TIGER

Journal Articles: 141 results
On Capillary Rise and Nucleation  R. Prasad
A comparison of capillary rise and nucleation shows that both phenomena result from a balance between two competing energy factors: a volume energy and a surface energy. This comparison may help to introduce nucleation with capillary rise, a topic familiar to students.
Prasad, R. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1389.
Liquids |
Materials Science |
Metallurgy |
Solids
Polymeric, Metallic and Other Glasses in Introductory Chemistry  Stephen J. Hawkes
Polymeric, metallic, and other glasses and their importance are described in a manner suitable for introductory chemistry.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1377.
Consumer Chemistry |
Materials Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids
A Simplified Synthetic Experiment of YBa2Cu3O7–x Superconductor for First-Year Chemistry Laboratory  Jui-Lin She and Ru-Shi Liu
In this first-year chemistry experiment, a simplified synthetic superconductor is prepared to demonstrate high temperature superconductivity and the Meissner effect.
She, Jui-Lin; Liu, Ru-Shi. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 825.
Materials Science |
Solid State Chemistry |
Superconductivity |
X-ray Crystallography
Exploring Solid-State Structure and Physical Properties: A Molecular and Crystal Model Exercise  Thomas H. Bindel
This laboratory allows students to examine relationships among the microscopicmacroscopicsymbolic levels using crystalline mineral samples and corresponding crystal models. The exercise also reinforces Lewis dot structures, VSEPR theory, and the identification of molecular and coordination geometries.
Bindel, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 822.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Solids |
VSEPR Theory |
Lewis Structures |
Physical Properties
Determination of the Formula of a Hydrate: A Greener Alternative  Marc A. Klingshirn, Allison F. Wyatt, Robert M. Hanson, and Gary O. Spessard
This article describes how the principles of green chemistry were applied to a first-semester, general chemistry courses, specifically in relation to the determination of the formula of a copper hydrate salt that changes color when dehydrated and is easily rehydrated with steam.
Klingshirn, Marc A.; Wyatt, Allison F.; Hanson, Robert M.; Spessard, Gary O. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 819.
Gravimetric Analysis |
Green Chemistry |
Solids |
Stoichiometry
Preparation and Characterization of Solid Co(II) Pyrimidinolates in a Multifaceted Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment  Norberto Masciocchi, Simona Galli, Angelo Sironi, Gabriella Dal Monte, Elisa Barea, Juan Manuel Salas, and Jorge A. R. Navarro
Presents an integrated set of experiments involving the [Co(4-pyrimidinolate)2(H2O)n] species, including synthesis; analytical characterization by conventional titration and colorimetric methods; thermal, spectroscopic and structural characterization; and advanced analytical techniques (XRF, XRD).
Masciocchi, Norberto; Galli, Simona; Sironi, Angelo; Dal Monte, Gabriella; Barea, Elisa; Salas, Juan Manuel; Navarro, Jorge A. R. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 422.
Coordination Compounds |
Solid State Chemistry |
Synthesis |
Thermal Analysis |
X-ray Crystallography
Use of the Primitive Unit Cell in Understanding Subtle Features of the Cubic Close-Packed Structure  John A. Hawkins, Linda M. Soper, Jeffrey L. Rittenhouse, and Robert C. Rittenhouse
Examines the pedagogical advantages in presenting the primitive rhombohedral unit cell as a means of helping students to gain greater insight into the nature of the cubic close-packed structure.
Hawkins, John A.; Soper, Linda M.; Rittenhouse, Jeffrey L.; Rittenhouse, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 90.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Metals |
Solids
Effects of a Cooperative Learning Strategy on Teaching and Learning Phases of Matter and One-Component Phase Diagrams  Kemal Doymus
Describes a study whose objective was to determine the effects of cooperative learning (using the jigsaw method) on students' achievement in a general chemistry course.
Doymus, Kemal. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1857.
Gases |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids
Stuffed Derivatives of Close-Packed Structures  Bodie E. Douglas
Examines a variety of stuffed silica crystal structures in terms of the close-packing of one set of atoms or ions (P sites) with other atoms or ions in tetrahedral (T) or octahedral (O) sites and filled or partially filled layers in the regular pattern, PTOT.
Douglas, Bodie E. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1846.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Materials Science |
Metals |
Solid State Chemistry |
Solids
Modifying Optical Properties of ZnO Films by Forming Zn1-xCoxO Solid Solutions via Spray Pyrolysis  Anne K. Bentley, Gabriela C. Weaver, Cianán B. Russell, William L. Fornes, Kyoung-Shin Choi, and Susan M. Shih
Presents a simple experiment demonstrating the presence of an energy band gap in a semiconductor and its relationship to the material's composition through observed color and UVvis absorption.
Bentley, Anne K.; Weaver, Gabriela C.; Russell, Cianán B.; Fornes, William L.; Choi, Kyoung-Shin; Shih, Susan M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1183.
Materials Science |
Semiconductors |
Solid State Chemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Titration of a Solid Acid Monitored By X-Ray Diffraction  Keenan E. Dungey and Paul Epstein
Presents a solid-state laboratory in which students react fixed amounts of zirconium phosphate with increasing equivalents of NaOH(aq). From X-ray diffraction patterns, students calculate the interplanar spacings before and after the reaction. The spacings increase until the molar equivalence point is reached, indicating incorporation of the sodium ion into the crystal.
Dungey, Keenan E.; Epstein, Paul. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 122.
Acids / Bases |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Materials Science |
Solid State Chemistry |
X-ray Crystallography |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Classifying Matter: A Physical Model Using Paper Clips  Bob Blake, Lynn Hogue, and Jerry L. Sarquis
By using colored paper clips, students can represent pure substances, mixtures, elements, and compounds and then discuss their similarities and differences. This model is advantageous for the beginning student who would not know enough about the detailed composition of simple materials like milk, brass, sand, and air to classify them properly.
Blake, Bob; Hogue, Lynn; Sarquis, Jerry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1317.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solids |
Student-Centered Learning
A Demonstration of Refractive Index Matching Using Isopropyl Alcohol and MgF2  Frederick C. Sauls
Isopropyl alcohol and magnesium fluoride have nearly identical refractive indices; thus a chip of MgF2 disappears when immersed in isopropanol.
Sauls, Frederick C. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1170.
