TIGER

Journal Articles: 998 results
A Web-Based Interactive Module to Teach Acid–Base Principles of Drug Action  Maria A. Hernandez and Jolanta Czerwinska
Describes interactive compressed video teleconferencing as the distance learning format for an entry-level doctor of pharmacy program.
Hernandez, Maria A.; Czerwinska, Jolanta. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1704.
Acids / Bases |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1578–1583  John Andraos
Corrections to the article A Streamlined Approach to Solving Simple and Complex Kinetic Systems Analytically.
Andraos, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1624.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Theoretical Chemistry
Magnetized Water: Science or Fraud?  L. Lahuerta Zamora, G. M. Antón-Fos, P. A. Alemán López, and R. V. Martin Algarra
Commercial water magnetizers provide a unique opportunity to help university and secondary students develop appropriate skepticism against extraordinary claims and use testing as the basis for their scientific evaluation.
Lahuerta Zamora, L.; Antón-Fos, G. M.; Alemán López, P. A.; Martin Algarra, R. V. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1416.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Magnetic Properties |
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry
A Dramatic Classroom Demonstration of Limiting Reagent Using the Vinegar and Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate Reaction  Romklao Artdej and Tienthong Thongpanchang
This demonstration, appropriate for high school chemistry level and recommended for a large classroom presentation, is designed to illustrate the concept of limiting reagent via a series of experiments in which increasing amounts of sodium bicarbonate are added to a fixed amount of vinegar is fixed until the volume of carbon dioxide generated remains constant.
Artdej, Romklao; Thongpanchang, Tienthong. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1382.
Acids / Bases |
Food Science |
Gases |
Stoichiometry
Using Graphics Calculators and Spreadsheets in Chemistry: Solving Equilibrium Problems   Kieran F. Lim ()
Discusses tabular and graphical approaches to equilibrium calculations.
Lim, Kieran F. (). J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1347.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium
The Correlation of Binary Acid Strengths with Molecular Properties in First-Year Chemistry  Travis D. Fridgen
This article replaces contradictory explanations for the strengths of different binary acids in first-year chemistry textbooks with a single explanation that uses a BornHaber cycle involving homolyic bond dissociation energies, electron affinities, and ion solvation enthalpies to rationalize trends in the strengths of all binary acids.
Fridgen, Travis D. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1220.
Acids / Bases |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics
An Inexpensive Solution Calorimeter  Emma Kavanagh, Sam Mindel, Giles Robertson, and D. E. Peter Hughes
Describes the construction of a simple solution calorimeter, using a miniature bead thermistor as a temperature-sensing element, that has a response time of a few seconds and made it possible to carry out a thermometric reaction in under a minute.
Kavanagh, Emma; Mindel, Sam; Robertson, Giles; Hughes, D. E. Peter. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1129.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thermal Analysis |
Thermodynamics
Data Pooling in a Chemical Kinetics Experiment: The Aquation of a Series of Cobalt(III) Complexes  Richard S. Herrick, Kenneth V. Mills, and Lisa P. Nestor
Describes an experiment that introduces students to integrated rate laws, the search for a mechanism that is consistent with chemical and kinetic data, and the concept of activation barriers and their measurement in a curriculum whose pedagogical philosophy makes the laboratory the center of learning for undergraduates in their first two years of instruction.
Herrick, Richard S.; Mills, Kenneth V.; Nestor, Lisa P. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1120.
Coordination Compounds |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Rate Law |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
[#97] The Sweeter Side of Density  Michael Davis and Charles Henry
Students determine the density of different sugar solutions and then devise a method for layering them in a graduated cylinder. Dyeing the solutions with food coloring results in a rainbow-colored, heterogeneous mixture.
Davis, Michael; Henry, Charles. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1088A.
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Student-Centered Learning
A Hand-Held Ammonia Fountain  Nicholas C. Thomas and Stephen Faulk
A plastic juice bottle, filled with ammonia gas generated by combining aqueous ammonia and sodium hydroxide, provides a convenient demonstration of the ammonia fountain and gas solubility.
Thomas, Nicholas C.; Faulk, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1063.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents
Colorful Chemical Fountains  Nicholas C. Thomas and Stephen Faulk
A chemical fountain, constructed from several vertically stacked plastic champagne cups, is used to demonstrate acidbase and chemiluminescence reactions.
Thomas, Nicholas C.; Faulk, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1061.
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments |
Physical Properties |
Reactions
A Simple Penny Analysis  Nicholas C. Thomas and Stephen Faulk
Describes a simple procedure for determining the zinc composition of U.S. pennies in which the penny zinc core is dissolved in acid and the evolved hydrogen gas is collected by water displacement.
Thomas, Nicholas C.; Faulk, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 817.
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Metals |
Stoichiometry
A Simple Laboratory Experiment To Determine the Kinetics of Mutarotation of D-Glucose Using a Blood Glucose Meter  Carlos E. Perles and Pedro L. O. Volpe
A simple commercial blood glucose meter is used to follow the kinetics of mutarotation of D-glucose in aqueous solution. The results may be compared with those obtained using an automatic polarimeter.
Perles, Carlos E.; Volpe, Pedro L. O. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 686.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Bioanalytical Chemistry |
Carbohydrates |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Solutions / Solvents |
Stereochemistry
Phenolphthalein—Pink Tornado Demonstration  Bruce R. Prall
This demonstration uses the vortex generated by a spinning magnetic stir bar to demonstrate Le Châtelier's principle as it applies to the phenolphthalein equilibrium in water and provides an excellent opportunity to discuss limiting and excess reagents.
Prall, Bruce R. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 527.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
pH
Yet Another Variation on the Electrolysis of Water at Iron Nails  Mark T. Stauffer and Justin P. Fox
Describes a variation on the electrolysis of water with iron nails in which a sharp contrast in the colors produced effectively demonstrates electrolysis and the diffusion of oxidized and reduced species from the electrodes.
Stauffer, Mark T.; Fox, Justin P. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 523.
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Perchloric Acid (60–72% Aqueous Solution)  Jay A. Young
Safe handling and laboratory use of perchloric acid (6072% aqueous solution) is discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 493.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management
Picric Acid  Jay A. Young
Safe handling and laboratory use of picric acid is discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 492.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management
Netorials  Rebecca Ottosen, John Todd, Rachel Bain, Mike Miller, Liana Lamont, Mithra Biekmohamadi, and David B. Shaw
Netorials is a collection of about 30 online tutorials on general chemistry topics designed as a supplement for high school or college introductory courses. Each Netorial contains several pages of interactive instruction that includes animated mouse-overs, questions for students to answer, and manipulable molecular structures.
Ottosen, Rebecca; Todd, John; Bain, Rachel; Miller, Mike; Lamont. Liana; Biekmohamadi, Mithra; Shaw, David B. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 463.
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Reactions |
VSEPR Theory |
Stoichiometry
Pennies and Eggs: Initiation into Inquiry Learning for Preservice Elementary Education Teachers  Donald J. Wink and Jeong Hye Hwang-Choe
Describes two labs incorporating the Science Writing Heuristic in a course for preservice students in elementary education. The first lab is a discovery activity involving the change in composition and mass of pennies in 1982; the second uses flotation methods to separate hard-boiled and uncooked eggs.
Wink, Donald J.; Hwang-Choe, Jeong Hye. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 396.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Materials Science |
Solutions / Solvents |
Physical Properties
Dynamic Reaction Figures: An Integrative Vehicle for Understanding Chemical Reactions  Emeric Schultz
Describes the dynamic reaction figure, a flexible learning tool that can be used to balance chemical equations, predict the results of potential reactions, present the underlying mechanism of reactions, and solve quantitative problems in a number of areas.
Schultz, Emeric. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 386.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Nonmajor Courses
Chemical Speciation and Calculation of pH of a Sport Drink  José L. Guiñón Segura
A recently published laboratory procedure allows students to see that the pointer function has a minimum value at the solution pH. However, the resolution of the pointer function requires the plotting the logarithmic concentration diagram, which is time-consuming and tedious.
Segura, José L Guiñón. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 371.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
pH |
Quantitative Analysis
Investigating Students' Ability To Transfer Ideas Learned from Molecular Animations of the Dissolution Process  Resa M. Kelly and Loretta L. Jones
This study examines what features of the particulate nature of matter learned from viewing two animations of sodium chloride dissolution students would transfer to their descriptions of the participation of aqueous sodium chloride in a chemical reaction.
Kelly, Resa M.; Jones, Loretta L. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 303.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Constructivism
A Simple Experiment in the Separation of a Solid-Phase Mixture and Infrared Spectroscopy for Introductory Chemistry  Paul S. Szalay
In this guided-inquiry experiment, a two-component solid mixture of caffeine and ibuprofen is separated through a series of solution extractions and precipitations. The components are then analyzed using IR spectrophotometry to determine how effectively they were separated.
Szalay, Paul S. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 285.
Acids / Bases |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
IR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents
A Lab Experience To Illustrate the Physicochemical Principles of Detergency  J. A. Poce-Fatou, M. Bethencourt-Núñez, C. Moreno, F. J. Moreno-Dorado, and J. J. Pinto-Ganfornina
This article presents a lab to study the role of a surfactant and builder in laundry detergent efficiency as determined through measurements of the diffuse reflectances of polyester samples impregnated with linseed oil.
Poce-Fatou, J. A.; Bethencourt-Núñez, M.; Moreno, C.; Moreno-Dorado, F. J.; Pinto-Ganfornina, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 266.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Micelles |
Surface Science |
Thermodynamics
Determining the Solubility Product of Fe(OH)3: An Equilibrium Study with Environmental Significance  Michelle Meighan, Joseph MacNeil, and Renee Falconer
This study explores the environmental impact of acidic mine drainage by investigating the relationship between pH and the aqueous solubility of heavy metals. Students precipitate Fe(OH)3 from acidic FeCl3 and NaOH and use the concentrations of ferric and hydroxide ionsdetermined through pH and flame spectroscopyto calculate the Ksp of Fe(OH)3.
Meighan, Michelle; MacNeil, Joseph; Falconer, Renee. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 254.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Spectroscopy
Scientific–Chemical Viewpoints Regarding Smoking: A Science Laboratory for All  Ron Blonder
This article describes a lab that examines the acidity of cigarette smoke as well as solid particles and vapor phase substances found therein, and simulates the effects of smoking on the lungs. The aim of this activity is to expose adolescents to the scientific aspects of smoking and the relevance of chemistry in everyday life.
Blonder, Ron. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 248.
Acids / Bases |
Consumer Chemistry |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
pH |
Applications of Chemistry |
Student-Centered Learning
The Role of Water Chemistry in Marine Aquarium Design: A Model System for a General Chemistry Class  Jeffrey J. Keaffaber, Ramiro Palma, and Kathryn R. Williams
Water chemistry is central to aquarium design, and it provides many potential applications for discussion in undergraduate chemistry and engineering courses. This article uses a hypothetical tank to house ocean sunfish as a model to show students the calculations and other considerations that are needed when designing a marine aquarium.
Keaffaber, Jeffrey J.; Palma, Ramiro; Williams, Kathryn R. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 225.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry |
Water / Water Chemistry
A Simplified Model To Predict the Effect of Increasing Atmospheric CO2 on Carbonate Chemistry in the Ocean  Brian J. Bozlee, Maria Janebo, and Ginger Jahn
The chemistry of dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater is reviewed and used to predict the potential effect of rising levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. It is found that calcium carbonate may become unsaturated in cold surface seawater by the year 2100, resulting in the destruction of calcifying organisms such as coral.
Bozlee, Brian J.; Janebo, Maria; Jahn, Ginger. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 213.
Applications of Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Green Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry
The Glyoxal Clock Reaction  Julie B. Ealy, Alexandra Rodriguez Negron, Jessica Stephens, Rebecca Stauffer, and Stanley D. Furrow
The glyoxal clock reaction has been adapted to a general chemistry kinetics lab to determine the order of the reacting species using a Calculator Based Laboratory or LabPro equipment.
Ealy, Julie B.; Negron, Alexandra Rodriguez; Stephens, Jessica; Stauffer, Rebecca; Furrow, Stanley D. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1965.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Dyes / Pigments |
Kinetics |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Rate Law |
Reactions
The Chemistry of Paper Preservation  Henry A. Carter
This article examines the applications of chemistry to paper preservation. The acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose accounts for the deterioration of paper in library books and other written records. To combat this threat to our written heritage, new permanent papers have been developed that are relatively chemically stable and undergo a very slow rate of deterioration.
Carter, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1937.
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Free Radicals |
Gas Chromatography |
HPLC |
pH |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
New Analytical Method for the Determination of Detergent Concentration in Water by Fabric Dyeing  Set Seng, Masakazu Kita, and Reiko Sugihara
This article describes a high school classroom activity in which an acrylic fabric is used as the extraction medium in the analysis of detergent concentration rather than more harmful organic solvents. An handmade reflection photometer, assembled with inexpensive materials such as LED, PVC tube, and CdS sensor, is used to determine the detergent concentration.
Seng, Set; Kita, Masakazu; Sugihara, Reiko. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1803.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Water / Water Chemistry
How Many Atomic Layers of Zinc Are in a Galvanized Iron Coating?   Shui-Ping Yang
This article describes a guided inquiry and problem solving experiment in which students use a novel gasometric assembly to determine the thickness and number of atomic layers of zinc coating on galvanized iron wires and nails.
Yang, Shui-Ping. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1792.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis |
Rate Law
Carbon Dioxide Fountain  Seong-Joo Kang and Eun-Hee Ryu
This article presents the development of a carbon dioxide fountain that, unlike the traditional ammonia fountain, is odorless and uses consumer chemicals. This experiment also allows students to see evidence of a gaseous reagent being consumed when a pressure sensor is available.
Kang, Seong-Joo; Ryu, Eun-Hee. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1671.
Acids / Bases |
Consumer Chemistry |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Reactions
The Use of Conjugate Charts in Transfer Reactions: A Unified Approach  Michael I. Allnutt
Redox reactions are discussed in terms of the relative strengths of the oxidant, the reductant, and their conjugates; a conjugate chart is a convenient and useful way of doing this. A similar chart for acids and bases that can be applied in the same manner is proposed.
Allnutt, Michael I. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1659.
Acids / Bases |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
The Use of Limits in an Advanced Placement Chemistry Course  Paul S. Matsumoto, Jonathan Ring, and Jia Li (Lily) Zhu
This article describes the use of limits in topics usually covered in advanced placement or first-year college chemistry. This approach supplements the interpretation of the graph of an equation since it is usually easier to evaluate the limit of a function than to generate its graph.
Matsumoto, Paul S.; Ring, Jonathan; Zhu, Jia Li (Lily). J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1655.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Thermodynamics
Lactic Acid  Jay A. Young
The hazards of lactic acid are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1420.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Concerning Lewis Acid–Base Theory for Proton Transfer  Lawrence J. Sacks
Counterpoint commentary in response to a suggestion that the Lewis acidbase approach be applied to reactions such as ammoniawater and HClwater.
Sacks, Lawrence J. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1415.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Imidazole as a pH Probe: An NMR Experiment for the General Chemistry Laboratory  William J. Hagan, Jr., Dennis L. Edie, and Linda B. Cooley
An experiment is described that employs the 1H-NMR signal of aqueous imidazole to determine the pH of an unknown solution. The procedure involves the preparation of a calibration curve, which is then used for the analysis of the unknown(s).
Hagan, William J., Jr.; Edie, Dennis L.; Cooley, Linda B. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1188.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Calibration |
NMR Spectroscopy |
pH
A Student Laboratory Experiment Based on the Vitamin C Clock Reaction  Ed Vitz
Describes an adaptation of the vitamin C clock reaction to a student laboratory experiment in which the orders with respect to peroxide and iodide, the rate constant, and the activation energy are determined by the method of initial rates.
Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1156.
Consumer Chemistry |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Rate Law
Enhancing Student Performance in First-Semester General Chemistry Using Active Feedback through the World Wide Web  Kent A. Chambers and Bob Blake
Web-based pre-lecture questions allow the instructor to evaluate students' prior knowledge and understanding of fundamental concepts, while post-lecture questions evaluate how well the class is mastering individual concepts. Data show that this use of student feedback significantly enhances academic performance.
Chambers, Kent A.; Blake, Bob. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1130.
Acids / Bases |
Alcohols |
Learning Theories |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Defining and Teaching pH  Richard F. Burton
At an elementary level, pH and the algebra of equilibria can be simply and correctly taught, without logarithms, in terms of the modern, operationally-defined pH scale that underlies laboratory measurement and relates to activities.
Burton, Richard F. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1129.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The Chemistry of Swimming Pool Maintenance  Carl Salter and David L. Langhus
This paper examines the key ideas behind swimming pool chemistry -- the central importance of pH and its effect on chlorine sanitation and calcium carbonate solubility. The paper also reviews the analytical procedures and common practices used to monitor and control pool chemistry or correct problems.
Salter, Carl; Langhus, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1124.
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
pH |
Photochemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Water / Water Chemistry
Determining the Pressure inside an Unopened Carbonated Beverage  Hans de Grys
Determining the pressure of carbon dioxide inside a sealed soft drink can represents a challenging student exercise. Several methods are discussed for solving the problem, including applying the ideal gas law, gas collection via water displacement, and Henry's law.
de Grys, Hans. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1117.
Applications of Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Student-Centered Learning
Peer-Developed and Peer-Led Labs in General Chemistry  Lorena Tribe and Kim Kostka
Describes a student-developed and led laboratory curriculum as a model for producing a more student-centered and rich laboratory experience in general chemistry laboratories.
Tribe, Lorena; Kostka, Kim. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1031.
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Laboratory Management |
Thermodynamics |
Student-Centered Learning
The Physical Meaning of the Mathematical Formalism Present in Limiting Chemical Equations; Or, How Dilute Is Dilute?  C. Contreras-Ortega, N. Bustamante, J. L. Guevara, C. Portillo, and V. Kesternich
Proposes general mathematical formulations to offer students a better understanding of the real scope of scientific expressions dealing with limiting physical conditions, such as those concerning dilute and concentrated solutions and low and high temperatures and pressures.
Contreras-Ortega, C.; Bustamante, N.; Guevara, J. L.; Portillo, C.; Kesternich, V. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 788.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents
Puzzling through General Chemistry: A Light-Hearted Approach to Engaging Students with Chemistry Content  Susan L. Boyd
Presents ten puzzles to make chemistry more interesting while reinforcing important concepts.
Boyd, Susan L. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 619.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Gases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Stoichiometry |
VSEPR Theory |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Constructing a Graphic Organizer in the Classroom: Introductory Students' Perception of Achievement Using a Decision Map To Solve Aqueous Acid–Base Equilibria Problems  Stephen DeMeo
A decision map is a directional heuristic that helps learners solve problems within a generic framework. The decision map that is presented was created to solve pH problems of varying difficulty that introductory college chemistry students encounter when studying acidbase equilibria.
DeMeo, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 540.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium
Hydrophilic Inorganic Macro-Ions in Solution: Unprecedented Self-Assembly Emerging from Historical "Blue Waters"  Tianbo Liu, Ekkehard Diemann, and Achim Müller
The behavior of supramolecular structures in solution is different from that of simple ions, polymers, surfactant micelles, and colloids. New research involving polyoxometalates, which are fully hydrophilic but tend to self-associate into macro-ionic structures, may change our understanding of inorganic ionic solutions.
Liu, Tianbo; Diemann, Ekkehard; Müller, Achim. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 526.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Colloids |
Materials Science |
Nanotechnology |
Solutions / Solvents |
Spectroscopy |
Lasers |
Physical Properties
Flame Emission Spectrometry in General Chemistry Labs: Solubility Product (Ksp) of Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate  Frazier W. Nyasulu, William Cusworth III, David Lindquist, and John Mackin
In this general chemistry laboratory, flame emission spectrometry is used to determine the potassium ion concentration in saturated solutions of potassium hydrogen phthalate. From these data the solubility products, the Gibbs free energies of solution, the standard enthalpy of solution, and the standard entropy of solution are calculated.
Nyasulu, Frazier W.; Cusworth, William, III; Lindquist, David; Mackin, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 456.
Acids / Bases |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy |
Equilibrium |
Quantitative Analysis |
Thermodynamics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Discovering the Thermodynamics of Simultaneous Equilibria. An Entropy Analysis Activity Involving Consecutive Equilibria  Thomas H. Bindel
This activity explores the thermodynamics of simultaneous, consecutive equilibria and is appropriate for second-year high school or AP chemistry. Students discover that a reactant-favored (entropy-diminishing) reaction can be caused to happen if it is coupled with a product-favored reaction of sufficient entropy production.
Bindel, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 449.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
Thermochemical Analysis of Neutralization Reactions: An Introductory Discovery Experiment  Kenneth V. Mills and Louise W. Guilmette
Describes a guided-inquiry laboratory pedagogy in which students discover chemical concepts in the lab and the instructor uses their pooled data to guide the lecture portion of the course. This method is illustrated by an experiment that reinforces students' understanding of stoichiometry and allows them to discover neutralization reactions and thermochemistry.
Mills, Kenneth V.; Guilmette, Louise W. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 326.
Acids / Bases |
Stoichiometry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Acids / Bases
Effectiveness of a MORE Laboratory Module in Prompting Students To Revise Their Molecular-Level Ideas about Solutions  Lydia T. Tien, Melonie A. Teichert, and Dawn Rickey
This study investigates the effectiveness of a ModelObserveReflectExplain (MORE) laboratory module in prompting three different populations of general chemistry students to revise their molecular-level ideas regarding chemical compounds dissolved in water.
Tien, Lydia T.; Teichert, Melonie A.; Rickey, Dawn. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 175.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Conductivity |
Ionic Bonding |
Solutions / Solvents
Titration of a Solid Acid Monitored By X-Ray Diffraction  Keenan E. Dungey and Paul Epstein
Presents a solid-state laboratory in which students react fixed amounts of zirconium phosphate with increasing equivalents of NaOH(aq). From X-ray diffraction patterns, students calculate the interplanar spacings before and after the reaction. The spacings increase until the molar equivalence point is reached, indicating incorporation of the sodium ion into the crystal.
Dungey, Keenan E.; Epstein, Paul. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 122.
Acids / Bases |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Materials Science |
Solid State Chemistry |
X-ray Crystallography |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
A Kinetics Demonstration Involving a Green–Red–Green Color Change Resulting from a Large-Amplitude pH Oscillation  Brian W. Pfennig and Richard T. Roberts
Describes an oxidationreduction, clock reaction involving iodate, sulfite, and thiosulfate that produces large swings in pH, causing a combination of acidbase indicators to effect greenredgreen color changes.
Pfennig, Brian W.; Roberts, Richard T. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1804.
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Kool Reaction from the Fine Print  Susan A. S. Hershberger and Arlyne M. Sarquis
Students investigate the reduction of artificial food dyes by citric acid-promoted oxidation of a metal in the form of fine or coarse steel wool. The artificial red and yellow food dyes present in drink mixes contain azo linkages (nitrogennitrogen double bonds) that are readily reduced to colorless products under mild reducing conditions.
Hershberger, Susan A. S.; Sarquis, Arlyne M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1792A.
Acids / Bases |
Consumer Chemistry |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Food Science |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Let Us Give Lewis Acid–Base Theory the Priority It Deserves  Alan A. Shaffer
The Lewis concept is simple yet powerful in its scope, and can be used to help beginning students understand reaction mechanisms more fully. However, traditional approaches to acid-base reactions at the introductory level ignores Lewis acid-base theory completely, focusing instead on proton transfer described by the Br?nsted-Lowry concept.
Shaffer, Alan A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1746.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Lewis Structures |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
VSEPR Theory |
Covalent Bonding |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Predicting Inorganic Reaction Products: A Critical Thinking Exercise in General Chemistry  David G. DeWit
Describes a course module designed to afford practice in applying the principles encountered throughout the general chemistry sequence to understanding and predicting chemical reactivity and the products of simple inorganic reactions.
DeWit, David G. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1625.
Acids / Bases |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Learning Theories |
Metals |
Nonmetals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Reactions
A Polymer in Everyday Life: The Isolation of Poly(vinyl alcohol) from Aqueous PVA Glues. An Undergraduate Chemistry Experiment   Yueh-Huey Chen and Jing-Fun Yaung
The IR spectra of three common and related polymers are used to identify functional groups and rationalize molecular structures.
Chen, Yueh-Huey; Yaung, Jing-Fun. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1534.
Applications of Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Esters |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Chemical Composition of a Fountain Pen Ink   J. Martín-Gil, M. C. Ramos-Sánchez, F. J. Martín-Gil, and M. José-Yacamán
Black ink (Parker Quink) widely used in 19501980 is characterized and compared with other traditional inks. There is agreement that the main cause of ink decay is the iron(II) sulfate content, whose effect is stronger than the destructive action of acids.
Martín-Gil, J.; Ramos-Sánchez, M. C.; Martín-Gil, F. J.; José-Yacamán, M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1476.
Applications of Chemistry |
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Free Radicals |
Reactions
Using Balloons for a Dramatic Presentation of the Acid–Bicarbonate Reaction  Miroslav Proka and Anna Tóthová
Describes the use of balloons in demonstrating the reaction between sodium hydrogen carbonate and acid.
Proka, Miroslav; Tóthová, Anna. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1471.
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments |
Reactions
Negative pH Does Exist  Kieran F. Lim ()
The misconception that pH lies between 0 and 14 has been perpetuated in popular-science books, textbooks, revision guides, and reference books.
Lim, Kieran F. (). J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1465.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
pH
Boric Acid  Jay A. Young
The hazards of boric acid are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1459.
Laboratory Management |
Acids / Bases
Equilibrium Constants and Water Activity Revisited  David Keeports
Subtle arguments based upon the use of chemical potentials show that numerical values of solute molar concentrations can be used as good approximate activities in equilibrium calculations for reactions involving dilute solutions.
Keeports, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1290.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Alcohols
Equilibrium Constants and Water Activity Revisited  E. J. Behrman
In teaching the effects of structure on acid strength, it is useful to compare, inter alia, water with primary alcohols.
Behrman, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1290.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Alcohols
Equilibrium Constants and Water Activity Revisited  E. J. Behrman
In teaching the effects of structure on acid strength, it is useful to compare, inter alia, water with primary alcohols.
Behrman, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1290.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Alcohols
Weak Acid pKa Determination Using Capillary Zone Electrophoresis  Mike Solow
In this experiment, students use capillary zone electrophoresis to determine the effective mobility of benzoic acid at two different hydrogen ion concentrations. A plot of these data yields the pKa of benzoic acid.
Solow, Mike. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1194.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Carboxylic Acids |
Electrophoresis |
Instrumental Methods
Two "Gas-in-a-Bag" Reactions To Show the Predictive Power of the Relative AcidBase Strength Chart  Brett Criswell
Describes a demonstration in which two different pairs of solid chemicals mixed in two different Ziploc bags in the presence of a small quantities of water react to produce gases. Students are informed that the reactions are BrnstedLowry acidbase type reactions and must determine which member in each pair will act as the acid and which as the base.
Criswell, Brett. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1167.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Gases |
Reactions |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Was Markovnikov's Rule an Inspired Guess?  Peter Hughes
A study of 19th century literature shows that neither Markovnikov nor any of his contemporaries carried out the reactions often attributed to himthe addition of hydrogen bromide or hydrogen chloride to propene. Since there is little evidence for Markovnikov's rule in his 1870 article, it is likely that it was more of an inspired guess than a rational conclusion.
Hughes, Peter. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1152.
Addition Reactions |
Alkenes |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Acid–Base Chemistry According to Robert Boyle: Chemical Reactions in Words as well as Symbols  David E. Goodney
Examples of acidbase reactions from Robert Boyle's The Sceptical Chemist are used to illustrate the rich information content of chemical equations. Boyle required lengthy passages of florid language to describe what can be done quite simply with a chemical equation.
Goodney, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1001.
Acids / Bases |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Nonmajor Courses |
Reactions |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
p-Sulfanilic Acid  Jay A. Young
The hazards of p-sulfanilic acid are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 990.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management
Complexometric Titration of Aluminum and Magnesium Ions in Commercial Antacids. An Experiment for General and Analytical Chemistry Laboratories  Shui-Ping Yang and Ruei-Ying Tsai
A novel experiment for determining the total and individual aluminum and magnesium ion content in commercial antacids is described. This experiment is developed with three independent protocols based on complexometric direct and back titrations containing the concepts and usages of blocking, masking, buffer controls and metallic indicators.
Yang, Shui-Ping; Tsai, Ruei-Ying. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 906.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Chemometrics |
Consumer Chemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Factors That Influence Relative Acid Strength in Water: A Simple Model  Michael J. Moran
The pKa's of diverse aqueous acids HA correlate well with the sum of two gas-phase properties: the HA bond-dissociation enthalpy and the electron affinity of the A radical. It is suggested that rather than bond strength alone or bond polarity, the sum of the enthalpies of these two steps is a fairly good indicator of relative acidity.
Moran, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 800.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Free Radicals
Intermolecular and Intramolecular Forces: A General Chemistry Laboratory Comparison of Hydrogen Bonding in Maleic and Fumaric Acids  Frazier W. Nyasulu and John Macklin
This article presents a simple laboratory experiment that is designed to enhance students' understanding of inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonding by demonstrating the comparative effect of these phenomena on some chemical and physical properties.
Nyasulu, Frazier W.; Macklin, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 770.
Acids / Bases |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Thermodynamics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
pH Paradoxes: Demonstrating That It Is Not True That pH ≡ -log[H+]  Christopher G. McCarty and Ed Vitz
Six demonstrations highlighting paradoxes that arise if pH is incorrectly defined as -log[H+] are presented as justification for the recommendation that pH should be correctly defined as pH = -log aH+ in textbooks.
McCarty, Christopher G.; Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 752.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
pH |
Quantitative Analysis
Taming the Barking Dog  Ché Royce Seabourne, George Maxwell, and James Wallace
This demonstration brings Liebig's famous 19th-century demonstration headlong into the 21st century, using digital video footage and other novel media.
Seabourne, Ché Royce; Maxwell, George; Wallace, James. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 751.
Gases |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions
Interactive Demonstrations for Mole Ratios and Limiting Reagents  Crystal Wood and Bryan Breyfogle
The objective of this study was to develop interactive lecture demonstrations based on conceptual-change learning theory. Experimental instruction was designed for an introductory chemistry course for nonmajors to address misconceptions related to mole ratios and limiting reagents
Wood, Crystal; Breyfogle, Bryan. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 741.
Learning Theories |
Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Student-Centered Learning
Demonstration of Absorbance Using Digital Color Image Analysis and Colored Solutions  Shane K. Kohl, James D. Landmark, and Douglas F. Stickle
This article describes a simple experiment in which the principle of absorbance may be demonstrated using digital color image analysis.
Kohl, Shane K.; Landmark, James D.; Stickle, Douglas F. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 644.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Incorporation of Microwave Synthesis into the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory  Alan R. Katritzky, Chunming Cai, Meghan D. Collins, Eric F. V. Scriven, Sandeep K. Singh, and E. Keller Barnhardt
Describes a simple way to effectively implement microwave synthesis into the undergraduate organic laboratory curriculum.
Katritzky, Alan R.; Cai, Chunming; Collins, Meghan D.; Scriven, Eric F. V.;Singh, Sandeep K.; Barnhardt, E. Keller. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 634.
Aromatic Compounds |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Reactions |
Synthesis
Microwave-Assisted Heterocyclic Chemistry for Undergraduate Organic Laboratory  Robert Musiol, Bozena Tyman-Szram, and Jaroslaw Polanski
Microwave-assisted techniques are used to design new environmentally benign syntheses of heterocycles for the undergraduate organic laboratory.
Musiol, Robert; Tyman-Szram, Bozena; Polanski, Jaroslaw. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 632.
Green Chemistry |
Heterocycles |
Reactions |
Synthesis
What Happens When Chemical Compounds Are Added to Water? An Introduction to the Model–Observe–Reflect–Explain (MORE) Thinking Frame  Adam C. Mattox, Barbara A. Reisner, and Dawn Rickey
This article describes a laboratory designed to help students understand how different compounds behave when dissolved in water, and introduces the modelobservereflectexplain (MORE) thinking frame, an instructional tool that encourages students to connect macroscopic observations with their understanding of the behavior of particles at the molecular level.
Mattox, Adam C.; Reisner, Barbara A.; Rickey, Dawn. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 622.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Conductivity |
Ionic Bonding |
Solutions / Solvents |
Stoichiometry
The Great Wakonse Earthquake of 2003: A Short, Problem-Based Introduction to the Titration Concept  Brian P. Coppola, Amy C. Gottfried, Robyn L. Gdula, Alan L. Kiste, and Nathan W. Ockwig
This activity introduces nonscience adult learners to the concept of titration from real-world instructions about earthquake water safety found in a California phone book.
Coppola, Brian P.; Gottfried, Amy C.; Gdula, Robyn L.; Kiste, Alan L.; Ockwig, Nathan W. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 600.
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry
The Ultrasonic Soda Fountain: A Dramatic Demonstration of Gas Solubility in Aqueous Solutions  John E. Baur and Melinda B. Baur
An ultrasonic bath is used to accelerate the rate at which carbonated beverages equilibrate with the atmosphere. The resulting fountain, which can reach heights in excess of 3 meters, is a dramatic demonstration of the solubility of gases in liquids.
Baur, John E.; Baur, Melinda B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 577.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Kinetics |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
Chemical Characterization of Activated Carbon Fibers and Activated Carbons  J. M. Valente Nabais and P. J. M. Carrott
The main objective of this laboratory is the chemical characterization of carbon materials, mainly activated carbons and activated carbon fibers, using several methods to obtain the information without using expensive instruments.
Valente Nabais, J. M.; Carrott, P. J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 436.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Materials Science |
Surface Science |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Synthesis of Unsymmetrical Alkynes via the Alkylation of Sodium Acetylides. An Introduction to Synthetic Design for Organic Chemistry Students  Jennifer N. Shepherd and Jason R. Stenzel
Teams of students design a microscale synthesis of an unsymmetrical alkyne using commercially available terminal alkynes and alkyl halides and characterize the resulting products using TLC, IR, and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Depending on the chosen reactants, students observe both substitution and elimination products, or in some cases, no reaction at all.
Shepherd, Jennifer N.; Stenzel, Jason R. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 425.
Alkylation |
Alkynes |
Elimination Reactions |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Synthesis
The Reaction Quotent Is Unnecessary To Solve Equilibrium Problems. The Limitation of a Qualitative Reasoning—Editor's Note  John W. Moore
Discusses the relationship between the concentration of an aqueous solution of acetic acid, its ion concentration, and its equivalent conductance.
Moore, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 384.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Conductivity |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
The Reaction Quotent Is Unnecessary To Solve Equilibrium Problems. The Limitation of a Qualitative Reasoning  Rob Lederer
Discusses the relationship between the concentration of an aqueous solution of acetic acid, its ion concentration, and its equivalent conductance.
Lederer, Rob. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 384.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Conductivity
The Reaction Quotent Is Unnecessary To Solve Equilibrium Problems. The Limitation of a Qualitative Reasoning  Paul Matsumoto
Discusses the relationship between the concentration of an aqueous solution of acetic acid, its ion concentration, and its equivalent conductance.
Matsumoto, Paul. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 383.
Equilibrium |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Conductivity
The Reaction Quotent Is Unnecessary To Solve Equilibrium Problems. The Limitation of a Qualitative Reasoning  Michiel Vogelezang
Discusses the relationship between the concentration of an aqueous solution of acetic acid, its ion concentration, and its equivalent conductance.
Vogelezang, Michiel. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 383.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Conductivity
The Reaction Quotent Is Unnecessary To Solve Equilibrium Problems. The Limitation of a Qualitative Reasoning  Michiel Vogelezang
Discusses the relationship between the concentration of an aqueous solution of acetic acid, its ion concentration, and its equivalent conductance.
Vogelezang, Michiel. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 383.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Conductivity
Using Jmol To Help Students Better Understand Fluxional Processes   William F. Coleman and Edward W. Fedosky
This new WebWare neatly combines instructional text and Jmol interactive, animated illustrations to teach mechanisms that need to be clearly visualized in order to be well understood.
Coleman, William F.; Fedosky, Edward W. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 336.
Computational Chemistry |
Enantiomers |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Nonmetals
4-Dimethylaminopyridine or Acid-Catalyzed Syntheses of Esters: A Comparison  Annemieke W. C. van den Berg and Ulf Hanefeld
Students compare acid-catalyzed ester synthesis and the 4-dimethylaminopyridine-catalyzed reaction. Based on the outcome of the experiments, students discuss the different reaction mechanisms and reason why different products are formed.
van den Berg, Annemieke W. C.; Hanefeld, Ulf. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 292.
Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Chromatography |
Esters |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
An Environmentally Focused General Chemistry Laboratory  Morgan Mihok, Joseph T. Keiser, Jacqueline M. Bortiatynski, and Thomas E. Mallouk
A one-semester laboratory has been developed in which principles of general chemistry (aqueous acidbase equilibria, kinetics, thermodynamics, chromatographic separations, spectroscopy) are presented in the context of environmental aquatic chemistry.
Mihok, Morgan; Keiser, Joseph T.; Bortiatynski, Jacqueline M.; Mallouk, Thomas E. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 250.
Acids / Bases |
Chromatography |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Ion Exchange |
Kinetics |
Nonmajor Courses |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Linking Laboratory Experiences to the Real World: The Extraction of Octylphenoxyacetic Acid from Water  Jorge E. Loyo-Rosales, Alba Torrents, Georgina C. Rosales-Rivera, and Clifford P. Rice
A known quantity of the sodium salt of octylphenoxyacetic acid is dissolved in water, transformed to the acid (insoluble) form, and extracted using dichloromethane. These changes can be followed visually owing to conspicuous changes in solution turbidity.
Loyo-Rosales, Jorge E.; Torrents, Alba; Rosales-Rivera, Georgina C.; Rice, Clifford P. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 248.
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
pH |
Stoichiometry |
Nonmajor Courses |
Water / Water Chemistry
Derivatization of Fullerenes: An Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Charles T. Cox Jr. and Melanie M. Cooper
Presents two undergraduate organic chemistry laboratories detailing the synthesis of fullerene derivatives, using the Bingel (carbene insertion) and Prato (1,3-dipolar addition) protocols.
Cox, Charles T., Jr.; Cooper, Melanie M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 99.
Acids / Bases |
Addition Reactions |
Chromatography |
Heterocycles |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Presumptive and Confirmatory Drug Tests  Craig Anderson
Tests for illegal drugs were performed on unknowns obtained from over-the-counter cold medicines. Substances that tested positive for the qualitative Marquis color test were found to be false positives for illegal substances, while scopolamine hydrochloride shows a false positive for cocaine hydrochloride with the cobalt thiocyanate reagent.
Anderson, Craig. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1809.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Qualitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry
The Virtual ChemLab Project: A Realistic and Sophisticated Simulation of Organic Synthesis and Organic Qualitative Analysis  Brian F. Woodfield, Merritt B. Andrus, Gregory L. Waddoups, Melissa S. Moore, Richard Swan, Rob Allen, Greg Bodily, Tricia Andersen, Jordan Miller, Bryon Simmons, and Richard Stanger
Describes a set of sophisticated and realistic laboratory simulations for use in freshman- and sophomore-level chemistry classes and laboratories called Virtual ChemLab. The purpose of these simulations is to reinforce concepts taught in the classroom, provide an environment for creative learning, and emphasize the thinking behind instructional laboratory experiments.
Woodfield, Brian F.; Andrus, Merritt B.; Waddoups, Gregory L.; Moore, Melissa S.; Swan, Richard; Allen, Rob; Bodily, Greg; Andersen, Tricia; Miller, Jordan; Simmons, Bryon; Stanger, Richard. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1728.
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Synthesis |
Reactions |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Synthesis and Analysis of Copper Hydroxy Double Salts  Laura M. Brigandi, Phyllis A. Leber, and Claude H. Yoder
Describes an introductory chemistry project involving the synthesis and identification of double salts containing copper and hydroxide ions. The preparations are accompanied by qualitative, colorimetric, gravimetric, and volumetric gas analyses that permit students to determine the empirical formula of the compound synthesized.
Brigandi, Laura M.; Leber, Phyllis A.; Yoder, Claude H. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1662.
Quantitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Geochemistry |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Synthesis |
Qualitative Analysis
A Simple and Easy-To-Learn Chart of the Main Classes of Inorganic Compounds and Their Acid–Base Reactions  Grigoriy Sereda
Presents a two-dimensional chart for the classification of the main classes of inorganic compounds with respect to their acidic and basic properties that makes it possible to predict reaction products and determine the coefficients in chemical equations of acidbase reactions.
Sereda, Grigoriy. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1645.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions |
Stoichiometry
Using Visible Spectrophotometers and pH Measurements To Study Speciation in a Guided-Inquiry Laboratory   William H. Otto, Cynthia K. Larive, Susan L. Mason, Janet B. Robinson, Joseph A. Heppert, and James D. Ellis
A collective-effort, guided-inquiry laboratory investigation was developed for the second-semester general chemistry laboratory for the purpose of increasing student conceptual understanding of equilibrium and speciation phenomena. This investigation required students to employ the chemical indicator phenol red in phosphate buffer solution, computer interfaced pH probes, and visible spectrophotometers. Through a combination of potentiometric and visible absorption measurements, the students determined the pH conditions that alter equilibrium concentrations of multiple species (colored and transparent) in solution.
Otto, William H.; Larive, Cynthia K.; Mason, Susan L.; Robinson, Janet B.; Heppert, Joseph A.; Ellis, James D. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1552.
Acids / Bases |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Equilibrium |
pH |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments
Laboratory Experiments on the Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 7: Microscale Production of Ozone  Jorge G. Ibanez, Rodrigo Mayen-Mondragon, M. T. Moran-Moran, Alejandro Alatorre-Ordaz, Bruce Mattson, and Scot Eskestrand
Ozone, a powerful oxidizing and disinfecting agent, is produced electrochemically in the undergraduate laboratory with simple equipment and under very mild conditions. Tests are given to characterize it, to observe its action in simulated environmental applications, and to measure its rate of production.
Ibanez, Jorge G.; Mayen-Mondragon, Rodrigo; Moran-Moran, M. T.; Alatorre-Ordaz, Alejandro; Mattson, Bruce; Eskestrand, Scot. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1546.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Sedimentation Time Measurements of Soil Particles by Light Scattering and Determination of Chromium, Lead, and Iron in Soil Samples via ICP  Patricia Metthe Todebush and Franz M. Geiger
In this two-part general chemistry laboratory activity, students study soil samples from home and from campus. In part one, the samples are placed in water and the suspended colloid fraction is separated using filtration, followed by a determination of colloid sedimentation rates via light scattering. In part two, the solid phase of the soil samples is dissolved in acid and analyzed for chromium, lead, and iron using an inductively coupled plasma spectrometer. The experiment can be expanded to include arsenic. Through these experiments students can draw conclusions about the physical and chemical behavior of solid components in soil, paying particular attention to their propensity for transporting and chemically transforming pollutants in the environment.
Todebush, Patricia Metthe; Geiger, Franz M. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1542.
Colloids |
Geochemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solids |
Surface Science |
Metals
Synthesis and Physical Properties of Liquid Crystals: An Interdisciplinary Experiment  Gerald R. Van Hecke, Kerry K. Karukstis, Hanhan Li, Hansford C. Hendargo, Andrew J. Cosand, and Marja M. Fox
This experiment features an investigative approach designed for the introductory science or engineering major and integrates concepts in the fields of chemistry, biology, and physics. Derived from faculty research interests, this novel experiment gives students the opportunity to draw conclusions from tests performed to illustrate the connection between molecular structure and macroscopic properties. The chemical synthesis of the compounds studied further enhances the connection between molecular structure and macroscopic physical properties. The results of two separate physical measurements, refractometry and absorption spectroscopy, are combined to calculate a microscopic, but very practical, property of chiral nematic liquidsthe pitch of the helix formed in the liquid crystalline phase.
Van Hecke, Gerald R.; Karukstis, Kerry K.; Li, Hanhan; Hendargo, Hansford C.; Cosand, Andrew J.; Fox, Marja M. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1349.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Acids / Bases |
Esters |
Physical Properties |
Physical Properties
Mass Relationships in a Chemical Reaction: Incorporating Additional Graphing Exercises into the Introductory Chemistry Laboratory  Stephen DeMeo
The purpose of this article is to increase student involvement with graph construction specifically in the context of introductory laboratory activities that involve mass relationships between reacting substances and products. In this regard, five massmass plots derived from a synthesis of a binary compound from its elements are presented as well as a set of questions to focus learners on the significance of each plot. The benefit of providing learners with these types of graphing activities include the use of higher-order cognitive processes as well as the elucidation of fundamental chemical knowledge such as the law of the conservation of mass, the law of constant composition, limiting and excess reactants, and empirical formula.
DeMeo, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1219.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Quantitative Analysis
Kinetics of Alcohol Dehydrogenase-Catalyzed Oxidation of Ethanol Followed by Visible Spectroscopy  Kestutis Bendinskas, Christopher DiJiacomo, Allison Krill, and Ed Vitz
A two-week biochemistry experiment was introduced in the second-semester general chemistry laboratory to study the oxidation of ethanol in vitro in the presence of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). This reaction should pique student interest because the same reaction also occurs in human bodies when alcoholic drinks are consumed. Procedures were developed to follow the biochemical reaction by visible spectroscopy and to avoid specialized equipment. The effect of substrate concentration on the rate of this enzymatic reaction was investigated during the first week. The effects of temperature, pH, the specificity of the enzyme to several substrates, and the enzyme's inhibition by heavy metals were explored during the second week.
Bendinskas, Kestutis; DiJiacomo, Christopher; Krill, Allison; Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1068.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Biophysical Chemistry |
Food Science
The Addition of Bromine to 1,2-Diphenylethene   Judith C. Amburgey-Peters and LeRoy W. Haynes
We investigated the reaction of (Z)-1,2-diphenylethene (cis-stilbene) with various brominating reagents and solvents following directions in standard organic chemistry manuals. We were particularly interested in learning which combination of brominating reagent and solvent gave the best yield of (d,l)-1,2-dibromo-1,2-diphenylethane without the formation of significant amounts of meso-1,2-dibromo-1,2-diphenylethane, which is essentially the sole product from the reaction of bromine with (E)-1,2-diphenylethene (trans-stilbene). Based on the results from the standard preparatory methods, some permutations of solvent and brominating reagent were tried.
Amburgey-Peters, Judith C.; Haynes, LeRoy W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1051.
Addition Reactions |
Alkenes |
Carbocations |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stereochemistry
Equilibrium Constants and Water Activity  David Keeports
General chemistry instructors are faced with a dilemma when introducing the topic of equilibrium constants: These constants are correctly written in terms of activities, yet activity is a complex topic better treated rigorously in a physical chemistry course than superficially in a general chemistry course. Thus, to introduce equilibrium calculations, it is necessary to use approximate forms for equilibrium constants. However, I find that some commonly used textbooks provide incorrect arguments leading to approximate equilibrium constants for aqueous reactions.
Keeports, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 999.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Water / Water Chemistry
Conceptual Considerations in Molecular Science  Donald T. Sawyer
The undergraduate curriculum and associated textbooks include several significant misconceptions.
Sawyer, Donald T. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 985.
Catalysis |
Covalent Bonding |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Reactive Intermediates |
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry
Teaching pH Measurements with a Student-Assembled Combination Quinhydrone Electrode  Fritz Scholz, Tim Steinhardt, Heike Kahlert, Jens R. Pörksen, and Jürgen Behnert
A combination pH electrode that can be assembled by the student is described. It consists of a glass holder and two sensors in the form of rubber stoppers that contain quinhydrone and graphite. The combination electrode is suitable to teach potentiometric measurements, pH measurements, and the interplay of acidbase and redox equilibria. The electrode meets highest safety standards and overcomes the troubles associated with the use of the conventional quinhydrone electrode.
Scholz, Fritz; Steinhardt, Tim; Kahlert, Heike; Pörksen, Jens R.; Behnert, Jürgen. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 782.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry
A Closer Look at AcidBase Olfactory Titrations  Kerry Neppel, Maria T. Oliver-Hoyo, Connie Queen, and Nicole Reed
This laboratory experiment uses the sense of smell to determine end points of acidbase titrations. Olfactory indicators include garlic, onions, and vanillin. Results show that garlic and vanillin gave the most accurate results when calculated NaOH molarities were compared to the standardized values. These olfactory indicators in acidbase titrations gave consistent results when tested by a diverse student population. The preparation times, cost, and safety issues are comparable to traditional titration experiments.
Neppel, Kerry; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.; Queen, Connie; Reed, Nicole. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 607.
Acids / Bases |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Procedure for Decomposing a Redox Reaction into Half-Reactions  Ilie Fishtik and Ladislav H. Berka
The principle of stoichiometric uniqueness provides a simple algorithm to check whether a simple redox reaction may be uniquely decomposed into half-reactions in a single way. For complex redox reactions the approach permits a complete enumeration of a finite and unique number of ways a redox reaction may be decomposed into half-reactions. Several examples are given.
Fishtik, Ilie; Berka, Ladislav H. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 553.
Stoichiometry |
Equilibrium |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Thermodynamics
An Interactive Classroom Activity Demonstrating Reaction Mechanisms and Rate-Determining Steps  Laura D. Jennings and Steven W. Keller
An interactive classroom activity is described that allows visualization of microscopic reaction mechanisms via the macroscopic process of unwrapping and eating chocolate candies.
Jennings, Laura D.; Keller, Steven W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 549.
Reactions |
Rate Law |
Kinetics
The Determination of the Percent of Oxygen in Air Using a Gas Pressure Sensor  James Gordon and Katherine Chancey
A new detection method is applied to a classic experiment in which gaseous atmospheric oxygen in a test tube is reacted with the iron in steel wool to produce rust. A gas pressure sensor interfaced to a calculator-based data collection system was used to measure the percent of oxygen in the air as the reaction proceeded. The results from the calculator-based experiment were compared to the results from a more traditional water-measurement experiment. The average percent of oxygen obtained using the calculator system was 19.4  0.4%.
Gordon, James; Chancey, Katherine. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 286.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Analysis of Natural Buffer Systems and the Impact of Acid Rain. An Environmental Project for First-Year Chemistry Students  David C. Powers, Andrew T. Higgs, Matt L. Obley, Phyllis A. Leber, Kenneth R. Hess, and Claude H. Yoder
The purpose of this project is to investigate the basic principles involved in acidbase buffer systems within the context of an environmental issue. It is designed for use in an introductory chemistry course. The students will learn about acidbase interactions and examine how a buffer system composed of a weak acid and its conjugate base can neutralize large quantities of strong acid while resisting drastic change in the pH of the system. Students will also analyze experimentally the various components of the most commonly occurring natural buffer system.
Powers, David C.; Higgs, Andrew T.; Obley, Matt L.; Leber, Phyllis A.; Hess, Kenneth R.; Yoder, Claude H. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 274.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium
Reaction to "The Concept of Ionic Strength Eighty Years after Its Introduction in Chemistry"  Leslie Glasser
Sastre de Vicente has recently published an excellent paper on the concept of ionic strength, detailing its empirical origin, its independent appearance in the theories of Debye and Hckel, its applications in solution chemistry and, most importantly, its interpretation as reflecting the extent to which a potential difference induces a charge density difference.
Glasser, Leslie. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 212.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A Substitute for “Bromine in Carbon Tetrachloride”  Joshua M. Daley and Robert G. Landolt
Benzotrifluoride (BTF) is a suitable solvent substitute for carbon tetrachloride in experiments requiring application of bromine (Br2) in free radical or addition reactions with organic substrates. A 1 M solution of Br2 in BTF may be used to distinguish hydrocarbons based on the ease of abstraction of hydrogen atoms in thermally or light-induced free radical substitutions. Efficacy of minimization of solvent use, by aliquot addition to neat samples, has been established.
Daley, Joshua M.; Landolt, Robert G. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 120.
Alkenes |
Free Radicals |
Green Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Reactions
The Effect of Ionic Strength on the Solubility of an Electrolyte  Joan D. Willey
The theory of activity versus concentration is important in industrial, environmental, and biochemistry. The increase in solubility of an electrolyte in a solution of a second electrolyte with no common ions compared with pure water is not an easy concept to grasp because it seems to be counterintuitive. The simple experiment described here illustrates this principle visually and dramatically. Students attempt to dissolve CaSO42H2O (gypsum) in pure water and in 0.25 M NaCl.
Willey, Joan D. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1644.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Quantitative Determination of Citric and Ascorbic Acid in Powdered Drink Mixes: A High School or General Chemistry Experiment  Samuella B. Sigmann and Dale E. Wheeler
This article provides a method to quantitatively determine the amount of both citric and ascorbic acid in a given sample of a powdered drink mix. The total moles of acid in the sample are determined by titration with sodium hydroxide. Moles of ascorbic acid are determined by titration with potassium iodate. Moles of citric acid are determined by difference.
Sigmann, Samuella B.; Wheeler, Dale E. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1479.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
The Quantitative Determination of Food Dyes in Powdered Drink Mixes. A High School or General Science Experiment  Samuella B. Sigmann and Dale E. Wheeler
A simple spectrophotometric procedure for the quantitative determination of FD&C food dyes in powdered drink mixes appropriate for high school or general science classes is presented. This method describes the determination of the total quantity of food dye, the quantity of dye per serving, and the percent by mass of each dye in the sample. Directions for the creation of food dye calibration curves is also presented.
Sigmann, Samuella B.; Wheeler, Dale E. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1475.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Food Science |
Quantitative Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Consumer Chemistry
Old Nassau Demonstration with Wilkinson Modification  Lawrence E. Wilkinson
A modification of the Old Nassau Reaction demonstration is presented, wherein a 0.025 M silver nitrate solution is used in place of the mercury(II) chloride solution employed in the original demonstration.
Wilkinson, Lawrence E. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1474.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Use of a Tea Infuser To Submerge Low-Density Dry Ice  Carl P. Fictorie
A tea infuser is used as a container to hold low-density dry ice. When used with the classic demonstration where dry ice is used to acidify a solution in a graduated cylinder, the dry ice is suspended in the middle of the cylinder, allowing the solution in the upper half of the cylinder to change color while the lower half remains unchanged. Phase changes, acidbase chemistry, and diffusion phenomena are all illustrated.
Fictorie, Carl P. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1473.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Using Clinical Cases To Teach General Chemistry  Brahmadeo Dewprashad, Charles Kosky, Geraldine S. Vaz, and Charlotte L. Martin
This article describes how a fact-based clinical case was effectively used to motivate and enrich the classroom experience and review many of the concepts covered in general chemistry. The case involves an elderly patient who was brought to the emergency room. The results of his physical examination and laboratory analysis of his blood are presented. The students, in peer-led groups, work through the chemical principles involved in the doctor's diagnosis and treatment options for the patient. The article describes the case study, instructors' observations, and students' perception of the activity.
Dewprashad, Brahmadeo; Kosky, Charles; Vaz, Geraldine S.; Martin, Charlotte L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1471.
Acids / Bases |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Medicinal Chemistry
Unified Approximations: A New Approach for Monoprotic Weak Acid–Base Equilibria  Harry L. Pardue, Ihab N. Odeh, and Teweldemedhin M. Tesfai
This article describes a new approach to approximate calculations for monoprotic acidbase equilibria in otherwise pure water. The new approach, identified herein as unified approximations, uses a simple decision criterion to select between situations that should be treated as deprotonation and protonation reactions. The remaining treatment takes account of changes in concentrations of conjugate acidbase pairs for all situations and ignores autoprotolysis only for situations for which the analytical concentration of either the conjugate acid or conjugate base will always be larger than zero.
Pardue, Harry L.; Odeh, Ihab N.; Tesfai, Teweldemedhin M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1367.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Solution of Cubic Equations by Iteration Methods on a Pocket Calculator  Farzad Bamdad
Methods for solving cubic equations by inexpensive pocket-size programmable calculators are presented.
Bamdad, Farzad. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 758.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Learning Theories |
Computational Chemistry
The Chemistry of Photographic Color Dye Formation  Bruce E. Kahn
A laboratory activity is described where black and white photographs are converted to color images in a variety of ways.
Kahn, Bruce E. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 694.
Photochemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Acids / Bases |
Consumer Chemistry |
Industrial Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Reaction That Takes Place in Beakers but Not in Conical Flasks: A Catalysis-Related Demonstration  Colin White
A striking demonstration emphasizing that substances which promote reactions are not catalysts if they are consumed in the process. The demonstration is based on the iron(II) induced oxidation of iodide by chromium(VI).
White, Colin. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 364.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Tears of Wine  Marcos Gugliotti
The motion of wine drops observed on the internal walls of a glass, usually called "tears of wine", is perhaps the oldest known example of surface tension driven flows.
Gugliotti, Marcos. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 67.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Surface Science
Cohesive and Adhesive Forces versus Surface Tension Gradients—Revisited  Todd P. Silverstein
Clarification of statements made in original article.
Silverstein, Todd P. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 35.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Surface Science
Three-Dimensional Model for Water: Magnets as Dipoles  Samuel H. Yalkowsky and Jennifer L. H. Johnson
Reply to comments on original article.
Yalkowsky, Samuel H.; Johnson, Jennifer L. H. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 34.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Lipids |
Liquids |
Molecular Modeling |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents |
Water / Water Chemistry
Three-Dimensional Model for Water: Magnets as Chemical Bonds  Roy W. Clark
Concerns over students confusing electrical and magnetic fields.
Clark, Roy W. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 34.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Lipids |
Liquids |
Molecular Modeling |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents |
Water / Water Chemistry
Don't Be Tricked by Your Integrated Rate Plot  Edward Urbansky
Reply to comments on original article.
Urbansky, Edward. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 32.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Chemometrics
Don't Be Tricked by Your Integrated Rate Plot: Reaction order Ambiguity  Sue Le Vent
Integrated rate equations (for constant reaction volume) may be given in terms of relative reactant concentration, C (= concentration/initial concentration) and relative time, T (= time/half-life); in these forms, the equations are independent of rate constants and initial concentrations.
Le Vent, Sue. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 32.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Chemometrics
Don't Be Tricked by Your Integrated Rate Plot: Pitfalls of Using Integrated Rate Plots  Gabor Lente
Problems with linearizing the integrated rate law.
Lente, Gabor. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 32.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Chemometrics
Don't Be Tricked by Your Integrated Rate Plot: Pitfalls of Using Integrated Rate Plots  Gabor Lente
Problems with linearizing the integrated rate law.
Lente, Gabor. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 32.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Chemometrics
Simple Experiments To Demonstrate Proton Flux in Pseudomonas after Alkaline or Acidic Stress  Gabriela Previtali, Walter Giordano, and Carlos E. Domenech
A laboratory experiment to ascertain the bacterial response to the stress produced by suspension in different pH solutions has been developed. This laboratory experiment has the pedagogical advantage of giving chemistry students experience with the application of various pH levels to a biological system and enables the students to expand their understanding of pH to mean more than a strictly chemical concept.
Previtali, Gabriela; Giordano, Walter; Domenech, Carlos E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1468.
Acids / Bases
Carbon Dioxide Flooding: A Classroom Case Study Derived from Surgical Practice  Robert C. Kerber
The surgical opening in open-heart surgery is often flooded with carbon dioxide gas to avoid air embolisms when the heart is closed and restarted. This practice can be used in chemistry courses to illustrate concepts of gas density, solubility, and acidbase equilibria, including buffering.
Kerber, Robert C. . J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1437.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Gases |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Nonmajor Courses |
Applications of Chemistry
Canadian Tire Money: An Analogy for Use When Discussing Weak Acid–Strong Base Titrations  Arthur M. Last
In this article, use is made of the practice of one well-known Canadian retail chain in returning to its customers a small percentage of an item's purchase price in the form of imitation bank notes that can subsequently be spent in the chain's stores. An analogy is drawn between this practice and the determination of the pKa of a weak acid by titrating it with a strong base, taking into account the hydrolysis of the anion produced.
Last, Arthur M. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1403.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Solubility Rules: Three Suggestions for Improved Understanding  Bob Blake
Many general chemistry textbooks have errors or omissions in their rules for predicting solubility that the author highlights and attempts to correct. In addition, it is proposed that the following changes be made to the discussion of solubility so that students and teachers can have a greater understanding of solubility.
Blake, Bob. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1348.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Precipitation / Solubility
Students' Understanding of Solution Chemistry Concepts  Tacettin Pinarbasi and Nurtaç Canpolat
This study examines undergraduates' understanding of some concepts in solution chemistry such as unsaturated, saturated, and supersaturated solutions; physical properties of solutions; and gas solubility. We suggest that the results can be utilized in research that develops teaching strategies to overcome students' misunderstanding.
Pinarbasi, Tacettin; Canpolat, Nurtaç . J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1328.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
Palm-Based Data Acquisition Solutions for the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory  Susan Hudgins, Yu Qin, Eric Bakker, and Curtis Shannon
Handheld computers provide a compact and cost-effective means to log data in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory. Handheld computers have the ability to record multiple forms of data, be programmed for specific projects, and later have data transferred to a personal computer for manipulation and analysis.
Hudgins, Susan; Qin, Yu; Bakker, Eric; Shannon, Curtis. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1303.
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Reactions (→) vs Equations (=)  S. R. Logan
A recent chemical kinetics text uses an equals sign for an overall reaction, whereas an arrow is used in each of the reaction steps that are proposed to constitute the mechanism, and for any elementary process.
Logan, S. R. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1258.
Kinetics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Diffusion of Water through a Differentially Permeable Membrane  Maria Guadalupe Bertoluzzo, Fabio E. Quattrin, Stella Maris Bertoluzzo, and Ruben Rigatuso
Students investigate the process of osmosis through the differentially-permeable membrane formed by copper(II) hexacyanoferrate(II), a colloidal precipitate.
Bertoluzzo, Maria Guadalupe; Quattrin, Fabio E.; Bertoluzzo, Stella Maris; Rigatuso, Ruben. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1032A.
Transport Properties |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Purple or Colorless—Which Way Up? An Entertaining Solubility Demonstration  Trevor M. Kitson
Discrepant demonstration involving immiscible mixture of water colored with potassium permanganate and hexane.
Kitson, Trevor M. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 892.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
pH Titration Simulator   N. Papadopoulos and M. Limniou
Windows software that simulates a pH titration.
Papadopoulos, N.; Limniou, M. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 709.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Simple Recipes for Prebiotic Soup: A High School or Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory  Marisol Martinez-Meeler, Nika Aljinovic, and Dorothy Swain
Replicating Stanley Miller's prebiotic soup experiment for introductory chemistry; includes experimental apparatus and analysis of the products.
Martinez-Meeler, Marisol; Aljinovic, Nika; Swain, Dorothy. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 665.
Amino Acids |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Chromatography |
Electrochemistry |
Proteins / Peptides |
Synthesis |
Applications of Chemistry
Applying the Reaction Table Method for Chemical Reaction Problems (Stoichiometry and Equilibrium)  Steven F. Watkins
A systematic approach to chemical reaction calculations (stoichiometry calculations) - the "Reaction Table Method" (similar to the equilibrium table method).
Watkins, Steven F. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 658.
Equilibrium |
Stoichiometry |
Reactions |
Kinetics
A Concept-Based Environmental Project for the First-Year Laboratory: Remediation of Barium-Contaminated Soil by In Situ Immobilization  Heather D. Harle, Phyllis A. Leber, Kenneth R. Hess, and Claude H. Yoder
Simulating the detection and remediation of lead-contaminated soil using barium.
Harle, Heather D.; Leber, Phyllis A.; Hess, Kenneth R.; Yoder, Claude H. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 561.
Synthesis |
Stoichiometry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Metals |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Applications of Chemistry
A Simple Method for Determination of Solubility in the First-Year Laboratory  Heather D. Harle, Julia A. Ingram, Phyllis A. Leber, Kenneth R. Hess, and Claude H. Yoder
Efficient means of determining the solubility of a solute using a Buchner-type funnel for filtration and an analytical balance to measure mass changes.
Harle, Heather D.; Ingram, Julia A.; Leber, Phyllis A.; Hess, Kenneth R.; Yoder, Claude H. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 560.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Laboratory Management |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Gravimetric Analysis
Titrimetric Determination of Carbon Dioxide in a Heterogeneous Sample ("Pop Rocks")  Craig M. Davis and Matthew C. Mauck
Procedure for determining the carbon dioxide content of Pop Rocks candy through titrimetry.
Davis, Craig M.; Mauck, Matthew C. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 552.
Acids / Bases |
Quantitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Applications of Chemistry
Chemical Equilibria Involving Copper(II) Ethylenediamine Complexes  Roberto Zingales
Demonstration illustrating the formation of two different complexes when copper(II) ions react with ethylenediamine.
Zingales, Roberto. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 535.
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Reactions |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Precipitation / Solubility
Chemical Equilibria Involving Reactions of Silver(I) Ions  Roberto Zingales
Demonstrating a series of reactions involving silver(I) ions.
Zingales, Roberto. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 534.
Equilibrium |
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals |
Precipitation / Solubility
Organic Functional Group Playing Card Deck  Michael J. Welsh
Organic functional group playing card deck used for review of the name and structure of organic functional groups that can be used to play any game that a normal deck of cards is used for.
Welsh, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 426.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmajor Courses |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Amides |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters |
Ethers |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis
Incomplete Combustion with Candle Flames: A Guided-Inquiry Experiment in the First-Year Chemistry Lab  Joseph MacNeil and Lisa Volaric
Investigating a burning candle as an introduction to incomplete combustion, thermodynamics, kinetics, and gas chromatography.
MacNeil, Joseph; Volaric, Lisa. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 302.
Chromatography |
Gases |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Gas Chromatography
Teaching Chemistry Using From the Earth to the Moon  James G. Goll and Stacie L. Mundinger
Teaching chemistry using From the Earth to the Moon (an HBO original movie series).
Goll, James G.; Mundinger, Stacie L. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 292.
Electrochemistry |
Chemometrics |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Applications of Chemistry
The Analysis of Seawater: A Laboratory-Centered Learning Project in General Chemistry  Jodye I. Selco, Julian L. Roberts, Jr., and Daniel B. Wacks
Experiment designed to introduce students to qualitative and quantitative analysis methods (gravimetric analysis, potentiometric titration, ion-selective electrodes, and atomic absorption and atomic emission spectroscopy) in the context of an overall analysis of an environmental sample.
Selco, Jodye I.; Roberts, Julian L., Jr.; Wacks, Daniel B. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 54.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Potentiometry
A Demonstration of Acid Rain and Lake Acidification: Wet Deposition of Sulfur Dioxide  Lisa M. Goss
Demonstration of the wet deposition of sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere.
Goss, Lisa M. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 39.
Acids / Bases |
Atmospheric Chemistry
An After-Dinner Trick   JCE Editorial Staff
Using freezing-point depression to lift an ice cube out of a glass of water with a thread.
JCE Editorial Staff. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 480A.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Principal Species and pH in Acid–Base Solutions  Robert M. Hanson
Web page that allows one to determine the concentrations of principal species in a variety of solutions or mixtures of solutions; also allows a virtual titration.
Hanson, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1486.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Enrichment / Review Materials
What's in a Name?   Robert M. Hanson
Quiz that asks questions that are helpful in determining what is happening in an aqueous solution.
Hanson, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1380.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A Three-Dimensional Model for Water  J. L. H. Johnson and S. H. Yalkowsky
Using Molymod spheres and magnets to simulate the structure and properties of water and aqueous systems.
Johnson, J. L. H.; Yalkowsky, S. H. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1088.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Lipids |
Liquids |
Solutions / Solvents |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Correction to Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Anthracene (re J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 553)  
Response to the question "Can an indicator solution change color upon dilution?"
J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1071.
Acids / Bases
Color Changes in Indicator Solutions  Addison Ault
Addresses the question "Can an indicator solution change color upon dilution?"
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1070.
Acids / Bases |
pH
Determination of the Empirical Formula of a Copper Oxide Salt Using Two Different Methods  Michael J. Sanger and Kimberly Geer
Converting copper oxide into copper metal using two different methods: reduction of copper oxide to copper metal using methane gas, and reduction of copper oxide to copper metal using aluminum in aqueous solution; the results are used to determine the empirical formula of copper oxide.
Sanger, Michael J.; Geer, Kimberly. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 994.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Metals
Experimental Design and Multiplexed Modeling Using Titrimetry and Spreadsheets  Peter de B. Harrington, Erin Kolbrich, and Jennifer Cline
Determining the acidity of three vinegar samples using multiplexed titrations and an MS Excel spreadsheet.
Harrington, Peter de B.; Kolbrich, Erin; Cline, Jennifer. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 863.
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Alka-Seltzer Fizzing—Determination of Percent by Mass of NaHCO3 in Alka-Seltzer Tablets. An Undergraduate General Chemistry Experiment  Yueh-Huey Chen and Jing-Fun Yaung
Lab activity that introduces the concept of a limiting reactant by incrementally increasing the amount of vinegar added to an Alka Seltzer tablet.
Chen, Yueh-Huey; Yaung, Jing-Fun. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 848.
Acids / Bases |
Quantitative Analysis |
Stoichiometry
Microscale pH Titrations Using an Automatic Pipet  Edward B. Flint, Carrie L. Kortz, and Max A. Taylor
A technique for microscale pH titrations using 1-5 mL of analyte and titrant.
Flint, Edward B.; Kortz, Carrie L.; Taylor, Max A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 705.
Acids / Bases |
Instrumental Methods |
Microscale Lab |
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 426.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Acids / Bases
The Lead-Acid Battery: Its Voltage in Theory and in Practice  Richard S. Treptow
Lead-acid battery fundamentals, cell voltage and the Nernst equation, and an analysis of actual battery performance.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 334.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry
Are Surfactant Molecules Really Oriented in the Interface?  Nasimul Gani and Jasmina Khanam
Helps students to visualize what happens on the submicroscopic level when a bubble is formed from an aqueous solution of surfactants and what basic spatial condition must be fulfilled for a reaction to have occurred.
Gani, Nasimul; Khanam, Jasmina. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 332.
Consumer Chemistry |
Surface Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Modeling the Drug Discovery Process: The Isolation and Biological Testing of Eugenol from Clove Oil  William H. Miles and Patricia M. Smiley
Experiment that illustrates the principles of modern drug discovery.
Miles, William H.; Smiley, Patricia M. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 90.
Acids / Bases |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Natural Products |
Separation Science |
Applications of Chemistry
pH of Sodium Acetate Solutions  Guy Schmitz
Example of buffering power in deviations of the pH of sodium acetate from calculated values.
Schmitz, Guy. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 29.
Acids / Bases |
Carboxylic Acids |
pH
Response to Potential-Energy-Only Models (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 155-156)  Frank Rioux and Roger L. DeKock
Example of buffering power in deviations of the pH of sodium acetate from calculated values.
Rioux, Frank; DeKock, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 29.
Acids / Bases |
Carboxylic Acids |
pH |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Oleic Acid  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for oleic acid.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 24.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Acids / Bases
A Discovery-Based Experiment Illustrating How Iron Metal Is Used to Remediate Contaminated Groundwater  Barbara A. Balko and Paul G. Tratnyek
Procedure in which students investigate the chemistry of iron-permeable reactive barriers and their application to the remediation of contaminated groundwater.
Balko, Barbara A.; Tratnyek, Paul G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1661.
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Metals |
Applications of Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Acid-Base Indicators: A New Look at an Old Topic  Ara S. Kooser, Judith L. Jenkins, and Lawrence E. Welch
An acid-base titration in which students choose the best indicator from a set of possibilities using a conductivity probe to help them make an informed choice.
Kooser, Ara S.; Jenkins, Judith L.; Welch, Lawrence E. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1504.
Acids / Bases |
Conductivity |
Dyes / Pigments |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
The Relative Acidities of Water and Methanol  Henry I. Abrash
Analysis of the disparity between the way the acidity constant of water is presented in general chemistry and organic chemistry textbooks.
Abrash, Henry I. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1496.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium
The Purification of Water by Freeze-Thaw or Zone Melting  James Oughton, Silas Xu, and Rubin Battino
Quantitative investigation of the purification of slat water solutions through the process of partial freezing.
Oughton, James; Xu, Silas; Battino, Rubin. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1373.
Conductivity |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Blood-Chemistry Tutorials: Teaching Biological Applications of General Chemistry Material  Rachel E. Casiday, Dewey Holten, Richard Krathen, and Regina F. Frey
Four, Web-based tutorials that deal with chemical processes in the blood and provide an integrated biological context for a variety of chemical concepts.
Casiday, Rachel E.; Holten, Dewey; Krathen, Richard; Frey, Regina F. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1210.
Applications of Chemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Proteins / Peptides |
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Is Every Transparent Liquid Water?  Muhamad Hugerat and Sobhi Basheer
Comparisons of the properties (polarity, electric conductivity, color change due to the presence of an acid-base indicator, and electrolysis) of three transparent and colorless liquids: water, glycerol, hexane, and ethanol.
Hugerat, Muhamad; Basheer, Sobhi. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1041.
