumoto was absolutely correct in writing The Reaction Quotient Is Unnecessary To Solve Equilibrium Problems.
Silverstein, Todd P. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1149.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
Conceptual Considerations in Molecular Science  Donald T. Sawyer
The undergraduate curriculum and associated textbooks include several significant misconceptions.
Sawyer, Donald T. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 985.
Catalysis |
Covalent Bonding |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Reactive Intermediates |
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry
JavaScript Programs To Calculate Thermodynamic Properties Using Cubic Equations of State  
Cubic equations of state are widely used by chemists and chemical engineers to predict the thermodynamic properties of both pure substances and mixtures. In particular, these equations enable predictions concerning the temperature and pressure at which vaporliquid equilibrium occurs. These two educational JavaScript programs perform calculations using cubic equations of state and, equally importantly, explain how the calculations are performed.
J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 960.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
JavaScript Programs To Calculate Thermodynamic Properties Using Cubic Equations of State  Patrick J. Barrie
In this article, two JavaScript programs are described. The first program gives students the choice of five different cubic equations of state and performs calculations for pure substances. The second program predicts vaporliquid equilibrium for binary mixtures using a choice of three modern equations of state and the van der Waals mixing rules.
Barrie, Patrick J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 958.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium
The q/T Paradox: Which "Contains More Heat", a Cup of Coffee at 95°C or a Liter of Icewater?  Ed Vitz and Michael J. Schuman
In this demonstration, heat is removed from 10 cm3 of water at ~95C and 42 cm3 of water at ~0C by adding each to a measured sample of liquid nitrogen. The heat removed from the water boils the N2(l), and the quantity of liquid nitrogen that is evaporated by boiling is determined. The quantity of heat that was absorbed is calculated from the heat of vaporization of liquid nitrogen and found to be about 10,000 J in the case of the hot water and 25,000 J in the case of the icewater.
Vitz, Ed; Schuman, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 856.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Heat Capacity |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
Regarding Entropy Analysis  Thomas H. Bindel
There is a problem with the symbol ?Suniv as it does not indicate whether the reactive system is in standard state or not.
Bindel, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 839.
Thermodynamics
Regarding Entropy Analysis  Robert M. Hanson
Presents a minor criticism I have regards ?Suniv not involving entropy effects of concentration and pressure.
Hanson, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 839.
Thermodynamics
Let's Drive "Driving Force" Out of Chemistry  Norman C. Craig
"Driving force" is identified as a misleading concept in analyzing spontaneous change. Driving force wrongly suggests that Newtonian mechanics and determinism control and explain spontaneous processes. The usefulness of the competition of ?H versus ?S in discussing chemical change is also questioned. Entropy analyseswhich consider the contributions to the total change in entropyare advocated.
Craig, Norman C. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 827.
Natural Products |
Bioenergetics |
Biophysical Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
Procedure for Decomposing a Redox Reaction into Half-Reactions  Ilie Fishtik and Ladislav H. Berka
The principle of stoichiometric uniqueness provides a simple algorithm to check whether a simple redox reaction may be uniquely decomposed into half-reactions in a single way. For complex redox reactions the approach permits a complete enumeration of a finite and unique number of ways a redox reaction may be decomposed into half-reactions. Several examples are given.
Fishtik, Ilie; Berka, Ladislav H. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 553.
Stoichiometry |
Equilibrium |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Thermodynamics
Reaction to "The Concept of Ionic Strength Eighty Years after Its Introduction in Chemistry"  Leslie Glasser
Sastre de Vicente has recently published an excellent paper on the concept of ionic strength, detailing its empirical origin, its independent appearance in the theories of Debye and Hckel, its applications in solution chemistry and, most importantly, its interpretation as reflecting the extent to which a potential difference induces a charge density difference.
Glasser, Leslie. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 212.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A Greener Approach for Measuring Colligative Properties  Sean M. McCarthy and Scott W. Gordon-Wylie
As a first step towards the greening of instructional laboratories, we present a new greener version of a laboratory procedure designed to measure colligative properties. The greener procedure substitutes the nontoxic, noncarcinogenic compounds stearic, myristic, lauric, and palmitic acids for the less benign aromatic compounds p-dichlorobenzene, benzil, biphenyl, naphthalene, and nitrotoluene. Achieving educational goals without the concomitant generation of chlorinated and aromatic wastes is shown here to be both possible and practical.
McCarthy, Sean M.; Gordon-Wylie, Scott W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 116.
Green Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Fatty Acids
A Pedagogical Simulation of Maxwell's Demon Paradox  D. López and C. Criado
Teaching thermodynamics from the microscopic point of view can help students develop an intuitive understanding of its concepts. This program simulates, at the microscopic level, two gas chambers with an opening between them. The program allows students or their instructors to set up simulations that illustrate the thermodynamics and statistical behavior of the system. The user determines the basis for whether the demon permits or denies passage of particles through the opening using information from the microscopic level, such as specific particle velocity. Students can track and analyze how this affects particle distribution, thermal equilibrium, relaxation time, diffusion, and distribution of particle velocities.
López, D.; Criado, C. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1679.
Statistical Mechanics |
Thermodynamics
The Effect of Ionic Strength on the Solubility of an Electrolyte  Joan D. Willey
The theory of activity versus concentration is important in industrial, environmental, and biochemistry. The increase in solubility of an electrolyte in a solution of a second electrolyte with no common ions compared with pure water is not an easy concept to grasp because it seems to be counterintuitive. The simple experiment described here illustrates this principle visually and dramatically. Students attempt to dissolve CaSO42H2O (gypsum) in pure water and in 0.25 M NaCl.
Willey, Joan D. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1644.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Teaching Entropy Analysis in the First-Year High School Course and Beyond  Thomas H. Bindel
A 16-day teaching unit is presented that develops chemical thermodynamics at the introductory high school level and beyond from exclusively an entropy viewpoint referred to as entropy analysis. Many concepts are presented, such as: entropy, spontaneity, the second law of thermodynamics, qualitative and quantitative entropy analysis, extent of reaction, thermodynamic equilibrium, coupled equilibria, and Gibbs free energy. Entropy is presented in a nontraditional way, using energy dispersal.
Bindel, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1585.
Thermodynamics
Campbell's Rule for Estimating Entropy Changes  Norman C. Craig
I am pleased that Campbells rule for estimating entropy changes in gas-consuming and gas-producing chemical reactions has attracted immediate interest.
Craig, Norman C. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1571.
Gases |
Thermodynamics
Campbell's Rule for Estimating Entropy Changes  William B. Jensen
In a recent article Norman Craig has proposed the rule-of-thumb that the approximate value of the entropy of reaction is related to the net moles of gas consumed or generated in the reaction .
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1570.
Gases |
Thermodynamics
Playing Card Equilibrium  Frank L. Lambert
From experience, I am hypersensitive to the misconceptions of students and instructors that can be caused when playing cards are used in teaching chemistry. The root of such errors lies in overlooking the non-mobile, non-energetically-interacting nature of pieces of cardboard. Only if they are being shuffled can cards serve as some sort of analogy to molecular behavior in chemistry.
Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1569.
Equilibrium |
Statistical Mechanics |
Thermodynamics
Entropy and Constraint of Motion  Frank L. Lambert
William Jensen's presentation of entropy increase as solely due to kinetic energy dispersion is stimulating.
Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 640.
Thermodynamics
Entropy and Constraint of Motion   William B. Jensen
I would like to make several observations supplementing and supporting the article by Frank Lambert on entropy as energy dissipation, since this is an approach that I have also used for many years when teaching a qualitative version of the entropy concept to students of general and introductory inorganic chemistry.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 639.
Thermodynamics
Using Science Fiction To Teach Thermodynamics: Vonnegut, Ice-nine, and Global Warming  Charles A. Liberko
When covering the topic of thermodynamics at the introductory level, an example from Kurt Vonnegut, Jr's, fictional novel, Cat's Cradle, is used to take what the students have learned and apply it to a new situation.
Liberko, Charles A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 509.
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Thermodynamics in Context: A Case Study of Contextualized Teaching for Undergraduates  John Holman and Gwen Pilling
Thermodynamics is often considered to be a dry and theoretical area of undergraduate chemistry. To make it more accessible, a contextualized approach to first-year university thermodynamics has been developed, building on the experiences at the high school level of ChemCom in the United States and Salters Advanced Chemistry in the United Kingdom.
Holman, John; Pilling, Gwen. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 373.
Thermodynamics |
Learning Theories
Well Wishes. A Case on Septic Systems and Well Water Requiring In-Depth Analysis and Including Optional Laboratory Experiments  Mary M. Walczak and Juliette M. Lantz
This paper describes the use of a case study to teach introductory chemistry students the chemical principles of solution concentration (especially ppm) and dilution, aqueous redox reactions, and stoichiometric conversions between different solution species.
Walczak, Mary M.; Lantz, Juliette M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 218.
Consumer Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry
Why Chemical Reactions Happen (James Keeler and Peter Wothers)  John Krenos
By concentrating on a limited number of model reactions, this book presents chemistry as a cohesive whole by tying together the fundamentals of thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, and quantum chemistry, mainly through the use of molecular orbital interpretations.
Krenos, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 201.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Quantum Chemistry |
MO Theory
Three-Dimensional Model for Water: Magnets as Dipoles  Samuel H. Yalkowsky and Jennifer L. H. Johnson
Reply to comments on original article.
Yalkowsky, Samuel H.; Johnson, Jennifer L. H. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 34.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Lipids |
Liquids |
Molecular Modeling |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents |
Water / Water Chemistry
Three-Dimensional Model for Water: Magnets as Chemical Bonds  Roy W. Clark
Concerns over students confusing electrical and magnetic fields.
Clark, Roy W. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 34.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Lipids |
Liquids |
Molecular Modeling |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents |
Water / Water Chemistry
Another Variation on the "Whoosh Bottle" Theme  Dean J. Campbell
Additional safety considerations and a CO2 rocket car.
Campbell, Dean J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 31.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
Another Variation on the "Whoosh Bottle" Theme  Edward G. Senkbeil
Description of a similar demonstration and additional safety considerations.
Senkbeil, Edward G. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 31.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
Another Variation on the "Whoosh Bottle" Theme  Edward G. Senkbeil
Description of a similar demonstration and additional safety considerations.
Senkbeil, Edward G. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 31.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
Students' Understanding of Solution Chemistry Concepts  Tacettin Pinarbasi and Nurtaç Canpolat
This study examines undergraduates' understanding of some concepts in solution chemistry such as unsaturated, saturated, and supersaturated solutions; physical properties of solutions; and gas solubility. We suggest that the results can be utilized in research that develops teaching strategies to overcome students' misunderstanding.
Pinarbasi, Tacettin; Canpolat, Nurtaç . J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1328.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
Playing-Card Equilibrium  Robert M. Hanson
A simple hands-on simulation suitable for either classroom use or laboratory investigation involves using a standard deck of playing cards to explore the statistical aspects of equilibrium. Concepts that can be easily demonstrated include fluctuation around a most probable distribution, Le Chtelier's principle, the equilibrium constant, prediction of the equilibrium constant based on probability, and the effect of sample size on equilibrium fluctuations.
Hanson, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1271.
Equilibrium |
Statistical Mechanics |
Thermodynamics
Purple or Colorless—Which Way Up? An Entertaining Solubility Demonstration  Trevor M. Kitson
Discrepant demonstration involving immiscible mixture of water colored with potassium permanganate and hexane.
Kitson, Trevor M. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 892.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
Three Forms of Energy  Sigthór Pétursson
Calculations comparing the energy involved in three forms: heat, mechanical energy, and expansion against pressure.
Pétursson, Sigthór . J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 776.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Nutrition |
Thermodynamics
A Simple Method for Determination of Solubility in the First-Year Laboratory  Heather D. Harle, Julia A. Ingram, Phyllis A. Leber, Kenneth R. Hess, and Claude H. Yoder
Efficient means of determining the solubility of a solute using a Buchner-type funnel for filtration and an analytical balance to measure mass changes.
Harle, Heather D.; Ingram, Julia A.; Leber, Phyllis A.; Hess, Kenneth R.; Yoder, Claude H. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 560.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Laboratory Management |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Gravimetric Analysis
Solvent Extraction Using Safe and Commonly Available Materials To Demonstrate the Difference in Solubility of Two Mixed Solutes  Dante Gilbert L. de Leon and Armando M. Guidote Jr.
Solvent extraction using safe and commonly available materials to demonstrate the difference in solubility of two mixed solutes.
de Leon, Dante Gilbert L.; Guidote, Armando M., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 436.
Solutions / Solvents |
Separation Science
Incomplete Combustion with Candle Flames: A Guided-Inquiry Experiment in the First-Year Chemistry Lab  Joseph MacNeil and Lisa Volaric
Investigating a burning candle as an introduction to incomplete combustion, thermodynamics, kinetics, and gas chromatography.
MacNeil, Joseph; Volaric, Lisa. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 302.
Chromatography |
Gases |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Gas Chromatography
"Disorder" in Unstretched Rubber Bands?  Warren Hirsch
Analysis of the thermodynamics of a stretched rubber band.
Hirsch, Warren. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 145.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Thermodynamics
"Disorder" in Unstretched Rubber Bands?  Frank L. Lambert
Analysis of the thermodynamics of a stretched rubber band.
Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 145.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Thermodynamics
"Disorder" in Unstretched Rubber Bands?  Frank L. Lambert
Analysis of the thermodynamics of a stretched rubber band.
Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 145.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Thermodynamics
Mole, Mole per Liter, and Molar: A Primer on SI and Related Units for Chemistry Students  George Gorin
A brief historical overview of the SI system, the concept of the mole and the definition of mole unit, the status of the liter in the metric and SI systems, and the meaning of molar and molarity.
Gorin, George. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 103.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Rubber Bands, Free Energy, and Le Châtelier's Principle  Warren Hirsch
Using a rubber band to illustrate Gibbs free energy, entropy, and enthalpy.
Hirsch, Warren. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 200A.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium
Principal Species and pH in Acid–Base Solutions  Robert M. Hanson
Web page that allows one to determine the concentrations of principal species in a variety of solutions or mixtures of solutions; also allows a virtual titration.
Hanson, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1486.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Energy as Money, Chemical Bonding as Business, and Negative ΔH and ΔG as Investment   Evguenii I. Kozliak
Analogy for explaining the sign (+ or -) of ?H, ?G, and ?S to introductory students.
Kozliak, Evguenii I. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1435.
Nonmajor Courses |
Thermodynamics
Entropy Is Simple, Qualitatively  Frank L. Lambert
Explanation of entropy in terms of energy dispersal; includes considerations of fusion and vaporization, expanding gasses and mixing fluids, colligative properties, and the Gibbs function.
Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1241.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases
A Three-Dimensional Model for Water  J. L. H. Johnson and S. H. Yalkowsky
Using Molymod spheres and magnets to simulate the structure and properties of water and aqueous systems.
Johnson, J. L. H.; Yalkowsky, S. H. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1088.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Lipids |
Liquids |
Solutions / Solvents |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Understanding of Elementary Concepts in Heat and Temperature among College Students and K–12 Teachers  Paul G. Jasien and Graham E. Oberem
Report on a study of the understanding of elementary concepts related to heat and temperature (thermal equilibrium and energy transfer in the form of heat) in undergraduate and post-baccalaurate students as a function of their number of semesters of college-level physical science training.
Jasien, Paul G.; Oberem, Graham E. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 889.
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium
H Is for Enthalpy, Thanks to Heike Kamerlingh Onnes and Alfred W. Porter  Irmgard K. Howard
Origin of the word enthalpy.
Howard, Irmgard K. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 697.
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
A Copper-Sulfate-Based Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory for First-Year University Students That Teaches Basic Operations and Concepts  Emilio Rodríguez and Miguel Angel Vicente
A 10-hour integrated experiment that covers all the inorganic chemistry topics in first-year chemistry and chemical engineering courses.
Rodríguez, Emilio; Vicente, Miguel Angel. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 486.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solutions / Solvents
A Chemically Relevant Model for Teaching the Second Law of Thermodynamics  Bryce E. Williamson and Tetsuo Morikawa
Presentation of a chemically relevant model that exemplifies many aspects of the second law: reversibility, path dependence, and extrapolation in terms of electrochemistry and calorimetry.
Williamson, Bryce E.; Morikawa, Tetsuo. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 339.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Thermodynamics
The Lead-Acid Battery: Its Voltage in Theory and in Practice  Richard S. Treptow
Lead-acid battery fundamentals, cell voltage and the Nernst equation, and an analysis of actual battery performance.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 334.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry
Magnetic Stirring with the Stirring Bar Length Exceeding the Vessel Diameter  Kirk W. Payne, James M. Lucas, and Edmund J. Eisenbraun
Suggestions for effectively using magnetic stirring bars in test tubes.
Payne, Kirk W.; Lucas, James M.; Eisenbraun, Edmund J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 217.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Magnetic Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
Spontaneous Assembly of Soda Straws  D. J. Campbell, E. R. Freidinger, J. M. Hastings, and M. K. Querns
Demonstrating spontaneous assembly using soda straws.
Campbell, D. J.; Freidinger, E. R.; Hastings, J. M.; Querns, M. K. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 201.
Materials Science |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nanotechnology |
Surface Science |
Thermodynamics
Disorder--A Cracked Crutch for Supporting Entropy Discussions  Frank L. Lambert
Arguments against using disorder as a means of introducing and teaching entropy.
Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 187.
Thermodynamics
Using Computer-Based Visualization Strategies to Improve Students' Understanding of Molecular Polarity and Miscibility  Michael J. Sanger and Steven M. Badger II
Study of how the use of visualization strategies associated with dynamic computer animations and electron density plots affect students' conceptual understanding of molecular polarity and miscibility.
Sanger, Michael J.; Badger, Steven M., II. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1412.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Solutions / Solvents |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics
The Purification of Water by Freeze-Thaw or Zone Melting  James Oughton, Silas Xu, and Rubin Battino
Quantitative investigation of the purification of slat water solutions through the process of partial freezing.
Oughton, James; Xu, Silas; Battino, Rubin. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1373.
Conductivity |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
On the Importance of Ideality  Rubin Battino, Scott E. Wood, and Arthur G. Williamson
Analysis of the utility of ideality in gaseous phenomena, solutions, and the thermodynamic concept of reversibility.
