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Precipitation Reactions Two versions of the Orange Tornado, two reactions under a microscope, and updated stills of other precipitation reactions provide dramatic visual displays of solid formation.

Equilibrium : CalcRxnQuotient (13 Variations) In an experiment, 4.44 mol of SO_{2}, 7.93 mol of O_{2} and 4.03 mol of SO_{3} are placed in a 2.0L reaction vessel at a certain temperature. Calculate the reaction quotient, Q, for the reaction as written:

What is the calculated reaction quotient, Q? {2:NUMERICAL:=2.1e-1:1e-2#Correct! ~%50%2.1e-1:5e-2#Close but not quite right}

If K_{c} for this reaction at the temperature of the experiment is 3.7 x 10^{3}, will the reaction move toward the left or toward the right? {1:MULTICHOICE:left#Sorry, that's wrong.~=right#Correct!}

Equilibrium |

Chemometrics

Equilibrium : CommonIonEffect (9 Variations)
The molar solubility of lead(II) fluoride (PbF_{2}) is
2.1 x 10^{-3} mol/L in pure water at 25^{o}C. What is the molar solubility of lead(II) fluoride in 0.10 M NaF at 25^{o}C? (Assume that the only relevant reaction is the solubility-product equilibrium.)

Equilibrium |

Chemometrics

Equilibrium : ConcFromKsp (8 Variations)
The K_{sp} of BaF_{2} is
1.7 x 10^{-6} mol/L in water at 25^{o}C. What is the concentration of barium ions in equilibrium with solid barium fluoride? (Assume that the only relevant reaction is the solubility-product equilibrium.)

Does the Addition of Inert Gases at Constant Volume and Temperature Affect Chemical Equilibrium?João C. M. Paiva, Jorge Gonçalves, and Susana Fonseca This article examines three approaches, leading to different conclusions, for answering the question "Does the addition of inert gases at constant volume and temperature modify the state of equilibrium?" Paiva, João C. M.; Gonçalves, Jorge; Fonseca, Susana. J. Chem. Educ.2008, 85, 1133.

Equilibrium |

Gases |

Thermodynamics

Introducing Undergraduate Students to Electrochemistry: A Two-Week Discovery Chemistry ExperimentKenneth V. Mills, Richard S. Herrick, Louise W. Guilmette, Lisa P. Nestor, Heather Shafer, and Mauri A. Ditzler, Within the framework of a laboratory-focused, guided-inquiry pedagogy, students discover the Nernst equation, the spontaneity of galvanic cells, concentration cells, and the use of electrochemical data to calculate equilibrium constants. Mills, Kenneth V.; Herrick, Richard S.; Guilmette, Louise W.; Nestor, Lisa P.; Shafer, Heather;Ditzler, Mauri A. J. Chem. Educ.2008, 85, 1116.

Electrochemistry |

Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |

Equilibrium

Discovering the Thermodynamics of Simultaneous Equilibria. An Entropy Analysis Activity Involving Consecutive EquilibriaThomas H. Bindel This activity explores the thermodynamics of simultaneous, consecutive equilibria and is appropriate for second-year high school or AP chemistry. Students discover that a reactant-favored (entropy-diminishing) reaction can be caused to happen if it is coupled with a product-favored reaction of sufficient entropy production. Bindel, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ.2007, 84, 449.

EquilibriumMatthew Sandberg, Mike Bellamy Using a visual approach, this applet is designed to help students learn to solve equilibrium calculations and also to help them gain a deeper understanding of the topic. It can be used by the instructor in the classroom as equilibrium topics are introduced. Sample exercises for students are included. The text is available in both English and Spanish.

Chemometrics |

Equilibrium |

Enrichment / Review Materials

JavaScript Programs To Calculate Thermodynamic Properties Using Cubic Equations of StatePatrick J. Barrie Cubic equations of state are widely used by chemists and chemical engineers to predict the thermodynamic properties of both pure substances and mixtures. In particular, these equations enable predictions concerning the temperature and pressure at which vapor liquid equilibrium occurs. These two educational JavaScript programs perform calculations using cubic equations of state and, equally importantly, explain how the calculations are performed.

Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |

Chemometrics |

Thermodynamics |

Equilibrium |

Enrichment / Review Materials

Nitrogen Oxides (GCMP)David M. Whisnant Nitrogen Oxides: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". Two of the most important nitrogen oxides, N2O4 and NO2, are in equilibrium with each other. We are interested in how this equilibrium shifts with temperature. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.