TIGER

Journal Articles: 136 results
On Capillary Rise and Nucleation  R. Prasad
A comparison of capillary rise and nucleation shows that both phenomena result from a balance between two competing energy factors: a volume energy and a surface energy. This comparison may help to introduce nucleation with capillary rise, a topic familiar to students.
Prasad, R. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1389.
Liquids |
Materials Science |
Metallurgy |
Solids
Fog Machines, Vapors, and Phase Diagrams  Ed Vitz
This series of demonstrations elucidate the operation of commercial fog machines using common laboratory materials and can be adapted for elementary through tertiary levels. The formation of fogs is discussed in terms of the phase diagram for water and other chemical principles.
Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1385.
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Water / Water Chemistry
Using Graphs of Gibbs Energy versus Temperature in General Chemistry Discussions of Phase Changes and Colligative Properties  Robert M. Hanson, Patrick Riley, Jeff Schwinefus, and Paul J. Fischer
The use of qualitative graphs of Gibbs energy versus temperature is described in the context of chemical demonstrations involving phase changes and colligative properties at the general chemistry level.
Hanson, Robert M.; Riley, Patrick; Schwinefus, Jeff; Fischer, Paul J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1142.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics
Easy-To-Make Cryophoruses  Rubin Battino and Trevor M. Letcher
This article describes some simple and easy-to-make cryophoruses, ideal for demonstrating evaporative cooling to students at all levels.
Battino, Rubin; Letcher, Trevor M. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 561.
Lipids |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics |
Liquids
Enthalpy of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures: An Inexpensive Apparatus  Rubin Battino, David A. Dolson, Michael R. Hall, and Trevor M. Letcher
Describes an inexpensive apparatus for the determination of the vapor pressure of a liquid as a function of temperature for the purpose of calculating enthalpy changes of vaporization. Also described are a simple air thermostat and an inexpensive temperature controller based on an integrated temperature sensor.
Battino, Rubin; Dolson, David A.; Hall, Michael R.; Letcher, Trevor M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 822.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Lipids |
Phenols |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Using Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures To Determine the Vapor Pressure of a Volatile Liquid  Fred R. Hilgeman, Gary Bertrand, and Brent Wilson
This experiment, designed for a general chemistry laboratory, illustrates the use of Dalton's law of partial pressures to determine the vapor pressure of a volatile liquid.
Hilgeman, Fred R.; Bertrand, Gary; Wilson, Brent. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 469.
Gases |
Liquids |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
Popcorn—What's in the Bag?  Marissa B. Sherman and Thomas A. Evans
Three independent activities explore microwave popcorn, the nature of the packaging, and the popcorn produced.
Sherman, Marissa B.; Evans, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 416A.
Carbohydrates |
Nutrition |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Water / Water Chemistry
Teaching Physical Chemistry Experiments with a Computer Simulation by LabVIEW  A. Belletti, R. Borromei, and G. Ingletto
This article reports on a computer simulation developed with the software LabVIEW of the physical chemistry experiment regarding the vapor pressure measurements of a pure liquid as a function of temperature, as well as a system of data collecting that emphasizes the similarities between the virtual and real experiment.
Belletti, A.; Borromei, R.; Ingletto, G. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1353.
Equilibrium |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Liquids |
Thermodynamics |
Gases |
Student-Centered Learning
The Ultrasonic Soda Fountain: A Dramatic Demonstration of Gas Solubility in Aqueous Solutions  John E. Baur and Melinda B. Baur
An ultrasonic bath is used to accelerate the rate at which carbonated beverages equilibrate with the atmosphere. The resulting fountain, which can reach heights in excess of 3 meters, is a dramatic demonstration of the solubility of gases in liquids.
Baur, John E.; Baur, Melinda B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 577.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Kinetics |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
Popping Popcorn Kernels: Expanding Relevance with Linear Thinking  Jordan L. Bennett, Michael M. Fuson, and Thomas A. Evans
Graphing skills and an understanding of linear relationships are developed in the context of popping of individual popcorn kernels. Introductory-level chemistry students determine mass changes as the result of popping along with the volume and density of the popcorn flakes produced.
Bennett, Jordan L.; Fuson, Michael M.; Evans, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 414.