Battino, Rubin; Wood, Scott E.; Williamson, Arthur G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1364.
Thermodynamics |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents
Experiencing and Visualizing the First Law of Thermodynamics: An In-Class Workshop  Pamela Mills, William V. Sweeney, and Waldemar Cieniewicz
A handheld device that illustrates the concepts of heat, work, energy transfer, and thermodynamic path.
Mills, Pamela; Sweeney, William V.; Cieniewicz, Waldemar. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1360.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
A Simplified Method for Measuring the Entropy Change of Urea Dissolution. An Experiment for the Introductory Chemistry Lab  Charles A. Liberko and Stephanie Terry
Guided inquiry to determine values for changes in enthalpy, Gibb's free energy, and entropy for the dissolution of urea in water.
Liberko, Charles A.; Terry, Stephanie. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1087.
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
The Isothermal Heat Conduction Calorimeter: A Versatile Instrument for Studying Processes in Physics, Chemistry, and Biology  Lars Wadsö, Allan L. Smith, Hamid Shirazi, S. Rose Mulligan, and Thomas Hofelich
A simple but sensitive isothermal heat-conduction calorimeter and five experiments for students to illustrate its use (heat capacity of solids, acid-base titration, enthalpy of vaporization of solvents, cement hydration, and insect metabolism).
Wadsö, Lars; Smith, Allan L.; Shirazi, Hamid; Mulligan, S. Rose; Hofelich, Thomas. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1080.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thermal Analysis |
Thermodynamics
Stories to Make Thermodynamics and Related Subjects More Palatable  Lawrence S. Bartell
Collection of anecdotes regarding the history and human side of chemistry.
Bartell, Lawrence S. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1059.
Surface Science |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Applications of Chemistry
Melting Point, Density, and Reactivity of Metals  Michael Laing
Using melting points and densities to the predict the relative reactivities of metals.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1054.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Physical Properties |
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Electrochemistry
An Alcohol Rocket Car--A Variation on the "Whoosh Bottle" Theme  Dean J. Campbell
Burning methanol in a wheeled milk jug.
Campbell, Dean J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 910.
Gases |
Thermodynamics
A Simple Computer-Interfaced Calorimeter: Application to the Determination of the Heat of Formation of Magnesium Oxide  Sze-Shun Wong, Natasha D. Popovich, and Shelley J. Coldiron
Design, construction, and laboratory instructional application of a simple computer-controlled, constant-pressure calorimeter.
Wong, Sze-Shun; Popovich, Natasha D.; Coldiron, Shelley J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 798.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Thermodynamics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Floating Plastics: An Initial Chemistry Laboratory Experience  Enrique A. Hughes, Helena M. Ceretti, and Anita Zalts
Students prepare a series of solutions with gradually increasing densities. Then they are given plastic samples of known and unknown composition and they estimate the densities of the samples by observing in which solutions they float and in which they sink; these densities are used to identify the plastics.
Hughes, Enrique A.; Ceretti, Helena M.; Zalts, Anita. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 522.
Nonmajor Courses |
Solutions / Solvents |
Physical Properties
Are Fizzing Drinks Boiling? A Chemical Insight from Chemical Education Research  Alan Goodwin
The suggestion that fizzing drinks are examples of liquids boiling at room temperature has proved to be controversial among both chemists and chemical educators. This paper presents a case for believing this everyday system to be a good example of a boiling solution and the consequent separation of carbon dioxide from the solution to exemplify fractional distillation.
Goodwin, Alan. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 385.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Crystallization from a Supersaturated Solution of Sodium Acetate  Jamil Ahmad
An overhead projector demonstration is described, in which sodium acetate trihydrate crystallizes out from a supersaturated solution that has been poured on a transparency. When seeded with a crystal of the salt, crystallization starts, and its progress can be followed on the screen.
Ahmad, Jamil. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1446.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solutions / Solvents
SolEq: Solution Equilibria, Principles and Applications, Release 1
by SolEq Project Team: L. D. Pettit, K. J. Powell, and R. W. Ramette

  Marina C. Koether
29 tutorials with simulation, calculations, and graphs, on solution equilibria.
Koether, Marina C. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1414.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis

Interpretation of Second Virial Coefficient  Vivek Utgikar
Identifying the gel point of a polymer using a multimeter.
Utgikar, Vivek. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1409.
Kinetics |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Gases |
Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics of Water Superheated in the Microwave Oven  B. H. Erné
Water is conveniently heated above its normal boiling point in a microwave oven in a glass microwave oven teapot. Water stops boiling soon after heating is interrupted, but subsequently added rough particles can still act as nucleation centers for a brief, spectacular burst of steam bubbles. The heat to make those steam bubbles obviously comes from the water itself, so that one can conclude that the boiling water was superheated, which is confirmed with a thermometer.
Erné, B. H. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1309.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Liquids
Hell May Be Hotter Than Heaven After All (about J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 503)  M. N. Berberan-Santos
Estimation of temperatures in heaven and hell based on biblical information.
Berberan-Santos, Mário N. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1278.
Nonmajor Courses |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
Ernest Rutherford, Avogadro's Number, and Chemical Kinetics Revisited (about J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 998-1003)  James E. Sturm
Estimation of temperatures in heaven and hell based on biblical information.
Sturm, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1278.
Nonmajor Courses |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Kinetics |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
Turbulent Motion in Ethyl Acetate-Water System  Jamil Ahmad
4 mL of ethyl acetate is added to 10 mL of water in a Petri dish. Within a minute or so, an image of turbulent motion appears on the screen, at first at a few centers that eventually organize themselves in a line. The image of the line of turbulence is quite striking and resembles a moving front of dancing flames.
Ahmad, Jamil. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1182.
Liquids |
Solutions / Solvents |
Surface Science
A Visual Aid in Enthalpy Calculations  Sebastian G. Canagaratna
This article discusses the use of enthalpy-temperature diagrams for reactants and products as a visual aid in the teaching of reaction-enthalpy calculations. By the use of such diagrams the division of the process into a part involving a chemical reaction without a temperature change and a part involving only a temperature change is made visually concrete.
Canagaratna, Sebastian G. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1178.
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Determination of Ksp, ΔG0, ΔH0, and ΔS0 for the Dissolution of Calcium Hydroxide in Water: A General Chemistry Experiment  William B. Euler, Louis J. Kirschenbaum, and Ben Ruekberg
This exercise utilizes low-cost, relatively nonhazardous materials presenting few disposal problems. It reinforces the students' understanding of the interrelationship of solubility, Ksp, ΔG0, ΔH0, and ΔS0.
Euler, William B.; Kirschenbaum, Louis J.; Ruekberg, Ben. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1039.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Understanding Electrochemical Thermodynamics through Entropy Analysis  Thomas H. Bindel
This discovery-based activity involves entropy analysis of galvanic cells. The intent of the activity is for students to discover the fundamentals of electrochemical cells through a combination of entropy analysis, exploration, and guided discovery.
Bindel, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1031.
Electrochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
A Closer Look at Phase Diagrams for the General Chemistry Course  Stephen A. Gramsch
The information provided by the high-pressure phase diagrams of some simple systems (carbon dioxide, water, hydrogen, and iron) can provide a useful extension to the traditional discussion of phase diagrams in the general chemistry course. At the same time, it can prepare students for a more illuminating presentation of the concept of equilibrium than is possible through the discussion of gas phase, acid-base, and solubility product equilibria alone.
Gramsch, Stephen A. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 718.
Equilibrium |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Geochemistry
Ionic Crystals: A Simple and Safe Lecture Demonstration of the Preparation of NaI from Its Elements  Zelek S. Herman
A simple and safe classroom demonstration showing the production of sodium iodide (NaI) crystals from elemental sodium and elemental (molecular) iodine is presented. The demonstration, which is quite impressive, naturally fits into the discussion of ionic bonding and the alkali halide crystals.
Herman, Zelek S. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 619.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Thermodynamics |
Ionic Bonding |
Crystals / Crystallography
Illustrating Thermodynamic Concepts Using a Hero's Engine  Pedro L. Muiño and James R. Hodgson
A modified Hero's engine is used to illustrate concepts of thermodynamics and engineering design suitable for introductory chemistry courses and more advanced physical chemistry courses. This demonstration is suitable to illustrate concepts like gas expansion, gas cooling through expansion, conversion of heat to work, interconversion between kinetic energy and potential energy, and feedback mechanisms.
Muio, Pedro L.; Hodgson, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 615.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Experimentation and Group Discussion as a Means of Determining Solubility Rules  Karen E. Stevens
An experimental method is presented that leads to the development of solubility rules. A set of experiments is performed as a class demonstration and then discussed in groups. As a result, a classification of all the ionic species present can be made in terms of their solubility.
Stevens, Karen E. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 327.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
An Introductory Laboratory Exercise on Solution Preparation: A Rewarding Experience  M. Rachel Wang
This exercise provides beginning students a firsthand experience in solution preparation. The format of the student handout promotes active learning in the laboratory by having text and questions interspersed among laboratory procedures. Students are motivated to prepare solutions for the fascinating Briggs-Rauscher oscillation reaction and the exercise involves a variety of situations commonly encountered in solution preparation.
Wang, M. Rachel. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 249.
Solutions / Solvents
The Use of Extent of Reaction in Introductory Courses  Sebastian G. Canagaratna
This article discusses the use of the extent of reaction as an alternative to the traditional approach to stoichiometry in first-year chemistry. The method focuses attention on the reaction as a whole rather than on pairs of reagents as in the traditional approach. The balanced equation is used as the unit of change.
Canagaratna, Sebastian G. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 52.
Stoichiometry |
Thermodynamics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Boerhaave on Fire  Damon Diemente
This article offers a selection of passages from Boerhaave's chapter on fire. Boerhaave offers demonstrations and experiments that can be instructively performed today, quantitative data that can be checked against modern equations, and much theory and hypothesis that can be assessed in light of modern chemical ideas.
Diemente, Damon. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 42.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
Using TOPEX Satellite El Niño Altimetry Data to Introduce Thermal Expansion and Heat Capacity Concepts in Chemistry Courses  Harvey F. Blanck
Warm water is less dense than cool water and will float somewhat like ice, with a portion above the surface of the cooler surrounding water. The height of the bump can be used to estimate the excess thermal energy in the warmer water.
Blanck, Harvey F. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1635.
Liquids |
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Viscosity Measurement: A Virtual Experiment: Abstract of Issue 9907  N. Papadopoulos, A. T. Pitta, N. Markopoulos, M. Limniou, M. A. N. D. A. Lemos, F. Lemos, and F. G. Freire
Viscosity Measurement includes three virtual experiments: an Ostwald viscometer simulator, a falling-ball viscometer simulator, and a balance simulator for a simple determination of the density of a liquid. Each virtual experiment includes a corresponding theoretical section. Support from the program is sufficient to enable the students to carry out a virtual experiment sensibly and on their own.
Papadopoulos, Nikos; Pitta, A. T.; Markopoulos, N.; Limniou, M.; Lemos, M. A. N. D. A.; Lemos, F. M.; Freire, F. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1600.
Solutions / Solvents |
Physical Properties
The Solubility of Ionic Solids and Molecular Liquids  C. Baer and Sheila M. Adamus
The solubilities of three ionic salts (NaCl, PbCl2, and KAl(SO4)2.12H2O) in water are measured at four temperatures. The concept of recrystallization is introduced as students cool a high-temperature solution and observe crystal formation. Spreadsheet calculations are performed with the group data, which are then graphed, and students observe the wide variance in solubility behavior for the three salts.
Baer, Carl; Adamus, Sheila M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1540.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Liquids |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Solutions / Solvents
Phosphate Buffers and Telephone Poles - A Useful Analogy with Limitations  Edwin S. Gould
A visual aid is presented to help general chemistry students establish the major phosphorus species in buffer solutions made from partial neutralizations of phosphoric acid and to estimate concentrations.
Gould, Edwin S. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1511.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases
Henry's Law and Noisy Knuckles  Doris R. Kimbrough
Presented here is the application of Henry's law to the noise associated with "cracking" knuckles. Gases dissolved in the synovial fluid in joints rapidly come out of solution as the joint is stretched and pressure is decreased. This "cavitation" produces a characteristic noise.
Kimbrough, Doris R. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1509.
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Applications of Chemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry
Entropy, Disorder, and Freezing  Brian B. Laird
It is argued that the usual view that entropy is a measure of "disorder" is problematic and that there exist systems at high density, for which packing considerations dominate, where a spatially ordered state has a higher entropy than a disordered one.
Laird, Brian B. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1388.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Statistical Mechanics
Shuffled Cards, Messy Desks, and Disorderly Dorm Rooms - Examples of Entropy Increase? Nonsense!  Frank L. Lambert
Simply changing the location of everyday macro objects from an arrangement that we commonly judge as orderly to one that appears disorderly is a "zero change" in the thermodynamic entropy of the objects because the number of accessible energetic microstates in any of them has not been changed.
Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1385.
Nonmajor Courses |
Statistical Mechanics |
Thermodynamics
Visualizing Entropy  Joseph H. Lechner
This report describes two classroom activities that help students visualize the abstract concept of entropy and apply the second law of thermodynamics to real situations.
Lechner, Joseph H. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1382.
Statistical Mechanics |
Thermodynamics
Chemistry Comes Alive! Vol. 3: Abstract of Special Issue 23 on CD-ROM  Jerrold J. Jacobsen and John W. Moore
Volume 3 contains several related topics generally included in an introductory chemistry course. The general areas are Enthalpy and Thermodynamics, Oxidation-Reduction, and Electrochemistry.
Jacobsen, Jerrold J.; Moore, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1311.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Authentic Research within the Grasp of High School Students  Annis Hapkiewicz
There are research questions to be explored that are within the experience of students. The research problem that is described arose when a colleague posed a question: "Will an ice cube melt faster in salt water or tap water?" The learning process describe could be duplicated in any chemistry classroom, and it can also serve as a framework for exploring other problems as they arise from everyday observations.
Hapkiewicz, Annis. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1212.
Solutions / Solvents
Ammonia Can Crush  Ed Vitz
When a 12-oz aluminum soft drink can filled with ammonia or hydrogen chloride gas is inverted and dipped into water, the rapidly dissolving gas evacuates the can and the can is crushed before water can be drawn into it. This demonstrates, among other things, the remarkable strength of hydrogen bonds.
Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 932.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Hydrogen Bonding
The Evolution of the Celsius and Kelvin Temperature Scales and the State of the Art  Julio Pellicer, M. Amparo Gilabert, and Ernesto Lopez-Baeza
A physical analysis is given of the evolution undergone by the Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales, from their definition to the present day.
Pellicer, Julio; Gilabert, M. Amparo; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 911.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Thermodynamics |
Learning Theories
Solution Conductivity Apparatus  Daniel T. Haworth, Mark R. Bartelt, and Michael J. Kenney
A solution conductivity apparatus is described that can be used to measure the relative conductivity of various solutions. The apparatus can be used as either a hand-held model employing a 10-element LED display or a lecture-hall demonstration model employing a 10-incandescent-lamp array.
Haworth, Daniel T.; Bartelt, Mark R.; Kenney, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 625.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Conductivity |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The Ammonia Smoke Fountain: An Interesting Thermodynamic Adventure  M. Dale Alexander
The ammonia smoke fountain demonstration utilizes a modification of the apparatus used in the standard ammonia fountain. The modification allows for the introduction of hydrogen chloride gas into a flask of ammonia rather than water. The flow rate of hydrogen chloride gas into the flask in the smoke fountain is not constant, but periodic; that is, the smoke puffs from the end of the tube. This unexpected behavior elicits an interesting thermodynamic explanation.
Alexander, M. Dale. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 210.
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Precipitation / Solubility
The Effects of Salts and Nonelectrolytes on the Solubility of Potassium Bitartrate: An Introductory Chemistry Discovery Experiment  Charles J. Marzzacco
An introductory chemistry discovery experiment on the effect of the presence of various solutes on the solubility of potassium bitartrate (KHT) is presented. Aqueous solutions of KCl, NaCl, MgSO4 and glucose with concentrations ranging from 0.0 to 0.10 M are saturated with KHT. The solubility of the KHT in these various solutions is determined by titration with standardized NaOH solution.
Marzzacco, Charles J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1628.
Solutions / Solvents |
Equilibrium |
Quantitative Analysis
A Cyclist's Guide to Ionic Concentration  Arthur M. Last
A simple analogy to help students understand ionic concentration is presented.
Last, Arthur M. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1433.
Solutions / Solvents |
Stoichiometry
What Should We Teach Beginners about Solubility and Solubility Products?  Stephen J. Hawkes
Solubility equilibria are best taught qualitatively in introductory chemistry, leaving the calculations to higher level courses.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1179.
Solutions / Solvents |
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility
Integrating Computers into the First-Year Chemistry Laboratory: Application of Raoult's Law to a Two-Component System  R. Viswanathan and G. Horowitz
First-year chemistry students are introduced to a spreadsheet program to calculate the boiling points of a two-component solution containing a volatile solute. The boiling points are predicted by combining the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and Raoult's law. A simple experimental setup is used to measure the boiling points of solutions of varying compositions.
Viswanathan, Raji; Horowitz, Gail. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1124.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Oxygen vs Dioxygen: Diatomic/Monatomic Usage  Sharon, Jared B.
Using the name dioxygen for O2.
Sharon, Jared B. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1089.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Vapor Pressure Lowering by Nonvolatile Solutes  Gavin D. Peckham
This short article highlights a fundamental error that is entrenched in introductory chemistry textbooks. It is true that the addition of a nonvolatile solute causes a lowering in the vapor pressure of a solution. The error lies in attributing this vapor pressure lowering to the "blocking" of surface sites by nonvolatile particles. This is a totally fallacious argument for a number of reasons and the true explanation is to be found in the entropy changes that occur as a nonvolatile solute is added to a solution.
Peckham, Gavin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 787.
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics
Sugar Dehydration without Sulfuric Acid: No More Choking Fumes in the Classroom!  Todd P. Silverstein and Yi Zhang
Our demonstration uses no sulfuric acid, yields relatively little smoke, and produces an exciting and unpredictable growing column of black carbon.
Silverstein, Todd P.; Zhang, Yi. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 748.