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Physical Properties |
Solids |
Materials Science
Chemistry of Electronic Gases  James R. Clark
The chemistry of electronic gases can be used in the classroom to provide many interesting examples of molecular structures, chemical reactions, periodic trends, and environmental chemistry.
Clark, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 857.
Applications of Chemistry |
Gases |
Industrial Chemistry |
Semiconductors |
Solid State Chemistry
Simultaneous Display of Spectral Images and Graphs Using a Web Camera and Fiber-Optic Spectrophotometer  Brian K. Niece
A method is presented for displaying images and graphs of spectra on a single screen in the classroom. The simultaneous display of both forms of the spectra helps students to make connections between the qualitative, visual spectra and quantitative, graphical representations.
Niece, Brian K. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 761.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Solid State Chemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Demonstrating Void Space in Solids: A Simple Demonstration To Challenge a Powerful Misconception  Mary Whitfield
The concept of bridging analogies is used in a simple demonstration to illustrate the substantial quantity of empty space that remains when solid spheres are packed together. The same demonstration also shows that the percentage of empty space is independent of particle size.
Whitfield, Mary. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 749.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Materials Science |
Solids
Intelligent Thermochromic Windows  Ivan P. Parkin and Troy D. Manning
This article covers the background and related science associated with a thermochromic window, a device that changes its reflectance and transmission properties at a specific critical temperature.
Parkin, Ivan P.; Manning, Troy D. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 393.
Materials Science |
Physical Properties |
Solid State Chemistry
Filling in the Hexagonal Close-Packed Unit Cell  Robert C. Rittenhouse, Linda M. Soper, and Jeffrey L. Rittenhouse
The illustrations of the hcp unit cell that are used in textbooks at all levels and also in crystallography and solid-state reference works are incomplete, in that they fail to include fractions of middle layer atomic spheres with centers lying outside of the unit cell.
Rittenhouse, Robert C.; Soper, Linda M.; Rittenhouse, Jeffrey L. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 175.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Metals |
Solids
Sedimentation Time Measurements of Soil Particles by Light Scattering and Determination of Chromium, Lead, and Iron in Soil Samples via ICP  Patricia Metthe Todebush and Franz M. Geiger
In this two-part general chemistry laboratory activity, students study soil samples from home and from campus. In part one, the samples are placed in water and the suspended colloid fraction is separated using filtration, followed by a determination of colloid sedimentation rates via light scattering. In part two, the solid phase of the soil samples is dissolved in acid and analyzed for chromium, lead, and iron using an inductively coupled plasma spectrometer. The experiment can be expanded to include arsenic. Through these experiments students can draw conclusions about the physical and chemical behavior of solid components in soil, paying particular attention to their propensity for transporting and chemically transforming pollutants in the environment.
Todebush, Patricia Metthe; Geiger, Franz M. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1542.
Colloids |
Geochemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solids |
Surface Science |
Metals
Rotational Mobility in a Crystal Studied by Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy. An Experiment for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory  Madalena S. C. Dionísio, Hermínio P. Diogo, J. P. S. Farinha, and Joaquim J. Moura-Ramos
In this article we present a laboratory experiment for an undergraduate physical chemistry course. The purpose of this experiment is the study of molecular mobility in a crystal using the technique of dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. The experiment illustrates important physical chemistry concepts. The background of the experimental technique deals with the concepts of orientational and induced polarization and frequency-dependent relative permittivity (or dielectric constant). The kinetic concepts of temperature-dependent relaxation time, activation energy, and activation entropy are involved in the concept of molecular mobility.
Dionísio, Madalena S. C.; Diogo, Hermínio P.; Farinha, J. P. S.; Moura-Ramos, Joaquim J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1355.
Kinetics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Crystals / Crystallography
Chemistry of Moth Repellents  Gabriel Pinto
A real-life example consisting of the study of the different substances used as moth repellents is presented to introduce students to miscellaneous topics such as sublimation, intermolecular forces, insecticides, and the effect of moths on clothes. A set of questions about the most common moth repellents, well known to students, is used to motivate them to understand several everday phenomena through chemistry concepts.
Pinto, Gabriel. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1321.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Applications of Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Physical Properties |
Consumer Chemistry
Self-Assembled Colloidal Crystals: Visualizing Atomic Crystal Chemistry Using Microscopic Analogues of Inorganic Solids  Neal M. Abrams and Raymond E. Schaak
Monodisperse spherical colloids spontaneously crystallize into close-packed crystals, in analogy to the simple crystal structures of many of the elements. Since colloids are orders of magnitude larger than atoms, students can directly observe crystal structure and behavior in a microscope using colloidal crystals. This laboratory exercise provides a modular series of materials science experiments appropriate for undergraduate chemistry and engineering majors. The individual modules include aspects of chemical synthesis (monodisperse SiO2 and polymer spheres), self-assembly (colloidal crystallization), and structural characterization through microscopy (optical and scanning electron microscopies) and optical spectroscopy (optical diffraction and UVvisible spectroscopy).
Abrams, Neal M.; Schaak, Raymond E. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 450.
Colloids |
Materials Science |
Solid State Chemistry |
Solids
Copper Metal from Malachite circa 4000 B.C.E.  Gordon T. Yee, Jeannine E. Eddleton, and Cris E. Johnson
The experiment starts with a naturally occurring ore, malachite, essentially pure Cu2CO3(OH)2, which is readily available at modest cost in bead form from jewelry stores. Using only a Bunsen burner, a porcelain crucible, and a charcoal briquette, the experiment demonstrates two steps in the ancient processing of copper ore: roasting and reduction. The product is a shiny copper metal bead that can then be hammered, polished, and shown to be electrically conductive.
Yee, Gordon T.; Eddleton, Jeannine E.; Johnson, Cris E. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1777.
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solids
Empirical Formulas and the Solid State: A Proposal  William B. Jensen
This brief article calls attention to the failure of most introductory textbooks to point out explicitly the fact that nonmolecular solids do not have molecular formulas and suggests some practical remedies for improving textbook coverage of this subject. The inadequacies of the terms "empirical formula" and "molecular formula" are also discussed, and the terms "relative compositional formula" and "absolute compositional formula" are proposed as more appropriate alternatives.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1772.