Carbohydrates |
Food Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
Intelligent Thermochromic Windows  Ivan P. Parkin and Troy D. Manning
This article covers the background and related science associated with a thermochromic window, a device that changes its reflectance and transmission properties at a specific critical temperature.
Parkin, Ivan P.; Manning, Troy D. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 393.
Materials Science |
Physical Properties |
Solid State Chemistry
Chemistry of Moth Repellents  Gabriel Pinto
A real-life example consisting of the study of the different substances used as moth repellents is presented to introduce students to miscellaneous topics such as sublimation, intermolecular forces, insecticides, and the effect of moths on clothes. A set of questions about the most common moth repellents, well known to students, is used to motivate them to understand several everday phenomena through chemistry concepts.
Pinto, Gabriel. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1321.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Applications of Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Physical Properties |
Consumer Chemistry
Potassium Nitrate  Jay A. Young
The hazards of potassium nitrate are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1305.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Potassium Hydroxide  Jay A. Young
The hazards of potassium hydroxide are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1304.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Some Insights Regarding a Popular Introductory Gas Law Experiment  Ed DePierro and Fred Garafalo
This paper alerts readers to a potential source of error in one approach to the Dumas method as it is often practiced in introductory chemistry laboratories. The room-temperature vapor pressures of volatile compounds that might be considered as unknowns for the experiment lead to determined molar masses that are too low. The greater the vapor pressure of the compound, the lower the determined molar mass will be, when compared to the accepted value.
DePierro, Ed; Garafalo, Fred. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1194.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
Zinc Nitrate Hexahydrate  Jay A. Young
The hazards of zinc nitrate hexahydrate are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1144.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Zinc (dust and bulk)  Jay A. Young
The hazards of zinc (dust and bulk) are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1143.
Laboratory Management |
Metals |
Physical Properties
Copper(I) Chloride  Jay A. Young
The hazards of copper(I) chloride are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 991.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Copper(II) Acetate Monohydrate  Jay A. Young
The hazards of copper(II) acetate monohydrate are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 990.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
N,N-Dimethylformamide  Jay A. Young
The hazards of N,N-dimethylformamide are described.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 632.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Chloroacetic acid  Jay A. Young
The hazards of chloroacetic acid are described.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 631.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Calcium  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for calcium.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 479.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Metals |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Silver  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for silver.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 478.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Metals |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Aluminum Chloride  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for aluminum chloride.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 331.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Sodium Iodide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium iodide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 330.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 187.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Stearic Acid  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for stearic acid.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 25.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Carboxylic Acids |
Acids / Bases |
Physical Properties
Triethanolamine  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for triethanolamine.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 24.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Physical Properties |
Alcohols
Lead Acetate Trihydrate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for lead acetate trihydrate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1374.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Mercury(II) Nitrate Monohydrate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for mercury(I) nitrate monohydrate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1373.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Sodium Dichromate Dihydrate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium dichromate dihydrate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1251.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium hydrogen carbonate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1250.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Nitrogen, Liquid  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for liquid nitrogen.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1133.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Hydrogen Peroxide, 3%  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for 3% hydrogen peroxide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1132.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Potassium Cyanide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for potassium cyanide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 998.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Sodium Cyanide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium cyanide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 997.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Potassium Dichromate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for potassium dichromate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 874.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Potassium Permanganate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for potassium permanganate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 873.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Diethyl Phthalate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for diethyl phthalate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 736.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Carbon Disulfide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for carbon disulfide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 735.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Antimony(III) Chloride  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for antimony(III) chloride.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 611.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Cobalt(II) Chloride Hexahydrate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for cobalt(II) chloride hexahydrate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 610.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Isopropyl Ether  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for isopropyl ether.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 609.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Citric Acid  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for citric acid.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 480.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Graphite  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for graphite.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 379.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Calcium Carbide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for calcium carbide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 378.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Chromium(VI) Oxide, CrO3  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for chromium(VI) oxide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 259.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Aluminum Oxide, Al2O3  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for aluminum oxide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 258.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Copper(I) Oxide, Cu2O  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for copper(I) oxide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 257.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Iron(II) Sulfate Heptahydrate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for iron(II) sulfate heptahydrate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 141.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Zirconium(IV) Oxide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for zirconium(IV) oxide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 140.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
CLIP: Glycerol  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for glycerol.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 25.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
CLIP: Ammonia, aqueous  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for ammonia.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 24.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Sodium Nitrate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium nitrate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1414.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Nitric Acid (approx. 70%)  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for nitric acid.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1413.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Sodium Carbonate (anhydrous) Na2CO3  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for anhydrous sodium carbonate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1315.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Sodium Acetate CH3COONa  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium acetate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1314.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Sodium Fluoride  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium fluoride.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1197.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Sodium Hypochlorite Solution  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium hypochlorite solution.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1196.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Potassium Chromate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for potassium chromate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1065.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Osmium Tetroxide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for osmium tetroxide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1064.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Sulfur (S8)  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sulfur.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1063.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Potassium Perchlorate: Chemical Laboratory Information Profile  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for potassium perchlorate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 937.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Potassium Chlorate: Chemical Laboratory Information Profile  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for potassium chlorate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 936.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Mercury(I) chloride  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for mercury(I) chloride.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 799.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 798.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Acetaldehyde  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for acetaldehyde.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 672.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management
A Simple Experiment for the Determination of Molecular Weights of Gases Lighter Than Air  Van T. Lieu and Gene E. Kalbus
A simple method for the determination of molecular weights of gases lighter than air.