Carbohydrates |
Thermodynamics |
Electrochemistry |
Solid State Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Thermodynamics and Spontaneity (the author replies)  Ochs, Raymond S.
The term "spontaneous" is historical baggage.
Ochs, Raymond S. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 659.
Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics and Spontaneity  Earl, Boyd L.
The term "spontaneous" is worth keeping in the chemistry lexicon.
Earl, Boyd L. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 658.
Thermodynamics
Letters to the Editor  
The term "spontaneous" is worth keeping in the chemistry lexicon.
J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 658.
Thermodynamics
The Real Reason Why Oil and Water Don't Mix  Todd P. Silverstein
Authors should remove from their textbooks the incorrect enthalpic/hydrogen-bond explanation for the hydrophobic effect. Because aspects of the correct entropic/clathrate "cage" explanation lie beyond the scope of introductory or organic chemistry courses, it may be wisest to omit any detailed physical explanation of the "like dissolves like" phenomenon.
Silverstein, Todd P. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 116.
Theoretical Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
The Source of the Cloud Produced upon Adding Dry Ice to Water  Manu Kohli, Rudy L. Luck, and Veka Ohtamaa
Explains why a cloud is produced by adding dry ice to water.
Kohli, Manu; Luck, Rudy L.; Ohtamaa, Veka. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 60.
Solutions / Solvents |
Water / Water Chemistry
Demonstrating Heat Changes on the Overhead Projector with a Projecting Thermometer  Chinhyu Hur, Sally Solomon, and Christy Wetzel
Heat changes can be observed by using a culture dish and a thermometer that is projected onto a screen using an overhead projector.
Hur, Chinhyu; Solomon, Sally; Wetzel, Christy. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 51.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Heat Capacity, Body Temperature, and Hypothermia  Doris R. Kimbrough
A finger in and out of water are compared to demonstrate the difference between heat capacities and their effect on body temperature.
Kimbrough, Doris R. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 48.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
The Disappearing Liquid  H. D. Gesser and Ian Ward
Mixing ethanol and water in a volumetric flask results in a noticeable reduction in the volume of the mixture.
Gesser, H. D.; Ward, Ian. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1357.
Liquids |
Solutions / Solvents |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The reply: Ionization Constants  S. Roo, L. Vermeire, and C. Gorller-Walrand
Error regarding the first ionization constant of carbonic acid.
Roo, S.; Vermeire, L.; Gorller-Walrand, C. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1160.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
Ionization Constants  Morris Bader
Error regarding the first ionization constant of carbonic acid.
Bader, Morris. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1160.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Why Don't Things Go Wrong More Often? Activation Energies: Maxwell's Angels, Obstacles to Murphy's Law  Frank L. Lambert
The micro-complexity of fracturing utilitarian or beautiful objects prevents assigning a characteristic activation energy even to chemically identical artifacts. Nevertheless, a qualitative EACT SOLID can be developed. Its surmounting is correlated with the radical drop in human valuation of an object when it is broken.
Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 947.
Kinetics |
Nonmajor Courses |
Thermodynamics
An Integrated-Circuit Temperature Sensor for Calorimetry and Differential Temperature Measurement  Mark Muyskens
Application of an integrated-circuit (IC) temperature sensor which is easy-to-use, inexpensive, rugged, easily computer-interfacable and has good precision is described. The design, based on the National Semiconductor LM35 IC chip, avoids some of the difficulties associated with conventional sensors (thermocouples, thermistors, and platinum resistance thermometers) and a previously described IC sensor.
Muyskens, Mark. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 850.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermal Analysis |
Thermodynamics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Removing Silicone Grease from Glassware  Thomas H. Lowry
A recent note described the use of 5% aqueous hydrofluoric acid for removing silicone grease residues from round-bottom flasks. A safer and more convenient alternative is a saturated solution of sodium hydroxide in ethanol.
Lowry, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 841.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solutions / Solvents |
Laboratory Management
Stable Solutions for the Iodine Clock Reaction  George B. Kauffman and Charles R. Hall
Advanced preparation of solutions for the iodine clock reaction.
Kauffman, George B.; Hall, Charles R. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 616.
Reactions |
Solutions / Solvents
A Quantitative Conductance Apparatus  Danny Burns and Don Lewis
Circuitry, electrode configuration and calibration procedures are described for a conductance device. An alternative construction of the circuit is given allowing computer capture of the instrument response.
Burns, Danny; Lewis, Don. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 570.
Instrumental Methods |
Conductivity |
Liquids |
Solutions / Solvents |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The Thermodynamics of Drunk Driving  Robert Q. Thompson
Biological, chemical, and instrumental variables are described along with their contributions to the overall uncertainty in the value of BrAC/BAC.
Thompson, Robert Q. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 532.
Thermodynamics |
Nonmajor Courses |
Forensic Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Applications of Chemistry
An Apparatus for Fast Dilution  V. P. Boiko
An apparatus for fast dilution permitting unlimited dilution of the solution in the same vessel is described. This was achieved by using a siphon to remove part of the solution from the dilution vessel.
Boiko, V. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 439.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solutions / Solvents
Heat Flow vs. Cash Flow: A Banking Analogy  Charles M. Wynn, Sr.
An analogy is drawn between the withdrawal of money from an automated teller machine (ATM) and an exothermic chemical reaction.
Wynn, Charles M. Sr. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 397.
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Elasticity to Measure Thermodynamic Properties  Jonathan Mitschele
Repetition of original experiment.
Mitschele, Jonathan. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 368.
Thermodynamics
A Brief History of Thermodynamics Notation  Rubin Battino, Laurence E. Strong, Scott E. Wood
This paper gives a brief history of thermodynamic notation for the energy, E, enthalpy, H, entropy, S, Gibbs energy, G, Helmholtz energy, A, work, W, heat, Q, pressure, P, volume, V, and temperature, T. In particular, the paper answers the question, "Where did the symbol S for entropy come from?"
Battino, Rubin; Strong Laurence E.; Wood, Scott E. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 304.
Thermodynamics
In Defense of Thermodynamics - An Animate Analogy  Sture Nordholm
In order to illustrate the deepest roots of thermodynamics and its great power and generality, it is applied by way of analogy to human behavior from an economic point of view.
Nordholm, Sture. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 273.
Thermodynamics
The Safe and Efficient Evaporation of a Solvent from Solution  Andrew R. Mahon
By inverting an ordinary 200-mL vacuum flask and pulling a steady current of air from the vacuum apparatus through it, any type of small container can be placed under it, allowing the solvent to be evaporated in a steady, mistake-free manner .
Mahon, Andrew R. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 246.
Solutions / Solvents |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Chemical Equilibrium (the author replies)  Banerjee, Anil
Item 7 deserves a fuller answer than was provided.
Banerjee, Anil J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A262.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
Chemical Equilibrium  Logan, S. R.
Item 7 deserves a fuller answer than was provided.
Logan, S. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A261.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
Concept Maps in Chemistry Education  Alberto Regis, Pier Giorgio Albertazzi, Ezio Roletto
This article presents and illustrates a proposed application of concept maps in chemistry teaching in high schools. Three examples of the use of concept maps in chemistry teaching are reported and discussed with reference to: atomic structure, oxidation-reduction and thermodynamics.
Regis, Alberto; Albertazzi, Pier Giorgio; Roletto, Ezio. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1084.
Learning Theories |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics
Effects of Solution Physical Properties on Copper and Chromium Signals in Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry  Fàbio R. P. Rocha, Joaquim A. Nòbrega
Instrumental techniques, such as flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), are frequently used in chemical analysis. Independently of the technique used, the chemical principles must be considered to assure that the analytical results are correct.
Rocha, Fàbio R. P.; Nòbrega , Joaquim A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 982.
Physical Properties |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Instrumental Methods
A Simple Method for Determining the Temperature Coefficient of Voltaic Cell Voltage  Alfred E. Saieed, Keith M. Davies
This article describes a relatively simple method for preparing voltaic cells, and through their temperature coefficient, ?E/?T, it explores relationships between ?G, ?H,and ?S for the cell reactions involved.
Saieed, Alfred E.; Davies, Keith M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 959.
Electrochemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Oxidation / Reduction
Thermodynamics and Spontaneity  Raymond S. Ochs
Despite the importance of thermodynamics as the foundation of chemistry, most students emerge from introductory courses with only a dim understanding of this subject.
Ochs, Raymond S. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 952.
Thermodynamics |
Learning Theories |
Equilibrium
Home-Study Microlabs  Dietmar Kennepohl
This article presents the use of microscaled chemistry experiments for individual home study and how it can be incorporated into a course with traditional laboratory work.
Kennepohl, Dietmar. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 938.
Microscale Lab |
Solutions / Solvents |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Precipitation / Solubility
Low-Cost Lateral Displacement Refractometer for Liquids: A Take-Home Student Experiment   V. Anantha Narayanan and Radha Narayanan
This article describes an experiment that uses a low-cost lateral displacement refractometer. The refractometer can be used in the home or laboratory by science students.
Narayanan, V. Anantha; Narayanan, Radha. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 784.
Solutions / Solvents |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Teaching Dilutions  Lloyd J. McElroy
Teaching the concepts of dilutions is facilitated by using the graphic presentations depicted in this article along with the conventional formulas.
McElroy, Lloyd J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 765.
Solutions / Solvents
SIRS: Simulations and Interactive Resources, III  Martin, John S.
Simulations and Interactive Resources (SIRs) are designed to support interactive lectures in introductory chemistry. This third issue of SIRs includes five new SIRs as well as updated and final versions of all previously published SIRs.
Martin, John S. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 722.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Reactions |
Electrochemistry |
Kinetics
An Approach to Reaction Thermodynamics through Enthalpies, Entropies, and Free Energies of Atomization  James N. Spencer, Richard S. Moog, and Ronald J. Gillespie
An alternative to the conventional method of calculating enthalpies of reaction is presented, using enthalpies of atomization in place of enthalpies of formation. This allows the student to see directly that the reaction enthalpies are determined by the difference in bond strengths in the reactants and products.
James N. Spencer, Richard S. Moog, and Ronald J. Gillespie. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 631.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium |
Reactions |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Stoichiometry
Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in River and Bay Sediments: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment in Environmental Chemistry Using Capillary Gas Chromatography with Electron Capture Detection  Susan E. Kegley, Kristen J. Hansen, and Kevin L. Cunningham
This paper briefly discusses the history of PCB use and provides guidelines for finding and evaluating PCB-contaminated sites as a way to interest students by showing them an application of chemistry to the "real world."
Kegley, Susan E.; Hansen, Kristen J.; Cunningham, Kevin L. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 558.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Applications of Chemistry |
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents
All Positive Ions Give Acid Solutions in Water  Stephen J. Hawkes
The acidity of aqueous solutions of positive ions is never zero although many texts say incorrectly that most metals of Groups I and II and some others are not acidic.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 516.
Acids / Bases |
Metals |
Solutions / Solvents |
pH
Laser Pointer and the Tyndall Effect  Eugene Thomas
Laser pointers provide a convenient way to demonstrate the Tyndall effect to beginning students.
Thomas, Eugene. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 470.
Lasers |
Solutions / Solvents
Solubility and Thermodynamics: An Introductory Experiment  Robert G. Silberman
This article describes a laboratory experiment suitable for high school or freshman chemistry students in which the solubility of potassium nitrate is determined at several different temperatures.
Silberman, Robert G. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 426.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium
The Teaching of Precipitation Equilibrium: A New Approach  Ana M. V. S. V. Cavaleiro
In this paper we present a simplified integrated approach to the calculation of the solubility in water of a salt, and the pH of the saturated solution, taking into account the acid-base reactions of the anion.
Cavaleiro, Ana M. V. S. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 423.
Precipitation / Solubility |
pH |
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases
Salts are Mostly Not Ionized  Stephen J. Hawkes
The popular assumption that all salts are totally ionized in aqueous solution is false. Moreover, it is approximated only by alkali metal salts and by salts of alkaline earth metals with high atomic numbers.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 421.
Ionic Bonding |
Metals |
Solutions / Solvents
A Novel Approach to Teaching Electrochemical Principles  Paul Krause and Jerry Manion
To demonstrate that work may be done by a chemical reaction, a reaction producing a gas is carried out in a large, closed syringe. As the gas is generated, the syringe plunger is forced out.
Krause, Paul; Manion, Jerry. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 354.
Reactions |
Gases |
Thermodynamics
Evaluating Student Understanding of Solution Chemistry through Microscopic Representations  Kimberly Jo Smith and Patricia A. Metz
Misconceptions regarding acids and bases, acid strength, dissociation, diatomic elements, bonding, and aqueous solutions can interfere with subsequent learning and can persist beyond the undergraduate level These chemical concepts readily lend themselves to microscopic representations. Teaching strategies using these visual aids could explain the concept before applying the mathematics.
Smith, Kimberly Jo; Metz, Patricia A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 233.
Solutions / Solvents |
Learning Theories
Using Quality Circles in General Chemistry  Kogut, Leonard S.
A second semester class in General Chemistry used a student Quality Circle to suggest methods to improve instruction in chemical equilibrium in solution.
Kogut, Leonard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 146.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents
Photosynthesis: Why Does It Occur?  J. J. MacDonald
Explanation of why photosynthesis occurs; stating that it is merely the reverse of respiration is misleading.
MacDonald, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1113.
Plant Chemistry |
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Photochemistry |
Electrochemistry
Crystallization of Supersaturated Sodium Acetate and the Temperature Dependence of the Autoionization Constant of Water  Joseph A. Pergler, Ronald O. Ragsdale, and Thomas G. Richmond
A procedure to qualitatively demonstrate the variation of the autoionization constant of water with temperature.
Pergler, Joseph A.; Ragsdale, Ronald O.; Richmond, Thomas G. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1027.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Water / Water Chemistry
What Does It Mean?: Reflections on Concentration, Activity, and Electrode Potential  Pietro Lanza
Explanation of electrode potential and the mechanism of the electrode process for determining concentration.
Lanza, Pietro. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1009.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Electrochemistry
What's Present? Qualitative Analysis Problems in General Chemistry  Sidney Toby
Open-book, research-oriented, sample questions regarding qualitative analysis.
Toby, Sidney. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1008.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Descriptive Chemistry
Ammonia Fountain and Density Gradient Column   Miroslav Proksa
Demonstration combining the ammonia fountain with an acid-base indicator density column.
Proksa, Miroslav. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 931.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Physical Properties |
Gases |
Acids / Bases
The Use of Erythrosin B in Undergraduate Spectrophotometry Experiments   L. James Stock III
Substitution of a nontoxic food color for an originally used toxic chromium(VI) salt in a general chemistry, spectrophotometry experiment.
Stock, L. James, III. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 926.
Toxicology |
Solutions / Solvents |
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Management
Determination of Heats of Fusion: Using Differential Scanning Calorimetry for the AP Chemistry Course   Susan M. Temme
Using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in AP chemistry.
Temme, Susan M. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 916.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermal Analysis |
Thermodynamics
Teaching Chemical Equilibrium and Thermodynamics in Undergraduate General Chemistry Classes  Anil C. Banerjee
Discussion of the conceptual difficulties experienced by undergraduates when dealing with equilibrium and thermodynamics, along with teaching strategies for dealing with these difficulties.
Banerjee, Anil C. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 879.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
Synthesis and Decomposition of Zinc Iodide: Model Reactions for Investigating Chemical Change in the Introductory Laboratory  Stephen DeMeo
Procedure for synthesizing and then decomposing zinc iodide in introductory chemistry that offers advantages over traditional synthesis/decomposition species (e.g. copper sulfide and magnesium oxide).
DeMeo, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 836.
Synthesis |
Thermodynamics |
Reactions
Multiple Burning Heaps of Color-- An Elegant Variation of a Flame Test  Eugene T. Smith
Making the ammonia fountain demonstration faster and more reliable using a common syringe.
Smith, Eugene T. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 828.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Osmotic Pressure and Electrochemical Potential--A Parallel   Rainer Bausch
Comparison of osmotic pressure and electrochemical potential.
Bausch, Rainer. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 713.
Electrochemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Membranes |
Transport Properties
Rapid Calculation for Preparing Solutions  Calero, Diego Lozano
Streamlined method for dilution calculations.
Calero, Diego Lozano J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 424.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics
Kinetics in Thermodynamic Clothing: Fun with Cooling Curves: A First-Year Undergraduate Chemistry Experiment  Casadonte, Dominick J., Jr.
A series of experiments examining the phenomenon of cooling by producing part of the cooling curve for water at different initial temperatures, focussing on the fact that the curve is nonlinear (unlike the information presented in many texts).
Casadonte, Dominick J., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 346.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Kinetics
REACT: Exploring Practical Thermodynamic and Equilibrium Calculations  Ramette, Richard W.
Description of REACT software to balance complicated equations; determine thermodynamic data for all reactants and products; calculate changes in free energy, enthalpy, and entropy for a reaction; and find equilibrium conditions for the a reaction.
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 240.
Stoichiometry |
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics |
Chemometrics
Solution-Phase Thermodynamics: A "Spontaneity" Activity  Bindel, Thomas H.
Experimental procedure for verifying the concept of spontaneity using solution chemistry; includes data and analysis.
Bindel, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 34.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Thermodynamics
Periodic Trends for the Entropy of Elements  Thoms, Travis
Graphical representation and explanation for periodic trends in the entropy of elements.
Thoms, Travis J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 16.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Thermodynamics |
Main-Group Elements |
Transition Elements
A Microscale Rotary Evaporator  Maynard, David F.
A simple roto-vap-type apparatus was developed for rapid removal of excess solvent in the microscale laboratory.
Maynard, David F. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A272.
Microscale Lab |
Solutions / Solvents |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Mini-Qualitative Organic Analysis Session  Labuschagne, A. Johan H.; Malherbe, Johannes S.; Meyer, Cornelius J.
The article describes a tested mini-scheme that works for selected unknowns and allows an instructor to introduce non-major students to a variety of functional group tests in a single laboratory session.
Labuschagne, A. Johan H.; Malherbe, Johannes S.; Meyer, Cornelius J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1088.
Qualitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Nonmajor Courses
Probing Student Misconceptions in Thermodynamics with In-Class Writing  Beall, Herbert
Examples of the use of in-class writing assignments in the teaching of thermodynamics in general chemistry are presented.