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Conductivity |
Electrophoresis
Don't Be Tricked by Your Integrated Rate Plot!  Edward T. Urbansky
Using integrated rate plots to determine reaction order.
Urbansky, Edward T. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 921.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Learning Theories |
Chemometrics |
Rate Law
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Hydrochloric Acid (approx 36%)  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for hydrochloric acid.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 873.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Acids / Bases
Combinatorial Synthesis and Discovery of an Antibiotic Compound. An Experiment Suitable for High School and Undergraduate Laboratories  Scott E. Wolkenberg and Andrew I. Su
An experiment designed to introduce students to combinatorial chemistry as applied to drug discovery.
Wolkenberg, Scott E.; Su, Andrew I. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 784.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Synthesis |
Combinatorial Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Sulfuric Acid (approx. 98%)  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for concentrated sulfuric acid.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 722.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Acids / Bases
Acids and Bases in Layers: The Stratal Structure of an Ancient Topic  Wobbe de Vos and Albert Pilot
This article identifies and discusses six successive "layers" that can be recognized in chapters on acids and bases in general chemistry textbooks, each the result of what once was a modernization; the cumulative result of these layers has become problematic, and some learning problems that students have when studying acids and bases become comprehensible when viewed from this perspective.
de Vos, Wobbe; Pilot , Albert. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 494.
Acids / Bases |
Learning Theories |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Sodium Hydroxide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium hydroxide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 447.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Are Fizzing Drinks Boiling? A Chemical Insight from Chemical Education Research  Alan Goodwin
The suggestion that fizzing drinks are examples of liquids boiling at room temperature has proved to be controversial among both chemists and chemical educators. This paper presents a case for believing this everyday system to be a good example of a boiling solution and the consequent separation of carbon dioxide from the solution to exemplify fractional distillation.
Goodwin, Alan. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 385.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Understanding Solubility through Excel Spreadsheets  Pamela Brown
This article describes assignments related to the solubility of inorganic salts that can be given in an introductory general chemistry course. These assignments address the need for math, graphing, and computer skills in the chemical technology program by developing skill in the use of Microsoft Excel to prepare spreadsheets and graphs and to perform linear and nonlinear curve-fitting.
Brown, Pamela. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 268.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Chemometrics |
Precipitation / Solubility
Modification of Small-Scale One-Pot Reactions to an Inquiry-Based Laboratory Exercise  C. Jayne Wilcox
Students are given an initial handout and asked to complete a short, attention-getting exercise. They must continue to work on logical, short exercises given to them one at a time, in handout format. The inquiry-based approach is intended to increase students' comprehension of what they're doing in the laboratory and why.
Wilcox, C. Jayne. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 62.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Equilibrium
Teaching about Flame Retardants. A Joint Israeli-Dutch Project  Miri Kesner and Wobbe de Vos
Flame retardants make interesting chemistry and moreover, the chemistry is highly relevant from an everyday life point of view. This article reports on a joint Israeli-Dutch project aimed at teaching the production, properties, and applications of some bromine-containing flame retardants, including their environmental aspects, in secondary education.
Kesner, Miri; de Vos, Wobbe. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 41.
Industrial Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Applications of Chemistry
The Science Teacher: Winter Break 2001  Steve Long
Summary or chemistry-related articles in the May through November 2000 issues of The Science Teacher.
Long, Steve. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 22.
Acids / Bases |
Forensic Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stoichiometry |
Agricultural Chemistry
Comparisons and Demonstrations of Scientific Calculators  Myung-Hoon Kim, Suw-Young Ly, and Tae-Kee Hong
Scientific calculators are compared in terms of their capacities, featuring many advantages of the graphic calculator over simple nongraphic calculators. Applications in this paper include a simulation of acid-base titration curves, and graphic display of a time course of concentrations of reactants and products for a chemical reaction with first-order kinetics.
Kim, Myung-Hoon; Ly, Suw-Young; Hong, Tae-Kee. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1367.
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
When A + B  Is Not Equal To B + A  Erling Antony, Lindsay Mitchell, and Lauren Nettenstrom
Many acid-base chemistry demonstrations and laboratory manuals include the "baking soda volcano". Others use the formation of calcium carbonate from calcium hydroxide and carbon dioxide in human breath. This demonstration uses principles from both as well as stoichiometry to answer the question "Does the order of mixing of reagents make a difference?"
Antony, Erling; Mitchell, Lindsay; Nettenstrom, Lauren. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1180.
Acids / Bases |
Stoichiometry |
Reactions
Graphing Calculator Strategies for Solving Chemical Equilibrium Problems (re J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 632-634) Author Reply  Henry Donato Jr.
Reinforces appropriateness of application of graphing calculator for solving chemical equilibrium problems.
Donato, Henry, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1120.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium
Graphing Calculator Strategies for Solving Chemical Equilibrium Problems (re J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 632-634)  Todd P. Silverstein
Questions appropriateness of application of graphing calculator for solving chemical equilibrium problems.
Silverstein, Todd P. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1120.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium
More Than Meets the Eye: Nonvisual Observations in Chemistry  
An adaptation of an acid-base reaction generating carbon dioxide gas that allows blind students to observe the results. This activity is intended to show sighted students that gathering all the information available in the chemistry laboratory will engage all of their senses.
J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1104A.
Acids / Bases
Every Year Begins a Millennium  Jerry A. Bell
This article outlines a series of demonstrations and their contexts, leading to recommendations about what we teach and how we teach.
Bell, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1098.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Learning Theories
Simulating Dynamic Equilibria: A Class Experiment  John A. Harrison and Paul D. Buckley
A first-order reversible reaction is simulated on an overhead projector using small coins or discs. Results illustrate how dynamic equilibria are established and allow the introduction of the concept of an equilibrium constant. Le Chtelier's principle is illustrated by further simulations.
Harrison, John A.; Buckley, Paul D. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1013.
Equilibrium |
Rate Law |
Reactions
Weak vs Strong Acids and Bases: The Football Analogy  Todd P. Silverstein
A football analogy for acids and bases in which acids are compared to quarterbacks, whose job is to get rid of the ball (H+). A strong acid, like an excellent quarterback, delivers the ball effectively; a weak acid, like a poor quarterback, is often left holding the ball. Furthermore, bases may be likened to wide receivers, whose job is to catch and hold onto the ball (H+).
Silverstein, Todd P. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 849.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Chemistry Comes Alive!, Volume 4: Abstract of Special Issue 25 on CD-ROM  Jerrold J. Jacobsen, Gordon Bain, Kara Bruce, and John W. Moore
Chemistry Comes Alive!, Volume 4 is the fourth in a series of CD-ROMs for Macintosh and Windows computers. Volume 4 contains two main topics, Reactions in Aqueous Solution and Reactions of the Elements.
Jacobsen, Jerrold J.; Bain, Gordon; Bruce, Kara; Moore, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 799.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Descriptive Chemistry
A Comparative Study of Microscale and Standard Burets  Mono M. Singh, Cynthia B. McGowan, Zvi Szafran, and R. M. Pike
This paper describes a comparative study of the performance of microscale titrations using 2-mL microscale burets with those using Beral pipets and normal 50- and 10-mL burets. The usefulness of a microburet in general and analytical chemistry is demonstrated by presenting results from acid-base, oxidation-reduction, precipitation, complexometric, and pH titrations.
Singh, Mono M.; McGowan, Cynthia B.; Szafran, Zvi; Pike, Ronald M. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 625.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH |
Precipitation / Solubility
Modeling Chemical Processes in Seawater Aquaria to Illustrate Concepts in Undergraduate Chemistry  Gordan Grguric
This paper describes three exercises which can be used in a variety of undergraduate chemistry curricula: (i) determining the salts and their amounts needed to prepare a given volume of artificial seawater, (ii) modeling aqueous carbonate equilibria, to calculate pH and alkalinity shifts through additions of chemicals, and (iii) modeling chemical kinetics involved in aqueous ozone-bromine reactions, to predict the type and extent of disinfection by-products.
Grguric, Gordan. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 495.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Applications of Chemistry
Entertaining Chemistry--Two Colorful Reactions  John F. Elsworth
Solutions of acid and iodine, with and without starch, are mixed with alkaline solutions containing thiosulfate and appropriate salts to produce desirable color effects.
Elsworth, John F. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 484.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction
Experimentation and Group Discussion as a Means of Determining Solubility Rules  Karen E. Stevens
An experimental method is presented that leads to the development of solubility rules. A set of experiments is performed as a class demonstration and then discussed in groups. As a result, a classification of all the ionic species present can be made in terms of their solubility.
Stevens, Karen E. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 327.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Gas Me Up, or, A Baking Powder Diver  Henry R. Derr, Tricia Lewis, and Bretton J. Derr
In this procedure, a pipet that repeatedly submerges and rises to the surface in a tub of water is produced from a beral pipet and baking powder. The procedure works well in outreach activities with children aged 4 to 40 and beyond.
Derr, Henry R.; Lewis, Tricia; Derr, Bretton J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 171.
Acids / Bases |
Gases
Soapmaking  
This activity provides a simple experiment that introduces students to an important reaction of organic chemistry. It also helps students connect chemistry to something that they see and use every day and provides an opportunity for cross-curricular work.
J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 192A.
Acids / Bases |
Industrial Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry
Environmental Chemistry Using Ultrasound  Belinda K. Wilmer, Edward Poziomek, and Grazyna E. Orzechowska
In this demonstration, we describe a simple method for presenting the usefulness of sonication in environmental chemistry. When an aqueous solution of carbon tetrachloride is sonicated, it degrades to produce HCl and HOCl. These products cause a reduction of pH, which can be observed visually with a pH indicator.
Wilmer, Belinda K.; Poziomek, Edward; Orzechowska, Grazyna E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1657.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
pH
The Blue Bottle Reaction as a General Chemistry Experiment on Reaction Mechanisms  Steven C. Engerer and A. Gilbert Cook
Using the scientific method (observe, question, hypothesize, experiment, repeat) students propose and test possible reaction mechanisms for the methylene blue-catalyzed oxidation of dextrose with its dramatic color change. Students are led to discover the three-step mechanism through a series of questions.
Engerer, Steven C.; Cook, A. Gilbert. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1519.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
A Simple Experiment for Ion Migration  Karl E. Bessler and Daniel de Oliveira Campos
A simple, versatile, and low-cost version of a qualitative ion migration experiment is presented, which needs a minimum amount of chemicals and can be performed by inexperienced students. In the experiment cations and anions (preferably colorless or faintly colored) migrate toward one another and on combination produce insoluble and strongly colored compounds.
Bessler, Karl E.; Campos, Daniel de O. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1516.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Electrophoresis
Phosphate Buffers and Telephone Poles - A Useful Analogy with Limitations  Edwin S. Gould
A visual aid is presented to help general chemistry students establish the major phosphorus species in buffer solutions made from partial neutralizations of phosphoric acid and to estimate concentrations.
Gould, Edwin S. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1511.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases
The Softening of Hard Water and Complexometric Titrations: An Undergraduate Experiment  Helena Ceretti, Enrique A. Hughes, and Anita Zalts
An experiment in which (i) water hardness is explained and demonstrated; (ii) ion-exchange resin properties are visually demonstrated and then used for softening water; (iii) complexometric titrations are used for evaluating water hardness before and after softening; and (iv) acid-base titration can be used to show that the Ca/Mg ions removed by the ion exchanger are replaced by H ions.
Ceretti, Helena; Hughes, Enrique A.; Zalts, Anita. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1420.
Ion Exchange |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
An Acid-Base Chemistry Example: Conversion of Nicotine  John H. Summerfield
The current government interest in nicotine conversion by cigarette companies provides an example of acid-base chemistry that can be explained to students in the second semester of general chemistry.
Summerfield, John H. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1397.
Acids / Bases |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Equilibrium
Thermochromism in Commercial Products  Mary Anne White and Monique LeBlanc
Many commercial products change color with a change of temperature. How do they do it? The processes responsible for the two major categories of commercial thermochromic coloring agents are presented, along with a description of applications of thermochromic materials.
White, Mary Anne; LeBlanc, Monique. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1201.
Acids / Bases |
Consumer Chemistry |
Materials Science |
Applications of Chemistry
An Inexpensive Microscale Method for Measuring Vapor Pressure, Associated Thermodynamic Variables, and Molecular Weight  Jason C. DeMuro, Hovanes Margarian, Artavan Mkhikian, Kwang Hi No, and Andrew R. Peterson
Existing methods for measuring vapor pressure are too expensive or not quantitative enough for chemistry classes in secondary schools. Our method measures the vapor pressure inside a bubble trapped in a graduated microtube made from a disposable 1-mL glass pipet.
DeMuro, Jason C.; Margarian, Hovanes; Mkhikian, Artavan; No, Kwang Hi; Peterson, Andrew R. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1113.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Gases |
Microscale Lab |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Fields of pH  Paul Mihas and George Papgeorgiu
Students are taught that the pH of pure water is 7, but the measurement of a sample of distilled water usually gives pH values from 5.5-6.0. In addition, students learn that the ionization of a strong acid determines the pH of an aqueous solution and they cannot distinguish the cases in which ionization of water is significant. Fields of pH was developed to help students overcome such difficulties.
Mihas, Paul ; Papgeorgiu, George. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1032.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Do pH in Your Head  Addison Ault
Every aqueous solution has a pH. Two factors determine this pH: the acidic or basic strength of the solute, and its concentration. When you use pKa values to express acidic and basic strength you can easily estimate the approximate pH of many aqueous solutions of acids, bases, and their salts and their buffers.
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 936.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Learning Theories |
Chemometrics |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
The Persistence of the Candle-and-Cylinder Misconception  James P. Birk and Anton E. Lawson
There is a persistent misconception that when a lighted candle is supported in a container of water and a closed cylinder is lowered over the candle, the candle is extinguished after a time by complete consumption of the oxygen in the cylinder, with a volume change corresponding to the amount of oxygen in the air. This misconception has appeared in the literature periodically for many years. Here, we present a number of experiments that refute this misconception.
Birk, James P.; Lawson, Anton E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 914.
Gases |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Reactions
Why Not Replace pH and pOH by Just One Real Acidity Grade, AG?  Henk van Lubeck
The disadvantages of pH and pOH disappear after replacing them with AG, the acidity grade: AG = log [H+]/[OH-]. AG of neutral solutions equals 0 at all temperatures, whereas AG of acidic solutions is positive and of alkaline solutions, negative. AG offers some other minor advantages as well.
van Lubeck, Henk. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 892.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium
Chemical Waste Management for the Conditionally Exempt Small Quantity Generator  Steven W. Zimmer
For schools that generate relatively small quantities of waste, an individual can effectively manage the waste program without becoming overly burdened by the EPA regulations required for those generating large quantities of waste, if given the necessary support from the institution.
Zimmer, Steven W. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 808.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Laboratory Management
The Methane Balloon  Walter H. Corkern and Elvin Hughes Jr.
The objectives are (i) to describe a novel method of inflating a balloon with methane, (ii) to show that methane is lighter than air, and (iii) to demonstrate the flammability of methane.
Corkern, Walter H.; Hughes, Elvin, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 794.
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Discovering a Change in Equilibrium Constant with Change in Ionic Strength: An Empirical Laboratory Experiment for General Chemistry  Richard J. Stolzberg
Spectrophotometric measurements of absorbance of a solution of Fe3+(aq) and SCN-(aq) treated with different amounts of KNO3 are made to determine Kc for the formation of FeSCN2+(aq). Students observe a regular decrease in the value of Kc as the concentration of added KNO3 is increased.
Stolzberg, Richard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 640.
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Graphing Calculator Strategies for Solving Chemical Equilibrium Problems  Henry Donato Jr.
A general method for finding the roots of polynomial equations using the ubiquitous and inexpensive graphing calculator is presented. It is suggested that important reactions, which are not discussed in introductory chemistry courses because of computational considerations, may now be discussed.
Donato, Henry, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 632.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Learning Theories |
Equilibrium
Solution Conductivity Apparatus  Daniel T. Haworth, Mark R. Bartelt, and Michael J. Kenney
A solution conductivity apparatus is described that can be used to measure the relative conductivity of various solutions. The apparatus can be used as either a hand-held model employing a 10-element LED display or a lecture-hall demonstration model employing a 10-incandescent-lamp array.
Haworth, Daniel T.; Bartelt, Mark R.; Kenney, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 625.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Conductivity |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A Simple, Safe Way To Prepare Halogens and Study Their Visual Properties at a Technical Secondary School  Domingo A. Liprandi, Orlando R. Reinheimer, José F. Paredes, and Pablo C. L'Argentière
In this paper we propose an easy-to-build apparatus to obtain chlorine, bromine, and iodine. The experiment was developed considering not only theoretical and safety conditions but simplicity and clarity as well.
Liprandi, Domingo A.; Reinheimer, Orlando R.; Paredes, José F.; L'Argentière, Pablo C. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 532.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A New Twist on the Iodine Clock Reaction: Determining the Order of a Reaction  Xavier Creary and Karen M. Morris
The iodine clock reaction can be used to illustrate the kinetic order of a reaction, and an overhead projector demonstration was developed three years ago for general chemistry classes at the University of Notre Dame showing this concept.
Creary, Xavier; Morris, Karen M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 530.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Kinetics
Using Large Glass Cylinders To Demonstrate Chemical Reactions  Wobbe de Vos
This article describes a simple laboratory experiment that aims at pedagogic as well as aesthetic aspects of chemical reactions. Experiments of this type have a high educational potential as students have the opportunity to observe the actual formation of a precipitate instead of just being able to see the result. The experiment is also suitable for demonstrating some of the fascinating beauty of chemical reactions to the general public.
de Vos, Wobbe. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 528.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Reactions
The Chemical Adventures of Sherlock Holmes: The Death Puzzle at 221B Baker Street  Thomas R. Rybolt and Thomas G. Waddell
A chemical mystery featuring Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson.
Rybolt, Thomas R.; Waddell, Thomas G. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 489.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis
Photon-Initiated Hydrogen-Chlorine Reaction  Schwenz, Richard; Geiger, Lynn
Incorrect termination step for the H2 + Cl2 reaction mechanism.
Schwenz, Richard; Geiger, Lynn J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 470.
Mechanisms of Reactions
A Simplified Method for Finding the pKa of an Acid-Base Indicator by Spectrophotometry  George S. Patterson
Experiments on determining the pKa of an acid-base indicator by visible spectroscopy are often found in analytical and physical chemistry lab texts. The procedure described here is a modification suitable for general chemistry lab students.
Patterson, George S. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 395.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Alka Seltzer Poppers: An Interactive Exploration  A. M. Sarquis and L. M. Woodward
This experiment illustrates concepts concerning the pressure-volume relationship of gases, solubility relationships of both gases and solids in liquids relative to temperature, the kinetics of the reaction of Alka Seltzer in water, and acid-base chemistry.
Sarquis, Arlyne M.; Woodward, L. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 385.
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Kinetics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Re-Blue-ing Blue Litmus Paper (the author replies)  Steffel, Margaret J.
Re-blue-ing blue litmus paper using ammonium carbonate.
Steffel, Margaret J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 319.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management |
pH
Re-Blue-ing Blue Litmus Paper  Myers, David R.; Crane, Joseph
Re-blue-ing blue litmus paper using ammonium carbonate.
Myers, David R.; Crane, Joseph J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 319.
Laboratory Management |
Acids / Bases |
pH
The Ammonia Smoke Fountain: An Interesting Thermodynamic Adventure  M. Dale Alexander
The ammonia smoke fountain demonstration utilizes a modification of the apparatus used in the standard ammonia fountain. The modification allows for the introduction of hydrogen chloride gas into a flask of ammonia rather than water. The flow rate of hydrogen chloride gas into the flask in the smoke fountain is not constant, but periodic; that is, the smoke puffs from the end of the tube. This unexpected behavior elicits an interesting thermodynamic explanation.
Alexander, M. Dale. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 210.
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Precipitation / Solubility
The Fizz Keeper, a Case Study in Chemical Education, Equilibrium, and Kinetics  Reed Howald
The chemistry of the loss of carbonation from carbonated beverages on storage is considered. Increasing the pressure of CO2(g) will restore carbonation, but an increase in pressure adding air should not affect the equilibria. It can and does, however, affect the kinetics-the rate at which a new equilibrium is established. Thus the Fizz Keeper is effective for storage of resealed pop containers for hours, but not for periods of weeks or months.
Howald, Reed. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 208.
Transport Properties |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Kinetics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Replace Double Replacement  R. Bruce Martin
Reactions described as double replacements in high school texts are poorly described by this designation. The driving force for such reactions is precipitation of a solid derived from ions in solution or the production of water in acid-base reactions.
Martin, R. Bruce. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 133.
Stoichiometry |
Reactions |
Precipitation / Solubility
A Unified Titration Formula  P. Glaister
In a number of standard titrations, a volume of a monoprotic base MOH at a specific concentration is added to a volume of a monoprotic acid HA at a specific concentrations. Four different types of titration are possible, depending on whether the acid and base are strong or weak. A single unifying formula covering all four cases has been determined.
Glaister, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 132.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
The Design and Synthesis of a Large Interactive Classroom  Laurel L. Clouston and Mark H. Kleinman
The use of group learning techniques in large classes has been used to effectively convey the central concepts of SN1 and SN2 reactions in an introductory organic chemistry class. The activities described are best used as an introduction to these mechanisms.
Clouston, Laurel L.; Kleinman, Mark H. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 60.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Learning Theories
Spring Shock!: Impact of Spring Snowmelt on Lakes and Streams  Judith A. Halstead
This activity uses frozen vinegar to demonstrate that what melts first forms a liquid more concentrated in acetic acid than normal vinegar. As melting continues, the concentration of acetic acid decreases and the pH goes up.
Judith A. Halstead. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 400A.
Acids / Bases |
Water / Water Chemistry
Microscale Thermite Reactions  Francisco J. Arnáiz, Rafael Aguado, and Susana Arnáiz
The reaction of aluminum with the oxides of a variety of elements illustrates exothermic reactions that require a high activation energy. It is also an appropriate experiment with regard to the discussion of Ellingham diagrams. When drama is not the main objective, conducting these reactions at microscale level offers numerous advantages over the usual scale.
Arnáiz, Francisco J.; Aguado, Rafael; Arnáiz, Susana. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1630.
Microscale Lab |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Identifying Bottled Water: A Problem-Solving Exercise in Chemical Identification  Richard L. Myers
Students are challenged to identify water samples using the known chemical analyses of bottled waters. Several common water quality measurements such as hardness, alkalinity, and ion analysis can be used by students to identify the unknown water. This exercise develops problem-solving skills as students become familiar with basic lab techniques, quality control, data interpretation, and standard methods.
Myers, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1585.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Consumer Chemistry
The Alginate Demonstration: Polymers, Food Science, and Ion Exchange  Amy Sue Waldman, Linda Schechinger, Geeta Govindarajoo, James S. Nowick, and Louis H. Pignolet
A polymer demonstration involving the crosslinking and decrosslinking of alginate, a polysaccharide isolated from seaweed. The polymer is composed of D-mannuronic acid and L-guluronic acid subunits and is a component of cell walls. It is commonly used as a thickener in foods such as ice cream and fruit-filled snacks.
Waldman, Amy Sue; Schechinger, Linda; Govindarajoo, Geeta; Nowick, James S.; Pignolet, Louis H. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1430.
Food Science |
Ion Exchange |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Using Bad Science To Teach Good Chemistry  Michael S. Epstein
This paper presents examples of bad science ranging from "unintentional mistakes" to "fraud" that can be used as part of traditional courses in general and analytical chemistry to encourage scientific reasoning and ethical behavior, and to provide a classroom atmosphere that encourages students to think and learn.
Epstein, Michael S. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1399.
Acids / Bases
Synthesis of Aspirin: A General Chemistry Experiment  John A. Olmsted III
An experiment is described that is suitable for the early portion of the laboratory in a general chemistry course and integrates organic examples. It is the two-step synthesis of aspirin starting from oil of wintergreen. The mechanism for this synthesis provides examples of three major classes of chemical reactions: hydrolysis, condensation, and proton transfer.
Olmsted, John A., III. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1261.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids |
Aldehydes / Ketones
The Ksp-Solubility Conundrum  Roy W. Clark and Judith M. Bonicamp
The authors sought to find those cases of partly soluble substances for which simple calculations such as Ksp=S2, and Ksp=4S3 can realistically be used for computing solubility from Ksp and the reverse calculation. Empirical solubility data are compared with solubilities calculated from reliable Ksp values that have been adjusted for activity coefficients. A table of 18 substances is suggested for textbook use.
Clark, Roy W.; Bonicamp, Judith M. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1182.
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
Ionization or Dissociation?  Adams, David L.
Suggested definitions for these two terms.
Adams, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1089.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Oxygen vs Dioxygen: Diatomic/Monatomic Usage  Sharon, Jared B.
Using the name dioxygen for O2.
Sharon, Jared B. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1089.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Audience-Appropriate Analogies: Collision Theory  Kent W. Piepgrass
This article presents two new analogies for collision theory based on arcade games and on the interactions between salesclerks and customers in a store. The uses, limitations, and possible extensions of the analogies are discussed.
Piepgrass, Kent W. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 724.
Learning Theories |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics
Why Do Alcoholic Beverages Have "Legs"?  Todd P. Silverstein
After a sip of wine, "legs" of liquid typically run up and down the inside of the glass for many minutes. This phenomenon stems from the dipole-dipole intermolecular forces that are so important in understanding the physical behavior of aqueous solutions.
Silverstein, Todd P. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 723.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Learning Theories |
Alcohols |
Hydrogen Bonding
Chemical Domino Demonstration  M. Dale Alexander
The Chemical Domino Demonstration is both educational and entertaining. It provides an excellent means for a review of chemical concepts at the conclusion of a general chemistry course. This demonstration consists of a number of different chemical reactions occurring in sequence in a Rube Goldberg-type apparatus.
M. Dale Alexander. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 490.
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Chemical Puzzle  Harry E. Spencer and Leonard Kusdra
This is a laboratory experiment suitable for beginning general-chemistry college students or high school students with some chemical experience. It is a chemical puzzle written in science-fiction terms to attract student interest. Students are asked to identify four colored cations and two anions and assign their identities to names of chess pieces furnished initially as clues.
Harry E. Spencer and Leonard Kusdra. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 487.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis
Mechanism Templates: Lecture Aids for Effective Presentation of Mechanism in Introductory Organic Chemistry  Brian J. McNelis
To promote active student learning of mechanism in introductory organic chemistry, hand-outs have been developed with incomplete structures for reaction processes depicted, which are called mechanism templates. The key to these lecture aids is to provide only enough detail in the diagram to facilitate notetaking, ensuring that these templates are dynamic learning tools that must be utilized by an engaged and alert student.
Brian J. McNelis. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 479.
Learning Theories |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions |
Addition Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Nucleophilic Substitution
A Modified Microburet for Microscale Titration  Mono M. Singh, Cynthia McGowan, Zvi Szafran, and Ronald M. Pike
A modified microburet can be constructed inexpensively from readily available laboratory materials. These materials include a 2 mL graduated pipet, a 5 or 10 mL plastic syringe body, a small piece of latex tubing, and a small size automatic delivery pipet tip. The modified microburet is easy to use, and gives accurate results.
Singh, Mono M.; McGowan, Cynthia; Szafran, Zvi; Pike, Ronald M. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 371.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
A Closer Look at the Addition of Equations and Reactions  Damon Diemente
Chemists occasionally find it convenient or even necessary to express an overall reaction as the sum of two or more component reactions. A close examination, however, reveals that the resemblance between chemical algebraic equations is entirely superficial, and that the real meaning of addition in chemical equations is subtle and varies from case to case. In high-school courses, students are likely to encounter the addition of equations in thermochemistry, in electrochemistry, and in kinetics.
Diemente, Damon. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 319.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Reactions
Red Shoe-Blue Shoe: An Acid-Base Demonstration with a Fashionable Twist  Calvin E. Uzelmeier III and Arthur C. Breyer
The use of shoes as indicators is described. By soaking a shoe in indicator solution it will act as an indicator when placed into an acidic or basic solution.
Uzelmeier, Calvin E., III; Breyer, Arthur C. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 183.
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments
Re-blue-ing Blue Litmus Paper  Margaret J. Steffel
The addition one drop of 15 M ammonia solution to a vial containing the blue litmus paper changes the color back to the proper blue color.
Steffel, Margaret J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 183.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Dyes / Pigments
The Real Reason Why Oil and Water Don't Mix  Todd P. Silverstein
Authors should remove from their textbooks the incorrect enthalpic/hydrogen-bond explanation for the hydrophobic effect. Because aspects of the correct entropic/clathrate "cage" explanation lie beyond the scope of introductory or organic chemistry courses, it may be wisest to omit any detailed physical explanation of the "like dissolves like" phenomenon.
Silverstein, Todd P. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 116.
Theoretical Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
A Kinetics Experiment To Demonstrate the Role of a Catalyst in a Chemical Reaction: A Versatile Exercise for General or Physical Chemistry Students  Christine L. Copper and Edward Koubek
By modifying the iodine clock reaction, students can use the initial rate method to observe the role of a catalyst in a chemical reaction via activation energy calculations and evaluate a proposed mechanism. They can also determine the order with respect to each reactant and the rate constants of the noncatalyzed and catalyzed reactions.
Copper, Christine L.; Koubek, Edward. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 87.
Catalysis |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Acid-Base Chemistry of the Aluminum Ion in Aqueous Solution  Edward Koubek
A demonstration of the amphoteric behavior of aluminum is given based on an older report that was given many years ago.
Koubek, Edward. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 60.
Coordination Compounds |
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A Modified Hydrogen/Oxygen Balloon Demonstration  Ian J. McNaught
Using a ratio of 1:2 volumes of hydrogen and oxygen for balloons as instead of a 2:1 ratio for safety.
McNaught, Ian J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 52.
Gases |
Reactions
Complexometric Titrations: Competition of Complexing Agents in the Determination of Water Hardness with EDTA  M. Cecilia Yappert and Donald B. DuPre
The competition of complexing agents for the same metal ion and the formation of colored metal-ion complexes is demonstrated with the use of an overhead projector. This demonstration can be used to emphasize both the relevance of the relative values of formation constants in the complexation of metal cations and the applicability of complexometric titrations in quantitative chemical analysis.
Yappert, M. Cecilia; DuPre, Donald B. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1422.
Equilibrium |
Coordination Compounds |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Metals
Anthocyanins: A Colorful Class of Compounds  
The red colors of leaves in the fall, and the colors of radish skins, beets, and some cabbages result from pigments known as anthocyanins. This activity makes use of the fact that these substances are also acid-base indicators.
J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1176A.
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments |
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science
The reply: Ionization Constants  S. Roo, L. Vermeire, and C. Gorller-Walrand
Error regarding the first ionization constant of carbonic acid.
Roo, S.; Vermeire, L.; Gorller-Walrand, C. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1160.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
Ionization Constants  Morris Bader
Error regarding the first ionization constant of carbonic acid.
Bader, Morris. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1160.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
A Study of the pH of Sweat for Horses: A Student-Devised Study by Science and Health Science Majors  John Tierney, Lori Peacock, Erica Sorkin, and Susan Ware
This article describes the results obtained when the pH for horse sweat was measured. Comparisons with the studies on humans are also noted. The pH of perspiration produced by mares and gelding was measured under controlled conditions and found to be between 6.7 to 10.
Tierney, John; Peacock, Lori; Sorkin, Erica; Ware, Susan. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1135.
Learning Theories |
Acids / Bases |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Undergraduate Research
The Sodium Rainbow  Miroslav Proksa
A new approach to the reaction of sodium with water to produce a "rainbow" of colors.
Proksa, Miroslav. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 942.
Acids / Bases |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction
Why and How To Teach Acid-Base Reactions without Equilibrium  Terry S. Carlton
A stepwise method enables students to predict which acid-base reactions occur when two solutions are mixed. The complexities of equilibrium are avoided by treating reactions as all-or-none and by providing a table of acids in order of strength.
Carlton, Terry S. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 939.
Learning Theories |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium
Does Copper Metal React with Acetic Acid?  Stephen DeMeo
Starting with a discrepant event and led through a series of experiments, students of an introductory chemistry course investigate if copper metal reacts with acetic acid. Finding that oxygen from the air plays an important role in the reaction of these substances, students ultimately realize that the conditions under which two reactants interact are important in determining the type of products that are made.
DeMeo, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 844.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Carboxylic Acids
Students' Misconceptions in Electrochemistry Regarding Current Flow in Electrolyte Solutions and the Salt Bridge  Michael J. Sanger and Thomas J. Greenbowe
Several researchers have documented students' misconceptions in electrochemistry. One reason for the interest in studying electrochemistry is that surveys of students and teachers suggest that students find this topic difficult and research confirms that students' beliefs about problem complexity affect their performance and learning.
Sanger, Michael J.; Greenbowe, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 819.
Learning Theories |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Kinetics Studies in a Washing Bottle  John Teggins and Chris Mahaffy
The kinetics of the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide using iodide ion in aqueous solution is studied in sealed completely-filled washing bottles.
Teggins, John; Mahaffy, Chris. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 566.
Kinetics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Gases
The Coupling of Related Demonstrations to Illustrate Principles in Chemical Kinetics and Equilibrium  Richard A. Pacer
Two very simple lecture demonstrations, both involving the reaction of magnesium with one or more dilute acids, are linked together to illustrate principles in chemical kinetics and equilibrium.
Pacer, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 543.
Learning Theories |
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Reactions
The Chemistry of Paper Preservation: Part 4. Alkaline Paper  Henry A. Carter
The use of alkaline paper can minimize the problem of acidity for new papers. This study focuses on the chemistry involved in the sizing of both acid and alkaline papers and the types of fillers used. The advantages and potential problems in alkaline paper making are also discussed.
Carter, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 508.
Acids / Bases |
Industrial Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Simple and Attractive Demonstraction of the Reversibility of Chemical Reactions  Celestyn M. Brozek
The reversibility of chemical reactions is demonstrated by dehydration of CuSO4  5H2O and the subsequent hydration of CuSO4. The associated heat consumption and the subsequent heat production illustrate the concept of endothermic and exothermic reactions.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 837.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Reactions
Determination of the Dissociation Constant for Monoprotic Acid by Simple pH Measurements  R. García-Doménech, J. V. de Julián-Ortiz, G. M. Antón-Fos, and J. Galvez Alvarez
The dissociation constant for a weak monoprotic acid may be calculated in aqueous alkaline solution by straightforward pH measurements, before and after the addition of the acid, and with the advantage of not having to standardize the solutions.
García-Doménech, R.; de Julián-Ortiz, J. V.; Antón-Fos, G. M.; Alvarez, J. Galvez. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 792.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
SIRS: Simulations and Interactive Resources, III  Martin, John S.
Simulations and Interactive Resources (SIRs) are designed to support interactive lectures in introductory chemistry. This third issue of SIRs includes five new SIRs as well as updated and final versions of all previously published SIRs.
Martin, John S. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 722.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Reactions |
Electrochemistry |
Kinetics
Constant-Current Coulometric Titration of Hydrochloric Acid  James Swim, Edward Earps, Laura M. Reed, and David Paul
In this experiment we have combined the titration of a strong acid with a strong base and the electrolysis of water into one complete laboratory experience.
James Swim, Edward Earps, Laura M. Reed, and David Paul. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 679.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Visible Ion Exchange Demonstration for Large or Small Lecture Halls  Jerry A. Driscoll
This article presents a very simple experiment involving the sense of smell that students can accomplish during lecture. This classroom exercise involves very little preparation time and can be used to illustrate the important concepts of equilibrium along with acid/base properties of various ions.
Driscoll, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 639.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium
An Approach to Reaction Thermodynamics through Enthalpies, Entropies, and Free Energies of Atomization  James N. Spencer, Richard S. Moog, and Ronald J. Gillespie
An alternative to the conventional method of calculating enthalpies of reaction is presented, using enthalpies of atomization in place of enthalpies of formation. This allows the student to see directly that the reaction enthalpies are determined by the difference in bond strengths in the reactants and products.
James N. Spencer, Richard S. Moog, and Ronald J. Gillespie. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 631.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium |
Reactions |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Stoichiometry
Myths about pH and pH meters  Sharma, Brahama D.
The pH meter does not measure the pH, it measures the E of the cell against a standard.
Sharma, Brahama D. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 598.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Simpler Approach to "Apparent" pKa's  Kildahl, Nicholas
Addition to a recent article on pH, indicating an approach which emphasizes the chemistry behind the titration of a weak acid.
Kildahl, Nicholas J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 598.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
All Positive Ions Give Acid Solutions in Water  Stephen J. Hawkes
The acidity of aqueous solutions of positive ions is never zero although many texts say incorrectly that most metals of Groups I and II and some others are not acidic.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 516.