Lieu, Van T.; Kalbus, Gene E. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 473.
Gases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 426.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Acids / Bases
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Sodium  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 425.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Metals
Is Salt Melting When It Dissolves in Water?  Alan Goodwin
Analysis of the chemical meaning of the terms melting and dissolving.
Goodwin, Alan. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 393.
Liquids |
Solids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Copper(II) Sulfate Pentahydrate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 158.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management
Formic Acid  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for formic acid.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 157.
Acids / Bases |
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Carboxylic Acids
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Oleic Acid  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for oleic acid.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 24.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Acids / Bases
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Arsenic(III) Oxide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for arsenic(III) oxide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 23.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
On Concepts of Partial Volume and Law of Partial Volume (re J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 238-240)  Myung-Hoon Kim
Supplementing the law of partial pressures with a law of partial volumes.
Kim, Myung-Hoon. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1594.
Gases |
Chemometrics |
Physical Properties
On Concepts of Partial Volume and Law of Partial Volume (re J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 238-240)  David W. Miller
Supplementing the law of partial pressures with a law of partial volumes.
Miller, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1594.
Gases |
Chemometrics |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Petroleum Ether  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for petroleum ether.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1588.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Asbestos  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for asbestos.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1587.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
The Use of an Inexpensive Laser Pointer to Perform Qualitative and Semiquantitative Laser Refractometry  Amarílis de Vicente Finageiv Neder, Edgardo García, and Leonardo N. Viana
A simple, low-cost refractometry experiment designed for inexperienced students or use as a demonstration to estimate the refractive index of various liquids.
Neder, Amarílis de Vicente Finageiv; García, Edgardo; Viana, Leonardo N. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1481.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Liquids |
Qualitative Analysis |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Sucrose  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sucrose.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1460.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Carbohydrates
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Turpentine  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for turpentine.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1459.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Cobalt(II) Oxide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for cobalt(II) oxide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1328.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Manganese(IV) Oxide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for manganese(IV) oxide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1327.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Iron(III) Oxide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for iron(III) oxide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1326.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Acetic Anhydride  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for acetic anhydride.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1176.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Acetone  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for acetone.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1175.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Water  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for water.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 874.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Water / Water Chemistry
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Hydrochloric Acid (approx 36%)  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for hydrochloric acid.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 873.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Acids / Bases
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Sulfuric Acid (approx. 98%)  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for concentrated sulfuric acid.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 722.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Acids / Bases
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Acetic Acid (glacial)  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for acetic acid (glacial).
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 721.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Carboxylic Acids
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Borax  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for borax.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 588.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: n-Hexane  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for n-hexane.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 587.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Phenolphthalein Solution  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for phenolphthalein solution.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 448.
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Sodium Hydroxide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium hydroxide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 447.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
A Simple Laboratory Experiment for the Determination of Absolute Zero  Myung-Hoon Kim, Michelle Song Kim, and Suw-Young Ly
A novel method that employs a remarkably simple and inexpensive apparatus and is based on the extrapolation of the volume of a given amount of dry air to zero volume after a volume of air trapped inside a 10-mL graduated cylinder is measured at various temperatures.