Solid State Chemistry |
Solids |
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Using Organic Light-Emitting Electrochemical Thin-Film Devices To Teach Materials Science  Hannah Sevian, Sean Müller, Hartmut Rudmann, and Michael F. Rubner
Light-emitting thin films provide an excellent opportunity to learn about principles of electrochemistry, spectroscopy, microscopic structure of the solid state, basic circuits, and engineering design. There is currently strong interest in academic and industrial engineering research centering on developing organic light-emitting devices for applications in flat panel displays. In this educational module, designed for high school or introductory undergraduate courses, students learn how to make a ruthenium-based thin-film device. In the process, they learn about the solid-state electrochemistry at work in the film, as well as the electroluminescence that results when current passes through the device.
Sevian, Hannah; Müller, Sean; Rudmann, Hartmut; Rubner, Michael F. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1620.
Electrochemistry |
Photochemistry |
Materials Science |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solid State Chemistry
Spectacular Pseudo-Exfoliation of an Exfoliated–Compressed Graphite  M. Comet, L. Schreyeck, S. Verdan, G. Burato, and H. Fuzellier
This kind of reaction has been called pseudo-exfoliation of carbonaceous material. This demonstration spectacularly illustrates the layered nature of graphite.
Comet, M.; Schreyeck, L.; Verdan, S.; Burato, G.; Fuzellier, H. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 819.
Materials Science |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solid State Chemistry
Inorganic Fullerenes, Onions, and Tubes  Andrew P. E. York
Proposed applications for the inorganic fullerenes include electronic devices and storage media, probes and electron microscope tips, and nano-ball bearings and high temperature lubricants.
York, Andrew P. E. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 673.
Materials Science |
Nanotechnology |
Solid State Chemistry
Dynamic Visualization in Chemistry Abstract of Special Issue 31, a CD-ROM for Mac OS and Windows  James P. Birk, Debra E. Leedy, Rachel A. Morgan, Mark Drake, Fiona Lihs, Eleisha J. Nickoles, and Michael J. McKelvy
Each presentation is designed to help chemistry students acquire a dynamic, three-dimensional, atomic-level visualization of matter and to use this view to explain and ultimately predict the behavior of materials. It integrates video of experiments and animations of theoretical models. Students zoom in on physical and chemical processes at resolutions as high as the atomic level.
Birk, James P.; Leedy, Debra E.; Morgan, Rachel A.; Drake, Mark; Lihs, Fiona; Nickoles, Eleisha J.; McKelvy, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1095.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Solid State Chemistry
Paper-and-Glue Unit Cell Models  James P. Birk and Ellen J. Yezierski
Templates for a variety of unit cells that can be copied, cut out, and assembled.
Birk, James P.; Yezierski, Ellen J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 157.
Solid State Chemistry |
Solids |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Modeling
Salt Crystals—Science behind the Magic  Charles F. Davidson and Michael R. Slabaugh
Discussion of sodium chloride and factors that influence the shape of the crystals it forms.
Davidson, Charles F.; Slabaugh, Michael R. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 155.
Consumer Chemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Solids
Periodic Table Live! 3rd Edition: Abstract of Special Issue 17  Nicholas B. Adelman, Jon L. Holmes, Jerrold J. Jacobsen, John W. Moore, Paul F. Schatz, Jaclyn Tweedale, Alton J. Banks, John C. Kotz, William R. Robinson, and Susan Young
CD-ROM containing an interactive journey through the periodic table; includes information about each element, biographies of discoverers, videos of reactions, sources and uses, macro and atomic properties, and crystalline structures.
Adelman, Nicholas B.; Holmes, Jon L.; Jacobsen, Jerrold J.; Moore, John W.; Schatz, Paul F.; Tweedale, Jaclyn; Banks, Alton J.; Kotz, John C.; Robinson, William R.; Young, Susan. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1487.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Solid State Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Reactions |
Crystals / Crystallography
Semiconductor Nanocrystals: A Powerful Visual Aid for Introducing the Particle in a Box  Tadd Kippeny, Laura A. Swafford, and Sandra J. Rosenthal
Using semiconductor nanocrystals as a means for connecting lecture content in quantum mechanics, inorganic, and general chemistry to real-world technological problems.
Kippeny, Tadd; Swafford, Laura A.; Rosenthal, Sandra J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1094.
Quantum Chemistry |
Nanotechnology |
Solid State Chemistry |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Applications of Chemistry
Is Salt Melting When It Dissolves in Water?  Alan Goodwin
Analysis of the chemical meaning of the terms melting and dissolving.
Goodwin, Alan. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 393.
Liquids |
Solids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Semimetallicity?  Stephen J. Hawkes
Analysis of whether semimetals are semiconductors and distinctions between metals, semimetals, and nonmetals.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1686.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nonmetals |
Physical Properties |
Solid State Chemistry |
Conductivity
LEDs Are Diodes  George C. Lisensky, S. Michael Condren, Cynthia G. Widstrand, Jonathan Breitzer, and Arthur B. Ellis
Comparison of incandescent bulbs with LEDs powered by AC and DC voltages; shows that LEDs are diodes and illustrates the relative energies of different wavelengths of light.
Lisensky, George C.; Condren, S. Michael; Widstrand, Cynthia G.; Breitzer, Jonathan; Ellis, Arthur B. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1664A.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Materials Science |
Nanotechnology |
Solid State Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
LEDs: New Lamps for Old and a Paradigm for Ongoing Curriculum Modernization  S. Michael Condren, George C. Lisensky, Arthur B. Ellis, Karen J. Nordell, Thomas F. Kuech, and Steve Stockman
Summary of the key points of a white paper on LEDs as potential replacements for a significant fraction of vehicle, display, home, and workplace lighting, with substantial safety and environmental conserving benefits.
Condren, S. Michael; Lisensky, George C.; Ellis, Arthur B.; Nordell, Karen J.; Kuech, Thomas F.; Stockman, Steve. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1033.
Materials Science |
Nanotechnology |
Semiconductors |
Solid State Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
JCE Classroom Activity: Out of "Thin Air": Exploring Phase Changes  John J. Vollmer
This Activity illustrates sublimation/deposition with para-dichlorobenzene (mothballs) and evaporation/condensation with water.
Vollmer, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 488A.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Physical Properties |
Solids |
Gases
A Chemical-Medical Mystery: Gold Jewelry and Black Marks on Skin  Barbara B. Kebbekus
Gold jewelry at times makes a black mark or smudge on skin. This may be caused by abrasive powders on the skin (e.g. zinc oxide) but the phenomenon may also be caused by other skin conditions, possibly the presence of chloride ion, acidity, or sulfur-containing amino acids.
Kebbekus, Barbara B. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1298.