Acids / Bases |
Metals |
Solutions / Solvents |
pH
The Teaching of Precipitation Equilibrium: A New Approach  Ana M. V. S. V. Cavaleiro
In this paper we present a simplified integrated approach to the calculation of the solubility in water of a salt, and the pH of the saturated solution, taking into account the acid-base reactions of the anion.
Cavaleiro, Ana M. V. S. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 423.
Precipitation / Solubility |
pH |
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases
A Novel Approach to Teaching Electrochemical Principles  Paul Krause and Jerry Manion
To demonstrate that work may be done by a chemical reaction, a reaction producing a gas is carried out in a large, closed syringe. As the gas is generated, the syringe plunger is forced out.
Krause, Paul; Manion, Jerry. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 354.
Reactions |
Gases |
Thermodynamics
Anthocyanins: Model Compounds for Learning about More than pH  Robert Curtright, James A. Rynearson, and John Markwell
In recent years it has become common to use anthocyanins as pH indicators. We believe that chemistry teachers can capitalize further on the natural interest of students in anthocyanin pigments to design meaningful lessons involving chromatography and hydrolysis. This article focuses on the use of anthocyanins in chromatography and hydrolysis.
Curtright, Robert; Rynearson, James A.; Markwell, John. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 306.
Natural Products |
Chromatography |
Reactions |
Food Science
Olfactory Titration  John T. Wood and Roberta M. Eddy
The purpose of this experiment is to use unique acid-base indicator--the odor of raw onion--to indicate the end point of the titration of sodium hydroxide with hydrochloric acid. The use of this novel indicator allows the student to detect the completion of the neutralization reaction by olfaction rather than by sight.
Wood, John T.; Eddy, Roberta M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 257.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Strategic Consequences from Errors in Raoult's Law Paper  Stephen J. Hawkes
This article is an apology addressing errors in a previously published paper, "Raoult's Law is a Deception" and the new line of thinking that developed as a result of finding the errors.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 41.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Rate Law
Small-Scale Experiments Involving Gas Evolution  Brouwer, H.
Apparatus for measuring very small volume changes of gases and several experimental procedures involving the evolution of gases.
Brouwer, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A100.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Stoichiometry |
Acids / Bases |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab
From Christmas Ornament to Glass Electrode  Rogério T. da Rocha, Ivano G. R. Gutz, and Claudimir L. do Lago
Instructions and use of a homemade glass electrode for pH measurements/titrations.
Da Rocha, Rogerio T.; Gutz, Ivano G. R.; do Lago, Claudimir L. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1135.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management |
pH
Quick Method for Making Colored-Flame Flash Paper  Sally Solomon, Chinhyu Hur, Alan Lee, and Kurt Smith
Procedure for making for making colored-flame (and multicolored) flash paper.
Solomon, Sally; Hur, Chinhyu; Lee, Alan; Smith, Kurt. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1133.
Reactions |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Preparing "Chameleon Balls" from Natural Plants: Simple Handmade pH Indicator and Teaching Material for Chemical Equilibrium  Naoki Kanda, Takayuki Asano, Toshiyuki Itoh, and Makoto Onoda
Description of preparation and use of polysaccharide beads containing anthocyanins to teach students about chemical equilibrium under different pH conditions.
Kanda, Naoki; Asano, Takayuki; Itoh, Toshiyuki; Onoda, Makota. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1131.
Acids / Bases |
Plant Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Dyes / Pigments |
pH
Entertaining Chemistry  John F. Elsworth
"A Volcanic Serpent" (ammonium dichromate), "A Homemade Hydrogen Rocket", and "Johnny's Saga in Chemistry" (sulfuric acid + calcium carbonate) demonstrations.
Elsworth, John F. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1128.
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Gases
Photosynthesis: Why Does It Occur?  J. J. MacDonald
Explanation of why photosynthesis occurs; stating that it is merely the reverse of respiration is misleading.
MacDonald, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1113.
Plant Chemistry |
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Photochemistry |
Electrochemistry
Fe(s) + Cu(II)(aq) ----> Fe(II)(aq) + Cu(s): Fifteen Centuries of Search  Vladimir Karpenko
Historical development of understanding of the title reaction, particularly erroneous alchemical beliefs.
Karpenko, Vladimir. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1095.
Metals |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
The Stoichiometry of the Neutralization of Citric Acid: An Introductory Laboratory  Susan E. Hayes
Experiment to introduce stoichiometry to pre-college students; includes sample data and analysis.
Hayes, Susan E. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1029.
Acids / Bases |
Stoichiometry
Crystallization of Supersaturated Sodium Acetate and the Temperature Dependence of the Autoionization Constant of Water  Joseph A. Pergler, Ronald O. Ragsdale, and Thomas G. Richmond
A procedure to qualitatively demonstrate the variation of the autoionization constant of water with temperature.
Pergler, Joseph A.; Ragsdale, Ronald O.; Richmond, Thomas G. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1027.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Water / Water Chemistry
A Dating Analogy for Acid-Base Titration Problems  Ronald DeLorenzo
Analogy to help students understand the consequences of concentrating or diluting unknowns before titrating them.
DeLorenzo, Ronald. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1011.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases
What Does It Mean?: Reflections on Concentration, Activity, and Electrode Potential  Pietro Lanza
Explanation of electrode potential and the mechanism of the electrode process for determining concentration.
Lanza, Pietro. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1009.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Electrochemistry
What's Present? Qualitative Analysis Problems in General Chemistry  Sidney Toby
Open-book, research-oriented, sample questions regarding qualitative analysis.
Toby, Sidney. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1008.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Descriptive Chemistry
Ammonia Fountain and Density Gradient Column   Miroslav Proksa
Demonstration combining the ammonia fountain with an acid-base indicator density column.
Proksa, Miroslav. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 931.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Physical Properties |
Gases |
Acids / Bases
Carbohydrate Dehydration Demonstrations  David A. Dolson, Rubin Battino, Trevor M. Letcher, K. H. Pegel, and N. Revaprasadu
Study of the dehydration of a carbohydrate by sulfuric acid and variables that influence the reaction (including type of sugar, sugar granule size, and amount of water added to sugar).
Dolson, David A.; Battino, Rubin; Letcher, Trevor M.; Pegel, K. H.; Revprasadu, N. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 927.
Carbohydrates |
Reactions
Synthesis and Decomposition of Zinc Iodide: Model Reactions for Investigating Chemical Change in the Introductory Laboratory  Stephen DeMeo
Procedure for synthesizing and then decomposing zinc iodide in introductory chemistry that offers advantages over traditional synthesis/decomposition species (e.g. copper sulfide and magnesium oxide).
DeMeo, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 836.
Synthesis |
Thermodynamics |
Reactions
pKw Is Almost Never 14.0: Contribution from the Task Force on the General Chemistry Curriculum  Stephen J. Hawkes
Corrections to the errors made in the ionic equilibrium chapters of introductory chemistry textbooks.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 799.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
From Titration Data to Buffer Capacities: A Computer Experiment for the Chemistry Lab or Lecture  Roy W. Clark, Gary D. White, Judith M. Bonicamp, and Exum D. Watts
Provides titration curve data that students can plot and analyze using spreadsheets to develop student understanding of pH, derivatives, buffer capacity, and the behavior of dilute buffers; includes sample graphs and analysis.
Clark, Roy W.; White, Gary D.; Bonicamp, Judith M.; Watts, Exum D. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 746.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics
More Chemistry in a Soda Bottle: A Conservation of Mass Activity  Daniel Q. Duffy, Stephanie A. Shaw, William O. Bare, and Kenneth A. Goldsby
Conservation of mass activity using vinegar and baking soda in a 2-L soda bottle.
Duffy, Daniel Q.; Shaw, Stephanie A.; Bare, William D.; Goldsby, Kenneth A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 734.
Reactions |
Gases |
Acids / Bases
Methanol Cannon Demonstrations Revisited  David A. Dolson, Michael E. Dolson, Michael R. Hall, Rubin Battino, Lisa S. Jutte
Demonstrations involving methanol cannons and chain reactions.
Dolson, David A.; Dolson, Michael E.; Hall, Michael R.; Battino, Rubin; Jutte, Lisa S. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 732.
Free Radicals |
Reactions |
Alcohols
Demonstrating a Lack of Reactivity Using a Teflon-Coated Pan  Thomas G. Richmond
Demonstration to illustrate a lack of chemical activity using a Teflon-coated pan.
Richmond, Thomas G.; Krause, Paul F. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 731.
Reactions |
Covalent Bonding
Stoichiometry and Chemical Reactions (the author replies)  Filgueiras, Carlos A.
The mere writing of balanced equations may be unrelated to the actual reaction that takes place.
Filgueiras, Carlos A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 668.
Reactions |
Stoichiometry
Stoichiometry and Chemical Reactions  Radhakrishnamurty, P.
Can there exist different ways of balancing a chemical reaction?
Radhakrishnamurty, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 668.
Reactions |
Stoichiometry
Making Sparklers: An Introductory Laboratory Experiment   Allen Keeney, Christina Walters, and Richard D. Cornelius
Method for producing sparklers to illustrate redox reactions.
Keeney, Allen; Walters, Christina; Cornelius, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 652.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Metals
First-Year Chemistry in the Context of the Periodic Table   Sheila D. Woodgate
Integration of descriptive chemistry into chemistry curricula, particularly inorganic chemistry.
Woodgate, Sheila D. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 618.
Main-Group Elements |
Transition Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation State |
Acids / Bases
Titration Techniques  Jerrold J. Jacobsen, Kelly Houston Jetzer, and Néha Patani, John Zimmerman, and Gerald Zweerink
Laser disk that contains 20 lessons and demonstrations of lab techniques related to titrations.
Jacobsen, J. J.; Jetzer, K. H.; Patani, N.; Zimmerman, J.; Zweerink,G. . J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 612.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Small Scale One-Pot Reactions of Copper, Iron, and Silver  Epp, Dianne N.
Investigation of a series of reactions involving copper, iron, and silver, all conducted with very small quantities in a single well.
Epp, Dianne N. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 545.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility
Turmeric as an Acid-Base Indicator  Breedlove, C. H.
Example of turmeric as a natural acid-base indicator.
Breedlove, C. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 540.
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments
Resistance Measurement as a Tool for Corrosion Studies  Singh, N. P.; Gupta, S. C.; Sood, B. R.
Procedure for determining the rate of corrosion by measuring changes in the resistance of a thin wire or strip of metal; sample data and analysis included.
Singh, N. P.; Gupta, S. C.; Sood, B. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 465.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Rate Law |
Reactions |
Electrochemistry
Rapid Calculation for Preparing Solutions  Calero, Diego Lozano
Streamlined method for dilution calculations.
Calero, Diego Lozano J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 424.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics
The Periodic Table CD  Banks, Alton J; Holmes, Jon L.
Description of the Periodic Table CD, containing a database of still images and motion sequences of reactions and uses/applications of each chemical element.
Banks, Alton J; Holmes, Jon L. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 409.
Main-Group Elements |
Transition Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Reactions
Revitalizing the Gravimetric Determination in Quantitative Analysis Laboratory  Harris, Thomas M.
A gravimetry experiment that illustrates many of the chemical and physical principles of precipitation; includes sample data and analysis.
Harris, Thomas M. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 355.
Gravimetric Analysis |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis
Visual demonstration of buffer action  Chang, James C.
A fast and easy demonstration of buffer action without the elaborate preparation of solutions.
Chang, James C. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 345.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
An Easily Constructed Salicylate-Ion-Selective Electrode for Use in the Instructional Laboratory  Creager, Stephen E.; Lawrence, Kyle D.; Tibbets, Craig R.
Construction and use of a salicylate-ion-selective electrode; includes a calibration curve.
Creager, Stephen E.; Lawrence, Kyle D.; Tibbets, Craig R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 274.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Ion Selective Electrodes
The "Magic" Flask  Battino, Rubin; Fortman, John J.
Apparatus designed to "magically" dispense liquids of many different colors without refilling.
Battino, Rubin; Fortman, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 246.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Concrete Analogy for Combustion Analysis Problems  Reingold, I. David
Exercise for helping students understand stoichiometry by considering a Sherlock Holmes case.
Reingold, I. David J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 222.
Reactions |
Stoichiometry
Raoult's Law Is a Deception  Hawkes, Stephen J.
Argument that Raoult's law should be omitted from introductory chemistry courses because of limited applicability and usefulness at that level of study.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 204.
Rate Law |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Suspension of Drops of a Liquid in a Column of Water  Ahmad, Jamil
Procedure for producing drops of a liquid suspended in the middle of a column of another liquid, giving the illusion of violating Archimedes' principle.
Ahmad, Jamil J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 178.
Physical Properties |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Modified Hydrogen Balloon Explosion  Lawrence, Stephen S.
Detonating a water filled, hydrogen/oxygen balloon.
Lawrence, Stephen S. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 177.
Reactions
Put a Little Kaboom in Your Classroom  Barondeau, Mike
Instructions for constructing a calcium carbide/acetylene cannon from PVC pipe.
Barondeau, Mike J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 176.
Reactions |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Use of Electrochemical Concentration Cells to Demonstrate the Dimeric Nature of Mercury(I) in Aqueous Media  Bhattacharya, Deepta; Peters, Dennis G.
Experimental procedure for demonstrating that divalent mercury is monovalent in aqueous solution; includes data and analysis.
Bhattacharya, Deepta; Peters, Dennis G. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 64.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Checking Trace Nitrate in Water and Soil Using an Amateur Scientist's Measurement Guide  Baker, Roger C., Jr.
Procedures and apparatus (photometer) for measuring concentrations of nitrates in water and soil using common equipment and materials; includes data and analysis.
Baker, Roger C., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 57.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Agricultural Chemistry
Solution-Phase Thermodynamics: A "Spontaneity" Activity  Bindel, Thomas H.
Experimental procedure for verifying the concept of spontaneity using solution chemistry; includes data and analysis.
Bindel, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 34.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Thermodynamics
A Simple Microwell Colorimeter for Use in an Introductory Chemistry Lab  Crump, Jennifer; Sandwick, Roger K.
Using simple and common electronic components to manufacture an inexpensive microwell detector that uses and LCD as a light source and a CdS photocell as a detector; includes examples of applications of the device in a high school or undergraduate chemistry curriculum.
Crump, Jennifer; Sandwick, Roger K. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A199.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Learning Name Reactions and Name Apparatuses Through Crossword Puzzles  Lee, Albert W. M.; Tse, C. L.
These computer generated crossword puzzles consist of 38 organic name reactions and 13 name apparatuses frequently encountered at the undergraduate level.
Lee, Albert W. M.; Tse, C. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1071.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Reactions
The Chemical Adventures of Sherlock Holmes: The Hound of Henry Armitage  Waddell, Thomas G.; Rybolt, Thomas R.
A chemical mystery featuring Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson with an emphasis on physical properties and balancing reaction equations.
Waddell, Thomas G.; Rybolt, Thomas R. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1049.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Physical Properties |
Reactions
Chart for Deciding Mechanism for Reaction of Alkyl Halide with Nucleophile/Base  McClelland, Bruce W.
The decision chart offered here is based upon the well-known and accepted characteristics of the reaction system mechanisms described in typical introductory organic chemistry textbooks.
McClelland, Bruce W. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1047.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Nucleophilic Substitution
Chemistry Navigator  Kotz, John C.; Young, Susan
Chemistry Navigator is a hyperbook-database of information in the form of descriptive text, numerical values of properties, full color photos of chemicals and reactions, three dimensional molecular structures, QuickTime animations of structural features, and graphs showing periodic trends, relative elemental abundances, and other properties.
Kotz, John C.; Young, Susan J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 941.
Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Not So Late Night Chemistry with USD  Koppang, Miles D.; Webb, Karl M.; Srinivasan, Rekha R.
Through the program, college students enhance their knowledge and expertise on a chemical topic and gain experience in scientific presentations. They also serve as role models to the high school students who can relate to college students more easily than the chemistry faculty members and their high school students.
Koppang, Miles D.; Webb, Karl M.; Srinivasan, Rekha R. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 929.
Forensic Chemistry |
Polymerization |
Electrochemistry |
Isotopes |
Acids / Bases
Pictorial Analogies XIII: Kinetics and Mechanism  Fortman, John J.
Pictorial analogies for first order kinetics, the effect of concentration and temperature on reaction rate, and the requirement for proper molecular orientation for reaction.
Fortman, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 848.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Rate Law |
Reactions
ChemDemos  Moore, John W.; Jacobsen, Jerrold; Hunsberger, Lynn R.; Gammon, Steven D.; Zimmerman, John
A video laserdisc that includes 30 demonstrations suitable for introductory chemistry.
Moore, John W.; Jacobsen, Jerrold; Hunsberger, Lynn R.; Gammon, Steven D.; Zimmerman, John J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 779.
Reactions
Teaching the Truth about pH  Hawkes, Stephen J.
-log[H+] is only an approximation to pH; how to teach pH to avoid misleading students.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 747.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium
Fruit Anthocyanins: Colorful Sensors of Molecular Milieu  Curtright, Robert D.; Rynearson, James A .; Markwell, John
Provides background and references as a starting point for the further exploration of anthocyanins.
Curtright, Robert D.; Rynearson, James A .; Markwell, John J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 682.
Dyes / Pigments |
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
pH
Computers and Practical Chemistry  Gipps, John
164. Particularly appropriate examples for the computer interfacing of laboratory experiments.
Gipps, John J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 671.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Reactions
Kinetics of Chemical Reactions: A Low-Cost and Simple Appartus  Papageorgiou, G.; Ouzounis, K.; Xenos, J.
Description, applications, and experiments for a simple and inexpensive apparatus to help students understand kinetics.
Papageorgiou, G.; Ouzounis, K.; Xenos, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 647.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Reactions |
Kinetics
The Sol-Gel Preparation of Silica Gels  Buckley, A. M.; Greenblatt, M.
Background and procedure for the sol-gel preparation of silica from molecular precursors.
Buckley, A. M.; Greenblatt, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 599.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Colloids
An Interactive Multimedia Software Program for Exploring Electrochemical Cells  Greenbowe, Thomas J.
The "Electrochemical Workbench" is one component of a software package that allows students and faculty to explore building and testing electrochemical cells by simulating a chemistry laboratory in which students can perform experiments.
Greenbowe, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 555.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Use of Multimedia in an Introductory Chemistry Course for Student Analysis of Real-Life Situations  Joesten, Melvin D.
Award in the Course and Curriculum Development (CCD) program for FY1994.
Joesten, Melvin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 508.
Addition Reactions
Student's Models of Matter in the Context of Acid-Base Chemistry  Nakhleh, Mary B.
Secondary students' understandings of acids, bases, and pH which emerged in semi-structured interviews conducted as part of a larger study of the effects of three levels of instrumentation on students' understandings of acids, bases, and pH.
Nakhleh, Mary B. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 495.
Acids / Bases |
pH
Hydrogen Peroxide Demo Curing the Brown Bottle-with-Black Cap Syndrome  Sae, Andy
Comparing the reactivity of 3%, 12%, and 27% H2O2 solution.
Sae, Andy J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 433.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Pictorial Analogies XI: Concentrations and Acidity of Solutions  Fortman, John J.
Visual analogies of the concentration of a solution, strength of a solution, super saturated solution, conjugate acid-base pairs, and inverse relationship between pH and [H+] and pOH and [OH-].
Fortman, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 430.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
pH
An Oscillating Reaction as a Demonstration of Principles Applied in Chemistry and Chemical Engineering  Weimer, Jeffrey J.
Platinum catalyzed decomposition of methanol.
Weimer, Jeffrey J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 325.
Thermodynamics |
Catalysis |
Transport Properties |
Kinetics |
Reactions
Pyrotechnic Reactions Without Oxygen  Wright, Stephen W.
Reaction of K3FeF6 with Al and poly(tetrafluoroethylene) with Mg.
Wright, Stephen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 251.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
TITRATE: A Learning Tool for Acid-Base Titrations  Ramette, Richard W.
Software that calculates and simulates the plot of a titration curve for any base or acid (up to hexaprotic) or any mixture (up to five substances).
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 238.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
KineticsLab: The Crystal Violet/Sodium Hydroxide Reaction  Cannon, John F.; Gammon, Steven D.; Hunsberger, Lynn R.
A computer-assisted experiment to collect and analyze data for a kinetic study of the decolorization of crystal violet in basic solution.
Cannon, John F.; Gammon, Steven D.; Hunsberger, Lynn R. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 238.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Reactions
Will a precipitate form? Will it dissolve?: The Role of Lecture Demonstrations in Facilitating the Introduction to Solubility Product Equilibria  Pacer, Richard A.; Williams, Kathryn
Three demonstrations to illustrate solubility product equilibria.
Pacer, Richard A.; Williams, Kathryn J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 69.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium
Pictorial Analogies, X: Solutions of Electrolytes  Fortman, John J.
Pictorial analogies useful in developing an understanding of the nature of electrolytes in solution.
Fortman, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 27.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Bean counter's caution   Schwartz, Leslie J.
The article "The "Bean Lab' is useful only for elementary mechanisms.
Schwartz, Leslie J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 1042.
Equilibrium |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The activation energy of a slap bracelet   Kramer, F. Axtell.
This accessory/toy can be used to help students understand activation energy.
Kramer, F. Axtell. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 1002.
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Heat of solution of hydrogen chloride: A laboratory experiment  Harms, Gregory S.; Lehman, Thomas A.
A simple technique for measuring the heat of solution of HCl in water.
Harms, Gregory S.; Lehman, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 955.
Acids / Bases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
A recipe for the preparation of a pH 7.00 calibration buffer  Jackman, Donald C.
Simple recipe for preparation of a pH 7.00 calibration buffer based on the NIST standard.
Jackman, Donald C. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 853.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management |
pH
Investigating protective coatings for steel   Runyan, Tom; Herrmann, Mary
Learning about corrosion chemistry provides students with authentic inquiry experience as well as an opportunity to learn relevant and applicable content.
Runyan, Tom; Herrmann, Mary J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 843.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases |
Metals |
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Materials Science
General treatment of aqueous ionic equilibria using predominance diagrams  Vale, J.; Fernandez-Pereira, C.; Alcalde, M.
This paper illustrates the advantage of a unified instructional treatment based on the similarities o equilibria between acid-base and oxidation-reduction reactions that could be used in a general chemistry course.
Vale, J.; Fernandez-Pereira, C.; Alcalde, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 790.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Oxidation / Reduction
Rainbow demonstration using acid-base indicators   Loffredo, Robert E.; Crookston, Danette
An attention getting demonstration.
Loffredo, Robert E.; Crookston, Danette J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 774.
Acids / Bases |
pH
The determination of "apparent" pKa's: An experiment for liberal arts or science students  Cawley, John J.
An experiment with two different "conclusions" to be reached: one for liberal arts students, one for science students.
Cawley, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 596.
Acids / Bases |
Nonmajor Courses |
pH
The electrician's multimeter in the chemistry teaching laboratory: Part 2: Potentiometry and conductimetry  Sevilla, Fortunato, III; Alfonso, Rafael L.; Andres, Roberto T.
Further applications of the multimeter in chemistry laboratories are discussed in this paper: potentiometry, reduction potentials and cell EMF, the Nerst equations, pH measurements, titration, conductimetry, and conduction of solutions.
Sevilla, Fortunato, III; Alfonso, Rafael L.; Andres, Roberto T. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 580.
Acids / Bases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Potentiometry
A study of the pH of perspiration from male and female subjects exercising in the gymnasium: A practical challenge for students in the nonscience major class  Doran, Daniel; Tierney, John; Varano, Mary; Ware, Susan
An engaging activity is developed out of an authentic inquiry posed by students. This article presents the debate behind the title question, a procedure, sample data, results, and discussion.
Doran, Daniel; Tierney, John; Varano, Mary; Ware, Susan J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 412.
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Nonmajor Courses |
pH
Chemical checkers on the computer  Orlik, Y. G.; Glyakov, P. V.; Varova, R. M.
148. Bits and pieces, 49. A program that is enjoyable and useful because it enables students to organize and sum up their knowledge on topics such as chemical properties of metals and properties of acids, bases, and salts.
Orlik, Y. G.; Glyakov, P. V.; Varova, R. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 297.
Acids / Bases |
Metals
The Erosion of Carbonate Stone by Acid Rain: Laboratory and Field Investigations  Baedecker, Philip A.; Reddy, Michael M.
Describes a laboratory experiment on the effects of acidic deposition on carbonate stone erosion. The purpose is to answer questions concerning the effects of hydrogen ion deposition on stone erosion processes that are difficult to resolve in field experiments alone.
Baedecker, Philip A.; Reddy, Michael M. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 104.
Acids / Bases |
Green Chemistry
The synthesis of urea: An undergraduate laboratory experiment   Tanski, Stephanie; Petro, Janeen; Ball, David W.
This paper presents a laboratory experiment for the production of urea from silver cyanate and ammonium chloride.
Tanski, Stephanie; Petro, Janeen; Ball, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A128.
Synthesis |
Reactions
Ammonia balloon  Mattson, Bruce
Demonstrating ammonia's aqueous solubility using a container whose volume changes.
Mattson, Bruce J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1029.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A simple and colorful demonstration of light-catalyzed bromination of an alkane  Stevens, Malcolm P.
Light-catalyzed bromination of an alkane.
Stevens, Malcolm P. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1028.
Catalysis |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Photochemistry |
Reactions
Gas reactions in plastic bags: Relating laboratory observations to the atomic-molecular model  Robinson, Maurice; Barrow, Gordon M.
Carrying out chemical reactions in Ziplock bags to investigate a variety of chemical concepts.
Robinson, Maurice; Barrow, Gordon M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1026.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Photochemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Physical Properties
The acid-base package  Ramette, Richard W.; Holmes, Jon L.
Software that will calculate theoretical titration curve data and the pH for any mixture of acids and/or bases.
Ramette, Richard W.; Holmes, Jon L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1010.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Demonstrating the conservation of matter: A trilogy of experiments   Martin, David; Russell, Randy D.; Thomas, Nicholas C.
Three related demonstrations involving calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid explore the conservation of matter.
Martin, David; Russell, Randy D.; Thomas, Nicholas C. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 925.
Physical Properties |
Acids / Bases |
Stoichiometry |
Gases
Replacement reactions using a dissecting microscope  Lam-Erwin, Chuk-Yin; Sprague, Joseph
Performing drop-size experiments under dissecting microscopes, including examining the reactivity of metals and double replacement reactions.
Lam-Erwin, Chuk-Yin; Sprague, Joseph J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 855.
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals |
Microscale Lab |
Reactions |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Acids / Bases
Microscale experiments: Dissolved oxygen and chloride determination in water  Crosson, Mary; Gibb, Reen
Determining the dissolved oxygen and chloride content of water samples through titrations.
Crosson, Mary; Gibb, Reen J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 830.
Microscale Lab |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Ammonia fountain improvements  Steadman, Ned
Suggestions to eliminate the excessive preparation time and questionable reliability of the classic ammonia fountain demonstration.
Steadman, Ned J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 764.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Imprecise numbers and incautious safety procedure mar experiment.  Nelson, Robert N.
Problems with significant figures and safety concerns regarding two published experiments.
Nelson, Robert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 688.
Reactions |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The use of potassium alum in demonstrating amphoterism  Tesh, Kris F.
Demonstrating amphoterism with aluminum hydroxide and universal indicator solution.
Tesh, Kris F. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 573.
Acids / Bases
Simple soda bottle solubility and equilibria  Snyder, Cheryl A.; Snyder, Dudley C.
Using a bottle of selzter water and bromocresol green to demonstrate gas-liquid solubility (carbon dioxide in water).
Snyder, Cheryl A.; Snyder, Dudley C. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 573.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Liquids |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry
Red, white, blue, and yellow chemistry  Dewar, Phyllis D.
Producing a colored U.S. flag using Congo red.
Dewar, Phyllis D. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 572.
Acids / Bases |
pH
A low-cost pH meter for the classroom.  Harris, David L.; Harris, Daniel C.
Design of an inexpensive yet precise pH meter for classroom use.
Harris, David L.; Harris, Daniel C. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 563.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
pH |
Acids / Bases
Arrhenius confuses students.  Hawkes, Stephen J.
An acid is a substance from which a proton can be removed; protons are not "donated".
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 542.
Acids / Bases
The extent of acid-base reactions (the author replies).  Thompson, Ralph J.
A poor example for calculating the extent of reaction between hydronium ion and aniline was chosen.
Thompson, Ralph J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 516.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions
The extent of acid-base reactions.  Tapparo, Andrea.
Several misleading statements can be found in the original article.
Tapparo, Andrea. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 515.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions
The acid equilibrium constant is unity! (the author replies)  Thompson, Ralph J.
The interpretation of thermodynamic equilibrium constants by Baldwin and Burchill is quite proper and technically correct.
Thompson, Ralph J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 515.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The acid equilibrium constant is unity!  Baldwin, W. G.; Burchill, C. E.
The attempt to assign a non-unity value to this equilibrium constant is a consequence of misunderstanding the way in which the (nearly) constant concentration or activity of the solvent in a dilute solution (or of a pure solid or liquid in a heterogeneous system) is treated when formulating the conventional equilibrium constant expression.
Baldwin, W. G.; Burchill, C. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 514.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Helping students to improve their approach to predicting the products of chemical reactions  Ragsdale, Ronald O.; Zipp, Arden P.
One task that seems to baffle many of today's beginning chemistry students is predicting the products of chemical reactions and writing net ionic equations to represent them.
Ragsdale, Ronald O.; Zipp, Arden P. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 390.
Reactions
The chemical logic of life and the earth's biosphere: A simple, one-diagram outline  Ochiai, Ei-Ichiro
This diagram is intended to give a compact overall picture of the chemical logic of life and of the earth's biosphere.
Ochiai, Ei-Ichiro J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 356.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction
Refrigerated dropping funnel and reflux condenser  Cagle, M. D.; Denton, T.; Eisenbraun, E. J.
This one-piece apparatus has proved useful in controlling the temperature of a reagent during addition to a refluxing reaction mixture.
Cagle, M. D.; Denton, T.; Eisenbraun, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 331.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Reactions
Determination of the solubility product of copper(II) tartrate  Thomsen, Marcus W.
The spectrophotometric determination of the solubility product of cupric tartrate is an appropriate experiment for the introductory chemistry course.
Thomsen, Marcus W. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 328.
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Spectroscopy
Analogical demonstrations   Fortman, John J.
By illustrating an analogy with a visual demonstration, a student is aided in both understanding and remembering a lesson.
Fortman, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 323.
Physical Properties |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides |
Acids / Bases
The computer as student: An application of artificial intelligence  Birk, James P.
The author describes how the development of computer software to teach about chemical reactivity also provides information about how we should teach several topics in general chemistry.
Birk, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 294.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases
Standard states for water equilibrium (author response).  Campbell, Mark L.; Waite, Boyd A.
For the purposes of comparison only the unconventionally derived Ka values should be used to compare equilibrium constants for other acids to determine relative acid strengths.
Campbell, Mark L.; Waite, Boyd A. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 256.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Standard states for water equilibrium.  Baldwin, W. George; Burchill, C. Eugene.
The authors consider that Ka and Kb values for Bronsted acids and bases in aqueous solution represent one data set describing the properties of solutes in dilute aqueous solution.
Baldwin, W. George; Burchill, C. Eugene. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 255.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Cyclic indicator color change by titrant electrogeneration.  Stock, John T.
A simple but striking demonstration of coulometric titration.
Stock, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 253.
Electrochemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Enzyme activity: The ping-pong ball torture analogy  Helser, Terry L.
The author uses this analogy to help students visualize and understand the effect of reaction conditions on the initial rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 137.
Enzymes |
Reactions
Demonstrations with red cabbage indicator   Fortman, John J.; Stubbs, Katherine M.
This paper extends the use of the red cabbage extract into demonstrations that illustrate the acidic or basic nature of solutions of gases and gives suggestions for modifications to project the beautiful range of colors and shades for better viewing in large lecture halls.
Fortman, John J.; Stubbs, Katherine M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 66.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Gases
The bird-scarer (combustion) demo   Battino, Rubin; Arehart, James D.; Foot, Neville W.; Stott, James B.
This is a demonstration version of a device used to scare birds with loud noises occurring at regular intervals.
Battino, Rubin; Arehart, James D.; Foot, Neville W.; Stott, James B. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 64.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Spreadsheet titration of diprotic acids and bases  Breneman, G. L.; Parker, O. J.
133. Bits and pieces, 47. A spreadsheet and chart, set up using Excel, for showing titration curves of any diprotic acid or base is described.
Breneman, G. L.; Parker, O. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 46.
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Chem 1 concept builder (Lower, Steve with Instructional Software)  Hair, Sally R.
A review of a software package designed for tutorial and drill.
Hair, Sally R. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A19.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Freezing point depression in a bottle of soda   Bare, William D.
The "ravenous consumption of soda" by today's students makes an interesting model with which to demonstrate the effect of solute concentration on the freezing point of an aqueous solution.
Bare, William D. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1038.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Water / Water Chemistry
Use of liquid oxygen to support combustion   Sullivan, Dan M.
Production, procedure, and safety of demonstrations involving liquid nitrogen in order to demonstrate: Charles' Law, production and properties of liquid oxygen, effects of concentration on reactions and reaction rates, liquefaction and boiling of oxygen kindling temperature, reactions between substances in two different states of matter, and comparison of partial and complete combustion.
Sullivan, Dan M. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1036.
Physical Properties |
Gases |
Reactions |
Equilibrium
Acid rain investigations   Epp, Dianne N.; Curtright, Robert
A series of reactions that can be carried out to demonstrate the effects of acid rain.
Epp, Dianne N.; Curtright, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1034.
Acids / Bases |
Green Chemistry
A procedure for determining formulas for the simple p-block oxoacids  Kildahl, Nicholas K.
Formulae for p-block oxoacids baffle high school and undergraduate students. This paper presents a procedure for developing these formulas based on the concept of total coordination number of the central atom in the molecule or ion.
Kildahl, Nicholas K. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1001.
Acids / Bases |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The preparation of halogen waters   Diemente, Damon
Aqueous solutions of halogens can provide important demonstrations regarding periodicity, however many instructors are understandably hesitant to handle halogens. This author discusses the safe handling of halogens.
Diemente, Damon J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 932.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Chemical equilibrium: VIII. Precipitates   Gordus, Adon A.
The final article in a series (see previous months this year): This article focuses on ionic precipitates in water and how buffered solutions allow easier calculation of solubilities.
Gordus, Adon A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 927.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
pH |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry
Advanced titration plots using spreadsheet scripting  Currie, James O., Jr.; Whiteley, Richard V., Jr.
131. A spreadsheet aids in student understanding of acid/base titration calculations.
Currie, James O., Jr.; Whiteley, Richard V., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 923.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Equilibrium
An oldie but goodie test for carbon dioxide  Hazari, Al
A more colorful test for carbon dioxide than the usual check for supporting combustion.
Hazari, Al J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 778.
Acids / Bases |
pH
A study of some 2-chloro-2-methylpropane kinetics using a computer interface  Allen, Anthony; Haughey, Adam J.; Hernandez, Yolanda; Ireton, Scot
Examining the effects of a few variables on the rate of a chemical reaction using specialized software.
Allen, Anthony; Haughey, Adam J.; Hernandez, Yolanda; Ireton, Scot J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 609.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
The hydronium ion: How do we know?   Diemente, Damon
Demonstrations and discussions surrounding the hydronium ion.
Diemente, Damon J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 568.
Acids / Bases |
pH
A call for simplification   Peterson, Donald
Does "An Instructive Gibbs-Function Problem" unnecessarily confuse even the most capable students? An exchange of letters.
Peterson, Donald J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 443.
Thermodynamics |
Reactions
Demonstration properties of sulfur dioxide   Brouwer, H.
Demonstrations of properties of sulfur dioxide are timely, given current debates between Canada and the United States regarding acid rain.
Brouwer, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 417.
Acids / Bases |
Green Chemistry |
pH
Teaching photometry with overhead projector experiments   Gutz, Ivano G. R.; Angnes, Lucio; Pedrotti, Jairo J.
Description of a photometry demonstration with an overhead projector.
Gutz, Ivano G. R.; Angnes, Lucio; Pedrotti, Jairo J. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 325.
Potentiometry |
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Acid and base dissociation constants of water and its associated ions  de Lange, A. M.; Potgieter, J. H.
By applying the Bronsted-Lowry concept of acids and bases, one can derive acid and base dissociation constants for water and its associated ions.
de Lange, A. M.; Potgieter, J. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 304.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
pH |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Chemical equilibrium: III. A few math tricks   Gordus, Adon A.