Kim, Myung-Hoon; Kim, Michelle Song; Ly, Suw-Young. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 238.
Gases |
Physical Properties |
Chemometrics
Thermodynamics of Water Superheated in the Microwave Oven  B. H. Erné
Water is conveniently heated above its normal boiling point in a microwave oven in a glass microwave oven teapot. Water stops boiling soon after heating is interrupted, but subsequently added rough particles can still act as nucleation centers for a brief, spectacular burst of steam bubbles. The heat to make those steam bubbles obviously comes from the water itself, so that one can conclude that the boiling water was superheated, which is confirmed with a thermometer.
Erné, B. H. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1309.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Liquids
Integrating Computers into the First-Year Chemistry Laboratory: Application of Raoult's Law to a Two-Component System  R. Viswanathan and G. Horowitz
First-year chemistry students are introduced to a spreadsheet program to calculate the boiling points of a two-component solution containing a volatile solute. The boiling points are predicted by combining the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and Raoult's law. A simple experimental setup is used to measure the boiling points of solutions of varying compositions.
Viswanathan, Raji; Horowitz, Gail. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1124.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
An Organoleptic Laboratory Experiment  John M. Risley
Compounds in ten different classes of organic molecules that are used in the fragrance and food industry are provided to students. Students whiff the vapors of each compound and describe the organoleptic properties using a set of terms utilized in the fragrance and food industry. A set of questions guides students to an understanding of the relationship between structure of molecules and smell.
Risley, John M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1181.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Consumer Chemistry |
Physical Properties |
Nonmajor Courses |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters |
Ethers |
Phenols
Notes on Vapor Pressure Equilibria Measurements  Albert G. Krieger, John W. Henderson
Freshman students at our institution use manometers and 24/40 ground-glass distillation apparatus (abandoned by our organic chemistry classes) to measure boiling points at reduced pressures. We have found that the availability of state-of-the-art equipment need not limit the ability to teach and demonstrate fundamental principles
Krieger, Albert G.; Henderson, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1039.
Gases |
Physical Properties
Dynamite Demo?  Dale D. Clyde
Caution for boiling-water-with-ice demonstration.
Clyde, Dale D. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1130.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Liquids |
Gases
Experiments for Modern Introductory Chemistry: The Temperature Dependence of Vapor Pressure  Kildahl, Nicholas; Berka, Ladislav H.
Gas chromatography experiment that allows the discovery of the temperature dependence of the vapor pressure of a pure liquid; includes sample data and analysis.
Kildahl, Nicholas; Berka, Ladislav H. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 258.
Gases |
Liquids |
Gas Chromatography
Journey around a Phase Diagram  Kildahl, Nicholas K.
This paper deals in depth with questions that arise from phase diagrams in an introductory level chemistry course.
Kildahl, Nicholas K. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1052.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases |
Liquids
Experiments for Modern Introductory Chemistry: Intermolecular Forces and Raoult's Law  Berka, Ladislav H.; Kildahl, Nicholas
Procedure that illustrates the liquid-vapor phase equilibrium of ideal and nonideal solutions.
Berka, Ladislav H.; Kildahl, Nicholas J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 613.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Gas Chromatography |
Gases |
Liquids |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents
The Determination of Number-Average Molecular Weight: A Polymer Experiment for Lower-Division Chemistry Students  Williams, Kathryn R.; Bernier, Ulrich R.
Procedure to determine the number-average molecular weight of a polymer.
Williams, Kathryn R.; Bernier, Ulrich R. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 265.
Physical Properties
Pictorial analogies IX: Liquids and their properties   Fortman, John J.
Liquids on the molecular level, surface tension, and vapor pressure are explained through visual analogies of a class reunion and movie patrons.
Fortman, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 881.
Liquids |
Gases |
Surface Science
Gas reactions in plastic bags: Relating laboratory observations to the atomic-molecular model  Robinson, Maurice; Barrow, Gordon M.
Carrying out chemical reactions in Ziplock bags to investigate a variety of chemical concepts.
Robinson, Maurice; Barrow, Gordon M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1026.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Photochemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Physical Properties
A modern vapor pressure apparatus based on the isoteniscope.  Van Hecke, Gerald R.