Beall, Herbert J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1056.
Thermodynamics
Soda Water, Supercooling or Freezing Point Depression?  Brooker, Murray H.
Composition, preparation, properties, and behavior of soda water.
Brooker, Murray H. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 903.
Gases |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Consumer Chemistry
Experiments for Modern Introductory Chemistry: Intermolecular Forces and Raoult's Law  Berka, Ladislav H.; Kildahl, Nicholas
Procedure that illustrates the liquid-vapor phase equilibrium of ideal and nonideal solutions.
Berka, Ladislav H.; Kildahl, Nicholas J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 613.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Gas Chromatography |
Gases |
Liquids |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents
Rubber Elasticity: A Simple Method for Measurement of Thermodynamic Properties  Byrne, John P.
A modified triple-beam balance that uses an optical lever to detect small changes in the length of a stretched rubber band.
Byrne, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 531.
Thermodynamics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties
Visual Demonstration of Solvent Polarities  Johnson, Dawn A.; Shaw, Roosevelt; Silversmith, Ernest F.
A solution that shows visible color differences as the solvent polarity is changed.
Johnson, Dawn A.; Shaw, Roosevelt; Silversmith, Ernest F. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 517.
Solutions / Solvents
Hydrogen Peroxide Demo Curing the Brown Bottle-with-Black Cap Syndrome  Sae, Andy
Comparing the reactivity of 3%, 12%, and 27% H2O2 solution.
Sae, Andy J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 433.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Pictorial Analogies XI: Concentrations and Acidity of Solutions  Fortman, John J.
Visual analogies of the concentration of a solution, strength of a solution, super saturated solution, conjugate acid-base pairs, and inverse relationship between pH and [H+] and pOH and [OH-].
Fortman, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 430.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
pH
Avoiding the Downstream Hazard in an Ionic Solubility Study  McSwiney, H. D.
Using potassium chlorate rather than potassium dichromate in an ionic solubility experiment for improved waste disposal.
McSwiney, H. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 329.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Laboratory Management
An Oscillating Reaction as a Demonstration of Principles Applied in Chemistry and Chemical Engineering  Weimer, Jeffrey J.
Platinum catalyzed decomposition of methanol.
Weimer, Jeffrey J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 325.
Thermodynamics |
Catalysis |
Transport Properties |
Kinetics |
Reactions
An Analogy To Illustrate Miscibility of Liquids  Thornton, Barry K.
Using inter-school rivalries to illustrate the concept of "like dissolves like".
Thornton, Barry K. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 156.
Solutions / Solvents
Cryophori, Hot Molecules, and Frozen Nitrogen  Hunter, Paul W. W.; Knoespel, Sheldon L.
Freezing water and nitrogen at low atmospheric pressure.
Hunter, Paul W. W.; Knoespel, Sheldon L. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 67.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Photon-initiated hydrogen-chlorine reaction: A student experiment at the microscale level   Egolf, Leanne M.; Keiser, Joseph T.
This lab offers a way to integrate the principles of thermodynamics and kinetics as well as other valuable instrumental methods.
Egolf, Leanne M.; Keiser, Joseph T. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A208.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Electrochemistry |
Free Radicals |
Microscale Lab |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics
Heat of solution of hydrogen chloride: A laboratory experiment  Harms, Gregory S.; Lehman, Thomas A.
A simple technique for measuring the heat of solution of HCl in water.
Harms, Gregory S.; Lehman, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 955.
Acids / Bases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Determination of sugars in food products: Using HPLC and electrochemical detection at a Cu electrode  Luo, Peifang; Luo, Matthew Z.; Baldwin, Richard P.
This lab activity takes advantage of the fact that students' interest in a lab is increased when common life experiences are drawn upon.
Luo, Peifang; Luo, Matthew Z.; Baldwin, Richard P. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 679.
Chromatography |
Applications of Chemistry |
Food Science |
Instrumental Methods |
Solutions / Solvents
Introducing probabilistic concepts in chemistry: The preparation of 10-24 M solution as a limiting case  de Vicente, M. Sastre
A straightforward dilution experiment that can be used as the starting point for establishing a link between chemistry and concepts of probability theory.
de Vicente, M. Sastre J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 674.
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics
The electrician's multimeter in the chemistry teaching laboratory: Part 2: Potentiometry and conductimetry  Sevilla, Fortunato, III; Alfonso, Rafael L.; Andres, Roberto T.
Further applications of the multimeter in chemistry laboratories are discussed in this paper: potentiometry, reduction potentials and cell EMF, the Nerst equations, pH measurements, titration, conductimetry, and conduction of solutions.
Sevilla, Fortunato, III; Alfonso, Rafael L.; Andres, Roberto T. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 580.
Acids / Bases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Potentiometry
General chemistry lab time to learn solutions   Marino, Francis.
Concern over the number of upper-division students who come to lab unable to prepare solutions.
Marino, Francis. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 407.
Solutions / Solvents
Suggestions for truly evaluating texts   Gordon, Glen E.
Suggestions for improvement in evaluating and publishing the analysis of textbooks in this Journal.
Gordon, Glen E. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 346.
Thermodynamics
Polarity, miscibility, and surface tension of liquids   Silverstein, Todd P.
A very simple overhead projector demonstration using water and ethanol to give a dramatic visual illustration of cohesive and adhesive forces.
Silverstein, Todd P. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 253.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Demonstration of the Common Ion Effect  Koubek, E.
KCl and HCl are used in this demonstration to describe the common ion effect and to show the difference between values Q and K.
Koubek, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 155.
Solutions / Solvents |
Equilibrium
Heat and Work are Not "Forms of Energy"   Peckham, Gavin D.; McNaught, Ian J.
Heat and work are processes by which the internal energy of a system is changed. The title reflects a common misconception used by students and instructors.
Peckham, Gavin D.; McNaught, Ian J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 103.
Thermodynamics |
Enrichment / Review Materials
A Short Cut Specific to the Preparation of 1 M Sodium Hydroxide  Ruekberg, Ben
In general chemistry, 1M of NaOH needs to be prepared often and without great concern for high purity of solution. The author provides a procedure.
Ruekberg, Ben J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 72.
Laboratory Management |
Solutions / Solvents
Ammonia balloon  Mattson, Bruce
Demonstrating ammonia's aqueous solubility using a container whose volume changes.
Mattson, Bruce J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1029.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Kinetic art through chemistry  Corkern, Walter H.; Holmes, L. H., Jr.; Higginbotham, N. A.
Ethanol / water solution + one drop of heptanol with dissolved dye produces fractal-like patterns.
Corkern, Walter H.; Holmes, L. H., Jr.; Higginbotham, N. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1025.
Solutions / Solvents |
Dyes / Pigments |
Alcohols
Intensive and extensive: Underused concepts  Canagaratna, Sebastian G.
Methods for teaching intensive and extensive properties.
Canagaratna, Sebastian G. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 957.
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics
Determining the thermal expansion coefficient of gases  Lehmann, Jochen K.
The authors improved the design of the apparatus and extended the experimental task on a recently published experiment for determining the zero point of the absolute temperature scale.
Lehmann, Jochen K. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 943.
Thermodynamics |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Simple, inexpensive apparatus for sample concentration  Bruno, Thomas J.
An alternative to disadvantageous, commercial concentration apparatuses.
Bruno, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 837.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solutions / Solvents
Viscosity of polymer solutions  Bertrand, Gary L.
This program contains three components: "Density of Liquids", "Viscosity of Liquids", and "Viscosity of Polymer Solutions".
Bertrand, Gary L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 818.
Solutions / Solvents |
Physical Properties |
Liquids
Ammonia fountain improvements  Steadman, Ned
Suggestions to eliminate the excessive preparation time and questionable reliability of the classic ammonia fountain demonstration.
Steadman, Ned J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 764.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The Beer-Lambert law revisited: A development without calculus  Lykos, Peter
Development of the Beer-Lambert law without the use of calculus.
Lykos, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 730.
Solutions / Solvents
Putting some snap into work.  Mitschele, Jonathan.
Suggestions for improving the instructional value of the demonstration presented.
Mitschele, Jonathan. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 687.
Thermodynamics
The thermodynamics of home-made ice cream.  Gibbon, Donald L.; Kennedy, Keith; Reading, Nathan; Quieroz, Mardsen.
Using the production of ice cream to teach heat capacity, viscosity, and freezing-point reduction.
Gibbon, Donald L.; Kennedy, Keith; Reading, Nathan; Quieroz, Mardsen. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 658.
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Like dissolves like: Dry gas  Greenberg, Fred H.
A demonstration of solubility by comparing gasoline additives containing methanol and isopropyl alcohol.
Greenberg, Fred H. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 654.
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents
Simple soda bottle solubility and equilibria  Snyder, Cheryl A.; Snyder, Dudley C.
Using a bottle of selzter water and bromocresol green to demonstrate gas-liquid solubility (carbon dioxide in water).
Snyder, Cheryl A.; Snyder, Dudley C. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 573.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Liquids |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry
Applications of Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution diagrams.  Peckham, Gavin D.; McNaught, Ian J.
Although Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution diagrams are intuitively appealing, care must be taken to avoid several common errors and misconceptions.
Peckham, Gavin D.; McNaught, Ian J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 554.
Thermodynamics |
Rate Law |
Catalysis
Boiling and freezing simultaneously - with a feeble vacuum pump!   Ellison, Mike
The author uses this demonstration of freezing and boiling at reduced pressure to reinforce concepts about energy effects in phase changes.
Ellison, Mike J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 325.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Thermodynamics
Solutions, anyone?  McCullough, Bro. Thomas
A simple, quick, and economical experiment which gives the student intimate hands-on contact with most quantitative measurements of solutions is described.
McCullough, Bro. Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 293.
Solutions / Solvents |
Quantitative Analysis |
Stoichiometry
An Ace reducing adapter for screw vials.  Canela, Ramon; Balcells, Merce.
Using this device, solvents contained in vials can be evaporated quickly without problems.
Canela, Ramon; Balcells, Merce. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 244.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solutions / Solvents |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Do "likes dissolve likes"? An illustration of polar and nonpolar solvents   Bergquist, Wilbur
Here is a simple and colorful demonstration to help illustrate the nature of polar and nonpolar solvents.
Bergquist, Wilbur J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 158.
Solutions / Solvents
Microstate  York, Richard
Microstate allows experimentation with a simulated crystal that is viewed as a set of loosely coupled harmonic oscillators.
York, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 130.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Thermodynamics
The conversion of chemical energy: Part 1. Technological examples  Wink, Donald J.
When a chemical reaction occurs, the energy of the chemical species may change and energy can be released or absorbed from the surroundings. This can involve the exchange of chemical energy with another kind of energy or with another chemical system.
Wink, Donald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 108.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Electrochemistry |
Photosynthesis
Principle of extraction of solute by solvent  Guha, Prabir Kr.; Guha, Ratna
Among the applications of Nernst's distribution law, the most important and interesting one is the extraction of a substance dissolved in one solvent by another solvent, the two solvents being partially miscible or immiscible.
Guha, Prabir Kr.; Guha, Ratna J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 73.
Solutions / Solvents |
Separation Science
Studying odd-even effects and solubility behavior using alpha, omega-dicarboxylic acids  Burrows, Hugh D.
Odd-even effect provides a satisfying way of introducing students to a large area of chemistry that encompasses both classical thermodynamics and applied aspects.
Burrows, Hugh D. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 69.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics
The effect of temperature on the solubility of gases in liquids  Alger, Donald B.
Of 13 current-edition general chemistry texts, 11 made errors regarding the topic of the solubility of gases in liquids.
Alger, Donald B. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 62.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
Small-scale thermochemistry experiment   Brouwer, Henry
An inexpensive calorimeter that uses approximately 1/10 of the reagents required for the foam coffee cup.
Brouwer, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A178.
Heat Capacity |
Thermodynamics |
Microscale Lab
The reusable heat pack   McAfee, Lyle V.; Jumper, Charles F.
A commercial product that can be used to demonstrate thermodynamic principles.
McAfee, Lyle V.; Jumper, Charles F. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 780.
Thermodynamics
Demonstrations of interfacial phenomena   Prall, Bruce R.
Overhead projector demonstrations that illustrate the interfacial interactions of the following systems: 1) water and carbon tetrachloride, 2) copper wire and water, 3) 1-Octanol and water.
Prall, Bruce R. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 592.
Surface Science |
Liquids |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
A call for simplification   Schomaker, Verner; Waser, Jurg
Does "An Instructive Gibbs-Function Problem" unnecessarily confuse even the most capable students? An exchange of letters.
Schomaker, Verner; Waser, Jurg J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 443.
Thermodynamics
A call for simplification   Peterson, Donald
Does "An Instructive Gibbs-Function Problem" unnecessarily confuse even the most capable students? An exchange of letters.
Peterson, Donald J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 443.
Thermodynamics |
Reactions
The temperature and pressure dependence of the equilibrium properties of a system: Introducing thermodynamics in the classroom  Solomon, Theodros
Introducing thermodynamics in the classroom in a manner that allows students to gain hints at the methods or approaches to be adopted.
Solomon, Theodros J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 294.
Thermodynamics
Using a motor to demonstrate conductivity   Solomon, Sally; Fulep-Poszmik, Annamaria
The turning of a propeller identifies solutions of strong electrolytes.
Solomon, Sally; Fulep-Poszmik, Annamaria J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 160.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Conductivity
Chemical equilibrium: I. The thermodynamic equilibrium constant  Gordus, Adon A.
This is the first article in a series of eight that investigates the various assumptions that result in the simplified equilibrium equations found in most introductory texts. In this first article, the author considers the general nature of the constant K, Le Chatelier's principle, and the effect of the temperature on K.
Gordus, Adon A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 138.
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium
Thermodynamic irreversibility  Hollinger, Henry B.; Zenzen, Michael J.
Concepts of "reversible" and "irreversible" start out seeming simple enough, but students often become confused. This article tackles areas of confusion in hopes of providing clarity.
Hollinger, Henry B.; Zenzen, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 31.
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics
Density of antifreeze-water mixtures: A general chemistry experiment in compositional analysis  Flowers, Paul A.
Determining the composition of an antifreeze/water solution through density measurements.
Flowers, Paul A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1068.
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Quantitative Analysis
Teaching freezing point lowering  Ball, Jenelle; Cooke, Ron C.; Willis, Grover
Using Le Chatelier's principle, the van't Hoff equation, and the empirical equation to explain the lowering of the freezing point caused by dissolving antifreeze in water.
Ball, Jenelle; Cooke, Ron C.; Willis, Grover J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 676.
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A convenient method to recover the solvent from halogen-CCl4 mixtures  Sabol, Joseph E.; Kurtz, David W.
An alternative to disposal and distillation which is easy to perform, allowing the solvent to be recovered and stored within one hour after the completion of the experiment is presented here.
Sabol, Joseph E.; Kurtz, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 532.
Solutions / Solvents |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Management
A simple apparatus for stirring solutions contained in submerged, sealed vessels  Grinstead, John H., Jr.; Sullivan, Jack M.
The authors designed an apparatus which can simultaneously stir the contents of several submerged flasks from readily available materials.
Grinstead, John H., Jr.; Sullivan, Jack M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 521.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solutions / Solvents
Experiments with "Calo-pH Meter"   Paris, Michel R.; Aymes, Daniel J.

Paris, Michel R.; Aymes, Daniel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 510.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Heat of solution and colligative properties: An illustration of enthalpy and entropy   Mundell, Donald W.
This demonstration provides a means for challenging the students to interpret some examples where both enthalpy and entropy are possible.
Mundell, Donald W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 426.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents
The growth of large single crystals  Baer, Carl D.
It is possible to obtain a wide range of nicely formed crystals utilizing solution methods and commonly available materials and apparatus.
Baer, Carl D. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 410.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solutions / Solvents
An effective approach to teaching electrochemistry  Birss, Viola I.; Truax, D. Rodney
By interweaving concepts from thermodynamics and chemical kinetics with those of electrochemical measurement, the authors provide students with an enriched appreciation of the utility of ideas from kinetics and thermodynamics.
Birss, Viola I.; Truax, D. Rodney J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 403.
Electrochemistry |
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics
Calculating entropy changes at different extents of reaction  Brosnan, Tim
The Revised Nuffield Chemistry course uses a simple statistical approach to entropy a a unifying idea in its treatment of thermodynamics. It was for these students that the author developed this method of calculating entropy changes at different extents of reaction which are listed here.
Brosnan, Tim J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 48.
Thermodynamics
With Clausius from energy to entropy  Baron, Maximo
Examination of entropy following the route taken by Clausius.
Baron, Maximo J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1001.
Thermodynamics
An experiment on the molar solubility and solubility product of barium nitrate  Wruck, Betty; Reinstein, Jesse
A direct gravimetric method for determining a Ksp value.
Wruck, Betty; Reinstein, Jesse J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 515.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Gravimetric Analysis
Chemical generation and visualization of hydrodynamic instability: An extremely simple demonstration of self-organization  Bowers, Peter G.; Soltzberg, Leonard J.
The chemical convection system described here is the pattern formation seen when an acidic vapor comes into contact with the surface of an aqueous solution containing indicator.
Bowers, Peter G.; Soltzberg, Leonard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 210.
Thermodynamics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
A simple explanation of the salt water oscillator  Noyes, Richard M.
Yoshikawa et al. have described a simple device that undergoes repeated oscillations and that can also illustrate some of the principles essential to the oscillators driven by chemical reactions.
Noyes, Richard M. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 207.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium
Amusement with a salt-water oscillator  Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Nakata, Satoshi; Yamanaka, Masahiro; Waki, Takeshi
Rhythmic oscillations of water flow are generated when a vertically oriented hypodermic syringe, with the plunger removed, is filled with salt water and partially submerged in a beaker of pure water.
Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Nakata, Satoshi; Yamanaka, Masahiro; Waki, Takeshi J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 205.
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Some models of chemical oscillators   Noyes, Richard M.
This review concentrates on models of chemical oscillations, which constitute the self-organization of a system in time without any accompanying organization in space.
Noyes, Richard M. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 190.
Thermodynamics
Self-organization in chemistry: The larger context   Soltzberg, Leonard J.
The following three papers in this symposium will serve the reader as a good introduction to self-organization in chemical systems.