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Geochemistry |
Hormones |
Metals |
Solids |
Applications of Chemistry
Glass Doesn't Flow and Doesn't Crystallize and It Isn't a Liquid  Stephen J. Hawkes
It is widely believed that glass flows in historic time and it is often asserted that glass is a liquid. The evidence of archeology, geology, and viscosity and of research on glass structure and on conservation of antique glass is examined and the conclusion in the title is reached. These fallacies should not be taught.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 846.
Geochemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solid State Chemistry
Experimental Demonstration of Isomorphism  J. Kamenícek and M. Melichárek
The effect of isomorphism may be demonstrated in two ways, using alums: by preparation of mixed crystals with various ratios of components, and by deposition of the second phase on the surface of the initial crystal. The experiments are described.
Kamencek, Jir; Melichrek, M. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 623.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solid State Chemistry
Cubic Unit Cell Construction Kit  Bruce Mattson
This article provides plans for the construction of a student-interactive cubic unit cell model kit. Plans allow for the kit to be constructed on any scale. The kit is used in classroom activities or by students working alone or in small groups to construct the entire family of cubic lattices.
Mattson, Bruce. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 622.
Coordination Compounds |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Solid State Chemistry |
Molecular Modeling
Kixium Monolayers: A Simple Alternative to the Bubble Raft Model for Close-Packed Spheres  Keenan E. Dungey
This model focuses on the two-dimensional sheets, which are spontaneously formed from cereal pieces. The structure of the cereal rafts can be presented with an overhead projector.
Dungey, Keenan E. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 618.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Materials Science |
Solid State Chemistry
Solid State Resources CD-ROM: Abstract of Special Issue 12, 2nd Edition   George C. Lisensky , Joey M. Blackwell, and Arthur B. Ellis
The Solid State Resources CD-ROM for Mac OS and Windows compatible computers has been updated with a new HTML interface and video identical to that published in the General Chemistry Collection, 2nd Edition. This includes both new video and improved versions of some of the movies on the original Solid State Resources CD.
Lisensky, George C.; Blackwell, Joey M.; Ellis, Arthur B. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1351.
Materials Science |
Solids
Sugar Dehydration without Sulfuric Acid: No More Choking Fumes in the Classroom!  Todd P. Silverstein and Yi Zhang
Our demonstration uses no sulfuric acid, yields relatively little smoke, and produces an exciting and unpredictable growing column of black carbon.
Silverstein, Todd P.; Zhang, Yi. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 748.
Carbohydrates |
Thermodynamics |
Electrochemistry |
Solid State Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Flying over Atoms CD-ROM: Abstract of Special Issue 19  John R. Markham
The 'Flying Over Atoms' software is a tool for teaching about atoms and solid surfaces in an introductory chemistry course.
Markham, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 247.
Solid State Chemistry |
Surface Science
Solid State Structures (Abstract of Volume 5D, Number 2)  Ludwig A. Mayer
Solid State Structures is a collection of image files that allows the user to display, rotate, and examine individually a large collection of 3-D structure models.
Mayer, Ludwig A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1144.
Solid State Chemistry |
Metals |
Solids |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
A Window on the Solid State: Part I: Structures of Metals; Part II: Unit Cells of Metals; Part III: Structures of Ionic Solids; Part IV: Unit Cells of Ionic Solids (Abstract of Volume 5D, Number 2)  William R. Robinson and Joan F. Tejchma
A Window on the Solid State helps students understand and instructors present the structural features of solids. The package provides a tour of the structures commonly used to introduce features of the solid state.
Robinson, William R.; Tejchma, Joan F. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1143.
Solid State Chemistry |
Metals |
Solids |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Elements of Curriculum Reform: Putting Solids in the Foundation  Arthur B. Ellis
Until recently, solids were a relatively small part of the chemistry curriculum. Helping to close this particular gap between the research and educational enterprises was the objective of the Ad Hoc Committee for Solid-State Instructional Materials, formed in 1990.
Ellis, Arthur B. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1033.
Materials Science |
Solid State Chemistry |
Nanotechnology |
Magnetic Properties
A Simple Laboratory Demonstration of Electrochromism  Bertil Forslund
A laboratory exercise in which students are asked to construct an electrochromic cell, consisting of a thin, transparent layer of WO3 on a glass plate with a thin, transparent, and conducting surface coating of doped SnO2.
Forslund, Bertil. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 962.
Electrochemistry |
Materials Science |
Solid State Chemistry
An Inexpensive Kit for Constructing Models of Crystals  Michael Laing
This simple kit comprises five trays, each of 25 square wells, and a lid. It can be used to construct primitive cubic, FCC, BCC, diamond, zinc blende, NaCl, CsCl, rutile, fluorite, perovskite structures. The trays are square tissue culture Petri dishes (multiwell plates). Atoms are represented by glass marbles.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 795.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Materials Science |
Solid State Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Easy Filling of Capillaries in an Inert Atmosphere  Francisco J. Arnáiz
The procedure described in this article offers a simpler way to charge capillaries or tubes in an inert atmosphere using inexpensive materials.
Arnaiz, Francisco J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A102.
Microscale Lab |
Solids |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Air Stream-Assisted Sublimation on a Microscale: A Rapid Procedure Suitable for Sophomore Laboratory  Prem D. Sattsangi
Using familiar apparatus, such as a 3-mL reaction vial, an air condenser, a stream of clean air/nitrogen/argon, an aluminum heating block and a hot plate, several compounds in the microscale amounts (50 mg), with its melting points ranging from 50-240 C, have been successfully sublimed in 40 minutes.
Sattsangi, Prem D. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A3.
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Physical Properties
The Inorganic Illustrator: A 3-D Graphical Supplement for Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry Courses Distributed on CD-ROM  Scott L. Childs and Karl S. Hagen
As part of this project we are accumulating a database of representative crystal structures of main group molecules, coordination complexes, organometallic compounds, small metalloproteins, bioinorganic model complexes, clusters, and solid state materials in Chem3D Plus format to be viewed with Chem3D Viewer, which is free software from Cambridge Scientific Computing.
Childs, Scott L.; Hagen, Karl S. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 917.
Molecular Modeling |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Coordination Compounds |
Organometallics |
Main-Group Elements |
Solid State Chemistry
Solid State Resources CD  George C. Lisensky and Arthur B. Ellis
The Solid State Resource CD-ROM is intended to help instructors to integrate materials science examples into introductory chemistry courses.