Equipment used for vapor pressure measurements that eliminates use of a mercury manometer.
Van Hecke, Gerald R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 681.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Liquids
Vapor pressure demonstrations using a butane lighter  Delumyea, R. Del
The concept of the change of state of matter and particularly the volatitlity of liquids is an important concept taught in introductory chemistry courses.
Delumyea, R. Del J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 321.
Gases |
Physical Properties |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Demonstrations of interfacial phenomena   Prall, Bruce R.
Overhead projector demonstrations that illustrate the interfacial interactions of the following systems: 1) water and carbon tetrachloride, 2) copper wire and water, 3) 1-Octanol and water.
Prall, Bruce R. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 592.
Surface Science |
Liquids |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
A vapor pressure demonstration   Sears, Jerry A.
The fact that all liquids exert a vapor pressure is an abstract concept that many students have difficulty understanding. The following demonstration offers dramatic, visual evidence of the pressure exerted by the vapor of a liquid.
Sears, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 427.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Liquids
Using a Dumas bulb to determine the molecular weight of a volatile liquid   Kawa, Christopher J.
The use of an aspirator improves the filling and emptying process of a Dumas bulb.
Kawa, Christopher J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 336.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Liquids
A Charles's Law/vapor pressure apparatus  Hall, Philip K.
A simple apparatus to illustrate either Charles's law gas expansion of the vapor pressure created by liquids.
Hall, Philip K. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 969.
Gases |
Liquids
Demonstration of vapor pressure  Richardson, W. S.
Demonstrating the vapor pressure of several different materials using a water manometer.
Richardson, W. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 968.
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Liquids
Physical and chemical properties  Boschmann, Erwin
A series of overhead demonstrations regarding physical and chemical properties.
Boschmann, Erwin J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 891.
Physical Properties |
Liquids |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Magnetic Properties |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Gases
Classroom demonstrations of polymer principles. Part I. Molecular structure and molecular mass  Rodriguez, F.; Mathias, L. J.; Kroschwitz, J.; Carraher, C. E., Jr.
Suggestions for models and techniques to illustrate the structure of polymers, copolymers, molecular mass, osmotic pressure, light scattering, and dilute solution viscosity.
Rodriguez, F.; Mathias, L. J.; Kroschwitz, J.; Carraher, C. E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 72.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
Molecular size and Raoult's Law  Kovac, Jeffrey
An additional cause for deviations from Raoult's Law that is rarely, if ever, mentioned in freshman chemistry texts.
Kovac, Jeffrey J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1090.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Gases
Using a dissecting microscope in teaching introductory chemistry  Winokur, Robert; Monroe, Manus
Using microscopes to observe the physical characteristics and chemical reactions of several substances.
Winokur, Robert; Monroe, Manus J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 157.
Reactions |
Physical Properties
Molecular association and structure of hydrogen peroxide  Gigure, Paul A.
The typical textbook treatment of molecular association and structure of hydrogen peroxide, and the implications of these concepts for the physical properties of hydrogen peroxide tend to be oversimplified and inaccurate.
Gigure, Paul A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 399.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Hydrogen Bonding
Le Châtelier's principle: the effect of temperature on the solubility of solids in liquids  Brice, L. K.
The purpose of this article is to provide a rigorous but straightforward thermodynamic treatment of the temperature dependence of solubility of solids in liquids that is suitable for presentation at the undergraduate level. The present discussion may suggest how to approach the qualitative aspects of the subject for freshman.
Brice, L. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 387.
Thermodynamics |
Liquids |
Solids |
Chemometrics |
Equilibrium
An effective demonstration of some properties of real vapors  Metsger, D. Scott
The apparatus described in this article has been found by the authors to be the most effective in vividly illustrating the behavior of a nearly ideal gas to first year chemistry students.
Metsger, D. Scott J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 67.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Physical Properties |
Solids
Gasoline vapor: An invisible pollutant  Stephens, Edgar R.
An apparatus and procedure to demonstrate the substantial contribution vaporized gasoline makes to hydrocarbon pollution.
Stephens, Edgar R. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 682.
Physical Properties |
Gases |
Atmospheric Chemistry
Diphenyl ether. A versatile substance for laboratory demonstrations  Cases, Jaime C.
The purification, properties, and uses of diphenyl ether in a variety of demonstrations.