Soltzberg, Leonard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 187.
Thermodynamics
Chemical principles for the introductory laboratory, CHM 384 (Johnson, James F.)  Wegner, Carol
A comprehensive review of the title program which overviews basic techniques and concepts presented in introductory laboratory courses. Topics include: titration, equilibrium, Ksp, solubility, Beer's law, coordination complexes and first-order rates of reaction.
Wegner, Carol J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A47.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Coordination Compounds |
Kinetics
Two multipurpose thermochemical experiments for general chemistry  Wentworth, R. A. D.
Two multipurpose thermochemical experiments are described in this paper.
Wentworth, R. A. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1022.
Thermodynamics
The determination of the concentrations of sugar solutions by laser refractometry  Hughes, Elvin, Jr.; Jelks, Vaughn; Hughes, Diane Landry
The purpose of this article is to describe a simple, semi-quantitative, analytical method for determining the approximate concentrations of sucrose solutions.
Hughes, Elvin, Jr.; Jelks, Vaughn; Hughes, Diane Landry J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1007.
Lasers |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents
The effect of polarity on solubility   Cliche, Jean-Marie; Labbe, Benoit
A procedure for a demonstration of the effect of polarity on solubility and some follow-up questions for students.
Cliche, Jean-Marie; Labbe, Benoit J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 813.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The Australian Academy of Science School Chemistry Project: A new-generation secondary school chemistry course  Bucat, R. B.; Cole, A. R. H.
The purpose of this paper is to summarize the philosophies behind the courses described in this paper and the consequent design decisions regarding the selection and sequence of the chemistry content.
Bucat, R. B.; Cole, A. R. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 777.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Metabolism |
Thermodynamics
An interesting student chemistry project: Investigating Liesegang rings  Schibeci, Renato A.; Carlsen, Connie
This lab allows students not only exposure to content, but also an appreciation of the way in which scientists build their knowledge.
Schibeci, Renato A.; Carlsen, Connie J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 365.
Solutions / Solvents |
Geochemistry |
Metals
The endothermic dissolution of ammonium nitrate   Kauffman, George B.; Ferguson, Craig A.
A brief procedure for demonstrating the endothermic dissolution of ammonium nitrate.
Kauffman, George B.; Ferguson, Craig A. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 267.
Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics should be built on energy-not on heat and work  Barrow, Gordon M.
This author looks closely at the concepts of heat, work, energy, and the laws of thermodynamics to back up his title argument.
Barrow, Gordon M. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 122.
Thermodynamics
Preparation of a simple thermochromic solid  Van Oort, Michiel J. M.
An easy, dramatic, and effective laboratory introduction to solid-solid phase transitions, thermochromism, and color changes associated with changes in ligand coordination suitable for undergraduate students in physical and general chemistry.
Van Oort, Michiel J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 84.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Coordination Compounds |
Metals |
Thermodynamics
Correct equilibrium constants for water (the authors reply)  Starkey, Ronald; Norman, Jack; Hinitze, Mark
Water and hydronium ion Ka values are special cases.
Starkey, Ronald; Norman, Jack; Hinitze, Mark J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1068.
Equilibrium |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Thermodynamics
When oil and water do not mix  Trammell, Gary L.
An introduction to the physics and chemistry of interfaces and lipids, and reactions in micelles.
Trammell, Gary L. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1022.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Micelles |
Lipids
A general approach for teaching hydrolysis of salts  Aquirre-Ode, Fernando
Proposes a general, rigorous, and relatively simple approach for the hydrolysis of 1-1 electrolytes.
Aquirre-Ode, Fernando J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 957.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Modifications of some traditional demonstrations with liquids  Stedjee, Brian
Immiscible liquid pairs with similar indexes of refraction.
Stedjee, Brian J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 894.
Liquids |
Solutions / Solvents |
Physical Properties
Converting sunlight to mechanical energy: A polymer example of entropy  Mathias, Lon J.
Demonstrating entropy using an elastomer and a virtual foolproof "light engine".
Mathias, Lon J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 889.
Thermodynamics
The entropy of dissolution of urea  Pickering, Miles
This experiment combines colorimetric techniques, thermochemical techniques, some volumetric work, and actual measurements of entropy.
Pickering, Miles J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 723.
Thermodynamics
Enthalpy and Hot Wheels: An analogy  Bonneau, Marcia C.
Demonstrating the relationship between activation energy and the heat of a reaction using a "Hot Wheels" track and car to simulate a potential energy diagram.
Bonneau, Marcia C. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 486.
Kinetics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
Ksp determination of calcium sulfate  Masterman, David
A procedure to obtain the Ksp of a saturated solution of calcium sulfate in 10-20 minutes.
Masterman, David J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 408.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Thermodynamics of the rhodamine B lactone zwitterion equilibrium: An undergraduate laboratory experiment  Hinckley, Daniel A.; Seybold, Paul G.
An experiment to derive thermodynamic values from a thermochromic equilibrium that uses a commercially available dye, attains equilibrium rapidly, and employs a simple, single-beam spectrophotometer.
Hinckley, Daniel A.; Seybold, Paul G. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 362.
Thermodynamics |
Dyes / Pigments |
Spectroscopy |
Equilibrium
Simple determination of Henry's law constant for carbon dioxide  Levy, Jack B.; Hornack, Fred M.; Levy, Matthew A.
With the aid of inexpensive pressure gauges available from automotive supply stores, the solubility of carbon dioxide in carbonated beverages or other solutions can be studied.
Levy, Jack B.; Hornack, Fred M.; Levy, Matthew A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 260.
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents
The disappearing act: Teaching students to expect the unexpected  Kilner, Cary
A demonstration of Ksp in which a precipitate is formed and then disappears.
Kilner, Cary J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 155.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
An analogy for soluble and insoluble mixtures: Sand and magnetic iron filings  Garde, Ira Batra
Using mixtures of sand and iron filings as analogies for a soluble mixture of nonpolar substances, a soluble mixture of polar substances, and an insoluble mixture of a nonpolar and a polar substance.
Garde, Ira Batra J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 154.
Solutions / Solvents
Thermodynamics and the bounce  Carraher, Charles E., Jr.
Explaining the bouncing of a rubber ball using the laws of thermodynamics.
Carraher, Charles E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 43.
Thermodynamics
Stretched elastomers: A case of decreasing length upon heating  Clough, S. B.
Demonstrating and explaining the decrease in length of a heated rubber band.
Clough, S. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 42.
Thermodynamics |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Fire walking, temperature, and heat   DeLorenzo, Ronald
Student interest piques when chemistry concepts are applied to this popular "trick".
DeLorenzo, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 976.
Thermodynamics
A new road to reactions: Part III. Teaching the heat effect of reactions  de Vos, Wobbe; Verdonk, Adri H.
This series of work summarizes the authors' work on the concept of chemical reactions as a teaching and learning problem.
de Vos, Wobbe; Verdonk, Adri H. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 972.
Thermodynamics |
Reactions |
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases
The coming renaissance of descriptive chemistry  Zuckerman, J. J.
Inorganic chemistry is facing an identity crises.
Zuckerman, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 829.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Reactions |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
SI and non-SI units of concentration: A truce?  Rich, Ronald L.
These authors examine whether a truce could be promoted by filling a chemical gap in the System Internationale with special attention on concentration.
Rich, Ronald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 784.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A useful balloon demonstration: Pressure difference behavior  Fenster, Ariel E.; Harpp, David N.; Schwarcz, Joseph A.
The authors contribute an interesting variant on the 'crushed can' experiment. [typo: first author's middle initial should be E.]
Fenster, Ariel E.; Harpp, David N.; Schwarcz, Joseph A. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 629.
Gases |
Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics and reactions in the dry way  Tykodi, Ralph J.
In dealing with reactions in the dry way, we can actually "see" in detail the workings of the thermodynamic machinery responsible for moving the reaction in the spontaneous direction. This note presents ideas at the general chemistry level.
Tykodi, Ralph J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 107.
Thermodynamics |
Oxidation / Reduction
Molecular size and Raoult's Law  Kovac, Jeffrey
An additional cause for deviations from Raoult's Law that is rarely, if ever, mentioned in freshman chemistry texts.
Kovac, Jeffrey J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1090.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Gases
The definition and symbols for the quantity called "molarity" or "concentration" and for the SI units of this quantity  Gorin, George
An alternative formulation for concentration and the SI units for this quantity.
Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 741.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents
Conversion of standard thermodynamic data to the new standard state pressure  Freeman, Robert D.
Analyzes the changes that will be required to convert standard thermodynamic data from units of atmospheres to the bar.
Freeman, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 681.
Thermodynamics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Energy interconversions in photosynthesis  Bering, Charles L.
Reviews the energetics of the light reactions of photosynthesis.
Bering, Charles L. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 659.
Photosynthesis |
Photochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Bioenergetics
A different look at the solubility-product principle  Hugus, Z Z., Jr.; Hentz, F. C., Jr.
The progressive addition of Cl- to Ag+ yields an ion-product equal to Ksp at two different points.
Hugus, Z Z., Jr.; Hentz, F. C., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 645.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics
Simple limewater maker  Prochaska, James F.
Uses gravity to separate the insoluble precipitate when preparing limewater.
Prochaska, James F. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 437.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
Derivation of the ideal gas law  Levine, S.
Derivation of the ideal gas law from a thermodynamic influence.
Levine, S. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 399.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Chemometrics
Le Châtelier's principle, temperature effects, and entropy  Campbell, J. Arthur
A useful extension of Le Chatelier's Principle to predict concentration, pressure, and temperature effects solely from the equation for the net reaction.
Campbell, J. Arthur J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 231.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
Constant properties of systems: A rationale for the inclusion of thermodynamics in a high school chemistry course  Schultz, Ethel L.
Using the zinc / copper system to illustrate how the thermodynamic functions can be introduced gradually and naturally into a course of study.
Schultz, Ethel L. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 228.
Thermodynamics
Should thermodynamics be X-rated?  Bent, Henry A.
The benefits and detractions of teaching thermodynamics in high school and introductory college courses.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 228.
Thermodynamics
A gas kinetic explanation of simple thermodynamic processes  Waite, Boyd A.
Proposes a simplified, semi-quantitative description of heat, work, and internal energy from the viewpoint of gas kinetic theory; both heat and work should not be considered as forms of energy but rather as different mechanisms by which internal energy is transferred from system to surroundings.
Waite, Boyd A. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 224.
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Thermodynamics
Change in concentration with time  Umland, Jean B.
Shows how the rate of a reaction is fast at first and then gradually decreases to zero when one reactant has been used up.
Umland, Jean B. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 153.
Solutions / Solvents |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Aqueous hydrogen peroxide: Its household uses and concentration units  Webb, Michael J.
Includes some simple weight / volume calculations and their answers.
Webb, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 152.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents
An alternative method for the determination of pKa  Castillo S., Carlos; Micolta S., Germania; Grajales T., Mario
Determining pKa from the titration curve of a weak acid or base.
Castillo S., Carlos; Micolta S., Germania; Grajales T., Mario J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1067.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
A new meaning of the terms acid and base hydrolysis  Milic, Nikola B.
Suggestions for distinguishing between solvation, hydration, and solvolysis, and hydrolysis reactions that produce hydroxo and protonated complexes.
Milic, Nikola B. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1066.
Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
The insolubility of "soluble" barium nitrate  Reinstein, Jesse
The unexpected formation of a precipitate of barium nitrate when barium carbonate or barium phosphate is treated with dilute nitric acid.
Reinstein, Jesse J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1009.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
The effect of polarity on solubility  Nordstrom, Brian H.
Students observe that iodine dissolves readily in 1,1,1-trichloroethane but not water.
Nordstrom, Brian H. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1009.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Water / Water Chemistry
Modeling hypersaline lake "turn-over"  Sprague, Gary
Modeling saline lake inversions with a saturated salt solution in a beaker.
Sprague, Gary J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 956.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Thermo in the general chemistry course (the author replies)  Schaffrath, Robert E.
A conceptual approach to thermodynamics is appropriate for general chemistry.
Schaffrath, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 936.
Thermodynamics
Thermo in the general chemistry course  Kimmell, Howard
A conceptual approach to thermodynamics is appropriate for general chemistry.
Kimmell, Howard J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 936.
Thermodynamics
A perspective on solubility rules  Monroe, Manus; Abrams, Karl
Four solubility rule generalizations useful for introducing solubility.
Monroe, Manus; Abrams, Karl J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 885.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Further reflections on heat  Hornack, Frederick M.
Confusion regarding the nature of heat and thermodynamics.
Hornack, Frederick M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 869.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
The nine-bottle experiment revisited  Finholt, James E.
Students are challenged to design solutions appropriate for the "nine-bottle" experiment.
Finholt, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 849.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Thermodynamic changes, kinetics, equilibrium, and LeChatelier's principle  Hansen, Robert C.
A series of demonstrations in which water in beakers and the flow of water between beakers is used to represent the components of an exothermic chemical reaction and the flow and quantity of thermal energy involved in chemical changes.
Hansen, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 804.
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics
The goals of teaching solution equilibrium  Ruda, Paul T.
Using and making relevant the concepts of solution equilibrium.
Ruda, Paul T. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 784.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents
Why teach solution equilibrium?  Butler, James N.
What are the most important aspects of solution equilibrium to teach at the elementary level?
Butler, James N. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 784.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases |
pH
An analogy for solubility: Marbles and magnets  Kjonaas, Richard A.
Using marbles and magnets to illustrate solubility and insolubility.
Kjonaas, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 765.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents
Solubility of mercury  Sisler, Harry H.
The statement "mercury is soluble in both polar and non-polar liquids" is misleading.
Sisler, Harry H. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 566.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
The solubility of NiSO46H2O  Pacer, Richard A.
Approaches the position of equilibrium from both unsaturated and supersaturated solutions.
Pacer, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 467.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Equilibrium |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
The murky pool  Perkins, Robert
Using the reaction of aqueous silver nitrate with aqueous sodium sulfide to illustrate how one can correlate the terms soluble and insoluble with solubility product constants.
Perkins, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 383.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The useless tea kettle  Perkins, Robert
If a 2.5 L kettle contains 125 g of calcium carbonate (boiler scale), how many times would the kettle have to be filled with distilled water to remove all of the deposits given the Ksp of calcium carbonate?
Perkins, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 383.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Chemical storage of solar energy using an old color change demonstration  Spears, L. Gene, Jr.; Spears, Larry G.
The results of a student research project that could be used as an experiment to illustrate the potential of hydrates salts for solar energy storage.
Spears, L. Gene, Jr.; Spears, Larry G. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 252.
Photochemistry |
Coordination Compounds |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Error in the minimum free energy curve  Willis, Grover; Ball, David
Correction to the minimum free energy curve shown in some general chemistry texts.
Willis, Grover; Ball, David J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 173.
Thermodynamics
An analogy for the leveling effect  Macomber, Roger S.
Analogy to help students understand the leveling effect of certain solvents.
Macomber, Roger S. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 128.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
A demonstration to aid in differentiating the concepts of heat and temperature  Stevens, George H.
An easy, effective, "real world" demonstration on the distinction between heat and temperature. From "Using 'Real World' Examples in the Teaching of Chemistry - A Symposium", 7th BCCE, Stillwater OK, 1982.
Stevens, George H. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 1035.
Thermodynamics
Determination of ammonia in household cleaners: an instrumental analysis experiment  Graham, Richard C.; DePew, Steven
This popular experiment describes a procedure that is easily modified to determine quantitatively such analytes as ammonia in solution.
Graham, Richard C.; DePew, Steven J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 765.
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Consumer Chemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Solutions / Solvents
A bloody nose, the hairdresser's salon, flies in an elevator, and dancing couples: The use of analogies in teaching introductory chemistry  Last, Arthur M.
The use of analogies can play an important role in assisting students in understanding some of the more difficult and/or abstract concepts in introductory chemistry. In addition, analogies can provide an amusing interlude during a lecture and can sometimes help a lecturer to interact with his students. The four analogies presented in this article represent some of the analogies students have found helpful and amusing in recent years.
Last, Arthur M. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 748.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Kinetics |
Stoichiometry |
Thermodynamics
THERMPRO - A thermodynamics program   Joshi, Bhairav D.
44. Bits and pieces, 16. THERMPRO is an interactive screen-oriented computer program written in BASICA for an IBM-PC with a graphics capability. It represents a general method of calculating standard thermodynamic properties of chemical reactions from heat capacity data for reactants and products.
Joshi, Bhairav D. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 733.
Thermodynamics
Association of ions and fractional crystallization: a general chemistry experiment  Scaife, Charles W. J.; Dubs, Richard L.
The experiment in this article has been used in laboratories for non science majors and for inorganic chemistry. In both cases students attain a good understanding of what it taking place, how the various procedures affect actual concentrations of ions present, and why particular salts crystallize under certain conditions whereas others do not.
Scaife, Charles W. J.; Dubs, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 418.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solutions / Solvents
Solubility and Ksp of calcium sulfate: a general chemistry laboratory experiment  Sawyer, Albert K.
The experiment shared in this note can be used to accompany lectures on solubility or chemical equilibrium.
Sawyer, Albert K. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 416.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium
Le Châtelier's principle: the effect of temperature on the solubility of solids in liquids  Brice, L. K.
The purpose of this article is to provide a rigorous but straightforward thermodynamic treatment of the temperature dependence of solubility of solids in liquids that is suitable for presentation at the undergraduate level. The present discussion may suggest how to approach the qualitative aspects of the subject for freshman.
Brice, L. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 387.
Thermodynamics |
Liquids |
Solids |
Chemometrics |
Equilibrium
Estimating energy outputs of fuels  Baird, N. Colin
Which is the best fuel in terms of heat energy output: coal, natural gas, fuel oil, hydrogen, or alcohol? It is possible to obtain a semi quantitative estimate of the heat generated by combustion of a fuel from the balanced chemical equation alone.
Baird, N. Colin J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 356.
Reactions |
Green Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Alcohols |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Geochemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Quantitative Analysis
A novel classification of concentration units  MacCarthy, Patrick
Concentration units can be a source of confusion for students. This article presents a treatment on this topic that may help students understand the differences between these units.
MacCarthy, Patrick J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 187.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Solar energy experiment for beginning chemistry  Davis, Clyde E.