Lisensky, G. C.; Ellis, A. B. . J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 667.
Solid State Chemistry |
Materials Science
Surface Analysis by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy  Louis A. Coury, Jr, Mario Johnson, and Tammy J. Murphy
Project that involves using a scanning tunneling microscope to examine electrode surfaces before and after modification.
Coury, Jr., Louis A.; Johnson, Mario; Murphy, Tammy J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1088.
Surface Science |
Solid State Chemistry |
Nanotechnology
Solid State Resources CD  George C. Lisensky and Arthur B. Ellis
Description of the Solid State Resources CD-ROM.
Lisensky, G. C.; Ellis, A. B. . J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 918.
Solids
A Window on the Solid State  William R. Robinson and Christopher P. Saari
Student tutorial and lecture demonstration software illustrating the structures and unit cells of metals.
Robinson, W. R. . J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 814.
Metals |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solid State Chemistry
A Simple "Back of the Envelope" Method for Estimating the Densities and Molecular Volumes of Liquids and Solids  Girolami, Gregory S.
The method described for the estimation of densities and molecular volumes are surprisingly accurate and very simple.
Girolami, Gregory S. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 962.
Physical Properties |
Liquids |
Solids
Rare Earth Iron Garnets: Their Synthesis and Magnetic Properties  Geselbracht, Margaret J.; Cappellari, Ann M.; Ellis, Arthur B.; Rzeznik, Maria A.; Johnson, Brian J.
A general synthesis for compositions in the solid solution series YxGd3-xFe5O12 (x = 0, 1, 2, 3) and a simple demonstration that illustrates the differing magnetic properties of these materials.
Geselbracht, Margaret J.; Cappellari, Ann M.; Ellis, Arthur B.; Rzeznik, Maria A.; Johnson, Brian J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 696.
Metals |
Transition Elements |
Magnetic Properties |
Synthesis |
Solid State Chemistry
Solid State Structures for MacMolecule  Mayer, Ludwig A.
Provides an effective visualization of extended structure solids.
Mayer, Ludwig A. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 421.
Solid State Chemistry |
Solids |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Nickel-Titanium Memory Metal: A "Smart" Material Exhibiting a Solid-State Phase Change and Superelasticity  Gisser, Kathleen R. C.; Geselbracht, Margaret J.; Cappellari, Ann; Hunsberger, Lynn; Ellis, Arthur B.; Perepezko, John; Lisensky, George C.
Several simple experiments that illustrate the shape-memory, mechanical, and acoustical properties of Nitinol.
Gisser, Kathleen R. C.; Geselbracht, Margaret J.; Cappellari, Ann; Hunsberger, Lynn; Ellis, Arthur B.; Perepezko, John; Lisensky, George C. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 334.
Solid State Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Materials Science |
Applications of Chemistry
A Window on the Solid-State  Robinson, William R.
"Part I: Structures of Metals" introduces the four basic structural types found in metals. "Part II: Unit Cells of Metals" discusses how to use a unit cell to describe a two-dimensional structure.
Robinson, William R. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 300.
Solid State Chemistry |
Solids |
Metals
Solid state chemistry: Taught as a comprehensive university course for chemistry students  Boldyreva, Elena V.
While the importance of solid state chemistry for both fundamental chemical science and for modern technology is recognized, there are hardly any comprehensive courses offered for non-specialist students. This author relates her experience in offering such a course.
Boldyreva, Elena V. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 551.
Solid State Chemistry |
Materials Science
A simple and reliable chemical preparation of YBa2Cu3O7-x superconductors: An experiment in high temperature superconductivity for an advanced undergraduate laboratory  Djurovich, Peter I.; Watts, Richard J.
The popular kits used to engage students in sythetic procedures contain pedagogical flaws. This article presents an alternative to the so-called "shake and bake" kits.
Djurovich, Peter I.; Watts, Richard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 497.
Semiconductors |
Materials Science |
Solid State Chemistry |
Superconductivity
The importance of understanding structure   Galasso, Frank
Solid state chemistry and its link with atomic structure is a topic that is still being neglected in students' education., despite the interesting scientific discoveries and developments that will likely be relevant in students' lives and possible careers.
Galasso, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 287.
Solid State Chemistry |
Materials Science |
Solids |
Physical Properties
A spontaneous exothermic reaction between two solids: A safe demonstration  Scott, Earle S.
Reaction between equal masses of hydroxylamine hydrochloride and sodium nitrite.
Scott, Earle S. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1028.
Solids |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Reactions
Conducting midshipmen - A classroom activity modeling extended bonding in solids  Lomax, Joseph F.
Using the electron-hopping model (analogous to people sitting in chairs) to explain electron movement and conductivity in insulators, semiconductors, and metals.
Lomax, Joseph F. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 794.
Solids |
Solid State Chemistry |
Conductivity |
Metals |
Semiconductors
A demonstration of hexagonal close-packed and cubic close-packed crystal structures   Foote, John D.; Blanck, Harvey F.
The advantage of the models in this demonstration is that they are not static, they show dynamically that spheres prefer HCP and CCP arrangements.
Foote, John D.; Blanck, Harvey F. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 777.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Diffraction of a laser light by a memory chip   Klier, Kamil; Taylor, J. Ashley
A way of demonstrating the relationship between structure and diffraction.
Klier, Kamil; Taylor, J. Ashley J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 155.
X-ray Crystallography |
Solids |
Solid State Chemistry |
Surface Science |
Materials Science
Direct visualization of Bragg diffraction with a He-Ne laser and an ordered suspension of charged microspheres  Spencer, Bertrand H.; Zare, Richard N.
Bragg diffraction from colloidal crystals proves to be an excellent teaching tool. Only modest equipment and lab skill are needed to produce a diffraction pattern to provide students with an in-depth understanding of what ordered structure is and how it can be probed by diffraction techniques.
Spencer, Bertrand H.; Zare, Richard N. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 97.
X-ray Crystallography |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Lasers |
Materials Science
The optical transform: Simulating diffraction experiments in introductory courses  Lisensky, George C.; Kelly, Thomas F.; Neu, Donald R.; Ellis, Arthur B.
Using optical transforms to prepare slides with patterns that will diffract red and green visible light from a laser.
Lisensky, George C.; Kelly, Thomas F.; Neu, Donald R.; Ellis, Arthur B. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 91.
X-ray Crystallography |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Lasers |
Materials Science
The chemical bond  DeKock, Roger L.