The third article in a series on chemical equilibrium that considers a few math "tricks" useful in equilibrium calculations and approximations.
Gordus, Adon A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 291.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Ammonia bottle  Sheets, Michael
A suggested variation to this impressive demonstration.
Sheets, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 247.
Reactions
Using a motor to demonstrate conductivity   Solomon, Sally; Fulep-Poszmik, Annamaria
The turning of a propeller identifies solutions of strong electrolytes.
Solomon, Sally; Fulep-Poszmik, Annamaria J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 160.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Conductivity
In praise of copper  Tykodi, R. J.
The reactions of copper make impressive lecture demonstrations and worthwhile laboratory activities.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 106.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Reactivity of nickel  Birk, James P.; Ronan, Martha; Bennett, Imogene; Kinney, Cheri
A series of experiments which lead to observations about the reactivity of nickel. [Debut]
Birk, James P.; Ronan, Martha; Bennett, Imogene; Kinney, Cheri J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 48.
Reactions |
Quantitative Analysis |
Coordination Compounds |
Oxidation State |
Electrochemistry
Measurements of equilibrium constants of acid-base indicators with a blocktronic colorimeter  Walters, David; Birk, James P.
A computer-interfaced measurement of equilibrium constants of acid-base indicators (methyl orange, methyl red, and phenolphthalein).
Walters, David; Birk, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A252.
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments |
Spectroscopy |
Equilibrium |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Numerical solutions for diprotic acid equilibria using spreadsheet iterations  Parker, O. Jerry; Breneman, Gary L.
This software affords the opportunities of solving the problem in an open format that displays any desired intermediate steps as well as final results.
Parker, O. Jerry; Breneman, Gary L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A5.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium
Titrations of monoprotic acids with sodium hydroxide contaminated by sodium carbonate (the author replies)   Michalowski, Tadeusz
A basic assumption made in the original article does not reflect the most common practical situation; therefore, some of the conclusions can be misleading if taken as general rules.
Michalowski, Tadeusz J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1072.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Titrations of monoprotic acids with sodium hydroxide contaminated by sodium carbonate  Bombi, G. Giorgio; Macca, Carlo; Michalowski, Tadeusz
A basic assumption made in the original article does not reflect the most common practical situation; therefore, some of the conclusions can be misleading if taken as general rules.
Bombi, G. Giorgio; Macca, Carlo; Michalowski, Tadeusz J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1072.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Picture biochemistry: A puzzle  Helser, Terry L.
A rebus puzzle of three biochemical equations.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1062.
Reactions
A short program for the automatic calculation of pH in solutions having many acids or bases  Campanario, Juan Miguel; Ballesteros, Reyes
121. Bits and pieces, 45. A computer program for calculating the pH of mixtures having many acids or bases.
Campanario, Juan Miguel; Ballesteros, Reyes J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1036.
Acids / Bases |
pH
Bromothymol surprise  Maier, Linda L.
Dropping a tablet of Alka Seltzer into a bromothymol blue solution.
Maier, Linda L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 963.
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry
Reaction of bromine with hydrocarbons on the overhead, real or simulated  Solomon, Sally; Gregory, Michael; Padmanabhan, Sandeep; Smith, Kurt
A simulation that looks like the addition of bromine to hydrocarbons but is not (the bromine is simulated using a mixture of food colorings).
Solomon, Sally; Gregory, Michael; Padmanabhan, Sandeep; Smith, Kurt J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 961.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Addition Reactions
Demonstration of ionic dissociation in aqueous solution  Diemente, Damon
A simple demonstration that readily convinces students that many ionic solids exist in a different form in solution from that which they exhibit in the solid state.
Diemente, Damon J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 950.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Metals
Teaching freezing point lowering  Ball, Jenelle; Cooke, Ron C.; Willis, Grover
Using Le Chatelier's principle, the van't Hoff equation, and the empirical equation to explain the lowering of the freezing point caused by dissolving antifreeze in water.
Ball, Jenelle; Cooke, Ron C.; Willis, Grover J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 676.
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A modified graphical method for acid-base equilibria  Nakagawa, Kuniaki
A method based on logarithmic diagrams for finding the pH values for various systems in acid-base equilibria.
Nakagawa, Kuniaki J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 673.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
pH
A Governor's School course emphasizing chemical reactions  Deavor, James P.
Format, lecture content, and laboratory program for a course that emphasizes chemical reactions and the relevancy of chemistry to our lives.
Deavor, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 669.
Reactions
Avoid misleading the students  Rich, Ronald L.
Chemists have a long-standing habit, misleading at least to students, of saying that strong bases produce acids in various reactions.
Rich, Ronald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 629.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions
A bromate clock reaction: The formation of purple tris(diphosphato)manganate(III)  Rich, Ronald L.; Noyes, Richard M.
Bromate is used to oxidize nearly colorless Mn(II) to a deep purple complex of Mn(III).
Rich, Ronald L.; Noyes, Richard M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 606.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Kinetics
The cadmium-sodium nitrate reaction  Hill, William D., Jr.
A reaction involving lead and sodium nitrate prompted the idea to try reacting cadmium and sodium nitrate with the anticipation of producing cadmium oxide.
Hill, William D., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 529.
Quantitative Analysis |
Reactions
Analysis of organic acids: A freshman laboratory experiment  Griswold, John R.; Rauner, Richard A.
In this experiment students select unknown carboxylic acids, determine their melting points, and investigate their solubility behavior in water and ethanol.
Griswold, John R.; Rauner, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 516.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Stoichiometry |
Precipitation / Solubility
The pH of any mixture of monoprotic acids and bases  Herman, D. P.; Booth, K. K.; Parker, O. J.; Breneman, G. L.
115. Bits and pieces, 44. The pH of any mixture of monoprotic weak and strong acids and bases can be calculated. A curve can also be plotted for the titration of the mixture by any monoportic weak or strong acid or base.
Herman, D. P.; Booth, K. K.; Parker, O. J.; Breneman, G. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 501.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH
A small scale equilibrium experiment   Flash, Patrick
An alternative method for the experiment in which the equilibrium constant for the iron-thiocyanate complex is determined.
Flash, Patrick J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 341.
Equilibrium |
Reactions
Microscale acid-base extraction: A colorful introduction  Elder, John W.
The concept and the microscale manipulation involved in acid-base extractions are often difficult for beginning students.
Elder, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 266.
Acids / Bases |
Microscale Lab
Solution of acid-base equilibria by successive approximations  Olivieri, Alejandro C.
The use of the method of successive approximations for solving acid-base equilibria, in conjunction with an intuitive, chemically based analysis is presented.
Olivieri, Alejandro C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 229.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium
An efficient method for the treatment of weak acid/base equilibria  Burness, James H.
The use of the ionization ratio concept enables students to perform many of the calculations for aqueous acid/base equilibria more quickly and efficiently.
Burness, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 224.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases
The hydrolysis of salts derived from a weak monoprotic acid and a weak monoprotic base  Cardinali, Mario Emilio; Giomini, Claudio; Marrosu, Giancarlo
The limitations as well as the conditions under which this simplified approach to the hydrolysis of salts from a weak acid and a weak base can yield almost exact results are discussed.
Cardinali, Mario Emilio; Giomini, Claudio; Marrosu, Giancarlo J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 221.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions
The extent of acid-base reactions  Thompson, Ralph J.
How to calculate the equilibrium constant of an acid-base reaction.
Thompson, Ralph J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 220.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions |
Equilibrium
In praise of thiosulfate  Tykodi, R. J.
The reactions of thiosulfate make impressive lecture demonstrations and worthwhile laboratory experiments.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 146.
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Stoichiometry
Acid content of beverages: A general chemistry experiment involving the resolution of apparent anomalies  Fuchsman, William H.; Garg, Sandhya
The authors connect the chemistry of strong and weak acids not only to the world outside the laboratory but also to the kinds of problem solving that engages real scientists.
Fuchsman, William H.; Garg, Sandhya J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 67.
Acids / Bases |
Food Science |
pH
Chemical Reactions, Reactions in Aqueous Solution, and Oxidation Reduction Reactions, Review II (Weyh, J. A.; Crook, J. R.; Hauge, L. N.)  Coleman, William F.
Programs intended to provide students with drill and practice in equation writing (including formula writing), equation balancing, and reaction predicting.
Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A172.
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Chemical Reactions, Reactions in Aqueous Solution, and Oxidation Reduction Reactions, Review I (Weyh, J. A.; Crook, J. R.; Hauge, L. N.)  Balahura, Robert J.
Programs intended to provide students with drill and practice in equation writing (including formula writing), equation balancing, and reaction predicting.
Balahura, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A172.
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Enrichment / Review Materials
The iodine clock reaction: A surprising variant  Autuori, Marcos Alberto; Brolo, Alexandre Guimaraes; Mateus, Alfredo Luis M. L.
Substituting malonic acid for sulfuric acid.
Autuori, Marcos Alberto; Brolo, Alexandre Guimaraes; Mateus, Alfredo Luis M. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 852.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Construction of a photoelectric colorimeter and application to students' experiments (Part 2)  Matsuo, Tsutomu; Muromatsu, Akihiko; Katayama, Kazuko; Mori, Minako
Applications include the quantitative analysis of copper in brass, the analysis of iron in spinach and tea leaves, and the determination of the acid dissociation constant of bromothymol blue.
Matsuo, Tsutomu; Muromatsu, Akihiko; Katayama, Kazuko; Mori, Minako J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 848.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments
What chemistry do our students need to learn?  Hawkes, Stephen J.
Suggested topics of importance to chemistry nonmajors.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 831.
Nonmajor Courses |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Geochemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
The acid-base package: A collection of useful programs for proton-transfer systems  Hawkes, Stephen J.
Four programs that deal with the types of acid-base calculations normally encountered in introductory and analytical chemistry courses.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 830.
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics
Kinetics of the fading of phenolphthalein in alkaline solution  Nicholson, Lois
The fading of phenolphthalein in alkaline solution can serve as the basis for an experiment illustrating first-order kinetics.
Nicholson, Lois J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 725.
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics
The bismuth-sodium nitrate reaction  Hill, William D., Jr.
Reaction for preparing bismuth(III) oxide and determining its percentage yield.
Hill, William D., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 709.
Reactions |
Synthesis
Enhancement of visual titration endpoints  Williams, Howard P.; Howell, J. Emory; Russell, Joseph L.
Using white styrofoam cups as a titration vessel.
Williams, Howard P.; Howell, J. Emory; Russell, Joseph L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 680.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases
Early exposure to chemical reactions in general chemistry  Richardson, W. S.; Teggins, J. E.
An experiment that introduces general chemistry students to a variety of chemical reactions at the beginning of the course.
Richardson, W. S.; Teggins, J. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 644.
Reactions |
Qualitative Analysis
On a Reaction Involving Oxygen and Metal Sulfides  Hill, William D., Jr.
The role of iron(III) oxide as a catalyst in the production of oxygen by the thermal decomposition of potassium chlorate promoted the idea to use this oxide to repeat the reactions involving oxygen and the metal sulfides described in an earlier article.
Hill, William D., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 448.
Catalysis |
Reactions
The formaldehyde-sulfite clock reaction revisited  Warneck, Peter
The purpose of this present note is to discuss the mechanism and the change of pH during the reaction.
Warneck, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 334.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
pH |
Rate Law
Chemical generation and visualization of hydrodynamic instability: An extremely simple demonstration of self-organization  Bowers, Peter G.; Soltzberg, Leonard J.
The chemical convection system described here is the pattern formation seen when an acidic vapor comes into contact with the surface of an aqueous solution containing indicator.
Bowers, Peter G.; Soltzberg, Leonard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 210.
Thermodynamics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
In pursuit of chemical literacy: A place for chemical reactions  Bond, Douglas
The author has described one method of implementing a course for nonscience majors in which an early and repeated exposure to chemical reactions in tandem with a set of scientific values is the key to approaching scientific literacy.
Bond, Douglas J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 157.
Nonmajor Courses |
Reactions
Lewis diagrams (Pavia, Donald L.)  Jensen, William P.; Tarr, Donald A.
Two reviews for the titled software designed to help students determine Lewis structures of molecules and ions.
Jensen, William P.; Tarr, Donald A. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A271.
Lewis Acids / Bases
Chemistry according to ROF (Fee, Richard)  Radcliffe, George; Mackenzie, Norma N.
Two reviews on a software package that consists of 68 programs on 17 disks plus an administrative disk geared toward acquainting students with fundamental chemistry content. For instance, acids and bases, significant figures, electron configuration, chemical structures, bonding, phases, and more.
Radcliffe, George; Mackenzie, Norma N. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A239.
Chemometrics |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Equilibrium |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Stoichiometry |
Physical Properties |
Acids / Bases |
Covalent Bonding
Chemical principles for the introductory laboratory, CHM 384 (Johnson, James F.)  Wegner, Carol
A comprehensive review of the title program which overviews basic techniques and concepts presented in introductory laboratory courses. Topics include: titration, equilibrium, Ksp, solubility, Beer's law, coordination complexes and first-order rates of reaction.
Wegner, Carol J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A47.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Coordination Compounds |
Kinetics
Questions from a can of Pepsi  Mitchell, Tony
A can of Pepsi can be the starting point of countless chemistry questions that students can relate to. The author encourages other instructors to think about helping students understand chemistry as it relates to contemporary society.
Mitchell, Tony J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1070.
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Physical Properties |
Food Science |
Nutrition |
Gases |
Acids / Bases |
Metals
Oscillating reactions   Kolb, Doris.
A demonstration done on the overhead that oscillates.
Kolb, Doris. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1004.
Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics
The effect of polarity on solubility   Cliche, Jean-Marie; Labbe, Benoit
A procedure for a demonstration of the effect of polarity on solubility and some follow-up questions for students.
Cliche, Jean-Marie; Labbe, Benoit J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 813.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The perils of carbonic acid and equilibrium constants  Jencks, William P.; Altura, Rachel A.
It is important to remember that the small amounts of carbon dioxide that are usually present in water can have large effects on acid-base equilibria of dilute solutions and that dilute solutions of most weak acids and bases undergo significant protonation or hydrolysis when they are dissolved in water.
Jencks, William P.; Altura, Rachel A. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 770.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The study of a simple redox reaction as an experimental approach to chemical kinetics  Elias, Horst; Zipp, Arden P.
The authors present a kinetics experiment based on the oxidation of iodide ions that, like the iodine clock, is quick and easy to perform but has the advantage of being followed directly rather than indirectly.
Elias, Horst; Zipp, Arden P. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 737.
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Rate Law
Shedding a new light on solubility calculations   Stolzberg, Richard J.
Precipitate formation, fractional precipitation and precipitate dissolution can be investigated in a series of lecture demonstrations suitable for general chemistry or quantitative analysis.
Stolzberg, Richard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 621.
Quantitative Analysis |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Interfacial phenomena   Anwander, Alberto E.; Grant, Richard P. J. S.; Letcher, Trevor M.
The interfaces between liquids, and liquids and gases, have a number of possible permutations that lead to exotic phenomenon such as antibubbles, floating drops, boules, polyaphrons, and hanging air bubbles. The authors give directions for demonstrating these in the classroom or lab.
Anwander, Alberto E.; Grant, Richard P. J. S.; Letcher, Trevor M. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 608.
Surface Science |
Liquids |
Gases |
Physical Properties |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Acid pickling with amines: an experiment in applied chemistry for high school or freshman chemistry   Spears, Steven G.; Spears, Larry G.; Spears, Joycelyn C.
A brief description of the removal of corrosion products and millscale from the surface of ferrous metals by acid pickling.
Spears, Steven G.; Spears, Larry G.; Spears, Joycelyn C. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 457.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Electrochemistry
A simple, vivid demonstration of selective precipitation   Chirpich, Thomas P.
A simple, vivid demonstration that is designed to catch the students' attention and illustrate the principles of selective, or fractional, precipitation in action.
Chirpich, Thomas P. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 359.
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Rating antacids in Consumer Reports  Martin, Geoffrey
This article presents a Consumer Reports study on antacid effectiveness via titration.
Martin, Geoffrey J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 214.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Consumer Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Food Science
Incorporation of consumer products in the teaching of analytical chemistry   Lieu, Van T.; Kalbus, Gene E.
A development and selection of a number of experiments involving the use of common consumer products for incorporation into quantitative and instrumental analysis laboratories.
Lieu, Van T.; Kalbus, Gene E. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 207.
Applications of Chemistry |
Alcohols |
Acids / Bases |
Food Science |
Consumer Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
Potentiometric titration of acidic and basic compounds in household cleaners  Lieu, Van T.; Kalbus, Gene E.
The potentiometric titration of commercial household cleaners can be used in student laboratories in freshman, analytical, and physical chemistry courses. It can be used for analysis of household cleaners with either one or two component systems, or it can be used for the determination of the dissociation constant.
Lieu, Van T.; Kalbus, Gene E. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 184.
Acids / Bases |
Potentiometry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Equilibrium |
Quantitative Analysis
Demonstration of chemical inhibition  Cooke, David O.
This demonstration convincingly shows shows the effect of an inhibitor on a chemical system.
Cooke, David O. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 68.
Catalysis |
Reactions
Computer-Assisted Blackboard (Soltzberg, L. J.)  Kruger, J. D.
8-disk set of programs (Apple II) designed to help a lecturer illustrate gas laws, the Rutherford atomic model, quantization in a Bohr atom, wave-functions and orbitals, heat and changes in state, kinetics and simple reaction mechanisms, equilibrium, acid-base reactions, and titrations.
Kruger, J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A135.
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Correct equilibrium constants for water (the authors reply)  Starkey, Ronald; Norman, Jack; Hinitze, Mark
Water and hydronium ion Ka values are special cases.
Starkey, Ronald; Norman, Jack; Hinitze, Mark J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1068.
Equilibrium |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Thermodynamics
Correct equilibrium constants for water  Baldwin, W. George; Burchill, C. Eugene
Disagreement with the numerical values assigned to equilibrium constants.
Baldwin, W. George; Burchill, C. Eugene J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1067.
Equilibrium |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
When oil and water do not mix  Trammell, Gary L.
An introduction to the physics and chemistry of interfaces and lipids, and reactions in micelles.
Trammell, Gary L. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1022.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Micelles |
Lipids
A new road to reactions. Part 5. The elements and their atoms  de Vos, Wobbe; Verdonk, Adri H.
It is worthwhile considering introductory students' concepts of chemical reactions and the significance of these concepts for a strategy for teaching the conservation of elements.
de Vos, Wobbe; Verdonk, Adri H. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1010.
Reactions |
Learning Theories
pH measurements on the overhead projector  Solomon, Sally; High, Nancy
Universal indicator solution and a corresponding pH indicator chart are used to make pH measurements of an overhead projector where the results are visible to all students in a large lecture hall.
Solomon, Sally; High, Nancy J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 964.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments
A general approach for teaching hydrolysis of salts  Aquirre-Ode, Fernando
Proposes a general, rigorous, and relatively simple approach for the hydrolysis of 1-1 electrolytes.
Aquirre-Ode, Fernando J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 957.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Buffer capacity: An undergraduate laboratory experiment  Russo, Steven O.; Hanania, George I. H.
A quantitative experiment that can demonstrate buffer action and the measurement of buffer capacity, for a given buffer system, over a range of pH.
Russo, Steven O.; Hanania, George I. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 817.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Some ideas from the past  Kolb, Doris, editor
Demonstrations from past issues of the Journal, including the common ion effect, the silver tree, crystal formation from supersaturated solutions, making iron passive with nitric acid, optical activity, carbon dioxide in human breath, and amphoteric hydroxides.
Kolb, Doris, editor J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 805.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Acids / Bases
Easily made electronic device for conductivity experiments  Gadek, Frank J.
Simple device made from a 35-mm film canister, 9-V battery and leads, resistor, and LED.
Gadek, Frank J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 628.
Conductivity |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Another auto analogy: Rate-determining steps  Ball, David W.
An analogy to describe the physical meaning of a rate-determining step.
Ball, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 486.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
A simple, safe, and inexpensive laboratory exercise in the guided inquiry format  de Moura, John M.; Marcello, Joseph A.
Introductory laboratory exercise that illustrates stoichiometry, limiting reagents, and proportionality by reacting calcium chloride and sodium hydroxide.
de Moura, John M.; Marcello, Joseph A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 452.
Stoichiometry |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Reactions
A convenient, low-cost method for determining sulfate in acid rain  Johns, Nicholas; Longstaff, Stephen J.
Adapting the thoron colorimetric method for determining low sulfate concentrations quickly, simply, and accurately.
Johns, Nicholas; Longstaff, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 449.
Acids / Bases |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis
The cola clock: A new flavor to an old classic  Russell, Richard A.; Switzer, Robert W.
The classic iodine clock reaction with Vitex replacing starch as the indicator.
Russell, Richard A.; Switzer, Robert W. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 445.
Kinetics |
Reactions
Acid rain effects on stone monuments  Charola, A. Elena
What is acid rain? Which stones are used to make mountains? How are the stones affected by acid rain?
Charola, A. Elena J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 436.
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Geochemistry
On a common graphical flaw in the carboxylic acid/alcohol relative acidity argument  McClard, Ronald W.
Why are carboxylic acids so much more acidic than aliphatic alcohols?
McClard, Ronald W. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 416.
Carboxylic Acids |
Alcohols |
Acids / Bases
Making sense of the nomenclature of the oxyacids and their salts  Rodgers, Glen E.; State, Harold M.; Bivens, L.
An overall scheme or "roadmap" for naming oxyacids and their salts.
Rodgers, Glen E.; State, Harold M.; Bivens, L. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 409.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases
Ksp determination of calcium sulfate  Masterman, David
A procedure to obtain the Ksp of a saturated solution of calcium sulfate in 10-20 minutes.
Masterman, David J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 408.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Introduction to overhead projector demonstrations  Kolb, Doris
General suggestions for using the overhead projector and 21 demonstrations. [Debut]
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 348.
Rate Law |
Reactions |
Catalysis |
Equilibrium |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases
A commercially available electronic device for conductivity experiments  Gadek, Frank J.
Application of a continuity and tone-generating chassis in a variety of conductivity experiments, particularly for hearing or visually impaired students.
Gadek, Frank J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 281.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Conductivity |
Minorities in Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Kinetics and mechanism of the iodine azide reaction: A videotaped experiment  Haight, Gilbert P.; Jones, Loretta L.
A clock reaction suitable for videotaping and presenting to a large lecture class of general chemistry for analysis.
Haight, Gilbert P.; Jones, Loretta L. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 271.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Rate Law
The arsenic(III) sulfide clock reaction  Watkins, Kenneth W.
Two colorless solutions, one containing sodium arsenite and acetic acid and the other containing sodium thiosulfate are mixed in a beaker; after about 20 seconds, the mixture turns a brilliant yellow color. This clock reaction is well suited for determining the order of reaction and the activation energy.
Watkins, Kenneth W. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 255.
Reactions
A new method to balance chemical equations  Garcia, Arcesio
A simple method, applicable to any kind of reaction, that does not require the knowledge of oxidation numbers.
Garcia, Arcesio J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 247.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation State |
Reactions
Annotating reaction equations  Tykodi, R. J.
Annotating aqueous solution reactions fosters recognition of the fundamental reaction categories; ready recognition of a reaction type is the first step toward understanding the "whys and wherefores" inherent in the reaction.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 243.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Oxidation / Reduction
Hands-on versus computer simulation methods in chemistry  Bourque, Donald R.; Carlson, Gaylen R.
Procedure, results, conclusions, and implications of a study that compares the effectiveness of a hands-on approach versus computer simulations in the same chemistry topics.
Bourque, Donald R.; Carlson, Gaylen R. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 232.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Stoichiometry
Methods for preparing aqueous solutions of chlorine and bromine for halogen displacement reactions  Hiegel, Gene A.; Abdala, Miguel H.; Burke, S. Vincent; Beard, Donald P.
Alternatives to handling and storing cylinders of chlorine gas and containers of liquid bromine.
Hiegel, Gene A.; Abdala, Miguel H.; Burke, S. Vincent; Beard, Donald P. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 156.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Laboratory Management
A nuts and bolts approach to explain limiting reagents  Blankenship, Craig
Using nuts and bolts to simulate the stoichiometry of a chemical reaction and the concept of limiting and excess reactants.
Blankenship, Craig J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 134.
Stoichiometry |
Reactions
Chemistry: Stoichiometry and Chemistry: Acids and Bases ( Frazin, J. and partners)  Bendall, Victor I.; Roe, Robert, Jr.
Two reviews of a software package that contains drill and practice programs that are suitable for beginning students of chemistry.
Bendall, Victor I.; Roe, Robert, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, A204.
Stoichiometry |
Acids / Bases
Further observations on the cobalt(II)-chloride equilibrium: Effect of changing the chloride ion concentration  Martins, Luis J. A.; da Costa, J. Barbosa
In this article, the authors supplement previous experiments on equilibrium by confirming the effect of changes in chloride ion concentration.
Martins, Luis J. A.; da Costa, J. Barbosa J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 989.
Equilibrium |
Coordination Compounds |
Acids / Bases
A new road to reactions: Part III. Teaching the heat effect of reactions  de Vos, Wobbe; Verdonk, Adri H.
This series of work summarizes the authors' work on the concept of chemical reactions as a teaching and learning problem.
de Vos, Wobbe; Verdonk, Adri H. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 972.
Thermodynamics |
Reactions |
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases
The coming renaissance of descriptive chemistry  Zuckerman, J. J.
Inorganic chemistry is facing an identity crises.
Zuckerman, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 829.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Reactions |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
SI and non-SI units of concentration: A truce?  Rich, Ronald L.
These authors examine whether a truce could be promoted by filling a chemical gap in the System Internationale with special attention on concentration.
Rich, Ronald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 784.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
An introductory laboratory exercise for acids and bases  Miller, Richard; Silberman, Robert
The authors have used this exercise as an introduction to acid-base chemistry before they do any acid-base titrations in the laboratory.
Miller, Richard; Silberman, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 447.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases
Density gradient columns for chemical displays  Guenther, William B.
An important advantage of these demonstrations of complex chemistry is that students can observe them over a period of time as they grasp concepts of solution equilibria.
Guenther, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 148.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Coordination Compounds |
Metals
Interstellar chemistry  Carbo, R.; Ginebreda, A.
Surveys some of the features that characterize interstellar chemistry, particularly the composition of the interstellar medium and the nature of the changes that occur there.
Carbo, R.; Ginebreda, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 832.
Astrochemistry |
Gases |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Quick conductivity cell  Williams, Howard P.
A simple cell for indicating the relative conductivity of electrolytes, nonelectrolytes, and weak electrolytes.
Williams, Howard P. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 799.
Electrochemistry |
Conductivity |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A new road to reactions. Part 2  de Vos, Wobbe; Verdonk, Adri H.
Helping introductory students understand the nature of chemical reactions.
de Vos, Wobbe; Verdonk, Adri H. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 648.
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
A different look at the solubility-product principle  Hugus, Z Z., Jr.; Hentz, F. C., Jr.
The progressive addition of Cl- to Ag+ yields an ion-product equal to Ksp at two different points.
Hugus, Z Z., Jr.; Hentz, F. C., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 645.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics
Buffer demonstration  Ophardt, Charles E.
Emphasizes the difference in properties between strong and weak acids and that only a weak acid or base and its salt are a buffer.
Ophardt, Charles E. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 608.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Dyes / Pigments
To buffer or not to buffer, that is the question  Mancott, A.
Question involves the preparation of a buffer solution by a chemical reaction but does not have the resultant solution act as a buffer.
Mancott, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 606.
Acids / Bases |
pH
The water softener - A relevant, unifying example of many common chemical principles and calculations  Fulkrod, John E.
Determining the amount of sodium chloride needed for a water softener to replace all the hard water ions in a month's water supply for a typical household.
Fulkrod, John E. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 529.
Applications of Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
An invitation to experiment with an experiment  Phanstiel, Otto
Students are asked to develop an experiment in which they isolate an acid / base indicator from a flower and determine the pH at which it changes color.
Phanstiel, Otto J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 522.
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments |
pH
A pictorial framework to aid conceptualization of reaction stoichiometry  Cameron, David L.
Approach to teaching stoichiometry that promotes students' understanding of a reaction as a coherent process.
Cameron, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 510.
Stoichiometry |
Reactions
Chain reaction wheel: An approach to free radical reactions  Monroe, Manus; Abrams, Karl
Using a "chain reaction wheel" to help students understand the mechanism of free radical reactions.
Monroe, Manus; Abrams, Karl J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 467.
Free Radicals |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
A different view of using titrimetric data  Castillo S., Carlos
Using titration data to obtain the dissociation constant of the acid under consideration.
Castillo S., Carlos J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 443.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Simple limewater maker  Prochaska, James F.
Uses gravity to separate the insoluble precipitate when preparing limewater.
Prochaska, James F. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 437.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
Visualization of buffer action and the acidifying effect of CO2  Schonbeck, Niels D.
Includes a discussion of the physiological buffering of CO2 in the human body.
Schonbeck, Niels D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 436.
Acids / Bases |
pH
A simple demonstration of buffer action  Duerst, Marilyn D.
A simple yet impressive visual demonstration of buffer action.
Duerst, Marilyn D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 435.
Acids / Bases |
pH
The solubility of CaSO4 (the author replies)  Sawyer, Albert K.
Reasons why the lab determination of Ksp for CaSO4 is ten times higher than the published value.
Sawyer, Albert K. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 362.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The solubility of CaSO4   Hawkes, Stephen J.
Reasons why the lab determination of Ksp for CaSO4 is ten times higher than the published value.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 362.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Edible acid-base indicators  Mebane, Robert C.; Rybolt, Thomas R.
15 natural indicators obtained from common fruits and vegetables.
Mebane, Robert C.; Rybolt, Thomas R. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 285.
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments |
Natural Products
Organic chemistry for health-science students   Schumm, Margot K.
It is important to teach health-science students reaction mechanisms when teaching them organic and biochemistry.
Schumm, Margot K. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 272.
Medicinal Chemistry |
Nonmajor Courses |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Colorblindness and titrations with visual indicators  Diehl, Harvey; Johnson, Dennis C.; Markuszewski, Richard; Moore, Robert M.
Discussion and investigation of the problem of colorblindness in determining the endpoints of titrations.
Diehl, Harvey; Johnson, Dennis C.; Markuszewski, Richard; Moore, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 255.
Minorities in Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases
A new road to reactions. Part 1  de Vos, Wobbe; Verdonk, Adri H.
Suggestions on how to carry out discovery learning as a teaching method in chemistry; recommends several specific reactions for use in activities.
de Vos, Wobbe; Verdonk, Adri H. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 238.
Reactions |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
Why isn't my rain as acidic as yours?  Zajicek, O. T.
Calculating of pH values of acid rain and comparisons to uncontaminated samples.
Zajicek, O. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 158.
Acids / Bases |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
pH |
Chemometrics
Using a dissecting microscope in teaching introductory chemistry  Winokur, Robert; Monroe, Manus
Using microscopes to observe the physical characteristics and chemical reactions of several substances.
Winokur, Robert; Monroe, Manus J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 157.
Reactions |
Physical Properties
Aqueous hydrogen peroxide: Its household uses and concentration units  Webb, Michael J.
Includes some simple weight / volume calculations and their answers.
Webb, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 152.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents
The relative strength of oxyacids and its application  Monroe, Manus
A simple technique for predicting the relative strength of oxyacids and their anions among students unfamiliar with Ka and pKa.
Monroe, Manus J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 41.
Acids / Bases |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Titrator, Review II (Dice, David D.)  Drake, Gordon P.
Program that allows the user to simulate the titration of either a strong or weak acid with a strong base.
Drake, Gordon P. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, A273.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Titrator, Review I (Dice, David D.)  Hill, Sister Mary Mechtilde, RSM
Program that allows the user to simulate the titration of either a strong or weak acid with a strong base.
Hill, Sister Mary Mechtilde, RSM J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, A273.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
An alternative method for the determination of pKa  Castillo S., Carlos; Micolta S., Germania; Grajales T., Mario
Determining pKa from the titration curve of a weak acid or base.
Castillo S., Carlos; Micolta S., Germania; Grajales T., Mario J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1067.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
A new meaning of the terms acid and base hydrolysis  Milic, Nikola B.
Suggestions for distinguishing between solvation, hydration, and solvolysis, and hydrolysis reactions that produce hydroxo and protonated complexes.
Milic, Nikola B. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1066.
Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Kinetics and mechanism-a games approach  Harsch, Gunther
Using statistical games to simulate and illustrate a variety of chemical kinetics.
Harsch, Gunther J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1039.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Catalysis |
Rate Law
The preparation of acid-base titration curves  McClendon, Michael
A simple technique for generating mechanically plotted titration curves using an electron pH meter and a low-voltage chart recorder.
McClendon, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1022.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis
The deceptive difficulty of descriptive chemistry and the chemistry curriculum  Bent, Henry A.
Considers the unique challenges of teaching and understanding descriptive and provides 12 descriptive, chemical equation puzzles.
Bent, Henry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 985.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Reactions
Modeling hypersaline lake "turn-over"  Sprague, Gary
Modeling saline lake inversions with a saturated salt solution in a beaker.
Sprague, Gary J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 956.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
A perspective on solubility rules  Monroe, Manus; Abrams, Karl
Four solubility rule generalizations useful for introducing solubility.
Monroe, Manus; Abrams, Karl J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 885.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
The nine-bottle experiment revisited  Finholt, James E.
Students are challenged to design solutions appropriate for the "nine-bottle" experiment.
Finholt, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 849.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Why teach solution equilibrium?  Butler, James N.
What are the most important aspects of solution equilibrium to teach at the elementary level?
Butler, James N. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 784.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases |
pH
The thermite reaction: A chemical ground breaking  Eastland, George W., Jr.
Technique for initiating the thermite reaction at a safe distance.
Eastland, George W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 723.
Reactions
An easily constructed secondary battery  Yamana, Shukichi; Murakami, Mitsuhiro
Constructing a very simple secondary battery from an aqueous solution of sodium chloride and other household materials
Yamana, Shukichi; Murakami, Mitsuhiro J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 713.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Start the term with a bang  Clare, Sheldon I.
The reaction of sodium in water is used to ignite a piece of filter paper.
Clare, Sheldon I. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 635.
Reactions
The solubility of NiSO46H2O  Pacer, Richard A.
Approaches the position of equilibrium from both unsaturated and supersaturated solutions.
Pacer, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 467.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Equilibrium |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
The murky pool  Perkins, Robert
Using the reaction of aqueous silver nitrate with aqueous sodium sulfide to illustrate how one can correlate the terms soluble and insoluble with solubility product constants.
Perkins, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 383.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The useless tea kettle  Perkins, Robert
If a 2.5 L kettle contains 125 g of calcium carbonate (boiler scale), how many times would the kettle have to be filled with distilled water to remove all of the deposits given the Ksp of calcium carbonate?
Perkins, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 383.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Cooking with chemistry  Grosser, Arthur E.
Two demonstrations involving cooking eggs and suggestions for many more examples of cooking that illustrate important principles of chemistry. From the "State-of-the-Art Symposium for Chemical Educators: Chemistry of the Food Cycle".
Grosser, Arthur E. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 362.
Food Science |
Gases |
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics
Chemical storage of solar energy using an old color change demonstration  Spears, L. Gene, Jr.; Spears, Larry G.
The results of a student research project that could be used as an experiment to illustrate the potential of hydrates salts for solar energy storage.
Spears, L. Gene, Jr.; Spears, Larry G. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 252.
Photochemistry |
Coordination Compounds |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
The rainbow connection  Hutton, Bill
Demonstrates how the color of certain acid-base indicators can be influenced in a reversible manner by changes in pH.
Hutton, Bill J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 172.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Dyes / Pigments
An analogy for the leveling effect  Macomber, Roger S.
Analogy to help students understand the leveling effect of certain solvents.
Macomber, Roger S. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 128.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Determination of ammonia in household cleaners: an instrumental analysis experiment  Graham, Richard C.; DePew, Steven
This popular experiment describes a procedure that is easily modified to determine quantitatively such analytes as ammonia in solution.
Graham, Richard C.; DePew, Steven J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 765.
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Consumer Chemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Solutions / Solvents
Indigo  Fernelius, W. Conard; Renfrew, Edgar E.
A brief history of the uses and origins of indigo as well as a look at the molecular structure of this molecule.
Fernelius, W. Conard; Renfrew, Edgar E. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 633.
Dyes / Pigments |
Heterocycles |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Empirical pKb and pKa for nonmetal hydrides from periodic table position  Bayless, Philip L.