This article introduces an experiment that incorporates chemical applications of solar energy into the curriculum.
Davis, Clyde E. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 158.
Thermodynamics |
Applications of Chemistry
A practical application of molality  Penrose, John F.
The stoichiometry problem related in this note captures student interest.
Penrose, John F. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 63.
Solutions / Solvents |
Stoichiometry
Does the N-solution problem measure student proficiency?  Monts, David L.; Pickering, Miles
An investigation to determine if the commonly used, N-solution, qualitative identification laboratory assessment problem assesses students' knowledge of descriptive chemistry.
Monts, David L.; Pickering, Miles J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 1032.
Solutions / Solvents |
Qualitative Analysis
Partition coefficients - A lecture demonstration  Newton, Thomas A.
The extraction of aqueous solutions of indophenol and its sodium salt with carbon tetrachloride and chloroform.
Newton, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 973.
Separation Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
On the use of intravenous solutions to teach some principles of solution chemistry  Shapiro, Irwin L.
A series of laboratory periods are devoted to the chemistry of intravenous solution in a one-semeter course for nursing students.
Shapiro, Irwin L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 725.
Solutions / Solvents |
Nonmajor Courses |
Medicinal Chemistry
Chemical energy: A learning package  Cohen, Ita; Ben-Zvi, Ruth
Problems associated with the teaching of chemical energy and an instructional package designed to overcome those difficulties.
Cohen, Ita; Ben-Zvi, Ruth J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 656.
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Entropy and its relation to work  Richardson, W. S.
The relationship of entropy to the disorder of a system can be explained using a deck of playing cards.
Richardson, W. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 649.
Thermodynamics
Entropy and its role in introductory chemistry  Bickford, Franklin R.
The concept of entropy as it applies to phase changes.
Bickford, Franklin R. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 317.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Solids |
Liquids |
Gases
Notes from physics journals  Smith, Douglas D.
Solution with an index of refraction that matches that of Pyrex glass and a reverse cartesion diver.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 243.
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents
A demonstration model for immiscibility  Hoffman, A. B.
Uses Magic Sand to demonstrate various solubility principles.
Hoffman, A. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 155.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
A simple, effective introduction to the Beer-Lambert relationships  Bowman, Leo H.
Demonstrates the realities of light absorbing phenomenon.
Bowman, Leo H. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 155.
Spectroscopy |
Solutions / Solvents
Calculation of statistical thermodynamic properties  Vicharelli, P. A.; Collins, C. B.
25. Bits and pieces, 9. A computer program for the calculation of specific heat, entropy, enthalpy, and Gibbs free energy of polyatomic molecules.
Vicharelli, P. A.; Collins, C. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 131.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Chemometrics
Weight-loss diets and the law of conservation of energy   Hill, John W.
The law of conservation of mass is has real-life relevance to those who diet to lose weight.
Hill, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 996.
Metabolism |
Thermodynamics
More "quickies"  Rosenberg, Milton H.
Some quick, challenging questions that cover various areas of chemistry.
Rosenberg, Milton H. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 994.
X-ray Crystallography |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Small things and large numbers   Rosenberg, Milton H.
Some challenging solubility problems are featured in this note.
Rosenberg, Milton H. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 962.
Solutions / Solvents |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Ksp made simple  Buss, Donald E.
Students often have a hard time understanding solubility products conceptually. The author provides appropriate questions that can better scaffold understanding.
Buss, Donald E. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 958.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents
Entropy rules in my class too!  White, Alvan D.
A simple analogy that will help students understand entropy.
White, Alvan D. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 645.
Thermodynamics
Be a millionaire - Get with the action!  White, Alvan D.
When talking about the distribution of molecular velocities, we can use money as an analogy.
White, Alvan D. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 645.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics
An illustration of applied calorimetry - Dieting students  Perkins, Robert R.
The author shares a question that catches student interest and exemplifies the theoretical concepts of calorimetry.
Perkins, Robert R. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 548.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Applications of Chemistry
Pressure and the exploding beverage container   Perkins, Robert R.
The question in this article is an extension of exploding pop bottles to illustrate the balancing of a chemical equation, enthalpy, stoichiometry, and vapor pressure calculations, and the use of the Ideal Gas Equation. The question is aimed at the first-year level student.
Perkins, Robert R. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 363.
Stoichiometry |
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Chemometrics
Entropy as a driving force  Salzsieder, John C.
An inexpensive demonstration that requires virtually no setup time (and always works!) can be used to illustrate the driving force of entropy.
Salzsieder, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 280.
Thermodynamics
Maxwell's demon  Schmuckler, Joseph S.

Schmuckler, Joseph S. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 183.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Maxwell's demon  Schmuckler, Joseph S.

Schmuckler, Joseph S. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 183.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Solubility and complex ion equilibria of silver(I) species in aqueous solution  Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.; Dirreen, Glen E.; Juergens, Fred
The sequential formation of precipitates and complex ions is used to demonstrate how the solubility of silver(I) compounds is related to Ksp values.
Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.; Dirreen, Glen E.; Juergens, Fred J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 813.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents
An acid or a base?  Uriarte, Richard J.
Does a diluted acid remain acidic?
Uriarte, Richard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 806.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Mole fraction analogies  DeLorenzo, Ron
An analogy to help students solve concentration problems.
DeLorenzo, Ron J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 733.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics |
Solutions / Solvents
Stormy weather  Taylor, Thomas E.
Question regarding the formation of rain clouds and the exothermic process of condensation.
Taylor, Thomas E. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 732.
Thermodynamics |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Carbon tetrachloride substitute  Wynn, Charles M.
Substitution of n-hexane for carbon tetrachloride.
Wynn, Charles M. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 728.
Toxicology |
Laboratory Management |
Solutions / Solvents
Experiments for display (Corridor demonstration)  Letcher, T. M.; Orchard, S. W.
The effect of heat on the color of cobalt(II) chloride water-alcohol solution. Refluxing solutions of different compositions.
Letcher, T. M.; Orchard, S. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 667.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A "road map" problem for freshman chemistry students  Burness, James H.
Question suitable for a take-home type of exam.
Burness, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 647.
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Apple dunking  O'Connor, Rod
Question regarding the ratio between ions of p-nitrophenylhydrazone in reducing the pH of basic effluent.
O'Connor, Rod J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 598.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
pH |
Industrial Chemistry
Cobalt complexes in equilibrium  Ophardt, Charles E.
This equilibrium illustrates the application of LeChatelier's principle to concentration effects.
Ophardt, Charles E. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 453.
Equilibrium |
Coordination Compounds |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Illustrating chemical concepts through food systems: Introductory chemistry experiments  Chamber, IV, E.; Setser, C. S.
Illustrating the vaporization of liquids, reaction rates, adsorption, properties of solutions, colloidal dispersions, suspensions, and hydrogen ion concentration using foods.
Chamber, IV, E.; Setser, C. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 312.
Food Science |
Applications of Chemistry |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents |
Colloids |
Acids / Bases
Qualitative analysis, without sulfide ion, of selected cations  Rathnamma, Dasara V.
Qualitative analysis of selected 11 cations can be accomplished without the use of sulfide.
Rathnamma, Dasara V. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 287.
Qualitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Appetizing colloids  Riley, John T.
Two examples of colloidal dispersions: the formation of foam upon mixing a solution of aluminum sulfate with a solution of egg albumin and sodium bicarbonate, and the formation of a gel upon mixing ethanol with a saturated solution of calcium acetate.
Riley, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 153.
Colloids |
Solutions / Solvents
Crystallization of sodium acetate  Hiegel, Gene A.
Procedure for preparing a supersaturated solution of sodium acetate and crystallizing it.
Hiegel, Gene A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 152.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
"To sink or swim"  O'Connor, Rod
A problem regarding the maximum water hardness that can be permitted in a swimming pool if it is desired to avoid calcite formation given the carbonate ion concentration. [Debut]
O'Connor, Rod J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 151.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents
On the misuse of Le Châtelier's principle for the prediction of the temperature dependence of the solubility of salts  Bodner, George M.
Explores why Le Châtelier's principle often fails to predict the temperature dependence of the solubility of salts.
Bodner, George M. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 117.
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Paradigms and paradoxes  Campbell, J. A.
Examines the commonly held tenets "systems tend to a minimum potential energy," "the entropy of a shuffled deck of cards is greater than that of a new deck," and "energy is the ability to do work."
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 41.
Thermodynamics
Travelling Waves of Chemical Activity in the Zaikin-Zhabotinskii-Winfree Reagent  Field, Richard J; Winfree, Arthur T.
An overhead projector demonstration.
Field, Richard J; Winfree, Arthur T. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 754.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
Corrosion: A Waste of energy  J. Chem. Educ. Staff
Thermodynamics and electrochemical aspects of corrosion, and inhibition of the corrosion process.
J. Chem. Educ. Staff J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 673.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry |
Metals |
Thermodynamics |
Electrochemistry
Why thermodynamics should not be taught to freshmen, or who owns the problem?  Battino, Rubin
Thermodynamics should not be taught to freshmen - there are better things to do with the time.
Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 520.
Thermodynamics
What thermodynamics should be taught to freshmen, or what is the goal?  Campbell, J. A.
The great majority of students in first-year college courses must try to work problems involving changes in enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs Free Energy.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 520.
Thermodynamics
The precipitation of ferrous hydroxide: A lecture demonstration  Lau, O. W.
This demonstration can illustrate such topics as the solubility of ionic compounds, electrode potentials of transition elements and their modification by formation of either an insoluble compound of a complex ion, and mixed valence compounds.
Lau, O. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 474.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Bond free energies  Amador, Alberto
Provides standard free energies for the formation of common single and multiple bonds.
Amador, Alberto J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 453.
Covalent Bonding |
Thermodynamics
Compact Compacts  Huebner, Jay S.; Shiflett, R. B.; Blanck, Harvey F.
A collection of three suggestions regarding demonstrating the oxidation of hydrocarbons and the primary, secondary, and tertiary structure of proteins and the first law of thermodynamics as applied to air conditioning.
Huebner, Jay S.; Shiflett, R. B.; Blanck, Harvey F. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 389.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Proteins / Peptides |
Thermodynamics
Determination of solution enthalpy: An easy and simple method  Karunakaran, K.
A method that does not involve the preparation and analysis of saturated solutions at different temperatures.
Karunakaran, K. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 389.
Solutions / Solvents |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Management
Comments on the criterion of spontaneity  Senozan, N. M.
Draws attention to the incomplete or misleading presentations sometimes made in connection with the criteria for spontaneous reactions.
Senozan, N. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 381.
Thermodynamics
An apparent contradiction in the application of the principle of Le Chtelier  Mellon, E. K.
Unless some care is exercised, the application of free energy concepts in situations where marked temperature changes occur can lead to apparent contradictions like the one described in this paper.
Mellon, E. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 380.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
Entropy and rubbery elasticity  Nash, Leonard K.
Thermodynamic analysis of the polymeric molecules of rubber.
Nash, Leonard K. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 363.
Thermodynamics |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Statistical Mechanics
A freshman chemistry thermodynamics experiment: The cyclic rule revisited  Dezube, Bruce
A verification of the cyclic rule through measurements of a stretched rubber band.
Dezube, Bruce J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 313.
Thermodynamics
Formation and dissolution of precipitates  Nogar, N. S.; Jalenak, W. A.
Using the scattering of a laser beam to detect the presence of particles suspended in solution.
Nogar, N. S.; Jalenak, W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 267.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Lasers
Thermodynamics and solubilities of salts of dipositive ions  Riley, Gary F.; Eberhardt, William H.
Used to illustrate the application of the principle that a decrease in free energy is a criterion for the spontaneity of a chemical reaction.
Riley, Gary F.; Eberhardt, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 206.
Thermodynamics |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Physical Properties |
Reactions
Colorimetric analysis for salicylate in urine: An experiment for nursing chemistry  Cavanaugh, Margaret A.; Bambenek, Mark A.
The iron-salicylate system provides a chemistry experiment is described here and is suitable for students majoring in nursing.
Cavanaugh, Margaret A.; Bambenek, Mark A. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 464.
Nonmajor Courses |
Bioanalytical Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Quantitative Analysis |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
I. How much work can a person do?  Bent, Henry A.
This article relates concepts of work and energy by walking through a calculation of how much work is produced during exercise. [Debut]
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 456.
Thermodynamics |
Biophysical Chemistry
A Demonstration of burning magnesium and dry ice  Driscoll, Jerry A.
This demonstration is a new, exciting approach to an older demonstration.
Driscoll, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 450.
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Reactions
Hammond's postulate and the slinky  Macomber, Roger S.
The transition state of a one-step chemical reaction is one of the most fundamental concepts in chemistry. The author shares an in-class analogy that can be used to help students understand this concept better.
Macomber, Roger S. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 449.
Thermodynamics
Variation of radioactive decay rates  Wolsey, Wayne C.
133. It is stated frequently in introductory chemistry texts that radioactive decay rates are invariant. Students are led to the impression, implicitly, if not explicitly, that changes in chemical form, temperature, pressure, etc. have no effect upon the half-lives of unstable nuclei. This constancy of decay is perhaps true for some particular modes of decay, but by no means is it true for all.
Wolsey, Wayne C. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 302.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Thermodynamics
Collision theory  Myers, Richard S.
The question presented here can be employed in general or physical chemistry courses.
Myers, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 243.
Chemometrics |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics
General chemistry thermodynamics experiment  Beaulieu, Lynn P., CPT
An experiment is outlined here that provides students with an opportunity to do experimental thermodynamics, and to calculate those thermodynamic values which usually cannot be determined with the simple equipment available in a general chemistry laboratory.
Beaulieu, Lynn P., CPT J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 53.
Thermodynamics
Teaching about "why do chemical reactions occur": Gibbs free energy  Vamvakis, Steven N.; Schmuckler, Joseph S.
Approaching the topic of Gibbs free energy from the student's prior experience in algebra and geometry, it is possible to construct a proof that should enable students to explain the derivation of G = H - TS.
Vamvakis, Steven N.; Schmuckler, Joseph S. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 757.
Thermodynamics |
Reactions
Lecture table experimental demonstration of entropy  Dole, Malcolm
Apparatus for demonstrating entropy that involves heating a stretched rubber band with hot steam.
Dole, Malcolm J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 754.
Thermodynamics
Le Chtelier's principle demonstrated with a rubber band  Smith, Douglas D.
Heating a rubber band causes it to contract and stretching it causes it to become warmer.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 701.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
Case of the unlabeled bottles  Smith, Douglas D.
Students are to determine the contents of a series of unlabelled bottles.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 701.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Another look at our teaching methods. Pros and cons of the silent demonstration  Woodburn, John H.
Analysis of a "silent demonstration" involving the formation of a precipitate and why the demonstration may or may not have been effective in helping students understand the intended concept.
Woodburn, John H. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 627.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
Using oxidation state diagrams to teach thermodynamics and inorganic chemistry  Friedel, A.; Murray, R.
Using oxidation state diagrams is suggested as a means of solving some of the problems associated with the teaching of thermodynamics and inorganic group chemistry.
Friedel, A.; Murray, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 485.
Thermodynamics |
Oxidation State
Silver ion in water purification: A follow-up  Quane, Denis
Applying a previous idea on the possible use of silver ion in water purification to teaching the concept of Ksp.
Quane, Denis J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 381.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents
Free energy surfaces and transition state theory  Cruickshank, F. R.; Hyde, A. J.; Pugh, D.
130/131. Unless free energy diagrams are very precisely labeled and explained they are seriously misleading and often incorporate a major error of principle. [Note: This should be #130 in the series, as shown in the table of contents. But p. 288 shows #131. The error was not caught, so the next one in the series is #132. The present article is both #130 and #131.]
Cruickshank, F. R.; Hyde, A. J.; Pugh, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 288.
Thermodynamics
Hydrogen bonding and heat of solution  Friedman, Norman
An experiment that clearly illustrates the role of hydrogen bond formation and its effect on the heat of solution.
Friedman, Norman J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 248.
Hydrogen Bonding |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
A simple lab demonstrating energy transformation  Miller, Daniel W.
Building and investigating a sulfuric acid / lead electrolytic cell.
Miller, Daniel W. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 245.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Thermodynamics
Selective solubility: "Like dissolves like"  Smith, Wayne L.
Azobenzene is a better analog of DDT than iodine in demonstrating the pesticide's solubility in fatty tissue.
Smith, Wayne L. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 228.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Lipids
Simple practical lab test for freshman students  Jones, Mark M.
Uses the preparation of a solution of designated molarity as a test of student competence; the solution is evaluated using its optical density.
Jones, Mark M. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 178.
Solutions / Solvents
On mole fractions in equilibrium constants  Delaney, C. M.; Nash, Leonard K.
Proposes a hybrid equilibrium constant for use in introductory chemistry courses.
Delaney, C. M.; Nash, Leonard K. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 151.
Equilibrium |
Stoichiometry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Chemical equilibrium  Burke, Barbara A.
Demonstrates the equilibrium between blue CuSO4 and green K2(CuBr4) on an overhead projector.
Burke, Barbara A. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 29.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Flashy solutions  Riley, John T.
Demonstrations using universal indicator.
Riley, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 29.
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments
What the standard state doesn't say about temperature and phase  Carmichael, Halbert
125. The author develops the concept of the "standard state" in a manner that is more robust than typical textbook treatment.
Carmichael, Halbert J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 695.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Remembering the sign conventions for q and w in ?E = q - w  Gasparro, Francis P.
The author developed a quasi-historical rationalization to help students remember the mathematical statement of the First Law of Thermodynamics.
Gasparro, Francis P. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 389.
Thermodynamics
The solubility of CaSO4: An ion exchange-complexometric titration experiment for the freshman laboratory  Koubek, Edward
This lab may be used to introduce the student to two important areas of chemistry with the added advantage that one method serves as a direct check on the other.
Koubek, Edward J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 254.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Ion Exchange
Antichap lipstick and nonbonded interactions. A nonscience majors laboratory experience  Most, Clark, Jr.
A laboratory with real life applications helps nonscience majors learn about solubility.
Most, Clark, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 194.
Solutions / Solvents |
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Nonmajor Courses
Freezing ice cream and making caramel topping  Plumb, Robert C.; Olson, John Otto; Bowman, Leo H.