Overview of the chemical bond; considers ionic bonds, covalent bonds, Lewis electron dot structures, polar molecules and hydrogen bonds, and bonding in solid-state elements.
DeKock, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 934.
Ionic Bonding |
Covalent Bonding |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Solid State Chemistry |
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The density of solids  Hill, William D, Jr.
Supplement to and application of this experiment.
Hill, William D, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 92.
Solids |
Physical Properties
The squeezed-earth problem   Rhodes, Gale
This take-home-exam question promotes a discussion in class and demonstrates the conceptual difficulties in understanding protons and neutrons.
Rhodes, Gale J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 970.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Solid State Chemistry
Crystal model kits for use in the general chemistry laboratory  Kildahl, Nicholas K.; Berka, Ladislav, H.; Bodner, George M.
This paper describes dynamic crystal models which were developed independently at the Worcester Polytech institute and Purdue University.
Kildahl, Nicholas K.; Berka, Ladislav, H.; Bodner, George M. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 62.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Solid State Chemistry
Composition of gas hydrates. New answers to an old problem  Cady, George H.
The author provides a discussion on nonstoichiometric crystalline solids as they deserve attention in elementary chemistry courses because they are interesting and increasingly important. Laboratory activities are included.
Cady, George H. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 915.
Stoichiometry |
Solids |
Crystals / Crystallography
Le Châtelier's principle: the effect of temperature on the solubility of solids in liquids  Brice, L. K.
The purpose of this article is to provide a rigorous but straightforward thermodynamic treatment of the temperature dependence of solubility of solids in liquids that is suitable for presentation at the undergraduate level. The present discussion may suggest how to approach the qualitative aspects of the subject for freshman.
Brice, L. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 387.
Thermodynamics |
Liquids |
Solids |
Chemometrics |
Equilibrium
Inorganic thermochromism: A lecture demonstration of a solid state phase transition  Willett, Roger D.
A description of an activity using thermochromic material is an easy way to demonstrate solid state phase transition.
Willett, Roger D. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 355.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solid State Chemistry |
Coordination Compounds
An effective demonstration of some properties of real vapors  Metsger, D. Scott
The apparatus described in this article has been found by the authors to be the most effective in vividly illustrating the behavior of a nearly ideal gas to first year chemistry students.
Metsger, D. Scott J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 67.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Physical Properties |
Solids
Entropy and its role in introductory chemistry  Bickford, Franklin R.
The concept of entropy as it applies to phase changes.
Bickford, Franklin R. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 317.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Solids |
Liquids |
Gases
The barium hydroxide ammonium thiocyanate reaction: A titrimetric continuous variations experiment  Harris, Arlo D.
Experiment that uses acid-base titrimetry to study the stoichiometry of a novel solid state reaction.
Harris, Arlo D. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 477.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Solid State Chemistry |
Stoichiometry
A simple and inexpensive solar energy experiment  Evans, J. H.; Pedersen, L. G.
Uses solid state technology to demonstrate the direct generation of electricity and the electrochemical generation of hydrogen.
Evans, J. H.; Pedersen, L. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 339.
Solid State Chemistry |
Semiconductors |
Electrochemistry
Solar energy  J. Chem. Educ. Staff
Information summarizing a variety of topics related to solar energy.
J. Chem. Educ. Staff J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 264.
Applications of Chemistry |
Solid State Chemistry |
Semiconductors
An experiment oriented approach to teaching the kinetic molecular theory  Wiseman, Frank L., Jr.
A series of experiments designed to illustrate the kinetic molecular theory and the differences between solids, liquids, and gases.
Wiseman, Frank L., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 233.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases |
Solids |
Liquids |
Nonmajor Courses
A demonstration in solid state chemistry: The nonstoichiometry of nickel oxide, NiO  Perrino, Charles T.; Johnson, Robert
A simple experiment to demonstrate the nonstoichiometric synthesis of nickel oxide.
Perrino, Charles T.; Johnson, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 367.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solid State Chemistry |
Metals
Chemical symbolism and the solid state. A proposal  Jensen, William B.
A proposed symbolism for representing the solid state.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 277.
Solid State Chemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography
Some structural principles for introductory chemistry  Wells, A. F.
Unit cells in repeating patterns and descriptions of simple structures.
Wells, A. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 273.
Solids |
Crystals / Crystallography
Freshman-level chemistry shapes the nuclear power industry  Plumb, Robert C.; Bridgman, W. B.; Wilbur, Leslie C.
Applying the modeling of a crystalline lattice to the changes occurring in a nuclear reactor.
Plumb, Robert C.; Bridgman, W. B.; Wilbur, Leslie C. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 523.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Modeling |
Solids |
Solid State Chemistry |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Solid state labs: The bubble raft  McCormick, P. D.
Method for producing bubble rafts and experiments for using them to demonstrate the properties of crystals.
McCormick, P. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 521.
Solids |
Solid State Chemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography
Unit cells  Olsen, Robert C.; Tobiason, Fred L.
An easy way to construct of have students construct a unit cell in three dimensions.
Olsen, Robert C.; Tobiason, Fred L. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 509.
Solids |
Molecular Modeling |
Crystals / Crystallography
Construction of a tetrahedron packing model: A puzzle in structural chemistry  Schweikert, William W.
Proposes the assembly of a tetrahedrally shaped packing model as a game or puzzle for students.
Schweikert, William W. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 501.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Modeling |
Solids
The failings of the law of definite proportions  Suchow, Lawrence
Inorganic solids often violate the law of definite proportions.
Suchow, Lawrence J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 367.
Stoichiometry |
Solids |
Transition Elements |
Metals
Simple tensile testing  McCormick, P. D.
Describes a simple tensiometer capable of giving good approximations to Young's Modulus.
McCormick, P. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 242.
Materials Science |
Solids
Brass  McCormick, P. D.
A spectacular illustration of a diffusion process in solid copper - transforming a copper penny into brass (or "gold") using NaOH and zinc.
McCormick, P. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 102.
Metals |
Solids
An inexpensive method to produce plastic models of solids  Salmon, J. F. S. J.; Polley, C. A.
Method for using moulage to produce plastic models of solids.
Salmon, J. F. S. J.; Polley, C. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 726.
Solids |
Molecular Modeling |
Solid State Chemistry
Models for simple, close-packed crystal structures  Mann, A. W.