The equation in this article was developed by the author. It estimates the aqueous pKa for certain acids to an average deviation of 0.1pK unit for those with experimentally determined values and agrees with experimentally determined values, and as well as with estimates for those too weak or too strong to be measured.
Bayless, Philip L. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 546.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Chemometrics
Influence of temperature and catalyst on the decomposition of potassium chlorate in a simple DTA apparatus  Wiederholt, Erwin
The authors describe the use of a simple DTA-apparatus in demonstrating the catalytic effects of MnO2 and Al2O3 on the decomposition temperature of KClO3.
Wiederholt, Erwin J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 431.
Kinetics |
Instrumental Methods |
Catalysis |
Reactions |
Rate Law
Determination of phosphoric acid in cola beverages: a colorimetric and pH titration experiment for general chemistry  Murphy, Joe
Two techniques are compared so that students gain an appreciation for the greater sensitivity and selectivity of colorimetric compared to titrimetric methods of analysis.
Murphy, Joe J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 420.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Consumer Chemistry
Solubility and Ksp of calcium sulfate: a general chemistry laboratory experiment  Sawyer, Albert K.
The experiment shared in this note can be used to accompany lectures on solubility or chemical equilibrium.
Sawyer, Albert K. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 416.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium
Titration calculations- a problem-solving approach  Waddling, Robin E. L.
This author shares a strategy for helping students who might be struggling with understanding how to calculate and understand titration data.
Waddling, Robin E. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 230.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics
Treat 'em to Tchaikovsky  Whitman, Mark
The author shares a demonstration that attracts great student attention. Students are highly successful when answering questions about the phenomenon in this demonstration on ensuing exams.
Whitman, Mark J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 229.
Reactions |
Rate Law
A novel classification of concentration units  MacCarthy, Patrick
Concentration units can be a source of confusion for students. This article presents a treatment on this topic that may help students understand the differences between these units.
MacCarthy, Patrick J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 187.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Sequential color reactions: School colors and a red-white-and-blue demonstration   Lambert, Jack L.; Chejlava, Michael J.; Fina, Gary T.; Luce, Nina L.
Many school colors can be generated using the directions for acid-base demonstrations in this article.
Lambert, Jack L.; Chejlava, Michael J.; Fina, Gary T.; Luce, Nina L. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 141.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments
A pocket calculator program for the solution of pH problems via the method of successive approximations   Guida, Wayne C.
37. Bits and pieces, 14. A description of a pocket calculator program for the solution of pH problems via the method of successive approximations .
Guida, Wayne C. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 101.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics
Partition coefficients - A lecture demonstration  Newton, Thomas A.
The extraction of aqueous solutions of indophenol and its sodium salt with carbon tetrachloride and chloroform.
Newton, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 973.
Separation Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Collapsing can  Sands, Richard D.
Demonstrates the solubility of ammonia gas in water.
Sands, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 866.
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Solubility of lead sulfate in water and in sodium sulfate solutions: An experiment in atomic absorption spectrophotometry  Lehman, Thomas A.; Everett, Wayne W.
Measurement of Pb+2 concentrations by atomic absorption spectrophotometry permits direct calculation of the solubility product constant of lead sulfate in the presence of low concentrations of added sulfate.
Lehman, Thomas A.; Everett, Wayne W. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 797.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Hydrated cations (the authors respond)  Kauffman, George B.; Baxter, John F., Jr.
Teaching more qualitative analysis in the introductory course.
Kauffman, George B.; Baxter, John F., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 438.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis
Hydrated cations  Strong, Frederick C., III
Teaching more qualitative analysis in the introductory course.
Strong, Frederick C., III J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 438.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis
A unified approach to the study of chemical reactions in freshman chemistry  Cassen, T.; DuBois, Thomas D.
An approach that aims to provide students with the background that will enable them to make reasonable predictions as to the likely products of a chemical reaction.
Cassen, T.; DuBois, Thomas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 377.
Reactions |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
An individualized approach to qualitative analysis  Haendler, Blanca L.; Cook, Robert; Siemiencow, George
Students are required to work out a separation scheme based on the results of experimentation with certain reagents and with the help of some reference materials.
Haendler, Blanca L.; Cook, Robert; Siemiencow, George J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 333.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Group IA elements: Chemical properties (a); Group IA elements: Chemical properties (b)  Dombrink, Kathleen J.
Film loop that demonstrates reactions between alkali metals and halogens.
Dombrink, Kathleen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 260.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Reactions |
Metals
A demonstration model for immiscibility  Hoffman, A. B.
Uses Magic Sand to demonstrate various solubility principles.
Hoffman, A. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 155.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
Buffers  Gold, Marvin
A demonstration based on buffer calculations.
Gold, Marvin J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 155.
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics
The construction of inexpensive digital pH meters  Warner, Brian D.; Boehme, Gerhard; Pool, Karl L.
Parts list and circuit diagram for a low-cost pH meter.
Warner, Brian D.; Boehme, Gerhard; Pool, Karl L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 65.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Quantitative Analysis
Ion migration  Smith, Douglas D.
A procedure for showing the migration of ions without using gelatin or agar.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 60.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
An improved copper cycle experiment  Umans, Ton; de Vos, Wobbe
This simple lab demonstrates chemical transformations in and the conservation of copper.
Umans, Ton; de Vos, Wobbe J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 52.
Reactions
A physical model to demonstrate acid-base conjugate pairs  Naylor, Robert W.
There seems to be a great deal of confusion among students over the relationship of the strength of a conjugate acid or base to its respective precursor. Using magnets, an extremely simple method of demonstrating that weak acids give strong bases and vice versa can be easily performed.
Naylor, Robert W. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 1017.
Acids / Bases
Red cabbage and the electrolysis of water  Skinner, James F.
The demonstration profiled here has proven effective in bringing together concepts from acid-base chemistry and electrochemistry.
Skinner, James F. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 1017.
Electrochemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Red cabbage and the electrolysis of water  Skinner, James F.
The demonstration profiled here has proven effective in bringing together concepts from acid-base chemistry and electrochemistry.
Skinner, James F. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 1017.
Electrochemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
More "quickies"  Rosenberg, Milton H.
Some quick, challenging questions that cover various areas of chemistry.
Rosenberg, Milton H. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 994.
X-ray Crystallography |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Be a millionaire - Get with the action!  White, Alvan D.
When talking about the distribution of molecular velocities, we can use money as an analogy.
White, Alvan D. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 645.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics
Theory and practical use of an hydrogen electrode in aqueous-organic media  Letellier, P.; Millot, F.; Baffier, N.; Combes, R.
These authors make a case for a greater use of hydrogen electrodes for acidity measurements in student laboratory courses.
Letellier, P.; Millot, F.; Baffier, N.; Combes, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 576.
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Dramatic demonstrations for a large audience: The formation of hydroxyl ions in the reaction of sodium with water   Hutton, Alan T.
This procedure allows the popular sodium-reacting-with-water reaction to be observable in large lecture theaters.
Hutton, Alan T. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 506.
Reactions |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Dramatic demonstrations for a large audience: The formation of hydroxyl ions in the reaction of sodium with water   Hutton, Alan T.
This procedure allows the popular sodium-reacting-with-water reaction to be observable in large lecture theaters.
Hutton, Alan T. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 506.
Reactions |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Notation for order of addition  Niewahner, J. H.
The notation described here will enable a student to include in the chemical equation an implied statement regarding the order of addition.
Niewahner, J. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 461.
Reactions |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Temperature effect on reaction rates   Eliason, Robert; McMahon, Terence
A demonstration has been developed which nicely illustrates the temperature effect on reaction rates and the general rule relating temperature increases with rate increases.
Eliason, Robert; McMahon, Terence J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 354.
Kinetics |
Reactions
An experimental introduction to stoichiometry   Webb, Michael J.
A procedure for an experiment with the purpose: To show via experiment that the quantities of materials used in chemical reactions are related to balanced chemical equations.
Webb, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 192.
Stoichiometry |
Reactions
Maxwell's demon  Schmuckler, Joseph S.

Schmuckler, Joseph S. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 183.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Maxwell's demon  Schmuckler, Joseph S.

Schmuckler, Joseph S. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 183.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
The "chemical fountain": An old experiment in a new setting  Ben-Zvi, Ruth; Silberstein, Judith
A new teaching sequence was developed for an introductory high school chemistry course. In this teaching sequence experiments are designed so as to capture student interest, enhance their motivation, and get them involved in the learning process.
Ben-Zvi, Ruth; Silberstein, Judith J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 68.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Acids / Bases
What is the rate-limiting step of a multistep reaction?  Murdoch, Joseph R.
The purpose of this paper is to point out the circumstances where analogies can be used successfully and to develop a generalization which can be used for all reactions, including those with polymolecular steps.
Murdoch, Joseph R. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 32.
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Rate Law
Soil analysis for high school chemistry students  Eisenmann, Mary A.
Students examine the solubility of nitrate ions, the insolubility of iron hydroxide and iron carbonate, and the reaction between acid and carbonates.
Eisenmann, Mary A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 897.
Agricultural Chemistry |
Plant Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Geochemistry |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Solubility and complex ion equilibria of silver(I) species in aqueous solution  Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.; Dirreen, Glen E.; Juergens, Fred
The sequential formation of precipitates and complex ions is used to demonstrate how the solubility of silver(I) compounds is related to Ksp values.
Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.; Dirreen, Glen E.; Juergens, Fred J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 813.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents
An acid or a base?  Uriarte, Richard J.
Does a diluted acid remain acidic?
Uriarte, Richard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 806.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
C6H22O11 + H2SO4 = CO + ?  Smith, Douglas D.
Explaining the dehydration of sucrose by sulfuric acid.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 805.
Reactions
Synthesis and decomposition of ZnI2  Walker, Noojin
Illustrates direct combination, decomposition, the effect of a catalyst, recrystallization of sublimed I2, and electrolysis.
Walker, Noojin J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 738.
Synthesis |
Reactions |
Catalysis |
Electrochemistry
An approximate determination of Avogadro's constant  Szll, Thomas; Dennis, David; Jouas, Jean-Pierre; Wong, Mabel
An experiment to determine a value for Avogadro's number by determining the relationship between the number of electrons flowing through an acidified solution of water and the number of moles of electrons which reduce hydrogen ions to produce hydrogen gas.
Szll, Thomas; Dennis, David; Jouas, Jean-Pierre; Wong, Mabel J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 735.
Stoichiometry |
Electrochemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Dissociation of a weak acid  Ladd, M. F. C.
An earlier treatment of the equilibrium of a weak acid in water gives, for certain ranges of concentration, significantly incorrect results.
Ladd, M. F. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 669.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Experiments for display (Corridor demonstration)  Letcher, T. M.; Orchard, S. W.
The effect of heat on the color of cobalt(II) chloride water-alcohol solution. Refluxing solutions of different compositions.
Letcher, T. M.; Orchard, S. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 667.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Gold mine!  Taylor, Thomas E.
Determining the ppm of gold in ocean water.
Taylor, Thomas E. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 665.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Chemical Kinetics: Reaction Rates  Mickey, Charles D.
Reviews the chemistry behind factors that influence the rates of chemical reactions.
Mickey, Charles D. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 659.
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Catalysis
Apple dunking  O'Connor, Rod
Question regarding the ratio between ions of p-nitrophenylhydrazone in reducing the pH of basic effluent.
O'Connor, Rod J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 598.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
pH |
Industrial Chemistry
Bicarbonate in Alka-Seltzer: A general chemistry experiment  Peck, Larry; Irgolic, Kurt; O'Connor, Rod
Determining the percentage bicarbonate ion by mass in Alka-Seltzer.
Peck, Larry; Irgolic, Kurt; O'Connor, Rod J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 517.
Quantitative Analysis |
Gases |
Stoichiometry |
Acids / Bases
Fluoridated water  Muhler, Joseph C.
Answers to a number of questions regarding the fluoridation of drinking water.
Muhler, Joseph C. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 496.
Applications of Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry
Cobalt complexes in equilibrium  Ophardt, Charles E.
This equilibrium illustrates the application of LeChatelier's principle to concentration effects.
Ophardt, Charles E. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 453.
Equilibrium |
Coordination Compounds |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Photochemical reactions of tris(oxalato)iron (III): A first year chemistry experiment  Baker, A. D.; Casadevell, A.; Gafney, H. D.; Gellender, M.
An experiment based on the photoreduction of potassium ferrioxalate.
Baker, A. D.; Casadevell, A.; Gafney, H. D.; Gellender, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 314.
Photochemistry |
Kinetics |
Reactions
Qualitative analysis, without sulfide ion, of selected cations  Rathnamma, Dasara V.
Qualitative analysis of selected 11 cations can be accomplished without the use of sulfide.
Rathnamma, Dasara V. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 287.
Qualitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Artifacts and the Electromotive Series  Mickey, Charles D.
The chemistry of metals and its application to archeology.
Mickey, Charles D. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 275.
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Applications of Chemistry |
Metallurgy |
Reactions
An introductory level kinetics investigation  McGarvey, J. E. B.; Knipe, A. C.
A kinetic study of the hydrolysis of 3-bromo-3-phenylpropanoic acid.
McGarvey, J. E. B.; Knipe, A. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 155.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Crystallization of sodium acetate  Hiegel, Gene A.
Procedure for preparing a supersaturated solution of sodium acetate and crystallizing it.
Hiegel, Gene A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 152.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
"To sink or swim"  O'Connor, Rod
A problem regarding the maximum water hardness that can be permitted in a swimming pool if it is desired to avoid calcite formation given the carbonate ion concentration. [Debut]
O'Connor, Rod J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 151.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents
On the misuse of Le Châtelier's principle for the prediction of the temperature dependence of the solubility of salts  Bodner, George M.
Explores why Le Châtelier's principle often fails to predict the temperature dependence of the solubility of salts.
Bodner, George M. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 117.
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Strong and weak acids and bases  Deck, Joseph C.
The designations "strong" and "weak" are used in various ways, and often with respect to the same compound in different situations.
Deck, Joseph C. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 814.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Chemistry tutorial programs on display terminals  Heit, M.; Jones, W. E.; Wasson, John

Heit, M.; Jones, W. E.; Wasson, John J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 787.
Acids / Bases |
pH
Travelling Waves of Chemical Activity in the Zaikin-Zhabotinskii-Winfree Reagent  Field, Richard J; Winfree, Arthur T.
An overhead projector demonstration.
Field, Richard J; Winfree, Arthur T. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 754.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
Electronegativity, bond energy, and chemical reactivity  Myers, R. Thomas
The Pauling electronegativity concept can be used to help rationalize several kinds of chemical reactions.
Myers, R. Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 711.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Reactions
Thermal buffers: An illustrative analogy  Macomber, Roger S.
An analogy between acid-base buffer behavior and the thermal behavior of a two-phase (solid and liquid) system.
Macomber, Roger S. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 710.
Acids / Bases |
pH
The thermite lecture demonstration  Bozzelli, Joseph W.; Barat, Robert B.
Glycerine plus KMnO4 are used to ignite the thermite in a clay flower pot.
Bozzelli, Joseph W.; Barat, Robert B. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 675.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
"Invitation to enquiry": The calcite/acid reaction  Driscoll, D. R.
An experiment or demonstration in which calcite reacts very differently with HCl than H2SO4.
Driscoll, D. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 672.
Acids / Bases
The chemistry of cleaning  J. Chem Educ. Staff
The theory of detergency, soaps, and synthetic surfactants.
J. Chem Educ. Staff J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 610.
Consumer Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Lipids |
Fatty Acids
The great fallacy of the H+ ion: And the true nature of H3O+  Giguere, Paul A.
The hydronium ion is as real as its counterpart, the hydroxide ion.
Giguere, Paul A. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 571.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
An acid can be basic  MCA staff
The uses and production of sulfuric acid.
MCA staff J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 529.
Acids / Bases |
Industrial Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Pepsin and antacid therapy: A dilemma  Laswick, Patty H.; Batson, W. Brayton
Illustrates some areas of uncertainty in the current literature regarding the mechanism of digestion and presents an experiment that is more consistent with current biochemical research.
Laswick, Patty H.; Batson, W. Brayton J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 484.
Consumer Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Nonmajor Courses
The barium hydroxide ammonium thiocyanate reaction: A titrimetric continuous variations experiment  Harris, Arlo D.
Experiment that uses acid-base titrimetry to study the stoichiometry of a novel solid state reaction.
Harris, Arlo D. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 477.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Solid State Chemistry |
Stoichiometry
The precipitation of ferrous hydroxide: A lecture demonstration  Lau, O. W.
This demonstration can illustrate such topics as the solubility of ionic compounds, electrode potentials of transition elements and their modification by formation of either an insoluble compound of a complex ion, and mixed valence compounds.
Lau, O. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 474.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Antacids as an extension to neutralization  Smith, Douglas D.
Examines a number of antacids for their suitability for use in studying acid-base behavior in the laboratory.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 338.
Acids / Bases |
Consumer Chemistry
Wonder water: Another idea that is hard to work into a conversation  Smith, Douglas D.
The many benefits of degassed water.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 338.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Antacids as an extension to neutralization  Smith, Douglas D.
Examines a number of antacids for their suitability for use in studying acid-base behavior in the laboratory.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 338.
Acids / Bases |
Consumer Chemistry
Acid-base half-reactions - A useful formalism for review lessons  Atkinson, G. F.
An effective way to draw analogies between acid-base and redox effects while reviewing both.
Atkinson, G. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 238.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Thermodynamics and solubilities of salts of dipositive ions  Riley, Gary F.; Eberhardt, William H.
Used to illustrate the application of the principle that a decrease in free energy is a criterion for the spontaneity of a chemical reaction.
Riley, Gary F.; Eberhardt, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 206.
Thermodynamics |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Physical Properties |
Reactions
Comparison of strong acid and weak acid titration curves  Schultz, C. W.; Spannuth, S. L.
Allows comparison of mechanically reproduced titration curves of strong acid and one or more weak acids versus strong base on the same piece of paper.
Schultz, C. W.; Spannuth, S. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 194.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
pH
The standardization of pH meters: A comparison of procedures for different types of instruments  Lund, Walter
Discusses the various approaches to the standardization of pH meters and the limitations of the various procedures.
Lund, Walter J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 129.
Instrumental Methods |
pH |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Calibration |
Acids / Bases
The pH concept  Kolb, Doris
Reviews pH, the pH scale, pH calculations, buffered solutions, and measuring pH.
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 49.
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Buffer effect demonstration on the overhead projector  Hobe, Paul G., Jr.
Illustrates that one drop of dilute acid or base will change the pH of water by a large amount while larger amounts can be added to a buffer solution before any change is noted.
Hobe, Paul G., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 47.
Acids / Bases |
pH
Chemistry concatenated  Beaumont, R. C.
A series of chemical reactions featuring reversible equilibria and nine major color changes.
Beaumont, R. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 37.
Reactions |
Equilibrium
Intuitive and general approach to acid-base equilibrium calculations  Felty, Wayne L.
The purpose of this paper is to show that the usual intuitive approach used in general chemistry can be readily extended without introduction of additional, sophisticated concepts to give the general, exact expression and to point out the pedagogical advantage of its use.
Felty, Wayne L. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 576.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Development of intellectual skills in the laboratory  Ophardt, Charles E.
This first semester laboratory was designed to give instruction and practice in the intellectual skills of application, analysis, synthesis, and in Piaget's formal operations.
Ophardt, Charles E. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 485.
Learning Theories |
Qualitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
A Demonstration of burning magnesium and dry ice  Driscoll, Jerry A.
This demonstration is a new, exciting approach to an older demonstration.
Driscoll, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 450.
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Reactions
Conjugate acid-base mixtures in the general chemistry laboratory. A comprehensive buffer experiment  Wiger, George R.; de la Camp, Ulrich
A very exact and detailed procedure for a comprehensive buffer experiment is presented in this paper.
Wiger, George R.; de la Camp, Ulrich J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 401.
Acids / Bases |
pH
Chemical predictions from pKa values  Hassanali, A.
The problem presented here develops student understanding of both pKa calculations and organic acids.
Hassanali, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 378.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Chemometrics
Teaching the method of successive approximations  Nassiff, Peter J.; Boyko, E. R.
The purpose of this papers is to help the teacher show the student why basic methods of successive approximations work, how they may be applied, and under what conditions it will be successful.
Nassiff, Peter J.; Boyko, E. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 376.
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
Gases
The Landolt, "Old Nassau", and variant reactions   Moss, Arthur
Instructions for a modification to the classic "iodine clock" reaction.
Moss, Arthur J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 244.
Kinetics |
Reactions
Acid-base reactions in the gaseous state (an illustrative experiment)   Corso, C. R.; De Oliveira, J. E.
Instructions for a simple method that demonstrates acid-base reactions in the gaseous state.
Corso, C. R.; De Oliveira, J. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 244.
Acids / Bases |
Gases
The chemical equation. Part I: Simple reactions  Kolb, Doris
A chemical equation is often misunderstood by students as an "equation" that is used in chemistry. However, a more accurate description is that it is a concise statement describing a chemical reaction expressed in chemical symbolism.
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 184.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Reactions
Molar volumes: Microscopic insight from macroscopic data  Davenport, Derek A.; Fosterling, Robert B.; Srinivasan, Viswanathan
The molar volumes of the alkali metal halides; molar volumes of binary hydrogen compounds; molar volumes of the first transition series; molar volumes of the lanthanoids and actinoids; molar volumes of the carbon family; molar volumes of isotopically related species; aquated ions and ions in aqueous solution.
Davenport, Derek A.; Fosterling, Robert B.; Srinivasan, Viswanathan J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 93.
Inner Transition Elements |
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Stoichiometry |
Gases |
Transition Elements |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Isotopes
Are chemical terms well defined?  Herron, J. Dudley
The author requests readers to complete and return a survey on ionization and dissociation.
Herron, J. Dudley J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 758.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Teaching about "why do chemical reactions occur": Gibbs free energy  Vamvakis, Steven N.; Schmuckler, Joseph S.
Approaching the topic of Gibbs free energy from the student's prior experience in algebra and geometry, it is possible to construct a proof that should enable students to explain the derivation of G = H - TS.
Vamvakis, Steven N.; Schmuckler, Joseph S. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 757.
Thermodynamics |
Reactions
Case of the unlabeled bottles  Smith, Douglas D.
Students are to determine the contents of a series of unlabelled bottles.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 701.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Pharmacological projects/case studies for teaching molecular structure and reactivity  Webb, John; Rasmussen, Malcolm
Using pharmacological agents to provide projects that develop and illustrate concepts of molecular stereochemistry, functional groups, and types of reactions and reactivity.
Webb, John; Rasmussen, Malcolm J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 677.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Stereochemistry |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Another look at our teaching methods. Pros and cons of the silent demonstration  Woodburn, John H.
Analysis of a "silent demonstration" involving the formation of a precipitate and why the demonstration may or may not have been effective in helping students understand the intended concept.
Woodburn, John H. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 627.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
Emphasis on acids and bases  J. Chem. Educ. Staff
Considers the acidity or basicity in soils and natural waters; the acid-base balance in body chemistry; acidic and basic foods; the approximate pH values of common fluids; examples of acidic, basic, and neutral drugs; and the commercial preparation of nitric acid.
J. Chem. Educ. Staff J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 626.
Acids / Bases |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Food Science |
Applications of Chemistry |
pH |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
Electrochemical demonstration: Motor driven by a simple galvanic cell  Skinner, J. F.
A Zn / Zn 2+ Cu 2+ / Cu (Daniel) cell operates a small motor.
Skinner, J. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 619.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Simultaneous equilibria involving insoluble salts  Baumann, Jacob B.
This demonstration is derived from and involves the same reactions as the Mohr titration of chloride ion with silver nitrate solution using potassium chromate as an indicator.
Baumann, Jacob B. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 618.
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Oxidation and chemical environment  Grotz, Leonard C.
Demonstrates that the ability to oxidize or reduce a species is dependent not only on the nature of the species but also on its chemical environment.
Grotz, Leonard C. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 618.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The burning sugar cube  Smith, Douglas D.
A wide range of powdered solids can be used to produce a burning sugar cube.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 552.
Carbohydrates |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Catalysis
An aid to teaching weak acids and bases  Kennedy, David E. B.
A visual aid in helping students understand equilibrium concepts related to weak acids and bases.
Kennedy, David E. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 550.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium
Quality levels and the Brønsted theory  Bank, Evelyn
Maintaining standards for a diversity of students and teaching hydrolysis with the Bronsted-Lowry theory. [Debut]
Bank, Evelyn J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 548.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
The relationship of lead and sulfur in a chemical reaction  Chapman, V. L.
Investigating the stoichiometric synthesis of lead and sulfur to form lead sulfide.
Chapman, V. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 436.
Reactions |
Stoichiometry
The Preparation of polyurethane foam: A lecture demonstration  Dirreen, Glen E.; Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.
A polyurethane foam is produced by forming a polyurethane polymer concurrently with a gas evolution process.
Dirreen, Glen E.; Shakhashiri, Bassam Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 431.
Reactions |
Polymerization
Silver ion in water purification: A follow-up  Quane, Denis
Applying a previous idea on the possible use of silver ion in water purification to teaching the concept of Ksp.
Quane, Denis J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 381.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
303-308. Six practical, environmental chemistry application questions and their answers. Q303 submitted by Jerry Ray Dias.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 369.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Metals |
Toxicology |
Coordination Compounds |
Membranes |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Adapting a pH meter for lecture demonstrations: Construction of an auxiliary scale for overhead projectors  Stanko, Joseph A.; Haas, Charles G.; Lotz, John R.
A pH meter adopted for display on an overhead.
Stanko, Joseph A.; Haas, Charles G.; Lotz, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 365.
Acids / Bases |
pH
The effects of HCl and aspirin on the stomach: An equilibrium review  DeLorenzo, Ronald
The chemical effect and medical implications of taking aspirin.
DeLorenzo, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 306.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Chemical oscillations as an undergraduate experiment  Deb, B. M.
Hitherto unreported observations regarding the Briggs-Rauscher oscillating system.
Deb, B. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 236.
Reactions |
Kinetics
Effect of Ionic Strength on Equilibrium Constants  Seymour, M. D.; Fernando, Quintus
Involves the determination of the acid dissociation constant of bromcresol green by a spectrophotometric method; using a graphing calculator, each student can perform the laboratory work and obtain his own data set.
Seymour, M. D.; Fernando, Quintus J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 225.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
pH
Visual aid for acid-base concepts  Olson, Virgil K.; Osteryoung, Janet; Christie, Joseph H.; Turner, John A.
Three plots that the authors have found particularly useful in concisely illustrating a number of acid-base concepts relating to buffer capacity and acid-base titrations.
Olson, Virgil K.; Osteryoung, Janet; Christie, Joseph H.; Turner, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 220.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Chemist's view of oceanography  Cutshall, Norman H.
The structure of oceanography, chemists in oceanography, chemical analysis in oceanography, chemical oceanography research, and chemical oceanographers in marine pollution studies.
Cutshall, Norman H. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 162.
Applications of Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry
On mole fractions in equilibrium constants  Delaney, C. M.; Nash, Leonard K.
Proposes a hybrid equilibrium constant for use in introductory chemistry courses.
Delaney, C. M.; Nash, Leonard K. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 151.
Equilibrium |
Stoichiometry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Possible explosion danger  Kauffman, George B.
The danger inherent in solutions containing silver ion and aqueous ammonia.
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 132.
Laboratory Management |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Lap-dissolve slides. Multiple-use formats for pre-laboratory instruction  Fine, Leonard W.; Harpp, David N.; Krakower, Earl; Snyder, James P.
Describes and provides examples of the lap-dissolve effect, a technique that uses two 35mm slide projectors to convey changing images in a large lecture setting.
Fine, Leonard W.; Harpp, David N.; Krakower, Earl; Snyder, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 72.
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Vitalizing the lecture. Lap-dissolve projection  Harpp, David N.; Snyder, James P.
Describes and provides examples of the lap-dissolve effect, a technique that uses two 35mm slide projectors to convey changing images in a large lecture setting.
Harpp, David N.; Snyder, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 68.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Computer simulation of acid-base behavior  Hefter, Jesse; Zuehlke, Richard W.
Simulates the spectrophotometric determination of the pK of an acid-base indicator.
Hefter, Jesse; Zuehlke, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 63.
Acids / Bases
Chemical equilibrium  Burke, Barbara A.
Demonstrates the equilibrium between blue CuSO4 and green K2(CuBr4) on an overhead projector.
Burke, Barbara A. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 29.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Flashy solutions  Riley, John T.
Demonstrations using universal indicator.
Riley, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 29.
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments
Separation of an APC mixture. A quantitative analysis experiment  Haddad, Paul; Rasmussen, Malcolm
In this paper the well known technique of pH, controlled extractive separation of a mixture of an acidic, basic, and neutral organic substance has been applied to separation and analysis of a mixture of the drugs aspirin, caffeine, and phenacetin.
Haddad, Paul; Rasmussen, Malcolm J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 731.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Separation Science
An Effective demonstration of the behavior of indicators and biochemicals in buffers   Lerman, Charles L.
The author has found this demonstration of buffers useful for both freshman level courses and as a refresher in biochemistry.
Lerman, Charles L. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 634.
Acids / Bases |
pH
A criterion for the simple approximation in dissociation equilibria  Leffler, Amos J.
The author demonstrates quantitative criterion for the assumption that permits the neglect of the amount of dissociated species in the denominator of the dissociation equation.
Leffler, Amos J. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 460.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Understanding chemistry by developing body chemistry awareness  Barelski, Paul M.
The activities outlined in this note were conducted during the author's lectures as an attempt to involve students actively and personally in observing and experiencing chemistry.
Barelski, Paul M. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 450.
Physical Properties |
Reactions
Singlet oxygen in aqueous solution: A lecture demonstration   Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.; Williams, Lloyd G.
Lecture demonstrations involving chemiluminescence are useful for the purpose both of displaying chemical phenomena and of illustrating specific principles.
Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.; Williams, Lloyd G. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 358.
Photochemistry |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Spectroscopy
The chemistry involved in the preparation of a paint pigment. An experiment for the freshman laboratory  Daines, Terri L.; Morse, Karen W.
This experiment allows for students to see a demonstration of a variety of chemical principles and reactions.
Daines, Terri L.; Morse, Karen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 117.
Reactions |
Dyes / Pigments |
Applications of Chemistry
A simple general chemistry kinetics experiment  Gellender, Martin
The oxidation of iodide ion by persulfate provides a gradual and clearly distinguishable appearance of color as the reaction proceeds.
Gellender, Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 806.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Near 100% student yields with the "cycle of copper reactions" experiment  Condike, George F.
Improvements to the "cycle of copper reactions" experiment to improve yields.
Condike, George F. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 615.
Reactions
Conversion of black and white prints to color in daylight. A demonstration lecture for general and organic courses  Wheeler, Thomas N.
A black and white print is converted to a full color print with the lights on; includes a detailed discussion of the chemical processes involved in the demonstration.
Wheeler, Thomas N. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 607.
Photochemistry |
Reactions |
Consumer Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Oxidation / Reduction
A new buffer demonstration  Friedman, Norman
An Alka-Seltzer tablet in water is used as a buffer system and its resistance to changes in pH are compared to solutions of buffered aspirin and aspirin.
Friedman, Norman J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 605.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Consumer Chemistry
Protective cover for glass electrodes  DeWitt, H. D.
Slipping a piece of perforated vinyl tubing over the end of a glass electrode.
DeWitt, H. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 498.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
pH |
Acids / Bases
The reactions of ferroin complexes. A color-to-colorless freshman kinetic experiment  Edwards, John O.; Edwards, Kathleen; Palma, Jorge
A group of related reactions that can be easily followed with a colorimeter which show that the mechanism by which a reaction takes place may not be at all obvious from the stoichiometry.
Edwards, John O.; Edwards, Kathleen; Palma, Jorge J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 408.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Coordination Compounds |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Stoichiometry |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Demonstrations for high school chemistry  Castka, Joseph F.
A sequence of demonstrations that may serve to initiate and maintain student interest in the development of acid-base theories and bond strength.
Castka, Joseph F. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 394.
Acids / Bases |
Covalent Bonding |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Modification of a constant flow buret  Sturtevant, Floyd; Hartman, Kenneth
Modification and testing of an earlier presented design for of a constant flow buret.
Sturtevant, Floyd; Hartman, Kenneth J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 393.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Quantitative Analysis
An alternative to AgNO3: Interaction of metallic zinc with aqueous lead acetate  Williams, Helen L.
The reaction between zinc and aqueous lead acetate is selected as being the best for replacing the copper-silver nitrate reaction (due to the high cost of silver nitrate).
Williams, Helen L. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 391.
Laboratory Management |
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A general chemistry experiment on the identification of reaction products  Preer, James R.
Reaction products are identified by comparison of directly observable properties with those of known substances; the student writes reactants and products and proceeds to balance the equation.
Preer, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 389.
Reactions |
Quantitative Analysis
An experiment for introductory college chemistry. How to establish a chemistry equation  Masaguer, J. R.; Coto, M. Victoria; Casas, J. S.
The stoichiometry of the reaction between potassium chromate and barium chloride in an aqueous state is determined by using the height of of the precipitate formed when different amounts of both solutions are mixed in a graduated cylinder.
Masaguer, J. R.; Coto, M. Victoria; Casas, J. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 387.
Stoichiometry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Physicochemical properties of antacids  Hem, Stanley L.
An experiment to demonstrate the acid neutralizing reaction of sodium carbonate, calcium carbonate, and aluminum hydroxide gel.
Hem, Stanley L. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 383.
Acids / Bases |
Consumer Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
Computer simulated titration curves  Wilson, C. E.
Three computer programs for generating theoretical titration curves.
Wilson, C. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 344.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
180-183. Four biochemistry questions and their answers.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 241.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Photochemistry |
Photosynthesis |
Acids / Bases |
pH
A new chemistry program for nursing and allied health students  Stanitski, Conrad L.; Sears, Curtis T., Jr.
Outlines and discusses the topics considered in a chemistry program for nursing and allied health students.
Stanitski, Conrad L.; Sears, Curtis T., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 226.
Nonmajor Courses |
Applications of Chemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Catalysis |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Metabolism |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
Mysterious stoichiometry  Bowman, L. H.; Shull, C. M.
The student's task in this experiment is to determine the composition of a compound of chromium produced in an electrolytic cell.
Bowman, L. H.; Shull, C. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 186.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Stoichiometry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
A comparison of base strengths using visual and EMF observations  Campbell, J. A.
A series of sequentially added dilute aqueous solutions whose changes provide evidence for different degrees of dissociation of a series and complexes.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 185.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Coordination Compounds |
Precipitation / Solubility
FeSCN2+ - A computer aid to the CHEM Study experiment  McCall, Arthur J., Jr.
A Fortran program assists in making the calculations that accompany investigation of the iron(III)thiocyanate equilibrium system.
McCall, Arthur J., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 118.
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Chemometrics
A computer program for the analysis of titration data  Scholler, D. M.; Lyndrup, M. L.
A computer program to analyze titration data for monoprotic and diprotic acids.
Scholler, D. M.; Lyndrup, M. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 106.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
pH
Properties of air-A freshman chemistry lecture demonstration  Schultz, C. W.
A simple yet dramatic lecture demonstration can help tie together concepts of oxygen chemistry, combustion, gas properties and rates of reactions.
Schultz, C. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 751.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Gases
Theoretical shape of acid-base titration curves without using logarithms   Vennos, Mary S.
This presentation of the acid-base titration curve relates to interests students in paramedical careers might have.
Vennos, Mary S. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 631.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Nonmajor Courses
The octane cannon experiment updated for television  Richtol, H. H.; Nelson, D. L.; Reeves, R. R.
Video recording the detonation of octane in a clear tube for frame-by-frame analysis of a rapid reaction.
Richtol, H. H.; Nelson, D. L.; Reeves, R. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 856.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Some reactions of tungsten: A lecture demonstration  Nelson, D. L.; Reeves, R. R.; Richtol, H. H.
Several demonstrations involving reactions of tungsten.
Nelson, D. L.; Reeves, R. R.; Richtol, H. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 810.
Metals |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Teaching the facts of chemistry  Kosolapoff, G. M.
Inconceivable student response to a question on basic chemistry.
Kosolapoff, G. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 728.
Acids / Bases
Nitric acid in rain water  Gleason, Geoffrey I.
This trace analysis experiment is based on the conversion of nitrate to nitrite using a cadmium amalgam reductor column.
Gleason, Geoffrey I. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 718.
Acids / Bases |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry
The reduction of CuO with burner gas and without a fume hood. A high school chemistry experiment  Zidick, Clem; Weismann, Thomas
This experiment is a modification of the classic reduction of CuO with hydrogen gas, except natural gas is used as the reducing agent, eliminating the danger of working with hydrogen.