Cases, Jaime C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 420.
Ethers |
Solid State Chemistry |
Physical Properties |
Aromatic Compounds
Sealed tube experiments  Campbell, J. A.
Lists and briefly describes a large set of "sealed tube experiments," each of which requires less than five minutes to set-up and clean-up, requires less than five minutes to run, provides dramatic results observable by a large class, and illustrates important chemical concepts.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 273.
Thermodynamics |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Liquids |
Gases |
Rate Law |
Equilibrium
Baby bottles and elementary chemistry  Davenport, D. A.
Presents several experiments that rely on baby bottles, including Charles' Law expansion, vapor pressure of volatile liquids, molecular weights of volatile liquids, and closed-atmosphere experiments.
Davenport, D. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 878.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Gases |
Liquids |
Oxidation / Reduction
A simple vacuum apparatus for lecture experiments  Peterson, L. K.; Ruddy, F. H.
Describes a simple vacuum apparatus and examples of its use in lecture situations.
Peterson, L. K.; Ruddy, F. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 742.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Liquids |
Physical Properties |
Transport Properties |
Stoichiometry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Computer simulation of experimental data  Shwendeman, R. H.
This note describes some of the techniques in programming used to generate a sufficient variety of experimental data to provide each student with his own set of numbers for analysis in conjunction with the demonstration laboratory.
Shwendeman, R. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 665.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Gas Chromatography
Hard sphere simulation of statistical mechanical behavior of molecules  Plumb, Robert C.
Describes the design and use of a demonstration device to illustrate the kinetic behavior of gases, liquids, and solids.
Plumb, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 648.
Statistical Mechanics |
Gases |
Liquids |
Solids |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Equilibrium |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Manometric apparatus for vapor and solution studies  Taha, Ahmed A.; Grigsby, Ronald D.; Johnson, James R.; Christian, Sherril D.; Affsprung, Harold E.
Presents a device that can be sued to obtain vapor density and PVT measurements, vapor pressures of solutions and liquids, dew-point pressures and compositions, solubilities of gases in liquids, solubilities of slightly-miscible liquids, equilibrium constants for association reactions in solutions, interactions of vapors and gases with solids, and gas and vapor viscosities.
Taha, Ahmed A.; Grigsby, Ronald D.; Johnson, James R.; Christian, Sherril D.; Affsprung, Harold E. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 432.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Gases |
Liquids |
Solids
Letters  Robertson, R. E.
Describes a safe solution to problems with squeeze bottles containing high vapor pressure liquids.
Robertson, R. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 457.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids
The physical and chemical character of graphite  Tee, Peter A. H.; Tonge, Brian L.
Examines the physical and chemical character of graphite, its occurrence and manufacture, and uses and future applications.
Tee, Peter A. H.; Tonge, Brian L. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 117.
Physical Properties
Hypodermic syringes in quantitative elementary chemistry experiments. Part 2. General chemistry experiments  Davenport, Derek A.; Saba, Afif N.
Presents a variety of experiments that make use of hypodermic syringes in quantitative elementary chemistry.
Davenport, Derek A.; Saba, Afif N. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 617.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Liquids |
Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Stoichiometry
Determination of vapor pressure: A general chemistry laboratory experiment  Wolthuis, Enno; Brummel, Roger; Bout, Paul Vanden
Provides a method for obtaining good vapor pressure measurements using simple equipment.
Wolthuis, Enno; Brummel, Roger; Bout, Paul Vanden J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 494.
Gases |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Textbook errors: XX. Miscellanea No. 2  Mysels, Karol J.
Subjects considered include the meaning of "element," the solubility of phenol in carbonate solutions, and the change of vapor pressure with temperature.
Mysels, Karol J. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 568.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Phenols |
Gases |
Liquids
A Raoult's law experiment for the general chemistry course: Manometry without a manometer  Harris, Frank E.; Nash, Leonard K.
This paper describes an experiment illustrating Raoult's law that does not require a manometer, vacuum system, or mercury.
Harris, Frank E.; Nash, Leonard K. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 575.
Liquids
Determination of the density of oxygen gas  Fiekers, B. A.
The "Oxybomb," a small cartridge of compressed oxygen, is used for determining the density of oxygen gas in laboratory or lecture.
Fiekers, B. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 139.
Gases |
Physical Properties