This paper describes some simple crystallographic models made from styrofoam balls.
Mann, A. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 652.
Molecular Modeling |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Diphenyl ether. A versatile substance for laboratory demonstrations  Cases, Jaime C.
The purification, properties, and uses of diphenyl ether in a variety of demonstrations.
Cases, Jaime C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 420.
Ethers |
Solid State Chemistry |
Physical Properties |
Aromatic Compounds
Auto windows - Strong but self-destructing  Stookey, S. D.
Auto windowglass illustrates the principles of metastable equilibrium.
Stookey, S. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 131.
Applications of Chemistry |
Solids |
Equilibrium
Lecture demonstration of a phase transition in a solid  Kennedy, John H.; Chen, Fred
The solid-solid phase transition between two different allotropes of silver iodide.
Kennedy, John H.; Chen, Fred J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 109.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Physical Properties
Free energies of formation measurements on solid-state electrochemical cells  Rollino, J. A.; Aronson, S.
This experiment demonstrates in a direct fashion the relationship between the Gibbs free energy of formation of an ionic solid and the emf of an electrochemical cell.
Rollino, J. A.; Aronson, S. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 825.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Solid State Chemistry |
Organometallics
Demonstration of close-packing phenomena  Birnbaum, Edward R.
Relies in layers of styrofoam balls and an overhead projector for illustrating close-packed structure.
Birnbaum, Edward R. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 674.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Demonstration of 2-dimensional crystal lattice  Morrison, James D.; Driscoll, Jerry A.
A laser passing through wire cloth produces a characteristic interference pattern.
Morrison, James D.; Driscoll, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 558.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Density gradients in chemistry teaching  Miller, P. J.
Outlines experiments in which a density gradient may be used to advantage, including the analysis of organic compounds, aqueous solutions, binary mixtures of organic compounds, solids, and solvent extractions.
Miller, P. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 278.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solids |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
An introduction to principles of the solid state. Extrinsic semiconductors  Weller, Paul F.
Includes a previous analogy is extended to cover n- and p-type semiconductors and discussions of the concepts of donors and acceptors, donor and acceptor activation energies and the corresponding charge carrier production at various temperatures, and the effects of the presence of both donors and acceptors.
Weller, Paul F. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 831.
Solid State Chemistry |
Solids |
Semiconductors
Sealed tube experiments  Campbell, J. A.
Lists and briefly describes a large set of "sealed tube experiments," each of which requires less than five minutes to set-up and clean-up, requires less than five minutes to run, provides dramatic results observable by a large class, and illustrates important chemical concepts.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 273.
Thermodynamics |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Liquids |
Gases |
Rate Law |
Equilibrium
A three-dimensional model of dendritic structure  Olsen, Robert C.
A simple procedure for growing dendritic crystals in a gel that may serve as a model of dendritic structure.
Olsen, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 496.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
The structure of solid aluminum chloride  Bigelow, M. Jerome
Many general chemistry textbooks have been vague or mistaken with regards to the structure of solid aluminum chloride.
Bigelow, M. Jerome J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 495.
Solids
Structure units: Aids in the interpretation of chemical reactions  Strong, Laurence E.
the proposal to define structure units as generators of the various properties of a substance has a considerable advantage over the usual definition of a structure unit as the endpoint of some prescribed scheme of subdivision.
Strong, Laurence E. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 51.
Learning Theories |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Solids |
Liquids |
Gases
Crystal models  Olsen, Robert C.
This short note illustrates a model designed to demonstrate the number of particles in a crystal that can be assigned to a unit cell.
Olsen, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 728.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Modeling |
Solids |
Metals |
Metallic Bonding
The nature of " ionic" solids: The coordinated polymeric model  Sanderson, R. T.
The author discusses and questions the validity of considering some solids as purely ionic and offers the coordinated polymeric model as a plausible alternative.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 516.
Solids |
Ionic Bonding
An analogy for elementary band theory concepts in solids  Weller, Paul F.
The author presents analogies to help students understand insulators and metals, semiconductors, and the p-n junction.
Weller, Paul F. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 391.
Semiconductors |
Solid State Chemistry |
Metals
The teaching of crystal geometry in the introductory course  Livingston, R. L.
It is the purpose of this paper to outline an approach to the teaching of crystal structure at the elementary level that will prepare the student for more advanced work in this field or that could be used as the beginning in a more advanced course.
Livingston, R. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 376.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
States of matter (Continued). D. Solid state  Owens, Charles; Klug, Evangeline B; Wnukowski, Lucian J.; Cooper, Edwin H.; Klug, Evangeline B.; Jackman, Kenneth; Alyea, Hubert N.; Young, James A.
Demonstrations include writing with alum crystals, the rate of crystallization and crystal size, purification by crystallization, growing salol crystals in a polarizer, growing crystal blossoms, the melting point of eutectic (salol + benzophenone) and butectic (p-toluidine + a-naphthol), sublimation of organic substances (methyl oxalate), and the pseudo-sublimation of naphthalene.
Owens, Charles; Klug, Evangeline B; Wnukowski, Lucian J.; Cooper, Edwin H.; Klug, Evangeline B.; Jackman, Kenneth; Alyea, Hubert N.; Young, James A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A241.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Solids
Hard sphere simulation of statistical mechanical behavior of molecules  Plumb, Robert C.
Describes the design and use of a demonstration device to illustrate the kinetic behavior of gases, liquids, and solids.
Plumb, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 648.
Statistical Mechanics |
Gases |
Liquids |
Solids |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Equilibrium |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
An analogy for the band theory of metals  van Reuth, E. C.
Presents a useful analogy for teaching students the band theory of metals.
van Reuth, E. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 484.
Metals |
Solid State Chemistry |
Semiconductors
Manometric apparatus for vapor and solution studies  Taha, Ahmed A.; Grigsby, Ronald D.; Johnson, James R.; Christian, Sherril D.; Affsprung, Harold E.
Presents a device that can be sued to obtain vapor density and PVT measurements, vapor pressures of solutions and liquids, dew-point pressures and compositions, solubilities of gases in liquids, solubilities of slightly-miscible liquids, equilibrium constants for association reactions in solutions, interactions of vapors and gases with solids, and gas and vapor viscosities.
Taha, Ahmed A.; Grigsby, Ronald D.; Johnson, James R.; Christian, Sherril D.; Affsprung, Harold E. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 432.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Gases |
Liquids |
Solids
Crystals: Their Role in Nature and in Science (Bunn, Charles)  Templeton, David H.