Zidick, Clem; Weismann, Thomas J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 717.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Stoichiometry
A simplified undergraduate calorimetry experiment  Bartle, K. D.; Osborn, P. M.
A glass calorimeter for determining ?H for the neutralization of a strong acid with a strong base.
Bartle, K. D.; Osborn, P. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 637.
Acids / Bases |
Reactions |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Estimating equilibrium constants  Harrington, Ernest C.
This demonstration allows the class to compare hydrochloric and acetic acid quantitatively and actually determine the ionization constant of acetic acid using a standard classroom conductivity apparatus.
Harrington, Ernest C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 549.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases
A graphical-analytical iterative procedure for equivalence point determinations  Sellers, Neal G.; Caruso, Joseph A.
An iterative approach has been developed that combines graphical measurements with analytical calculations to give an exact potentiometric endpoint irrespective of the stoichiometry of the reaction and magnitude of the associated equilibrium constants.
Sellers, Neal G.; Caruso, Joseph A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 547.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
Four questions requiring an application of chemical principles.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 498.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Acids / Bases
An oscillating iodine clock  Briggs, Thomas S.; Rauscher, Warren C.
An oscillating iodine clock reaction that gives striking cyclic changes from colorless to gold to blue using simple reagents.
Briggs, Thomas S.; Rauscher, Warren C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 496.
Reactions |
Kinetics
The equilibrium between a solid solution and an aqueous solution of its ions  Berndt, Alan F.; Stearns, Robert I.
It is the purpose of this paper to present the equations that describe the equilibrium between solid solutions and their ions and to outline methods for their derivation.
Berndt, Alan F.; Stearns, Robert I. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 415.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Derivatives of oxo acids. IUPAC Publications on Nomenclature. Other International Reports. SI Units  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Summarizes the nomenclature of oxo acid derivatives.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 341.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases
Syphon and the potential energy diagrams  Sarbolouki, M. N.
An analogy between the operation of a syphon and potential energy diagrams.
Sarbolouki, M. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 245.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics
The aspirin project. Laboratory experiments for introductory chemistry  Brown, David B.; Friedman, Lawrence B.
This laboratory project involves the synthesis, characterization, and study of some reactions of acetylsalicylic acid, and the comparison of acetylsalicylic acid with the major components of various commercial brands of aspirin tablets.
Brown, David B.; Friedman, Lawrence B. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 214.
Constitutional Isomers |
Synthesis |
Acids / Bases |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis
Conjugate acid-base and redox theory  Pacer, Richard A.
Consideration of relative oxidizing / reducing strength would be greatly facilitated if this topic were presented in terms of transfer of one or more electrons between members of a conjugate redox pair.
Pacer, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 178.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction
Extraction of acid with aqueous base  Silversmith, Ernest F.
This is a visual demonstration of the principle that acidic organic substances can be extracted from an organic solvent via conversion to a salt, and the latter extracted from the aqueous solution via reconversion to the acid form.
Silversmith, Ernest F. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A694.
Acids / Bases
Two lecture experiments demonstrating limiting quantities  Dillard, Clyde R.
Uses reactions between HCl and magnesium and HCl and calcium to demonstrate the concept of limiting reactants.
Dillard, Clyde R. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A694.
Stoichiometry |
Reactions
The difference in oxidizing strength of dilute and concentrated nitric acid  Glasoe, Paul K.
H2S gas is bubbled through dilute and concentrated HNO3.
Glasoe, Paul K. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A644.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction
The reaction of CN- ions with Ni(EDTA)2- ions  Littlejohn, D. G.; Fanning, J. C.
A green Ni(NO3)2 solution changes to blue upon adding EDTA; this changes to a deep violet when a solution of KCN and KOH is added.
Littlejohn, D. G.; Fanning, J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A267.
Coordination Compounds |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Effect of temperature on reaction rate  Simon, J.
The reaction of aluminum in HCl.
Simon, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A85.
Rate Law |
Reactions
The reducing property of ammonia  Long, Robert H.
Heating black copper (II) oxide with ammonium carbonate yields metallic copper, red copper (I) oxide, and water.
Long, Robert H. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A85.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
pH range -47 to +47?  Pilar, Frank L.
The author of the cited article corrects a mistake in his original manuscript.
Pilar, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 851.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The determination of dissolved oxygen by the Winkler method. A student laboratory experiment  McCormick, Patrick G.
This method is based on the reaction between oxygen and a suspension of manganese(II) hydroxide in a strongly alkaline solution.
McCormick, Patrick G. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 839.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Gases |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Radiometric analysis of ammonia in water  Mehra, M. C.
In this experiment, the silver concentration in aqueous solution is determined radiometrically using silver-110 as the radiotracer.
Mehra, M. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 837.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Isotopes |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis
The phenomenon of synergism in the field of chemistry  Sunier, Arthur A.
Presents examples of synergism in chemistry and examines its underlying causes.
Sunier, Arthur A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 805.
Reactions
Preparation of solutions in the pH range of approximately -47 to +47  Pilar, Frank L.
By adding more and more water to an acidic solution, one can produce as high a pH as desired.
Pilar, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 776.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A computer program for balancing chemical equations  Brown, John P.; Brown, L. Pearl; Redd, Robert M.
Availability of a Fortran IV program that uses the matrix method for balancing chemical equations.
Brown, John P.; Brown, L. Pearl; Redd, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 754.
Stoichiometry |
Reactions
Water analysis experiment  Anderlick, Barbara
Analyzing various water samples for the presence of a variety of ions.
Anderlick, Barbara J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 749.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Metals
The effect of ligands on hydrolysis constants of transition metal ions  Morrow, Jack I.
This procedure examines the effect that ligands in the inner coordination sphere have upon the chemical behavior of transition metal ions.
Morrow, Jack I. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 748.
Coordination Compounds |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Caffeine and benzoic acid in soft drinks  Laswick, Patty Hall; Laswick, John A.
Simple procedures for isolating caffeine and benzoic acid from commercial soft drinks.
Laswick, Patty Hall; Laswick, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 708.
Acids / Bases |
Separation Science |
Consumer Chemistry
Pseudo first-order kinetics  Corbett, John F.
A kinetic study of second-order reactions under first-order conditions can yield accurate second-order rate constants provided an empirical allowance is made for the depletion of the reactant in excess.
Corbett, John F. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 663.
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Rate Law
Definition of standard states  Lukens, David C.
A suggested sequence of definitions for the standard state.
Lukens, David C. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 654.
Thermodynamics |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
An interactive program for teaching pH and logarithms  Eskinazi, Jak; Macero, Daniel J.
A computer program written in APL for teaching students logarithms and pH calculations.
Eskinazi, Jak; Macero, Daniel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 571.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics
Passage of fruit flies through a hole. A model for a reversible chemical reaction  Runquist, Elizabeth A.; Runquist, Olaf
The passage of fruit flies through a single orifice provides an excellent model for illustrating the principles of equilibrium and chemical dynamics; the results are found to be temperature dependent and reproducible.
Runquist, Elizabeth A.; Runquist, Olaf J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 534.
Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
The color blind traffic light. An undergraduate kinetics experiment using an oscillating reaction  Lefelhocz, John F.
This kinetics experiment involves the student with a qualitative study of the influence of chemical and physical variables on the rate of a specific reaction.
Lefelhocz, John F. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 312.
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Rate Law
Solubility of lead bromide in nitrate media. A study of ionic interactions  Cooper, J. N.
Students are asked to determine, as a class, the solubility of lead bromide at a fixed temperature in solutions covering a range of known sodium nitrate concentrations.
Cooper, J. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 282.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Density gradients in chemistry teaching  Miller, P. J.
Outlines experiments in which a density gradient may be used to advantage, including the analysis of organic compounds, aqueous solutions, binary mixtures of organic compounds, solids, and solvent extractions.
Miller, P. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 278.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solids |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
Programmable calculators. Simulated experiments  Runquist, O.; Olsen, Rodney; Snadden, Bruce
Describes how titration and reaction rate experiments can be simulated on a programmable calculator.
Runquist, O.; Olsen, Rodney; Snadden, Bruce J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 265.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
pH
Computer evaluation of titrations by Gran's method. An analytical chemistry experiment  MacDonald, Timothy J.; Barker, Barbara J.; Caruso, Joseph A.
A computer program has been developed for the evaluation of potentiometric redox titration data by Gran's method.
MacDonald, Timothy J.; Barker, Barbara J.; Caruso, Joseph A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 200.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry |
Acids / Bases
Pain: A chemical explanation  Plumb, Robert C.; Lindahl, Olov
In sensing pain the nervous system acts like a pH meter.
Plumb, Robert C.; Lindahl, Olov J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 179.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry
The chemistry of winemaking. An unique lecture demonstration  Church, L. B.
This paper shows that a very complex series of reactions present in the preparation of wine can be used as the focal point to illustrate many other general classes of chemical reactions and physical processes.
Church, L. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 174.
Alcohols |
Consumer Chemistry |
Reactions
The hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenol phosphate. A freshman class investigation  Hopkins, Harry P., Jr.; Mather, Jane H.
A study of the hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenol phosphate is made the basis of a biochemistry-oriented quarter in freshman chemistry; after completing the simple hydrolysis studies, the student proceeds to investigate the enzymatic hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenol phosphate.
Hopkins, Harry P., Jr.; Mather, Jane H. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 126.
Reactions |
pH |
Esters |
Enzymes |
Catalysis
Computer program for the treatment of data for a kinetic study of the persulfate-iodide clock reaction  Lyndrup, Mark L.
Notes the availability of a BASIC program designed to aid students in the treatment of data collected for a kinetic study of the clock reaction between the persulfate and iodide ions.
Lyndrup, Mark L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 30.
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Rate Law
The effervescence of ocean surf  Plumb, Robert C.; Blanchard, Duncan C.; Bilofsky, Howard S.; Bridgman, Wilbur B.
A pure liquid will not foam, but all true solutions will, as dictated by the fundamental concepts of surface thermodynamics enunciated by Gibbs.
Plumb, Robert C.; Blanchard, Duncan C.; Bilofsky, Howard S.; Bridgman, Wilbur B. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 29.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics
When your car rusts out  Knockemus, Ward
Explains the rusting of a car by considering electrochemical corrosion and the Nernst equation.
Knockemus, Ward J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 29.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry |
Reactions
An introductory experiment on phosphates in detergents  Mohrig, Jerry R.
Examines the phosphate controversy, the roles of phosphates in detergents, the chemistry of phosphates and their colorimetric determination, and presents an experiment in which the amount of phosphate is measured using two different analytical methods.
Mohrig, Jerry R. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 15.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Applications of Chemistry
Gas Laws, Equilibrium, and the Commercial Synthesis of Nitric acid. A Simple Demonstration  Alexander, M. Dale
This demonstration of the commercial production of nitric acid uses a simple apparatus to illustrate a number of basic chemical concepts, including Le Chatelier's principle.
Alexander, M. Dale J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 838.
Synthesis |
Industrial Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Equilibrium |
Reactions |
Stoichiometry
Beginning chemistry can be relevant  Corwin, James F.
The continuing criticism offered by students of the science that the present day courses are not relevant to contemporary problems. This can be answered in part by a laboratory program based on environmental problems.
Corwin, James F. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 522.
Acids / Bases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Student-Centered Learning
Illustrating the laws of chemistry without chemicals  Schlegel, James M.; Chin, Anna
The authors share an experiment designed to stress by analogy the observations which led to an understanding of the law of chemical combinations.
Schlegel, James M.; Chin, Anna J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 334.
Reactions
A study of the physical and chemical rates of CaCO3 dissolution in HCl  Bassow, Herbert; Hamilton, Doug; Schneeberg, Ben; Stad, Ben
The authors describe the experimental procedure and a discussion of results for a study of the physical and chemical rates of CaCO3 dissolution in HCl.
Bassow, Herbert; Hamilton, Doug; Schneeberg, Ben; Stad, Ben J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 327.
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Rate Law
Coordination complexes and equilibrium  Shombert, Donald J.
The results of this demonstration are explained in terms of equilibrium, Le Chatelier-Braun's principle, and coordination complex formation.
Shombert, Donald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A784.
Coordination Compounds |
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A color indicating time reaction  Chen, Philip S.
Combining solutions of sodium thoisulfate and ferric chloride produces a dramatic color change.
Chen, Philip S. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A784.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Le Chtelier's principles - Conductivity of solutions  Kasimer, Philip
Observing conductivity of a dilute solution of glacial acetic acid before and after the addition of a magnesium ribbon.
Kasimer, Philip J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A439.
Equilibrium |
Electrochemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Miscellaneous  Alyea, Hubert N.
These twelve overhead projection demonstrations include rates of reactions, clock reactions, the effect of temperature and the presence of a catalyst on the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, the relationship between viscosity and temperature, equilibria, solubility product, and the common ion effect.
Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A437.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility
A classroom demonstration of exothermicity  Boschmann, Erwin
The heat generated by dissolving NaOH in water causes iodine crystals to sublime.
Boschmann, Erwin J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A206.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Benzoic acid tree  Chen, Philip S.
Benzaldehyde undergoes autoxidation to benzoic acid by air, particularly upon exposure to light; the white benzoic acid is caused to form a crystalline tree on twisted pipe cleaners.
Chen, Philip S. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A119.
Carboxylic Acids |
Acids / Bases |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Hydrolysis of the carbonate ion  Walker, Noojin; Mintz, James
Predicting and testing the product of the reaction between aqueous Cu(NO3)2 and Na2CO3.
Walker, Noojin; Mintz, James J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A119.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Hydrolysis of the carbonate ion  Walker, Noojin; Mintz, James
Predicting and testing the product of the reaction between aqueous Cu(NO3)2 and Na2CO3.
Walker, Noojin; Mintz, James J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A119.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Autoxidation of benzoin  Chen, Philip S.
Benzoin in its enediol form undergoes autoxidation in alkaline solution in the presence of air.
Chen, Philip S. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A67.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Computer evaluation of rates experiment  Krieger, Albert G.
Notes the availability of a Fortran IV computer program for the numerical evaluation of the "Oxidation of Iodide Ion by Persulfate Ion."
Krieger, Albert G. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 839.
Reactions |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Oxidation / Reduction
Acid-base reaction parameters  Freiser, Henry
The author demonstrates how the combined algebraic graphical approach can be extended to acid-base titration curve calculations as well as to buffer and sharpness index formulation.
Freiser, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 809.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics
Procedure for recovering silver nitrate from silver-silver oxide residues  Henderson, K. O.; Garin, David L.
Presents a procedure for recovering silver nitrate from silver-silver oxide residues.
Henderson, K. O.; Garin, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 741.
Laboratory Management |
Separation Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Parris, Michael
(1) Explains how free radicals differ from species such as NO3- and NH4+. (2) Explains why HI is a stronger acid than HF in aqueous solution. - answer by Parris. (3) Explains that it is possible to alter the half-life of a some radioactive processes through chemical means.
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Parris, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 697.
Free Radicals |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Isotopes
Demonstrating the relation between rate constants and the equilibrium constant  Meyer, Edwin F.; Glass, Edward
Presents an approach used with an apparatus to demonstrate quantitatively the relationship between rate constants and the equilibrium constant for simple reversible reactions.
Meyer, Edwin F.; Glass, Edward J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 646.
Rate Law |
Equilibrium |
Reactions
Some "real life" applications of solubility: Iron, iron everywhere but not a drop to drink  Brasted, Robert C.
Although Hawaiian pineapples grow in red soils whose iron composition may exceed 20%, they starve for iron because it is in an insoluble form; also considers applications of the insolubility of other transition metals.
Brasted, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 634.
Applications of Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Plant Chemistry |
Agricultural Chemistry |
Metals |
Transition Elements |
Oxidation State
Some "real life" applications of solubility: Iron, iron everywhere but not a drop to drink  Brasted, Robert C.
Although Hawaiian pineapples grow in red soils whose iron composition may exceed 20%, they starve for iron because it is in an insoluble form; also considers applications of the insolubility of other transition metals.
Brasted, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 634.
Applications of Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Plant Chemistry |
Agricultural Chemistry |
Metals |
Transition Elements |
Oxidation State
Is ammonia like water?  Gill, J. B.
This article sets out to compare some of the properties of the two most widely studied solvents, water and liquid ammonia, and in particular illustrate some comparative aspects that are not normally considered.
Gill, J. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 619.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Strong, Laurence E.
(1) What evidence, understandable and acceptable to students, do most teachers cite to describe the transfer of charge from one electrode to another in the direct current electrolysis of an electrolyte solution? (2) What is a compound? - answer by Strong. (3) What is a molecule? - answer by Strong.
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Strong, Laurence E. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 523.
Electrochemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Instant first aid  Kaufman, James A.
Explains how instant ice and hot packs work.
Kaufman, James A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 518.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Reactions |
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry
Understanding a culprit before eliminating it. An application of Lewis acid-base principles to atmospheric SO2 as a pollutant  Brasted, Robert C.
The SO2 molecule offers ample opportunities for teaching practical chemistry. [Debut of first run. This feature reappeared in 1986.]
Brasted, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 447.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions |
Applications of Chemistry |
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Demonstration of photochemistry and the dimerization and trapping of free radicals  Silversmith, Ernest F.
This demonstration uses simple equipment and involves a rapid, readily noticeable color change and also illustrates dimerization and the trapping of free radicals.
Silversmith, Ernest F. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 315.
Photochemistry |
Free Radicals |
Reactions
Isopoly and heteropoly compounds: A general chemistry laboratory experiment  Kauffman, George B.; Vartanian, Paul F.
This procedure involves the preparation of isopoly and heteropoly salts and introduces the beginning student to liquid-liquid extraction, titration, ion exchange, conductance, and a variety of synthetic and analytical techniques.
Kauffman, George B.; Vartanian, Paul F. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 212.
Synthesis |
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry
Ratio diagrams: A simple graphical representation of complicated equilibria  de Levie, R.
Introduces and demonstrates the usefulness and general applicability of ratio diagrams as the simplest graphical representation of equilibria involving mononuclear species.
de Levie, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 187.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
Definition of reaction rate and the steady state assumption  Rasiel, Yecheskel; Freeman, Wade A.
Clarifies the definition of reaction rate and the steady state assumption.
Rasiel, Yecheskel; Freeman, Wade A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 159.
Rate Law |
Reactions
Determination of successive ionization constants: A computer assisted laboratory experiment  Jensen, R. E.; Garvey, R. G.; Paulson, B. A.
The computer programs described here plot students' titration data, locate equivalence points of the titration, calculate the apparent equivalent mass of the acid, and determine the successive ionization constants of the acid.
Jensen, R. E.; Garvey, R. G.; Paulson, B. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 147.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Hydrolysis of sodium carbonate  Nakayama, F. S.
Presents a procedure for obtaining the ion concentrations of the various component species produced by the hydrolysis of sodium carbonate.
Nakayama, F. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 67.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Chemometrics |
pH
Component concentrations in solutions of weak acids  Goldish, Dorothy M.
presents a new approach to teaching the subject of weak acid equilibria and its associated calculations.
Goldish, Dorothy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 65.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
pH
Ionic versus covalent bonding  Goldish, Dorothy M.
Ionic sodium chloride dissolves in water but covalent benzyl chloride does not.
Goldish, Dorothy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A497.
Ionic Bonding |
Covalent Bonding |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
Oxidizing action of sulfur dioxide  Lauren, Paul M.
A burning ribbon of magnesium is dropped into a flask of sulfur dioxide produces elemental sulfur.
Lauren, Paul M. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A55.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
A spontaneous endothermic reaction  Hambly, Arthur N.
Barium hydroxide and ammonium thiocyanate react in a flask, causing the water beneath it to freeze.
Hambly, Arthur N. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A55.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Reactions
The oxidation of hydrazine by basic iodine solutions: A stoichiometric study  Cooper, J. N.; Ramette, R. W.
This experiment relies on an oxidation-reduction reaction for which a variety of products is energetically possible.
Cooper, J. N.; Ramette, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 872.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Transistorized power sources for constant current coulometric titration  Stock, John T.
This coulometric titrator uses a complementary pair of transistors to minimize heating affects and improve stability with respect to temperature; an example of experimental use for the apparatus is included.
Stock, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 858.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry
Potentiometric determination of solubility product constants: A laboratory experiment  Tackett, Stanford L.
This paper describes an experiment in which measured potentials and calculated activity coefficients are used to obtain the solubility product constants of silver halides.
Tackett, Stanford L. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 857.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Diffusion of potassium permanganate as a lecture demonstration  Conard, C. R.; Bent, H. E.
Dropping crystals of potassium permanganate into a tall column of water leads to the slow dissolution and diffusion of the potassium permanganate throughout the column over a semester's time.
Conard, C. R.; Bent, H. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 758.
Transport Properties |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Solutions / Solvents |
Liquids
The standard electrode potential of the silver-silver bromide electrode  Venable, R. L.; Roach, D. V.
Calculations of the standard electrode potential of the silver-silver bromide electrode indicate that many values listed in textbooks are incorrect.
Venable, R. L.; Roach, D. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 741.
Electrochemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis
Computer programs for calculating pH  Schlessinger, Gert G.
A brief note on the availability of a Fortran II program for calculating the pH of weak acids and bases and salts of these species in aqueous solution.
Schlessinger, Gert G. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 680.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A versatile reagent for general chemistry  Dauphinee, G. A.; Heit, M. L.
This short note lists seven general chemistry experiments on various aspects of potassium hydrogen oxalate.
Dauphinee, G. A.; Heit, M. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 660.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis
Graphical method for acidity constants  Heck, Ludwig
The author presents a graphical method for the determination of acidity constants of very weak acids.
Heck, Ludwig J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 535.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
pH
A distribution experiment  Campbell, J. A.; Nelson, Douglas; Rudesill, John
An experiment to determine the distribution coefficient of an acid between an aqueous and nonaqueous phase.
Campbell, J. A.; Nelson, Douglas; Rudesill, John J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 454.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Thermochemistry of hypochlorite oxidations  Bigelow, M. Jerome
Students mix various proportions of aqueous sodium hypochlorite and sodium sulfite and plot the change in temperature to determine the stoichiometry of the reaction.
Bigelow, M. Jerome J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 378.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Thermodynamics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Monoprotic or diprotic?  Goldman, James A.
The author demonstrates that the results of an earlier article are not altogether unexpected.
Goldman, James A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 123.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
pH
Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.
(1) Is there such a thing as a negative pH value? Or one above 14? (2) What is entropy, in terms a beginner may understand? (3) On calculating the molecular weight of a solute from concentration and freezing point depression.
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 36.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
pH |
Thermodynamics |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Circular slide rule conversion of pH to [H+]  Grimm, Larry C.
This short note discusses the use of a circular slide rule to convert pH to [H+].
Grimm, Larry C. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 22.
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Reactions of metals and sulfur  Walker, Noojin
An iron nail reacts with sulfur to produce iron(II) sulfide.
Walker, Noojin J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A901.
Metals |
Reactions
A transparent dust explosion apparatus  Haight, G. P., Jr.; Duvall, Robert.; Phillips, Stanley
Design for a transparent dust explosion apparatus
Haight, G. P., Jr.; Duvall, Robert.; Phillips, Stanley J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A833.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
The chemistry of the OH group (Clapp, Leallyn B.)  Massie, Samuel P.

Massie, Samuel P. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A700.
Acids / Bases
The relative stability of cadmium and cobalt chloride complexes  Butler, S. B.
The presence of complex ions in cadmium chloride solutions is shown by comparison with a sodium chloride solution of equal chlorine content, using a complex cobalt ion as an indicator of the relative chloride ion concentration.
Butler, S. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A691.
Coordination Compounds |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The cell potential and the distance between electrodes  Lauren, Paul M.
This demonstration illustrates the importance of the role played by ion diffusion in determining the magnitude of the emf of a primary cell.
Lauren, Paul M. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A691.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Nitrogen chemistry. A. Nitrogen. B. Ammonia  Mancuso, Carl J.; Alyea, Hubert N.
Demonstration include an ammonia generator; ammonia diffusion throughout a rubber balloon; ammonium chloride smoke; and secret writing using HgNH2Cl + Hg.
Mancuso, Carl J.; Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A567.
Reactions
Le Chtelier's principle  Melott, Adrian L.
Adding a strong base to aqueous ammonia causes gaseous ammonia to be released.
Melott, Adrian L. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A519.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Oxidation of copper by hydrochloric acid  Walker, Noojin; George, Donald L.
Demonstrates the oxidation of copper by hydrochloric acid.
Walker, Noojin; George, Donald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A429.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry
Spontaneous combustion  Geoghegan, John T.; Sheers, Edward H.
Linseed oil is observed to char cotton over a period of time.
Geoghegan, John T.; Sheers, Edward H. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A429.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Boron and silicon. A. Boron  Alyea, Hubert N.; Hornbeck, LeRoy G.
Demonstrations include boric acid from borax and borax beads.
Alyea, Hubert N.; Hornbeck, LeRoy G. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A151.
Acids / Bases
Errors in calculating hydrogen ion concentration  House, J. E., Jr.; Reiter, R. C.
The possibility of avoiding the full quadratic calculation in determining hydrogen ion concentration depends on both the dissociation constant and the concentration of the acid or base.
House, J. E., Jr.; Reiter, R. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 679.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
pH
Corrections for simple equations for titration curves of monoprotic acids  Cortelyou, W. P.
Presents corrections for simple equations for titration curves of monoprotic acids and their derivations.
Cortelyou, W. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 677.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Acid-base indicators: An experiment in aqueous equilibria  Brown, William E.; Campbell, J. A.
Examines absorbtivity values for six acid-base indicators under various conditions.
Brown, William E.; Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 674.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Dyes / Pigments
Mole fraction versus molality  Creak, G. Alan
Mole fractions are not always unambiguous when used in the context of ionic solutions.
Creak, G. Alan J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 622.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Effect of complexing agents on oxidation potentials  Helsen, Jef
A short note on a simple experiment to demonstrate the effect of complexing agents on the oxidation-reduction properties of redox couples such as Fe3+/Fe2+.
Helsen, Jef J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 518.
Coordination Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry
Calcium carbonate equilibria in the oceans - ion pair formation  Morton, Stephen D.; Lee, G. Fred
Discusses some of the problems encountered in studying the chemistry of lakes and oceans, focussing on the solubility of calcium carbonate in marine environments.
Morton, Stephen D.; Lee, G. Fred J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 513.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Qualitative Analysis
Calcium carbonate equilibria in lakes  Morton, Stephen D.; Lee, G. Fred
Discusses some of the problems encountered in studying the chemistry of lakes and oceans, focussing on the solubility of calcium carbonate in fresh water lakes.
Morton, Stephen D.; Lee, G. Fred J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 511.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Equilibrium
Le Chtelier and ionic equilibria  Ringbom, Anders
When s solution contains several weak acids, the squares of the separately calculated hydrogen ion concentrations of all weak acids in the solution are additive.
Ringbom, Anders J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 442.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents
Why does methane burn?  Sanderson, R. T.
A thermodynamic explanation for why methane burns.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 423.
Thermodynamics |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding
Bimolecular nucleophilic displacement reactions  Edwards, John O.
The bimolecular nucleophilic displacement reaction is important and should be included in any detailed discussion of kinetics and mechanism at an early undergraduate level.
Edwards, John O. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 386.
Reactions |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
From stoichiometry and rate law to mechanism  Edwards, John O.; Greene, Edward F.; Ross, John
Examines the rules used by chemists as guidelines in developing mechanisms from stoichiometric and rate law observations.
Edwards, John O.; Greene, Edward F.; Ross, John J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 381.
Stoichiometry |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Reactive Intermediates
The revolution in elementary kinetics and freshman chemistry  Wolfgang, Richard
New developments in kinetics so fundamentally affect our most elementary conception of chemical change that they must inevitably be reflected in beginning courses in chemistry; includes an outline for freshmen on elementary chemical dynamics.
Wolfgang, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 359.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Chemical dynamics for college freshmen  Hammond, George S.; Gray, Harry B.
Suggestions for topics regarding chemical dynamics to be considered in freshman chemistry.
Hammond, George S.; Gray, Harry B. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 354.
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Rate Law
Silver tree  Smith, Donald Z.
A suggestion for improving the silver:copper ratio in the silver tree experiment.
Smith, Donald Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 275.
Stoichiometry |
Reactions
Is a weak acid monoprotic? A new look at titration curves  Sturrock, Peter E.
It is suggested that experimental values of ?pH may be employed as a simple, yet sensitive, criterion to determine whether an unknown acid is monoprotic.
Sturrock, Peter E. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 258.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH
The Becquerel effect  Ensanian, Minas
A short note on a demonstration of the Becquerel effect.
Ensanian, Minas J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 240.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Group 1. The Alkali Metals. The Copper Group   Mancuso, Carl J.; Alyea, Hubert N.
Demonstrations include the density and melting point of copper versus sodium, the conductivity of sodium, the reactivity with water of groups IA vs IB, and the stability of CO3--, HCO3-, and hydroxides of groups IA vs IB.
Mancuso, Carl J.; Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A919.
Metals |
Reactions |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Physical Properties
Instantaneous precipitation from homogeneous solution  Hiskey, C. F.; Cantwell, F. F.
Procedure for the iodine clock reaction.
Hiskey, C. F.; Cantwell, F. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A727.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Kinetics
Group zero. The atmosphere. B. Substances in the air  Slabaugh, W. H.; Klug, Evangeline B.; Alyea, Hubert N.; Cooper, Edwin H.
Demonstrations include the analysis of air for oxygen content, paper burned in air, air + limewater, air + barium hydroxide, breathing into limewater, and the pH change from breath.
Slabaugh, W. H.; Klug, Evangeline B.; Alyea, Hubert N.; Cooper, Edwin H. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A599.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
pH
Burning without access to air  Alfthan, Voldemar
Permanganate in the presence of sulfuric acid furnishes the oxygen needed for rapid combustion.
Alfthan, Voldemar J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A465.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Chromatography: Inorganic separations using chalkboard chalk  Lauren, Paul M.
This demonstration involves separating several combinations of aqueous ions.
Lauren, Paul M. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A345.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Group 1. The Alkali Metals C. The Copper Group  Alyea, Hubert N.; Mancuso, Carl J.; Bernard, Robert
Demonstrations include electroplating copper, Fehling's test, the silver mirror (Ag+ + tartrate), insoluble silver salts, photo-film + hypo, hypo fixer + silver coin, and a solution of gold in aqua-regia.
Alyea, Hubert N.; Mancuso, Carl J.; Bernard, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A1005.
Electrochemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Metals
Rapid detection of cations and anions (Charlot, Gaston)  Williams, T. R.

Williams, T. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A62.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Dissociation of weak acids and bases at infinite dilution  Stock, D. Irwin
It is all too easy to forget that in a solution of infinite dilution the solvent itself is ionized to an extent governed by its ionization constant, and that the concentration of its ions will appear in the expression for the dissociation constant of the solute.
Stock, D. Irwin J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 764.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
The stoichiometry of an oxidation-reduction reaction  Latimer, George W., Jr.
A short note on the titration of hydrazine sulfate with standard bromate in the presence of sodium molybdate that requires students to identify the products through the use of some elementary qualitative analysis.
Latimer, George W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 537.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis
Detection of iron with salicylimine  Poonia, N. S.; Bakre, V. P.; Bal, M. S.
Describes the detection of iron with salicylimine.
Poonia, N. S.; Bakre, V. P.; Bal, M. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 483.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals
Reagents for analysis of iron(II)-iron(III) mixtures  Lal, Sudarshan; Srivastava, S. N.
Presents some analytical reagents that may be used for the analysis of iron(II)-iron(III) mixtures.
Lal, Sudarshan; Srivastava, S. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 482.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals
Detection of mercury(I) and mercury(II) in the presence of each other  Lal, Sudarshan; Srivastava, S. N.
Presents some analytical reagents that may be used for the analysis of mercury(I) and mercury(II) in the presence of each other.
Lal, Sudarshan; Srivastava, S. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 482.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals
Some analytical reagents for tin(II)-tin(IV) mixtures  Lal, Sudarshan; Srivastava, S. N.
Presents some analytical reagents that may be used for the analysis of tin(II)-tin(IV) mixtures.
Lal, Sudarshan; Srivastava, S. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 481.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Metals
Spot tests for silver(I) and manganese(II)  Poonia, N. S.; Gupta, H. K. L.
This investigation introduces piperidine as a new reagent for this test and describes an improved technique with increased sensitivity.
Poonia, N. S.; Gupta, H. K. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 480.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Metals
Dodecyl sodium sulfate as a reagent for the detection of potassium  Neman, R. L.
The proposed test involves the addition of an aqueous solution of dodecyl sodium sulfate to precipitate dodecyl potassium sulfate.
Neman, R. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 479.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Metals
The acid base calculator  Flack, Arnold
This short note describes an acid base calculator designed to assist in the teaching of logarithmic relationships.
Flack, Arnold J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 466.
Acids / Bases |
pH
A study of the silver tree experiment  Carmody, Walter R.; Wiersma, Jack
Examines the errors associated with and efforts to improve the results of the silver tree experiment.
Carmody, Walter R.; Wiersma, Jack J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 417.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Reactions
Determination of the combining weight of tin: A new look at an old experiment  Carmody, Walter R.
Describes efforts to improve the determination of the combining weight of tin
Carmody, Walter R. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 416.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Synthesis
Syntheses and titrations of unknown acids: A general chemistry laboratory experiment  Kauffman, George B.; Houghten, Richard A., Jr.
Students prepare a solid unknown acid from an unknown starting material and then determine its equivalent weight by titration with a standard base.
Kauffman, George B.; Houghten, Richard A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 408.
Acids / Bases |
Synthesis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
A pH scaler  Alpern, D. K.
Describes a convenient pocket size scale made using log paper and a linear graph sheet.
Alpern, D. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 330.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Acid-base titration and distribution curves  Waser, Jurg
Presents an alternative method for the calculation of acid-base titration curves.
Waser, Jurg J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 274.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The stoichiometry of an oxidation-reduction reaction: An elementary chemistry experiment  Child, W. C., Jr.; Ramette, R. W.
Students are asked to decide which of a number of nitrogen containing species is a reasonable product of the reaction between the hydroxylammonium ion and iron (III) on the basis of the experimentally determined stoichiometry of the reaction.
Child, W. C., Jr.; Ramette, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 109.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Ionization, electricity B. (continued) Production of electricity   Hornbeck, LeRoy; Barnard, Robert; Jackman, Kenneth; Ulery, Denver; Rogers, Crosby
Demonstrations include magnesium + acid ringing a bell, magnesium + acid lighting a bulb, couples without a salt bridge, and half-cells with salt bridge and microammeter.
Hornbeck, LeRoy; Barnard, Robert; Jackman, Kenneth; Ulery, Denver; Rogers, Crosby J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A585.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry
Ionization, electricity. A. Proof that ions exist   Alyea, Hubert N.; Johnson, William.; Cocoran, Paul; Barnard, Robert; Rolf, Fred; Klug, Evangeline
Demonstrations include conductivity using a meter, conductivity of HCl in water versus in toluene, conductivity of HCl in water versus in benzene, acids plus zinc, indicators with acids and bases (H3O+ and OH-), rate of reaction and acid strengths, colors of ions, and color of cobalt ion and a cobalt complex.
Alyea, Hubert N.; Johnson, William.; Cocoran, Paul; Barnard, Robert; Rolf, Fred; Klug, Evangeline J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A539.
Acids / Bases |
Conductivity |
Dyes / Pigments |
Rate Law
Energy B. Heat energy   Klug, Evangeline B.; Hornbeck, Leroy G.; Alyea, Hubert N.
Demonstrations of the heat of crystallization (sodium acetate and Na2S2O3[5H2O]), heat of formation (ZnCl2), heat of hydration (CaO and CuSO4), heat of neutralization, heat of solvation (alcohols), evaporation of ether and methyl chloride, and heat of solution (NH4NO3).
Klug, Evangeline B.; Hornbeck, Leroy G.; Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A1079.
Reactions |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Precipitation / Solubility
A new twist to Ksp evaluation  Hazel, J. Fred
Evaluating the concentration of slightly soluble slats by passing the saturated solution through a cation resin and titrating the resulting acid in the eluate.
Hazel, J. Fred J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 636.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
The case of the unlabeled bottles: Descriptive chemistry in the introductory laboratory course  Zuehlke, R. W.
The purpose of this experiment is to identify the contents of seven solutions using only the seven solutions as reagents.
Zuehlke, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 601.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Theoretical error in acid-base titrations  Butcher, John; Quintus, Fernanado
The purpose of this report is to describe simple derivations of equations for titration error calculations for a number of acid-base titrations, and to show error curves for some typical cases.