The obscurity of "colligative properties" can be dispelled by this ice cream example.
Plumb, Robert C.; Olson, John Otto; Bowman, Leo H. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 49.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics |
Applications of Chemistry
Chromatography on chalk  Wollrab, Adalbert
Describes how a variety of mixtures can be separated using a piece of chalk.
Wollrab, Adalbert J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 809.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments |
Solutions / Solvents
Footnote to the drinking duck exemplum  Plumb, Robert C.; Cross, Judson B.; Keil, Robert G.
Variations on the drinking bird demonstration.
Plumb, Robert C.; Cross, Judson B.; Keil, Robert G. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 728.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
203-205. Three chemistry questions and their answers.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 587.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Ksp experiment: The solubility product for barium hydroxide  Reynolds, John P.
Two procedures for determining the solubility product of barium hydroxide and the effect of temperature on Ksp.
Reynolds, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 521.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Compact compacts  Bier, C. J.; Schiller, Joseph E.; Hengeveld, Frank W.; Smith, Herbert L.; Karnes, John P.
Exercises in distillation and the law of multiple proportions; the "Men and Molecules" radio program; and assessing solution concentrations.
Bier, C. J.; Schiller, Joseph E.; Hengeveld, Frank W.; Smith, Herbert L.; Karnes, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 519.
Solutions / Solvents
Brief introduction to the three laws of thermodynamics  Stevenson, Kenneth L.
Brief descriptions of the three laws of thermodynamics.
Stevenson, Kenneth L. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 330.
Thermodynamics
Molar solubility calculations and the control equilibrium  Chaston, S. H. H.
The Control-Equilibrium method uses as its starting point a precise procedure for obtaining the equilibrium that accounts for the bulk of the decomposition of starting materials.
Chaston, S. H. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 206.
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics |
Equilibrium
P-Chem crossword puzzle  Snead, Claybourne C.
A physical chemistry crossword puzzle. The answer from p. 174 is reproduced in this PDF.
Snead, Claybourne C. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 158.
Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics, folk culture, and poetry  Smith, Wayne L.
The principles of the first, second, and third laws of thermodynamics are illustrated in songs and poems.
Smith, Wayne L. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 97.
Thermodynamics
A vigorous, spontaneous endothermic reaction   Hawkins, Malcolm D.

Hawkins, Malcolm D. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, A178.
Thermodynamics
An endothermic reaction   Burt, Norman E.

Burt, Norman E. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, A178.
Thermodynamics
A spectrophotometric determination of fluoride adapted for the freshman laboratory  Daines, Terri L.; Morse, Karen W.
In this experiment the student determines the fluoride ion concentration of a sodium fluoride solution, which they can do with high precision and accuracy.
Daines, Terri L.; Morse, Karen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 680.
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Spectroscopy
Goal-oriented teaching of thermodynamics in general chemistry  Canham, G. W. Rayner
Thermodynamics can be more interesting if biological applications are emphasized.
Canham, G. W. Rayner J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 600.
Biophysical Chemistry |
Thermodynamics
Demonstration of solubility of "immiscible" fluids  Koob, R. D.; Tallman, D. E.
Demonstrating that hexane is miscible in water.
Koob, R. D.; Tallman, D. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 724.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Computer-enhanced laboratory experience. An example of a totally integrated approach  Davis, Leslie N.; Coffey, Charles E.; Macero, Daniel J.
A gas law experiment (Boyle's Law) adapted to make use of computer assisted instruction.
Davis, Leslie N.; Coffey, Charles E.; Macero, Daniel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 711.
Gases |
Thermodynamics
A practical energy experiment or lecture demonstration  Garin, David L.
Presents two demonstrations: one involves heating different volumes of water on the same heater and measuring their temperatures; the other involves heating different volumes of water on the same heater and calculating the heat of vaporization.
Garin, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 497.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
Scuba diving and the gas laws  Cooke, E. D.; Baranowski, Conrad
Three illustrations of physical-chemical principles drawn from scuba diving.
Cooke, E. D.; Baranowski, Conrad J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 425.
Gases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Thermodynamics
The equilibrium between a solid solution and an aqueous solution of its ions  Berndt, Alan F.; Stearns, Robert I.
It is the purpose of this paper to present the equations that describe the equilibrium between solid solutions and their ions and to outline methods for their derivation.
Berndt, Alan F.; Stearns, Robert I. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 415.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Footnote to the house heating exemplum  Plumb, Robert C.; Campbell, J. A.
Offers a simple proof regarding an earlier column.
Plumb, Robert C.; Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 365.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
The first law. For scientists, citizens, poets and philosophers  Bent, Henry A.
Practical experiences and phenomena that serve to illustrate the first law of thermodynamics.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 323.
Thermodynamics
Selected properties of selected solvents  Nilles, George P.; Schuetz, Robert D.
Selected properties of fifty common solvents.
Nilles, George P.; Schuetz, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 267.
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
Syphon and the potential energy diagrams  Sarbolouki, M. N.
An analogy between the operation of a syphon and potential energy diagrams.
Sarbolouki, M. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 245.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics
Physical chemistry of the drinking duck  Plumb, Robert C.; Wagner, Robert E.
The operation of the drinking bird is easily understood in terms of a few elementary physical chemistry principles.
Plumb, Robert C.; Wagner, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 213.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Equilibrium
Enthalpy and entropy of evaporation from measured vapor pressure using a programmable desk calculator  McEachern, Douglas M.
A program for a calculator that calculates the heat of evaporation of a solid or a liquid and the corresponding entropy change.
McEachern, Douglas M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 190.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Chemometrics
Dissolved oxygen determination  Berger, Toby E.
Details regarding the cited procedure.
Berger, Toby E. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 160.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Notes on determination of dissolved oxygen  Sommers, Raymond A.
Simplifications in the referenced procedure that make it more suitable for the introductory laboratory.
Sommers, Raymond A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 160.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
LeChatelier's principle and a rubber band  DeLorenzo, Ronald
The cited demonstration can also be sued to illustrate LeChatelier's principle .
DeLorenzo, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 124.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
Seven questions requiring the application of basic principles of chemistry.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 769.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Applications of Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Gases |
Astrochemistry
Definition of standard states  Lukens, David C.
A suggested sequence of definitions for the standard state.
Lukens, David C. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 654.
Thermodynamics |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Freezing curves for Salol  Laswick, Patty Hall
The convenient freezing temperature of salol (40-43 C) means that students can easily and safely melt the material using warm water
Laswick, Patty Hall J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 537.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Nonmajor Courses |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
When You Heat Your House Does the Thermal Energy Content Increase?  Bilkadi, Zayn; Bridgman, Wilbur B.
Whether or not the total energy content of the air increases or decreases cannot be answered unambiguously.
Bilkadi, Zayn; Bridgman, Wilbur B. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 493.
Thermodynamics
Entropy and a rubber band  Laswick, Patty Hall
A temperature change is noted when a rubber band held against the cheek is stretched and then released.
Laswick, Patty Hall J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 469.
Thermodynamics
Dissolved oxygen. A relevant experiment for the introductory laboratory  Stagg, William R.
Students measure the dissolved oxygen content of water from several natural sources as well as the change in solubility with temperature.
Stagg, William R. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 427.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Gases
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
Five questions requiring an application of basic chemical principles.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 328.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Applications of Chemistry |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Mass Spectrometry |
Isotopes
A visual demonstration of preferential absorption  Folster, Harry G.
The preferential absorption of one solute from a mixture of solutes can be demonstrated by a simple and inexpensive technique in which the separation is visually evident.
Folster, Harry G. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 322.
Transport Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
Solubility of lead bromide in nitrate media. A study of ionic interactions  Cooper, J. N.
Students are asked to determine, as a class, the solubility of lead bromide at a fixed temperature in solutions covering a range of known sodium nitrate concentrations.
Cooper, J. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 282.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Density gradients in chemistry teaching  Miller, P. J.
Outlines experiments in which a density gradient may be used to advantage, including the analysis of organic compounds, aqueous solutions, binary mixtures of organic compounds, solids, and solvent extractions.
Miller, P. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 278.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solids |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
Precipitation of lead chromate from homogeneous solution. A lecture demonstration or laboratory experiment  Ramette, Richard W.
Both the "conventional precipitation" and the precipitation from homogeneous solution are done simultaneously so that the striking differences in chemistry, appearance, and precipitate produced can be compared.
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 270.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents
Using alligation alternate to solve composition problems  Mancott, Anatol
Problems involving the composition of mixtures may be solved by using the relatively obscure method of "alligation alternate" in lieu of the standard algebraic procedure with no loss in accuracy; includes five examples.
Mancott, Anatol J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 57.
Chemometrics |
Solutions / Solvents |
Isotopes
The effervescence of ocean surf  Plumb, Robert C.; Blanchard, Duncan C.; Bilofsky, Howard S.; Bridgman, Wilbur B.
A pure liquid will not foam, but all true solutions will, as dictated by the fundamental concepts of surface thermodynamics enunciated by Gibbs.
Plumb, Robert C.; Blanchard, Duncan C.; Bilofsky, Howard S.; Bridgman, Wilbur B. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 29.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics
Entropy Makes Water Run Uphill - in Trees  Stevenson, Philip E.
Explains how Sequoias over 300 feet tall can draw water up to their topmost leaves.
Stevenson, Philip E. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 837.
Applications of Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Plant Chemistry |
Membranes |
Transport Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
Tire Inflation Thermodynamics  Plumb, Robert C.; Connors, John J.
Explains why inflating a tire with a hand pump heats the air being pumped into the tire.
Plumb, Robert C.; Connors, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 837.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Applications of Chemistry
Miscellanea No. 6  Eberhardt, W. H.
A collection of clarified, underemphasized, and misunderstood topics, including cell electromotive force and disproportionate reactions; partially miscible liquids and upper consolute temperatures; enthalpy and free energy of formation; and magnetic moment.
Eberhardt, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 829.
Electrochemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics |
Magnetic Properties
Size of a molecule. Or what's in a shape?  Demchik, Michael J.; Demchik, Virginia C.
The authors describe an experiment which helps students understand why oleic acid is essentially insoluble in water.
Demchik, Michael J.; Demchik, Virginia C. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 770.
Lipids |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Fatty Acids
Polywater. A lesson and opportunity in science  Christian, P. A.; Berka, L. H.
The authors present an intriguing observation and offer outlines of some possible studies that can be undertaken in any adequately equipped high school or college chemistry laboratory.
Christian, P. A.; Berka, L. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 667.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Beginning chemistry can be relevant  Corwin, James F.
The continuing criticism offered by students of the science that the present day courses are not relevant to contemporary problems. This can be answered in part by a laboratory program based on environmental problems.
Corwin, James F. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 522.
Acids / Bases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Student-Centered Learning
Heat of hydration  Dannhauser, Walter
A commonly published experiment can be expanded so that students may obtain the enthalpy of the reaction between anhydrous salts and water.
Dannhauser, Walter J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 329.
Thermodynamics |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Noncovalent Interactions
So-called zeroth law of thermodynamics  Redlich, Otto
The "zeroth law of thermodynamics" elucidates the difference between the axiomatic and the epistemological method; it is neither a law nor a statement of fact but a guideline for checking our description of nature.
Redlich, Otto J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 740.
Thermodynamics
Some "real life" applications of solubility: Iron, iron everywhere but not a drop to drink  Brasted, Robert C.
Although Hawaiian pineapples grow in red soils whose iron composition may exceed 20%, they starve for iron because it is in an insoluble form; also considers applications of the insolubility of other transition metals.
Brasted, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 634.
Applications of Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Plant Chemistry |
Agricultural Chemistry |
Metals |
Transition Elements |
Oxidation State
Some "real life" applications of solubility: Iron, iron everywhere but not a drop to drink  Brasted, Robert C.
Although Hawaiian pineapples grow in red soils whose iron composition may exceed 20%, they starve for iron because it is in an insoluble form; also considers applications of the insolubility of other transition metals.
Brasted, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 634.
Applications of Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Plant Chemistry |
Agricultural Chemistry |
Metals |
Transition Elements |
Oxidation State
Culture and the conservation laws  Bent, Henry A.
There are no consumers of mass or energy, only converters.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 518.
Thermodynamics
An alternative to free energy for undergraduate instruction  Strong, Laurence E.; Halliwell, H. Frank
It is the purpose of this paper to question the usefulness of the Gibbs function for the student and to propose an alternative based on the use of entropy functions that help the student to focus more sharply on the features of a system that relate to its capacity to change.
Strong, Laurence E.; Halliwell, H. Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 347.
Thermodynamics
Our freshmen like the second law  Craig, Norman C.
The author affirms the place of thermodynamics in the introductory chemistry course and outlines a presentation that has been used with students at this level.
Craig, Norman C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 342.
Thermodynamics
The second law - How much, how soon, to how many?  Bent, Henry A.
Discussion of the conceptual components of thermodynamics, their mathematical requirements, and where they might be best placed in the curriculum.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 337.
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Sealed tube experiments  Campbell, J. A.
Lists and briefly describes a large set of "sealed tube experiments," each of which requires less than five minutes to set-up and clean-up, requires less than five minutes to run, provides dramatic results observable by a large class, and illustrates important chemical concepts.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 273.
Thermodynamics |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Liquids |
Gases |
Rate Law |
Equilibrium
Cloud Caps on High Mountains  Stevenson, Philip E.
The formation of cloud caps on high mountains illustrates cooling in an adiabatic expansion and the change in vapor pressure of a liquid with temperature.
Stevenson, Philip E. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 272.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
The Methanol Lighter  Bailar, John C., Jr.
The methanol lighter illustrates the roles that thermodynamics, kinetics, and catalysis play in determining if a reaction will take place.
Bailar, John C., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 272.
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Catalysis |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
A demonstration experiment on partial molar volumes  Coch, Juan A.; Lopez, Valentin
The partial molar volume of trichloroacetic acid can be determined by measuring the increase in volume when TCA is dissolved in water at constant temperature and pressure.
Coch, Juan A.; Lopez, Valentin J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 270.
Solutions / Solvents |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stoichiometry
The snowmaking machines  Plumb, Robert C.
Illustrating principles of thermodynamics in gas expansions and phase changes.
Plumb, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 176.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Chemical principles exemplified  Plumb, Robert C.
Introduction to a new series, containing "exempla" (brief anecdotes about materials and phenomena which exemplify chemical principles). [Debut]
Plumb, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 175.
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium |
Photochemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Potentiometric determination of solubility product constants: A laboratory experiment  Tackett, Stanford L.
This paper describes an experiment in which measured potentials and calculated activity coefficients are used to obtain the solubility product constants of silver halides.
Tackett, Stanford L. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 857.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Diffusion of potassium permanganate as a lecture demonstration  Conard, C. R.; Bent, H. E.
Dropping crystals of potassium permanganate into a tall column of water leads to the slow dissolution and diffusion of the potassium permanganate throughout the column over a semester's time.
Conard, C. R.; Bent, H. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 758.
Transport Properties |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Solutions / Solvents |
Liquids
Volkswagen versus the hummingbird  Nebbia, Giorgio
Questions the cited (046-07-0455) thermodynamic calculations.
Nebbia, Giorgio J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 701.
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Chemometrics
A distribution experiment  Campbell, J. A.; Nelson, Douglas; Rudesill, John
An experiment to determine the distribution coefficient of an acid between an aqueous and nonaqueous phase.
Campbell, J. A.; Nelson, Douglas; Rudesill, John J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 454.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Indirect calorimetry by computer in the general chemistry course  DeMattia, Dennis; Gruhn, Thomas; Gorman, Mel
Describes the use of a Fortran IV program to stimulate student interest in the applications and potential of computer techniques in chemistry.
DeMattia, Dennis; Gruhn, Thomas; Gorman, Mel J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 398.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
A computer program for the analysis of the N2O4 dissociation equilibrium  Erickson, Luther E.
Describes a Fortran IV program for the analysis of empirical data collected for the N2O4 dissociation equilibrium.
Erickson, Luther E. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 383.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
Quantities of work in thermodynamic equations  Wright, P. G.
Examines distinctions to be made between work done by forces exerted by external bodies and acting on a system with work done by forces exerted by the system on external bodies.
Wright, P. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 380.
Thermodynamics
Thermochemistry of hypochlorite oxidations  Bigelow, M. Jerome
Students mix various proportions of aqueous sodium hypochlorite and sodium sulfite and plot the change in temperature to determine the stoichiometry of the reaction.
Bigelow, M. Jerome J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 378.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Thermodynamics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.
(1) Is there such a thing as a negative pH value? Or one above 14? (2) What is entropy, in terms a beginner may understand? (3) On calculating the molecular weight of a solute from concentration and freezing point depression.
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 36.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
pH |
Thermodynamics |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Le Chtelier's principle  Melott, Adrian L.
Adding a strong base to aqueous ammonia causes gaseous ammonia to be released.
Melott, Adrian L. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A519.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Mole fraction versus molality  Creak, G. Alan
Mole fractions are not always unambiguous when used in the context of ionic solutions.
Creak, G. Alan J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 622.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Le Chtelier and ionic equilibria  Ringbom, Anders
When s solution contains several weak acids, the squares of the separately calculated hydrogen ion concentrations of all weak acids in the solution are additive.
Ringbom, Anders J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 442.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents
Why does methane burn?  Sanderson, R. T.
A thermodynamic explanation for why methane burns.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 423.
Thermodynamics |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
Energy cycles  Haight, G. P., Jr.
Points out limitations and potential pitfalls associated with the use energy cycles to show the atomic and molecular energy factors that may influence an observable chemical property.
Haight, G. P., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 420.
Thermodynamics
Chemical dynamics for college freshmen  Hammond, George S.; Gray, Harry B.
Suggestions for topics regarding chemical dynamics to be considered in freshman chemistry.
Hammond, George S.; Gray, Harry B. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 354.
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Rate Law
Energy and Entropy in Chemistry (Wyatt, P. A. H.)  Strong, Laurence E.

Strong, Laurence E. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 71.
Thermodynamics
Biological oxidations and energy conservation  Kirschbaum, Joel
Examines the oxidative steps leading to the synthesis of ATP in living organisms and their metabolic control.
Kirschbaum, Joel J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 28.
Bioenergetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics |
Metabolism
Energy E. Mechanical Energy   Owens, Charles
A steam engine demonstrates the transformation of heat into motion.
Owens, Charles J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A273.
Thermodynamics
Group 1. The Alkali Metals C. The Copper Group  Alyea, Hubert N.; Mancuso, Carl J.; Bernard, Robert
Demonstrations include electroplating copper, Fehling's test, the silver mirror (Ag+ + tartrate), insoluble silver salts, photo-film + hypo, hypo fixer + silver coin, and a solution of gold in aqua-regia.
Alyea, Hubert N.; Mancuso, Carl J.; Bernard, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A1005.
Electrochemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Metals
Letter to the editor  Brescia, Frank
Calls on instructors not to confuse students with inappropriate definitions of work.
Brescia, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 771.
Thermodynamics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Dissociation of weak acids and bases at infinite dilution  Stock, D. Irwin
It is all too easy to forget that in a solution of infinite dilution the solvent itself is ionized to an extent governed by its ionization constant, and that the concentration of its ions will appear in the expression for the dissociation constant of the solute.
Stock, D. Irwin J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 764.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
A simple analogy of the relationship of ?G to the position of equilibrium  Marks, D. J.
This short note describes a simple demonstration to serve as an analogy of the relationship of ?G to the position of equilibrium.
Marks, D. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 402.
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium
Textbooks errors. Miscellanea no. 5  Mysels, Karol J.
Considers inconsistencies in the units involved in thermodynamic expressions, incorrect units given for equivalent conductivity, oscillations in polargraphic measurements, and inconsistencies in dealing with catalysis.
Mysels, Karol J. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 44.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Thermodynamics |
Catalysis
Energy B. Heat energy  Hornbeck, Leroy G.; Noerdin, Isjrin; Alyea, Hubert N.
Demonstrations presented include the absorption of black vs white surfaces, the heat ignition of touching flash-bulbs, the low heat of combustion of guncotton, and the heats of displacement of metals.
Hornbeck, Leroy G.; Noerdin, Isjrin; Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A978.
Metals |
Thermodynamics
Lectures on Matter and Equilibrium (Hill, Terrell L.)  Rosenburg, Robert

Rosenburg, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A1086.
Thermodynamics |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Are solubilities and solubility products related?  Meites, Louis; Prode, J. S. F.; Thomas, Henry C.
The relation between solubilities and solubility products is far less intimate than is stated or implied by introductory texts and the ideas and calculations involved are too complex for presentation on the elementary level.
Meites, Louis; Prode, J. S. F.; Thomas, Henry C. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 667.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
Acetamide as a solvent for freezing point depression and solubility experiments  Davis, Jeff C., Jr.
Suggests acetamide as a solvent for freezing point depression and solubility experiments.
Davis, Jeff C., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 611.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
The fundamental assumptions of chemical thermodynamics  MacRae, Duncan
Examines the fundamental terms, definitions, and assumptions of chemical thermodynamics.
MacRae, Duncan J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 586.
Thermodynamics
The dissolution of tin in solutions of iodine  Davies, J. F.; Trotman-Dickenson, A. F.
The progress of this reaction can be followed by the loss of weight of a tin disc.
Davies, J. F.; Trotman-Dickenson, A. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 483.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Kinetics |
Gravimetric Analysis
Demonstrations of spontaneous endothermic reactions  Matthews, G. W. J.
The reaction between hydrated metal chlorides and thionyl chloride provides a series of valuable experiments that can be used to demonstrate spontaneous endothermic reactions.
Matthews, G. W. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 476.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Manometric apparatus for vapor and solution studies  Taha, Ahmed A.; Grigsby, Ronald D.; Johnson, James R.; Christian, Sherril D.; Affsprung, Harold E.
Presents a device that can be sued to obtain vapor density and PVT measurements, vapor pressures of solutions and liquids, dew-point pressures and compositions, solubilities of gases in liquids, solubilities of slightly-miscible liquids, equilibrium constants for association reactions in solutions, interactions of vapors and gases with solids, and gas and vapor viscosities.
Taha, Ahmed A.; Grigsby, Ronald D.; Johnson, James R.; Christian, Sherril D.; Affsprung, Harold E. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 432.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Gases |
Liquids |
Solids
Discarded "IV" bottles are useful  Ostrander, Charles
Discarded "IV" bottles are useful for dispensing solutions and reduce the chances of contamination.
Ostrander, Charles J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 379.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solutions / Solvents
The enigmatic polymorphism of iron  Myers, Clifford E.
Unusual and nontypical, elemental iron can provide the impetus for discussing important chemical principles and properties, including basic thermodynamic concepts and the phenomenon and theory of ferromagnetism.
Myers, Clifford E. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 303.
Thermodynamics |
Magnetic Properties
The use and misuse of the laws of thermodynamics  McGlashan, M. L.
Examines the first and second laws, the usefulness of thermodynamics, the calculation of equilibrium constants, and what entropy does not mean.
McGlashan, M. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 226.
Thermodynamics
Simple two-dimensional magnetic disc models of ionic liquids  Angell, C. A.; Gruen, D. M.
Modeling ionic liquids using magnetic, elastomer-bonded materials capable of floating on water.
Angell, C. A.; Gruen, D. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 194.
Molecular Modeling |
Liquids |
Solutions / Solvents
Demonstrating concepts of statistical thermodynamics: More on the Maxwell Demon bottle  Sussman, M. V.
The Maxwell Demon bottle can illustrate the nature of entropy, the difference between a work effect and a heat effect, the difference between reversible and irreversible work effects, the mechanical equivalent of heat, and similar intangibles.
Sussman, M. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 105.
Thermodynamics
Potential hazards involved in using dimethyl sulfoxide  Buckley, Alan
Solutions of compounds in DMSO can present particular hazards.
Buckley, Alan J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 674.
Solutions / Solvents
Notes on experiments for introductory college chemistry  
A brief set of notes regarding the complex salt [Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2, the Guoy balance, Avogadro's number, and the stoichiometry of a mixture.
J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 495.
Coordination Compounds |
Magnetic Properties |
Stoichiometry |
Solutions / Solvents
Thermodynamics of the ionization of acetic and chloroacetic acids  Neidig, H. A., Yingling, R. T.
Students are asked to determine the effect of the structure of acetic, chloroacetic, dichloroacetic, and trichloroacetic acid on equilbria and to discuss the observed effects in terms of standard free energy, enthalpy, and entropy changes.
Neidig, H. A., Yingling, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 484.
Acids / Bases |
Thermodynamics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Solvent effect on the keto-enol equilibrium of acetoacetic ester  Lockwood, Karl L.
The purpose of the investigation is to introduce students to some of the factors that influence an equilibrium constant.
Lockwood, Karl L. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 481.
Solutions / Solvents |
Equilibrium
Enthalpies of formation of solid salts  Neidig, H. A.; Yingling, R. T.
This investigation introduces the student to several important areas of thermochemistry, including enthalpies of neutralization, enthalpies of dissolution, enthalpies of formation, and Hess' Law.
Neidig, H. A.; Yingling, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 474.
Thermodynamics |
Solids |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Relationship of enthalpy of solution, solvation energy, and crystal energy  Neidig, H. A., Yingling, R. T.
The primary objectives of this investigation are to relate enthalpy of solution, solvation energy, and crystal energy using Hess' Law and to acquaint students with Born-Haber type energy cycles.
Neidig, H. A., Yingling, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 473.
Thermodynamics |
Solutions / Solvents |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Experimental approach to stoichiometry. In first-year chemistry at Northwestern  King, L. Carroll; Cooper, Milton
Presents five experiments in which students are given a minimal set of directions and a simply stated objective.
King, L. Carroll; Cooper, Milton J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 464.
Stoichiometry |
Coordination Compounds |
Undergraduate Research |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Detection of chloride ion in the presence of bromide, iodide, and thiocyanate ions  Paul, Armine D.; Gibson, John A., Jr.
Summarizes and evaluates several published methods for detecting chloride ions in the presence of bromide, iodide, and thiocyanate ions.
Paul, Armine D.; Gibson, John A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 440.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
Preparation of chromic acid cleaning solution  Krause, Richard E.
This short note describes a simple method for the preparation of chromic acid cleaning solution.
Krause, Richard E. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 426.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management |
Solutions / Solvents
A temperature-independent concentration unit  Blumberg, A. A.; Siska, P. E.; San Filippo, Joseph, Jr.
Describes a new system of concentration, termed molicity by the authors.
Blumberg, A. A.; Siska, P. E.; San Filippo, Joseph, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 420.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents
Concerning equilibrium, free energy changes, LeChatelier's Principle. III. Halide-halate equilibria  Eberhardt, William H.
Compares four equilibria: KI + KIO3, KI + KBrO3, KBR + KBrO3, and KBr + KIO3.
Eberhardt, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A883.
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Thermodynamics
Concerning equilibrium, free energy changes, Le Châtelier's principle II  Eberhardt, William H.
This demonstration involves a reversible, temperature-based transformation from blue tetrahedrally coordinated Co2+ to pink sixfold coordinated Co2+.
Eberhardt, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A591.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Coordination Compounds
Concerning equilibrium, free energy changes, Le Chtelier's principle  Eberhardt, William H.
Aqueous KI is added to a solution of CuSO4 in a separatory funnel; adding more CuSO4 demonstrates an equilibrium sift.
Eberhardt, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A477.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics |
Reactions
Thermal expansion of gases  Barnard, W. Robert
Liquid nitrogen is poured over an inflated balloon.
Barnard, W. Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A139.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
Maximum work revisited (Letters)  Mysels, Karol J.
Comments on an earlier "Textbook Error" article that considers at length errors in the calculation of work done in compression or expansion of an ideal gas.
Mysels, Karol J. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 677.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
Maximum work revisited (Letters)  Bauman, Robert
Comments on an earlier "Textbook Error" article that considers at length errors in the calculation of work done in compression or expansion of an ideal gas.
Bauman, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 676.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
Maximum work revisited (Letters)  Kokes, Richard J.
Comments on an earlier "Textbook Error" article that considers at length errors in the calculation of work done in compression or expansion of an ideal gas.
Kokes, Richard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 675.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
Maximum work revisited (Letters)  Bauman, Robert
Comments on an earlier "Textbook Error" article that considers at length errors in the calculation of work done in compression or expansion of an ideal gas.
Bauman, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 675.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
Reversible and irreversible work: A lecture demonstration  Eberhardt, William H.
This lecture demonstration illustrates the concepts of reversible and irreversible work using a pendulum and attached pan balance.
Eberhardt, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 483.
Thermodynamics
The Carnot cycle and Maxwell's relations  Nash, Leonard K.
Maxwells equations can be derived from nothing more than the Carnot cycle and the deployment of the simplest plane geometry.
Nash, Leonard K. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 368.
Thermodynamics |
Chemometrics
Teaching the entropy concept  Plumb, Robert C.
Presents a macroscopic lecture demonstration illustrating both potential energy and entropy driving forces and showing their interrelationship.
Plumb, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 254.
Thermodynamics |
Statistical Mechanics
Work of compressing an ideal gas  Bauman, Robert P.
In formulating examples of compression problems there should be an explicit statement that the process is reversible, or at least slow.
Bauman, Robert P. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 102.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
Principles of chemical reaction  Sanderson, R. T.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature of chemical change in the hope of recognizing and setting forth the basic principles that help us to understand why they occur.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 13.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics |
Synthesis |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Metallic Bonding
Float method for the analysis of solutions  Osburn, J. O.
Presents suggestions for investigations to accompany and earlier published article.
Osburn, J. O. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A538.
Solutions / Solvents
A simple demonstration of some precipitation and solubility effects  Matijevic, E.
Provides suggestions for research to accompany earlier published articles.
Matijevic, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A386.
Undergraduate Research |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents
Precipitation from homogeneous solution  Gordon, L.; Salesin, E. D.
Suggests research questions based on an earlier published article.
Gordon, L.; Salesin, E. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A306.
Undergraduate Research |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
pH
Entropy: The significance of the concept of entropy and its applications in science and technology (Fast, J. D.)  Bent, Henry A.

Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 442.
Thermodynamics
A simple approach to the second law  Breck, W. G.
Uses a reversible Carnot cycle as a simple approach to explicating the second law.
Breck, W. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 353.
Thermodynamics
Temperature dependence of equilibrium: A first experiment in general chemistry  Mahan, Bruce H.
This experiment uses cooling curves to derive the expression for the temperature dependence of the equilibrium constant.
Mahan, Bruce H. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 293.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
Mnemonics for thermodynamic equations  Radley, Edward T.; Cohen, Irwin; McCullough, Brother Thomas, C. S. C.
Presents several mnemonics devices for remembering thermodynamic equations.
Radley, Edward T.; Cohen, Irwin; McCullough, Brother Thomas, C. S. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 261.
Thermodynamics
Letters to the editor  Day, Jesse H.
The author suggests how the importance of thermodynamics might be demonstrated to students.
Day, Jesse H. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 229.
Thermodynamics
Maxwell's demon demonstrator  Sussman, M. V.
Describes a simple device used to illustrate the concept of irreversibility.
Sussman, M. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 49.
Thermodynamics
A compact light box  Barnard, Robert
Presents the design of a light box suitable for demonstrations involving solutions, precipitations, or any basic chemical reaction.
Barnard, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A953.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Reactions
Electrolytic conductivity: A demonstration experiment  Thomas, William B.
Describes a simple method of measuring electrolytic conductivity based on Ohm's law.
Thomas, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 531.
Electrochemistry |
Conductivity |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A second lecture in thermodynamics  Burton, Milton
Outlines an introduction for the three laws of thermodynamics
Burton, Milton J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 500.
Thermodynamics
The second law of thermodynamics: Introduction for beginners at any level  Bent, Henry A.
Examines and offers suggestions for dealing with some of the challenges in teaching thermodynamics at an introductory level.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 491.
Thermodynamics
Editorially Speaking  Kieffer, William F.
Discussion of the conventions, definitions, and symbols of thermodynamics.
Kieffer, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 489.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Thermodynamics
Float method for the analysis of solutions  Osburn, James O.; Choi, Il C.
Describes a simple procedure for making precise and reproducible concentration measurements through the thermal equilibrium float method.
Osburn, James O.; Choi, Il C. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 578.
Solutions / Solvents
How can you tell whether a reaction will occur?  MacWood, George E.; Verhoek, Frank H.
This paper attempts to answer the title question in a clear and direct fashion.
MacWood, George E.; Verhoek, Frank H. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 334.
Thermodynamics
Editorially speaking  Kieffer, William F.
Suggests that more should be done to teach introductory college chemistry students basic principles such as entropy and free energy.
Kieffer, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 333.
Thermodynamics
A simple ice calorimeter: A first experiment in thermochemistry  Mahan, Bruce H.
This note describes a relatively crude and simple ice calorimeter that can be supplied to each student.
Mahan, Bruce H. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 634.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thermodynamics
Determination of solubility: A laboratory experiment  Wolthuis, Enno; Pruiksma, Arthur B.; Heerema, Robert P.
Students are required to determine the solubility of common salts at various temperatures by finding the temperature at which a solution of known composition is saturated.
Wolthuis, Enno; Pruiksma, Arthur B.; Heerema, Robert P. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 137.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Quantitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Letters to the editor  Hall, Arthur C.
The molality-molarity paradox presented in an earlier article is artificial rather than apparent.
Hall, Arthur C. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 584.
Stoichiometry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A molality-molarity paradox?  Toby, Sidney
The author points out that there seems no obvious reason why molality could not equal molarity in a solution whose density is less than unity.
Toby, Sidney J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 230.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Textbook errors: XIII. The nature of ionic and molecular species in sulfuric acid  Brubaker, Carl H., Jr.
Addresses misconceptions regarding the strength of sulfuric acid and the nature of ionic and molecular species present in solution.
Brubaker, Carl H., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 325.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A device for demonstrating conductivity of solutions  Eiseman, Fred B., Jr.
An apparatus has been developed that makes it possible to demonstrate the conductivities of solutions without destroying, transferring, or contaminating them
Eiseman, Fred B., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 445.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Conductivity |
Solutions / Solvents
Why is hydrofluoric acid a weak acid? An answer based on a correlation of free energies, with electronegativities  Pauling, Linus
The puzzling behavior of hydrofluoric acid is explained by considering the factors that determine the free energy of hydrogen halogenide molecules and hydrohalogenide ions.
Pauling, Linus J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 16.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Textbook errors: III. The solubility of gases in liquids  Mysels, Karol J.
Rising temperature is generally said to reduce the solubility of gases in liquids, yet the facts disagree with any such generalization.
Mysels, Karol J. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 399.
Gases |
Liquids |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents
A heat engine run by rubber  Cox, E. G.
Describes a rotating wheel powered by the alternate heating and cooling of rubber bands.
Cox, E. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 307.
Thermodynamics
Letters to the editor  Weaver, Elbert C.
Acknowledges and corrects an error in the referenced article regarding an example of Pearson's square.
Weaver, Elbert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 102.
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics
Letters to the editor  Wescott, Emery N.
Points out an error in the referenced article regarding an example of Pearson's square.
Wescott, Emery N. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 101.
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics
Praseodymium tetrafluoride  Perros, Theodore P.; Munson, Thomas R.; Naeser, Charles R.
In spite of the experimental failures to prepare praseodymium tetrafluoride, there is strong evidence for its possible formation to be found by calculating the equilibrium constants for some of the reactions by which this compound might be prepared.
Perros, Theodore P.; Munson, Thomas R.; Naeser, Charles R. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 402.
Oxidation State |
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
Letters  Angus, L. H.
Suggests a simple temperature-equilibrium demonstration.
Angus, L. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 472.
Thermodynamics
A simple demonstration of the Carnot cycle  Calingaert, George
This simple demonstration makes use of a stretched rubber band whose temperature changes are noted with the lips.
Calingaert, George J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 405.
Thermodynamics
A temperature-equilibrium demonstration  Brown, John A.
This demonstration makes use of the colored cobaltous complexes in a mixed solvent to show the dependence of some equilibria on temperature.
Brown, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 640.
Equilibrium |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Coordination Compounds
Keeping properties of certain volumetric solutions  Durham, Barbee William
Presents a table listing the storage time and stability of various standard solutions.
Durham, Barbee William J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 387.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Laboratory Management