Templeton, David H. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A550.
Solids |
Crystals / Crystallography
Enthalpies of formation of solid salts  Neidig, H. A.; Yingling, R. T.
This investigation introduces the student to several important areas of thermochemistry, including enthalpies of neutralization, enthalpies of dissolution, enthalpies of formation, and Hess' Law.
Neidig, H. A.; Yingling, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 474.
Thermodynamics |
Solids |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
8-Hydroxyquinaldine crystals  Phillips, J. P.; Faller, J. W.
The crystallization of 8-hydroxyquinaldine by the natural; evaporation of a saturated benzene solution at room temperature produces very large crystals.
Phillips, J. P.; Faller, J. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 328.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
The direct reactions of solids  Feigl, F.
Provides suggestions for student research based on an earlier article published in the Journal.
Feigl, F. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A135.
Undergraduate Research |
Reactions |
Solids
Some models of close packing  Sime, Rodney J.
Presents models constructed from styrofoam balls and connected with toothpicks.
Sime, Rodney J. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 61.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Molecular Modeling
Standard ionic crystal structures  Gehman, William G.
Examines the topics of cubic and hexagonal closest packed atom lattices; interstice lattices; standard crystal structures of type MaXb; standard CCP and HCP crystal structures; and deviations from ideal closest packing.
Gehman, William G. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 54.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Molecular Modeling |
Solid State Chemistry
Flow of glass under its own weight  Dingledy, David
A common misconception of the nature of glass found in general chemistry texts is that ordinary glass will flow under its own weight at room temperatures.
Dingledy, David J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 84.
Solids
Paper-made crystal models  Komuro, Yasuyuki; Sone, Kozo
Three-dimensional models of a number of simple ionic crystals are constructed from a box and pieces of cellophane.
Komuro, Yasuyuki; Sone, Kozo J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 580.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
A constant temperature reaction vessel for the thermal decomposition of solids  Prout, E. G.; Herley, P. J.
Describes an apparatus suitable for studying the thermal decomposition of potassium permanganate in high vacuum.
Prout, E. G.; Herley, P. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 643.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solids |
Rate Law |
Kinetics
Kinetic molecular theory from a jukebox  Easley, W. K.; Powers, Glenn F.
Uses dancers to various styles of music as an analogy for differences between the atomic and molecular motions in solids, liquids, and gases.
Easley, W. K.; Powers, Glenn F. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 302.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Solids |
Liquids |
Gases
Inexpensive and convenient method for powdering solids for melting point determinations  Pinkus, A. G; Waldrop, P. G.
Recently a new mulling technique for preparing samples for infrared spectra was reported which makes use of ground glass plates.
Pinkus, A. G; Waldrop, P. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 618.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solids |
Physical Properties
Hollow lantern slides illustrating crystal structure  Kenney, Malcolm E.; Skinner, Selby M.
The structure of simple crystals can be illustrated by enclosing a layer of bearing balls in a hollow lantern slide and projecting the shadow pattern.
Kenney, Malcolm E.; Skinner, Selby M. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 495.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Crystal models  Slabaugh, W. H.
Describes the production of crystal models made of Plexiglass.
Slabaugh, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 288.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Chemical geometryApplication to salts  Gibb, Thomas R. P., Jr.; Winnerman, Anne
It is the purpose of this article to illustrate how one may delve rather deeply into some aspects of crystal structure that are of special interest chemically without becoming involved in the symbology and semantic complexities of conventional crystallography.
Gibb, Thomas R. P., Jr.; Winnerman, Anne J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 578.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Permanent packing type crystal models  Kenney, Malcolm E.
Crystal models made of styrofoam balls are more durable if packed in clear plastic boxes.
Kenney, Malcolm E. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 513.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Molecular Modeling
Face-centered cube and cubical close-packing  Barnett, E. De Barry
Instructions for the construction of simple models designed to illustrate the face-centered cube and cubical close-packing.
Barnett, E. De Barry J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 186.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Letters to the editor  Fisher, D. Jerome
The author comments on definitions of crystal systems.
Fisher, D. Jerome J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 259.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Textbook errors: Guest column. XII: The lubricating properties of graphite  Lavrakas, Vasilis
The presentation of the correct lamellar structure of graphite is generally followed in textbooks by an erroneous statement that the lubricating properties of graphite are due to the easy slippage between layers.
Lavrakas, Vasilis J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 240.
Solids |
Gases
A new type of crystal model  Westbrook, J. H.; DeVries, R. C.
Describes the design and construction of a crystal model in which the positions of atoms are represented by colored lights that can be lit to illustrate various structures.
Westbrook, J. H.; DeVries, R. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 220.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Molecular Modeling
Some simple solid models  Campbell, J. A.
Describes the use of hard spheres to illustrate a variety of concepts with respect solids, including closest packing and the effects of temperature and alloying.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 210.
Solids |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Modeling
Construction of crystal models from styrofoam spheres  Gibb, Thomas R. P., Jr.; Bassow, Herbert
Presents a method for constructing crystal models from styrofoam spheres using a specialized aluminum jig.
Gibb, Thomas R. P., Jr.; Bassow, Herbert J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 99.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Modeling |
Solids
Textbook errors: X. The classification of crystals  Mysels, Karol J.
The classification of crystals into several systems (e.g., cubic, tetragonal, orthorombic) is generally based in textbooks on a consideration of crystal axes, particularly their relative lengths and direction; this approach usually gives correct assignments but occasionally leads to an error.
Mysels, Karol J. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 40.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Growing crystals: A survey of laboratory methods  Fehlner, Francis P.
The purpose of this article is to provide basic information and readily available references for anyone wishing to begin the production of crystals.
Fehlner, Francis P. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 449.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids
Demonstration of dynamic nature of ions using I131  Blake, Richard F.
This demonstration presents visual evidence of the ionic nature of solid salts and the dynamic equilibrium existing between dissolved and undissolved ions.
Blake, Richard F. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 354.
Isotopes |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solids |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Equilibrium
Recent history of the notion of a chemical species  Bulloff, Jack J.
Quantum and nuclear chemistry have challenged the doctrine that chemical elements are homogeneous entities while studies of the structure and stoichiometry of solids invite a change in our ideas of definite proportions in chemical combinations.
Bulloff, Jack J. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 78.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Isotopes |
Stoichiometry |
Solids