Butcher, John; Quintus, Fernanado J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 546.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases
Demonstrations of spontaneous endothermic reactions  Matthews, G. W. J.
The reaction between hydrated metal chlorides and thionyl chloride provides a series of valuable experiments that can be used to demonstrate spontaneous endothermic reactions.
Matthews, G. W. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 476.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Microapparatus for demonstrating electrophoresis and ion migration  Stock, John T.; DeThomas, A. V.
Ferric hydroxide and arsenious sulfide are separated using a 9-volt battery.
Stock, John T.; DeThomas, A. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 436.
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Microscale Lab |
Colloids
Fusion reactions under the microscope  Benedetti-Pichler, A. A.; Vikin, Joe
An electrically heated wire is used to identify a variety of cations and anions according to colors observed under a microscope.
Benedetti-Pichler, A. A.; Vikin, Joe J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 421.
Reactions |
Qualitative Analysis |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Demonstration of chemical reaction via aerosol spray reagents  Stedman, Earl D.
Demonstrations of chemical reactions via aerosol spray reagents may include acid-base indicators and precipitation reactions.
Stedman, Earl D. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 377.
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Reactions
Lewis acid-base titration in fused salts  Schlegel, James M.
Dichromate ion, a Lewis acid, is titrated with carbonate ion, a Lewis base, in a fused KNO3-NaNO3 solvent.
Schlegel, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 362.
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Letter to the editor  Onwood, D. P.
Discusses variations in the usage of the terms "acid" and "base," including Lowry-Bronsted and Lewis systems.
Onwood, D. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 335.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Simple equipment for automatic potentiometric pH titrations  Olsen, Eugene D.
This paper describes a simple yet versatile apparatus employing a siphon pipet to deliver titrant solution automatically and accurately during the course of a titration.
Olsen, Eugene D. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 310.
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The nature of dissolved silver acetate  Ramette, Richard W.
This experiment is an attempt to identify the species of silver that exist in aqueous solutions of silver acetate.
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 299.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
Letter to the editor  Roberts, N. K.
Discusses the action of buffer solutions to resist changes in pH.
Roberts, N. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 108.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of sucrose: A student study of a reaction mechanism  Dawber, J. G.; Brown, D. R.; Reed, R. A.
By extending the experimental work in a kinetic study of the hydrolysis of sucrose, the beginning student in chemistry can gather some insight into the mechanism of the reaction.
Dawber, J. G.; Brown, D. R.; Reed, R. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 34.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions |
Carbohydrates
Electrode potentials  Shombert, Donald
Changes in the potential observed for two Daniell cells are due to changes in ion concentrations.
Shombert, Donald J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A215.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium
A computer program for use in teaching chemical equilibrium  Zajicek, O. T.
Describes a computer program for use in teaching chemical equilibrium.
Zajicek, O. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 622.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
pH
The ionization of polyhydric acids: Numerical results for phosphoric acid  Cooke, S. L., Jr.
Presents calculated ionization values for phosphoric acid across the normal aqueous pH range.
Cooke, S. L., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 620.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium
Potentiometric titration of aspirin in ethanol  Shen, Samuel Y.; Gilman, Alfred J.
This experiment illustrates the potentiometric end point in nonaqueous acid-base titrations.
Shen, Samuel Y.; Gilman, Alfred J. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 540.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases
Thermodynamics of the ionization of acetic and chloroacetic acids  Neidig, H. A., Yingling, R. T.
Students are asked to determine the effect of the structure of acetic, chloroacetic, dichloroacetic, and trichloroacetic acid on equilbria and to discuss the observed effects in terms of standard free energy, enthalpy, and entropy changes.
Neidig, H. A., Yingling, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 484.
Acids / Bases |
Thermodynamics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Investigation of interaction in the Pb(NO3)2NaClmethanolwater system  Neidig, H. A.
The purpose of this investigation is to collect solubility data for lead(II) nitratesodium chloride methanolwater systems from which a microscopic model can be constructed and used to discuss the various types of interactions occurring.
Neidig, H. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 475.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Noncovalent Interactions
Enthalpies of formation of solid salts  Neidig, H. A.; Yingling, R. T.
This investigation introduces the student to several important areas of thermochemistry, including enthalpies of neutralization, enthalpies of dissolution, enthalpies of formation, and Hess' Law.
Neidig, H. A.; Yingling, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 474.
Thermodynamics |
Solids |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Experimental approach to stoichiometry. In first-year chemistry at Northwestern  King, L. Carroll; Cooper, Milton
Presents five experiments in which students are given a minimal set of directions and a simply stated objective.
King, L. Carroll; Cooper, Milton J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 464.
Stoichiometry |
Coordination Compounds |
Undergraduate Research |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Detection of chloride ion in the presence of bromide, iodide, and thiocyanate ions  Paul, Armine D.; Gibson, John A., Jr.
Summarizes and evaluates several published methods for detecting chloride ions in the presence of bromide, iodide, and thiocyanate ions.
Paul, Armine D.; Gibson, John A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 440.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
Teaching principles of quantitative analysis with "qual" reactions  O'Donnell, T. A.
A series of test-tube reactions using semi-micro techniques has been devised to precede each section of the course in quantitative analysis designed to illustrate qualitatively or semi-qualitatively the chemical reactions or principles that are the basis of each quantitative exercise.
O'Donnell, T. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 434.
Quantitative Analysis |
Reactions
Preparation of chromic acid cleaning solution  Krause, Richard E.
This short note describes a simple method for the preparation of chromic acid cleaning solution.
Krause, Richard E. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 426.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management |
Solutions / Solvents
Beer's without tears  Solomons, C. C.
Presents a graphical treatment of Beer's law.
Solomons, C. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 226.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis
Computer program for the calculation of acid-base titration curves  Emery, Allan R.
Describes the development of a computer program for the calculation of acid-base titration curves.
Emery, Allan R. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 131.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Chemometrics
Is the solubility product constant? Introductory experiment in solubility equilibrium  Goodman, Robert C.; Petrucci, Ralph H.
This article describes an experiment that employs the titration of lead nitrate solutions with potassium iodide solutions as a vivid and straightforward method of determining solubility product.
Goodman, Robert C.; Petrucci, Ralph H. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 104.
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A simple model for the SN2 mechanism.  Nyquist, H. LeRoy
Presents a simple, physical model for the SN2 mechanism.
Nyquist, H. LeRoy J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 103.
Molecular Modeling |
Reactions |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Teaching ionic equilibrium: Use of log chart transparencies  Freiser, Henry; Fernando, Quintus
The use of graphical methods brings the problem of significance of various terms in complicated expressions into proper focus. Furthermore, a pictorial representation permits the student to see at a glance how the concentrations of various species in a system at equilibrium change with conditions.
Freiser, Henry; Fernando, Quintus J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 35.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Chemometrics |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
The effect of structure on chemical and physical properties of polymers  Price, Charles C.
Suggests using polymers to teach the effect of changes in structure on chemical reactivity, the effect of structure on physical properties, the role of catalysts, and the basic principles of a chain reaction mechanism.
Price, Charles C. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 13.
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Polymerization |
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Catalysis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Solubility and pH Calculations (Butler, James N.)  Ramette, R. W.

Ramette, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A970.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Polar properties and solubility  Summerlin, Lee R.
Compares the solubility of iodine in layers of CCl4, water, and ether, all in the same container.
Summerlin, Lee R. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A883.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
Concerning equilibrium, free energy changes, LeChatelier's Principle. III. Halide-halate equilibria  Eberhardt, William H.
Compares four equilibria: KI + KIO3, KI + KBrO3, KBR + KBrO3, and KBr + KIO3.
Eberhardt, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A883.
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Thermodynamics
Concerning equilibrium, free energy changes, Le Châtelier's principle II  Eberhardt, William H.
This demonstration involves a reversible, temperature-based transformation from blue tetrahedrally coordinated Co2+ to pink sixfold coordinated Co2+.
Eberhardt, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A591.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Coordination Compounds
Metallic reduction of aqueous hydrogen chloride  Walker, Noojin, Jr.
Calcium reacts with HCl to liberate hydrogen gas.
Walker, Noojin, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A477.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Electrochemistry
Concerning equilibrium, free energy changes, Le Chtelier's principle  Eberhardt, William H.
Aqueous KI is added to a solution of CuSO4 in a separatory funnel; adding more CuSO4 demonstrates an equilibrium sift.
Eberhardt, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A477.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics |
Reactions
A new clock reaction preparation of dicinnamalacetone  King, L. Carroll; Ostrum, G. Kenneth
Presents a new clock reaction preparation of dicinnamalacetone.
King, L. Carroll; Ostrum, G. Kenneth J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A139.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Overhead projection with the pH meter  Hoff, Darrel B.
Describes a means of projecting an image of a pH meter.
Hoff, Darrel B. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 662.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Systematic names for the tartaric acids  Baxter, J. N.
Examines the use of the small capital letters D and L in naming tartaric acids.
Baxter, J. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 619.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases |
Carbohydrates |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers
Infrared spectrometry to study second order reaction kinetics  Gastambide, B.; Blanc, J.; Allamagny, Y.
The change studied is a synthesis reaction between menthol and phenyl isocyanate.
Gastambide, B.; Blanc, J.; Allamagny, Y. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 613.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Synthesis
The hydration of carbon dioxide: A double clock experiment  Jones, P.; Haggett, Max L.; Longridge, Jethro L.
This extension of the "Soda Water Clock" experiment provides a quantitative kinetics investigation.
Jones, P.; Haggett, Max L.; Longridge, Jethro L. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 610.
Reactions |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Sulfuric acid and the hydrated hydronium ion  Jurale, Bernard
Describes how the sulfuric acid-water system can be used to establish the identity of the hydronium and hydrated hydronium ions.
Jurale, Bernard J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 573.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Automatic titrimetry in introductory college chemistry  Zajicek, O. T.
The experiment described here employs an automatic pH titrator as a tool for the teaching of a detailed treatment of simultaneous equilibria.
Zajicek, O. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 554.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium
The oxidation of iodide ion by persulfate ion  Moews, P. C., Jr.; Petrucci, R. H.
Presents the oxidation of iodide ion by persulfate ion as an ideal reaction to study as part of an experiment on kinetics.
Moews, P. C., Jr.; Petrucci, R. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 549.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Glass tubes coated with methyl violet as an indicator  McKaig, Nelson, Jr.
Describes the use of glass tubes coated with methyl violet as an indicator as a method superior to paper strips.
McKaig, Nelson, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 439.
Qualitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A versatile and inexpensive pH recording electrometer  Malmstadt, H. V.
Presents the design and operation of a modular pH unit with automatic temperature compensation.
Malmstadt, H. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 148.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Development of the pH concept: A historical survey  Szabadvary, Ferenc; Oesper, Ralph E., trans.
Traces the historical development of the following: a recognition of the importance of hydrogen ion concentration; an understanding of buffer solutions; and the concept and measurement of pH.
Szabadvary, Ferenc; Oesper, Ralph E., trans. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 105.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Colorimetric chemical kinetics experiment  Corsaro, Gerald
This article describes an experiment in which a photocolorimetric technique is employed to follow a bimolecular reaction rate; the reactants are crystal violet and the hydroxide ion.
Corsaro, Gerald J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 48.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Reactions
Homogeneous catalysis: A reexamination of definitions  Leisten, J. A.
Considers common questions regarding the action of catalysts by examining various typical examples.
Leisten, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 23.
Catalysis |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases
Removal of hardness and deionization of water by the ion exchange method  Sangster, A. W.
Demonstrates the removal of calcium and chloride ions through ion exchange.
Sangster, A. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A987.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Ion Exchange
Solvay processes  Johns, Robert J.
A simple demonstration of the Solvay process.
Johns, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A535.
Reactions
PolystyreneA multistep synthesis  Wilen, S. H.
Suggestions for research to accompany a previously published article.
Wilen, S. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A463.
Undergraduate Research |
Reactions |
Polymerization |
Synthesis
An easily prepared wide range buffer series  Carmody, W. R.
Provides suggestions for research to accompany earlier published articles.
Carmody, W. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A386.
Undergraduate Research |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Oxidation of bromide and iodide ions  Dutton, Frederic B.
Color changes are indicative of oxidation reactions of bromide and iodide ions.
Dutton, Frederic B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A241.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Electrochemistry
Oxidation of bromide and iodide ions  Dutton, Frederic B.
Color changes are indicative of oxidation reactions of bromide and iodide ions.
Dutton, Frederic B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A241.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Electrochemistry
Demonstration of some properties of Prussian blue  Kohn, M.
Provides suggestions for student research based on an earlier article published in the Journal.
Kohn, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A135.
Undergraduate Research |
Dyes / Pigments |
Coordination Compounds |
Acids / Bases
The direct reactions of solids  Feigl, F.
Provides suggestions for student research based on an earlier article published in the Journal.
Feigl, F. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A135.
Undergraduate Research |
Reactions |
Solids
Variation in reactivityA demonstration  Bowen, D. M.
Provides suggestions for student research based on an earlier article published in the Journal.
Bowen, D. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A135.
Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A reaction tube for sodium and chlorine  Barnard, W. Robert
Describes reacting sodium and chlorine in Pyrex tubing.
Barnard, W. Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A49.
Reactions |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The hydrated hydronium ion  Clever, H. Lawrence
It is the purpose of this brief review to cite and discuss some of the evidence for the existence of the trihydrated hydronium ion.
Clever, H. Lawrence J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 637.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
KineticsEarly and often  Campbell, J. A.
Describes an approach to investigating kinetics and its application to the "blue bottle" experiment.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 578.
Kinetics |
Equilibrium |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Freezing point observations on micellar solutions  Hutchinson, Eric.; Tokiwa, Fumikatsu
Describes freezing point observations on solutions of p-methylphenyl glucose and p-butylphenylglucose.
Hutchinson, Eric.; Tokiwa, Fumikatsu J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 472.
Micelles |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
What is humic acid?  Steelink, Cornelius
Presents the origin, definition, properties, and chemical studies of humic acid.
Steelink, Cornelius J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 379.
Acids / Bases
Letters to the editor  Jurale, Bernard
Compares the catalytic capability of reagent vs. technical grade manganese oxide in the decomposition of potassium chlorate.
Jurale, Bernard J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 94.
Reactions |
Catalysis
Letters to the editor  Meyer, E. Gerald; Weaver, Elbert C.
The authors encourage instructors of introductory chemistry not to distract students with side reactions.
Meyer, E. Gerald; Weaver, Elbert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 94.
Reactions
The formation of acetone from acetates  Young, Jay A.; Taylor, John K.
Suggests some research activities based on an article published previously in the Journal.
Young, Jay A.; Taylor, John K. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A962.
Undergraduate Research |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Reactions
The preparation of magnesium nitride  Young, Jay A.; Taylor, John K.
Suggests some research activities based on an article published previously in the Journal.
Young, Jay A.; Taylor, John K. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A960.
Synthesis |
Undergraduate Research |
Reactions
A compact light box  Barnard, Robert
Presents the design of a light box suitable for demonstrations involving solutions, precipitations, or any basic chemical reaction.
Barnard, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A953.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Reactions
Solubility  Wheaton, Roger
Demonstrates the differential solubility of iodine in water and carbon terachloride.
Wheaton, Roger J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A953.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Demonstration notes: Spontaneous combustion of H2S  Thomas, P. M.
Hydrogen sulfide passed over lead(IV) oxide bursts into flame.
Thomas, P. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A839.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Hypodermic syringes in quantitative elementary chemistry experiments. Part 2. General chemistry experiments  Davenport, Derek A.; Saba, Afif N.
Presents a variety of experiments that make use of hypodermic syringes in quantitative elementary chemistry.
Davenport, Derek A.; Saba, Afif N. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 617.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Liquids |
Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Stoichiometry
The thermal decomposition of KClO3  Bostrup, O.; Demandt, K.; Hansen, K. O.
It is not true that heated potassium chlorate will decompose to produce only KCl and oxygen.
Bostrup, O.; Demandt, K.; Hansen, K. O. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 573.
Reactions |
Catalysis
Electrolytic conductivity: A demonstration experiment  Thomas, William B.
Describes a simple method of measuring electrolytic conductivity based on Ohm's law.
Thomas, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 531.
Electrochemistry |
Conductivity |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Laboratory group exercises in acid-base theory  Zuehlke, R. W.
An experiment to introduce the topic of acid-base titrimetry and illustrate the properties of acids and bases.
Zuehlke, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 354.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH
Some aspects of chemical kinetics for elementary chemistry  Benson, Sidney W.
The author suggests greater efforts to address the issue of kinetics and reaction mechanisms in introductory chemistry.
Benson, Sidney W. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 321.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Descriptive Chemistry
Writing a chemical equation from titration data: Experiment for general chemistry  State, Harold M.
Students titrate phosphoric acid with sodium hydroxide to determine the chemical formula of Na2HPO4.
State, Harold M. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 297.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Stoichiometry
Acids, Bases, and the Chemistry of the Covalent Bond (VanderWerf, Calvin A.)  Eblin, Lawrence P.

Eblin, Lawrence P. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 273.
Acids / Bases |
Covalent Bonding
Equilibria in ionic solutions  Kokes, R. J.; Dorfman, M. K.; Mathia, T.
In conjunction with lectures on equilibria in electrolytic solutions, students perform a set of laboratory experiments in which they determine both the ionization constant of chloroacetic acid and the solubility of its silver salt.
Kokes, R. J.; Dorfman, M. K.; Mathia, T. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 93.
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility
Chemical equilibrium: The hydrogenation of benzene  Kokes, R. J.; Dorfman, M. K.; Mathia, T.
This procedure examines the reversible reaction between benzene and hydrogen, forming cyclohexane, in the presence of a metal catalyst.
Kokes, R. J.; Dorfman, M. K.; Mathia, T. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 91.
Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds |
Equilibrium |
Catalysis
Demonstrations for the overhead projector  Spiegler, K. S.; Gruenberg, J.; Trattner, Adriana; Weiss, W.
Demonstrations include the production of iron, potentiometric titration, photography, and the measurement of pH by indicators.
Spiegler, K. S.; Gruenberg, J.; Trattner, Adriana; Weiss, W. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 86.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Easily prepared wide range buffer series  Carmody, Walter R.
A series of buffers with pH values ranging from 2.0 to 12.0 that requires the preparation of only two stock solutions and requires only three common chemicals.
Carmody, Walter R. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 559.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Laboratory Management
Heat of reaction and H2SO4 concentration: A general chemistry experiment  Wolthuis, Enno; Leegwater, Arie; Ploeg, John Vander
This procedure measures the heat of reaction between water and sulfuric acid of various concentrations; this information is used to determine the concentration of an unknown acid sample.
Wolthuis, Enno; Leegwater, Arie; Ploeg, John Vander J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 472.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Calculating molar solubilities from equilibrium constants  Butler, James N.
Presents several examples of calculating molar solubilities from equilibrium constants.
Butler, James N. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 460.
Chemical Technicians |
Equilibrium |
Stoichiometry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Ultra Low Conductivity Water  National Bureau of Standards Summary Technical Report
Describes the production of water with a conductivity approaching the lower theoretical limit.
National Bureau of Standards Summary Technical Report J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 421.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Conductivity |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The equilibria of complex formation  Banks, James E.
Despite the present recognition of the stepwise formation of complexes in solution, many textbooks continue to treat it as a one-step process, presumably to preserve a reasonable simplicity in the mathematical computation of concentrations.
Banks, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 391.
Equilibrium |
Coordination Compounds |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Is there an alternative to pH?  Crane, Francis E., Jr.
Provides some alternatives to the traditional definition of pH that introductory students may find more intuitive and less confusing.
Crane, Francis E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 365.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Radioisotope demonstration of common ion effect on solubility  Roig, E.; Rieckehoff, I. C.; Russo, G. S.; Curet, J. D.
This paper reports a direct demonstration of the effect of common ion concentration on the solubility of a uni-univalent salt, thallium(I) chloride.
Roig, E.; Rieckehoff, I. C.; Russo, G. S.; Curet, J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 350.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Isotopes
The ionization constant of water  Dirkse, Thedford P.
Some textbooks claim that the ion product constant of water is constant under all conditions at a given temperature.
Dirkse, Thedford P. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 260.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Oxidation-reduction mechanisms  Duke, F. R.
Summarizes various types of oxidation-reduction mechanisms.
Duke, F. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 161.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mechanisms of Reactions
An approach to complex equilibrium problems  Butler, James N.
Presents an approach to equilibrium problems that sets up enough equations relating the various concentrations present to define the system completely and then makes approximations that simplify the equations.
Butler, James N. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 141.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Determination of solubility: A laboratory experiment  Wolthuis, Enno; Pruiksma, Arthur B.; Heerema, Robert P.
Students are required to determine the solubility of common salts at various temperatures by finding the temperature at which a solution of known composition is saturated.
Wolthuis, Enno; Pruiksma, Arthur B.; Heerema, Robert P. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 137.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Quantitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
pH meters (continued)  Lewin, S. Z.
Considers the standardization, calibration, and testing of pH meters, as well as Beckman pH meters.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, A595.
Instrumental Methods |
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Calibration
pH meters  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the operation and individual components of pH meters.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, A477.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
pH |
Acids / Bases
Potentiometric measurements of equilibria: In general chemistry laboratory  Chesick, J. P.; Patterson, Andrew, Jr.
The authors describe an experiment in which the solubility product of silver chloride, the ionization constant of the silver-ammonia complex, and the ionization constant of acetic acid can be determined with one afternoon of work.
Chesick, J. P.; Patterson, Andrew, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 496.
Electrochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Titration without burets  Gaddis, Shirley W.
Describes the use of small polyethylene bottles to measure the acid strength of vinegar.
Gaddis, Shirley W. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 290.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A molality-molarity paradox?  Toby, Sidney
The author points out that there seems no obvious reason why molality could not equal molarity in a solution whose density is less than unity.
Toby, Sidney J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 230.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The chemistry of silicic acid  Greenberg, S. A.
This article attempts to address the many incorrect concepts regarding silicic acid that still appear in textbooks and the literature.
Greenberg, S. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 218.
Acids / Bases
Variation of the solubility product constant with ionic strength  Carmody, Walter R.
Describes the development of a demonstration of the constancy (under the right conditions) of the concentration solubility product and the effect of particle size on solubility, and an experiment for quantitatively demonstrating the effect of ionic strength on the concentration solubility product.
Carmody, Walter R. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 125.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The chemistry of silver. A demonstration sequence  Schwenck, J. Rae
Presents a series of reactions in which silver is transformed from its elemental form into several different compounds and then returned to its elemental form.
Schwenck, J. Rae J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 45.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
The stability of solutions for the iodine clock reaction  Kauffman, George B.; Hall, Charles R.
The results of attempts to stabilize solutions needed for the iodine clock reaction to allow long-term storage.
Kauffman, George B.; Hall, Charles R. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 577.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The principle of minimum bending of orbitals  Stewart, George H.; Eyring, Henry
The authors present a theory of valency that accounts for a variety of organic and inorganic structures in a clear and easily understood manner.
Stewart, George H.; Eyring, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 550.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Elimination Reactions
Exact colorimetric pH determination  Stedman, D. F.
Various combinations of three dyes - brom cresol green, methyl red, and brom phenol blue - are used to determine pH values from 4.3 to 5.8.
Stedman, D. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 456.
pH |
Dyes / Pigments |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Research project for general chemistry laboratory  Schwolow, Jean
In order to modify the routine experiment in which students know the answers before ever entering the laboratory, freshmen were presented with a simulated research project connected with acids, bases, and pH measurements.
Schwolow, Jean J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 416.
Undergraduate Research |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Polymerization of ethylene at atmospheric pressure: A demonstration using a "Ziegler" type catalyst  Zilkha, Albert; Calderon, Nissim; Rabani, Joseph; Frankel, Max
A simple experiment on the polymerization of ethylene at atmospheric pressure is described using a "Ziegler" type catalyst prepared from amyl lithium and titanium tetrachloride.
Zilkha, Albert; Calderon, Nissim; Rabani, Joseph; Frankel, Max J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 344.
Polymerization |
Reactions |
Catalysis |
Alkenes
Long-lived soap bubbles: The use of sodium 9,10-dibromostearate solutions  Kuehner, A. L.
In this paper a soap is described from which can be made bubbles and films far more persistent than those from ordinary soaps.
Kuehner, A. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 337.
Surface Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The analyst and the inconstant constants  Ringbom, Anders
Simple theories taught to freshmen often do not agree well with experimental data; the author examines the case of equilibrium constants and elaborates on a method of dealing with this problem.
Ringbom, Anders J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 282.
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
Textbook errors: XIII. The nature of ionic and molecular species in sulfuric acid  Brubaker, Carl H., Jr.
Addresses misconceptions regarding the strength of sulfuric acid and the nature of ionic and molecular species present in solution.
Brubaker, Carl H., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 325.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Some aspects of organic molecules and their behavior. II. Bond energies  Reinmuth, Otto
Examines bond and dissociation energies, the "constancy" of C-H and C-C dissociation energies, and some common types of organochemical reactions.
Reinmuth, Otto J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 318.
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Reactions
An efficient chemiluminescent system and a chemiluminescent clock reaction  White, Emil H.
Presents the investigation of two chemiluminescent systems - the first is particularly brilliant and the second acts as a clock reaction.
White, Emil H. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 275.
Photochemistry |
Reactions
Safe mixing and storage of acid or alkali solutions  Nicholson, Douglas G.
Describes specialized containers for the safe mixing and storage of acid or alkali solutions.
Nicholson, Douglas G. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 254.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management
Model of a potential energy surface  Dye, J. L.
Describes a physical, three-dimensional model of the potential energy surface for HBr.
Dye, J. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 215.
Kinetics |
Reactive Intermediates |
Reactions
A "clock reaction" for a beginning course in college chemistry  Black, Arthur H.; Dodson, Vance H.
The reduction of the cerium(IV) ion in aqueous sulfuric acid to the cerium(III) ion with oxalate ion can be followed visually and without special colorimetric devices.
Black, Arthur H.; Dodson, Vance H. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 562.
Reactions
Universal indicator for pH 1-13  Richardson, F. R.
Describes a mixture of indicators that serves as a universal indicator for pH 1-13.
Richardson, F. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 517.
Dyes / Pigments |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Electrolytic conductivity apparatus  Schmuckler, Joseph S.; Schenck, Robert C.
Presents an apparatus that will demonstrate the conductivity of salts when fused in the solid state, in solution, and in various degrees of dilution.
Schmuckler, Joseph S.; Schenck, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 506.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Conductivity
A device for demonstrating conductivity of solutions  Eiseman, Fred B., Jr.
An apparatus has been developed that makes it possible to demonstrate the conductivities of solutions without destroying, transferring, or contaminating them
Eiseman, Fred B., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 445.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Conductivity |
Solutions / Solvents
Demonstration of dynamic nature of ions using I131  Blake, Richard F.
This demonstration presents visual evidence of the ionic nature of solid salts and the dynamic equilibrium existing between dissolved and undissolved ions.
Blake, Richard F. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 354.
Isotopes |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solids |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Equilibrium
Indicators and the basis for their use  Gorin, George
Describes the method for selecting appropriate indicators and the teaching of this subject.
Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 318.
Dyes / Pigments |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
pH
Letters to the editor  Seeger, Walfried
The author identifies the cited comparison between acetic acid and hydrochloric acid in indefinite concentrations as inadmissible.
Seeger, Walfried J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 149.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A phosphine fire flask  Dillard, Clyde R.
Presents a flask and demonstration that relies on the spontaneous combustion of phosphine gas.
Dillard, Clyde R. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 137.
Reactions
Simple generalized reaction schemes  Estok, George K.
In the early development of a student's background in chemistry it seems desirable to encourage an integrated understanding of the types of chemical particles and the formal ways in which they may react.
Estok, George K. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 115.
Reactions
Why is hydrofluoric acid a weak acid? An answer based on a correlation of free energies, with electronegativities  Pauling, Linus
The puzzling behavior of hydrofluoric acid is explained by considering the factors that determine the free energy of hydrogen halogenide molecules and hydrohalogenide ions.
Pauling, Linus J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 16.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Movable symbols and formulas as a teaching aid  Lippincott, W. T.; Wheaton, Roger
Movable magnetic squares with symbols and formulas printed on them are used as a visual teaching aid involving a variety of fundamental chemistry concepts.
Lippincott, W. T.; Wheaton, Roger J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 15.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Apparatus for the demonstration of conductivity of electrolytes  Suter, Hans A.; Kaelber, Lorraine
This device uses a continuous flow of water and a light bulb to demonstrate the conductivity of electrolytes.
Suter, Hans A.; Kaelber, Lorraine J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 640.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Conductivity
Amphoteric molecules, ions and salts  Davidson, David
It is the aim of this paper to call attention to the splendid opportunity amphoteric substances afford for the teaching of acid-base principles.
Davidson, David J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 550.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Simulated research for freshmen  Summerbell, Robert K.; Lestina, Gregory; King, L. Carroll; Neumann, H. M.
Students are given a solution of some ion not covered in the regular identification scheme and asked to identify the ion, adopt or devise a scheme of analysis for an unknown containing the usual scheme of ions plus the one extra ion, and to analyze a couple of rather simple general unknowns that may or may not contain the extra ion.
Summerbell, Robert K.; Lestina, Gregory; King, L. Carroll; Neumann, H. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 475.
Undergraduate Research |
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Effect of water on the interaction of aluminum and iodine  Azmatullah, Syed; Viswanathan, Argot
A drop of water added to powdered aluminum and iodine initiates a vigorous reaction.
Azmatullah, Syed; Viswanathan, Argot J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 447.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Reactions
Pocket slide rule for pH calculations  Pitzer, Edgar C.
A pocket slide rule may be used for direct conversion from hydrogen-ion activity to pH, or vice versa, without the need for arithmetical computation.
Pitzer, Edgar C. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 300.
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Chemometrics
The formaldehyde clock reaction  Barrett, Richard L.
The formaldehyde clock reaction has some advantages over the familiar iodine clock and deserves to be better known.
Barrett, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 78.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Aldehydes / Ketones
A general equation for approximate hydronium ion calculations  Drenan, James W.
Presents a general equation for simplifying calculations of the hydronium ion.
Drenan, James W. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 36.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
pH |
Chemometrics
Le Châtelier's principle and the equilibrium constant  Miller, Arild J.
Many students of chemistry have difficulty in understanding how the position of equilibrium in a gaseous reaction can change when the pressure is altered, in accordance with Le Châtelier's principle, without causing a corresponding variation in the equilibrium constant.
Miller, Arild J. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 455.
Equilibrium |
Reactions |
Gases
Letters to the editor  Wolf, Milton G.
The author extends his earlier suggestions regarding the collection of chlorine to hydrogen sulfide.
Wolf, Milton G. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 387.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Gases
A log table for pH problems  Condon, Francis E.
Provides a readily remembered log table suitable for computing pH from hydronium-ion concentration and the reverse.
Condon, Francis E. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 323.
pH |
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Electronegativities in inorganic chemistry. III  Sanderson, R. T.
The purpose of this paper is to illustrate some of the practical applications of electronegativities and charge distribution.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 238.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Acids / Bases
Letters to the editor  Wolf, Milton G.
The results of collecting chlorine through the displacement of saturated aqueous solutions of calcium chloride and sodium chloride.
Wolf, Milton G. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 48.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Gases
A modified silver tree  Shaw, William H. R.; Nowlin, B. T.
This silver tree begins with an evergreen-shaped construction made from sheet copper.
Shaw, William H. R.; Nowlin, B. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 581.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Ammonia and "ammonium hydroxide"  Davis, John B.
One of several reactions that needs reevaluation in the light of the modern theory of valence is the reaction between ammonia and water and the fiction of the ammonium hydroxide molecule.
Davis, John B. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 511.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Reactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Letters  Miranda, Bienvenido T.
Commmentary on two earlier Journal articles.
Miranda, Bienvenido T. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 264.
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Letters  Seeger, Walfried
Calls to attention an experiment involving the complete removal of a dye from solution and points out that Cu2O does not work well with experimentation involving the law of multiple proportions.
Seeger, Walfried J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 209.
Dyes / Pigments |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Models illustrating the Lewis theory of acids and bases  Herron, Fred Y.
The purpose of this article is to describe a method of presenting the Lewis theory of acids and bases by means of cardboard models.
Herron, Fred Y. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 199.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Molecular Modeling
Silver trees  Gleim, David I.
Describes the classic silver tree and the examination of its crystals under the microscope.
Gleim, David I. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 151.
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Suggestions for demonstrations  Lapp, Walter S.
The author briefly describes demonstrations involving the cathodic protection of iron from corrosion, the use of lithium in preparing hydrogen, an easily constructed conductivity kit, and a support for rubber stoppers.
Lapp, Walter S. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 611.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Conductivity |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
pH approximations  McBay, Arthur J.
Describes the use of data from tables to approximate pH values.
McBay, Arthur J. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 526.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Letters  Hackney, J. C.
The author elaborates on the source of a fallacy in the calculation of an overall redox potential by combination of two half-cell potentials.
Hackney, J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 472.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Qualitative adequacy of phlogiston  Scott, John Howe
The author illustrates the phlogiston theory and the reasoning of those who used it historically (particularly Scheele) by applying them to several simple chemical reactions.
Scott, John Howe J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 360.
Reactions
A procedure for solving equilibrium problems  Boyd, Robert Neilson
A procedure for solving equilibrium problems is illustrated through several sample problems.
Boyd, Robert Neilson J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 198.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Combining half-reactions and their standard electrode potentials  Miller, Sidney I.
To increase the value of standard electrode potential tables, a new method of combination of half-cell reactions is proposed.
Miller, Sidney I. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 140.
Electrochemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
A new experiment on reaction rates in general chemistry  Evans, Gordon G.
The author identifies the reaction between persulfate ion and iodide ion as well suited for investigating reaction rates in general chemistry.
Evans, Gordon G. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 139.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A qualitative test for ammonia in aqueous solution  O'Neil, Richard C.; Renfrow, W. B.
The reaction between ammonia and iodine affords a reliable test for ammonia that is more convenient than the usual methods of detection.
O'Neil, Richard C.; Renfrow, W. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 94.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
An ammonium dichromate "volcano"  Deloach, Will S.; McHugh, John W.; Black, Jerry
Describes a model volcano with a mechanism for igniting and disposing of ammonium dichromate.
Deloach, Will S.; McHugh, John W.; Black, Jerry J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 649.
Reactions
On accenting observations in chemistry  Campbell, J. A.
A chemical equations is, for many a student, such a complete abstraction that he would be hard put to describe the actual observations that would be made in a process for which he was supplied the complete equation.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 634.
Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Some lecture demonstrations in general chemistry  Klemm, L. H.
Describes three demonstrations involving the atomistic nature of matter, the controlled experiment, and the solubility product.
Klemm, L. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 587.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Equilibrium
A common misunderstanding of Hess' law  Davis, Thomas. W.
The statement, sometimes attributed to Hess, that "In any series of chemical or physical changes the total heat effect is independent of the path by which the system goes from its initial to its final state" is incorrect.
Davis, Thomas. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 584.
Stoichiometry |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
The overhead projector and chemical demonstrations  Slabaugh, W. H.
Chemical demonstrations described for use with an overhead projector include the relative activity of metals, the electrolysis of water, the random motion of gas molecules, the action of metal couples, the relative strength of acids, the qualitative aspects of optical activity, and electrochemistry.
Slabaugh, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 579.
Metals |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The effect of nitrous acid on the oxidizing power of nitric acid  Brasted, Robert C.
this demonstration illustrates that the oxidizing action of nitric acid may be considerably enhanced by small quantities of nitrous acid which are usually present.
Brasted, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 442.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Keeping properties of certain volumetric solutions  Durham, Barbee William
Presents a table listing the storage time and stability of various standard solutions.
Durham, Barbee William J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 387.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Laboratory Management
A clock reaction  Suryaraman, M. G.; Viswanathan, Arcot
Ferrous ions in an alkaline solution of a tartrate form of a soluble chelate complex that reacts sluggishly with iodine.
Suryaraman, M. G.; Viswanathan, Arcot J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 386.
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Making water gas by cracking methanol  Viertel, William K.
Methanol vapor decomposes very readily at about 1000C into carbon monoxide and hydrogen; presents an apparatus for collecting the hydrogen gas generated through this process.
Viertel, William K. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 220.
Alcohols |
Reactions
Oil and water emulsions. A lecture demonstration  Ignatia, Sister M.
Describes the production of oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions to illustrate concepts of solubility in a general chemistry setting.
Ignatia, Sister M. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 112.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility