TIGER

Journal Articles: 152 results
The Electrochemical Synthesis of Transition-Metal Acetylacetonates  S. R. Long, S. R. Browning, and J. J. Lagowski
The electrochemical synthesis of transition-metal acetylacetonates can assist in the transformation of an entry-level laboratory course into a research-like environment where all members of a class are working on the same problem, but each student has a personal responsibility for the synthesis and characterization of a specific compound.
Long, S. R.; Browning, S. R.; Lagowski, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1429.
Coordination Compounds |
Electrochemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Physical Properties |
Synthesis |
Transition Elements |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Introducing Undergraduate Students to Electrochemistry: A Two-Week Discovery Chemistry Experiment  Kenneth V. Mills, Richard S. Herrick, Louise W. Guilmette, Lisa P. Nestor, Heather Shafer, and Mauri A. Ditzler,
Within the framework of a laboratory-focused, guided-inquiry pedagogy, students discover the Nernst equation, the spontaneity of galvanic cells, concentration cells, and the use of electrochemical data to calculate equilibrium constants.
Mills, Kenneth V.; Herrick, Richard S.; Guilmette, Louise W.; Nestor, Lisa P.; Shafer, Heather;Ditzler, Mauri A. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1116.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Equilibrium
Preparation of Conducting Polymers by Electrochemical Methods and Demonstration of a Polymer Battery  Hiromasa Goto, Hiroyuki Yoneyama, Fumihiro Togashi, Reina Ohta, Akitsu Tsujimoto, Eiji Kita, and Ken-ichi Ohshima
The electrochemical polymerization of aniline and pyrrole, and demonstrations of electrochromism and the polymer battery effect, are presented as demonstrations suitable for high school and introductory chemistry at the university level.
Goto, Hiromasa; Yoneyama, Hiroyuki; Togashi, Fumihiro; Ohta, Reina; Tsujimoto, Akitsu; Kita, Eiji; Ohshima, Ken-ichi. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1067.
Aromatic Compounds |
Conductivity |
Electrochemistry |
Materials Science |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Polymerization
Prussian Blue: Artists' Pigment and Chemists' Sponge  Mike Ware
The variable composition of Prussian blue tantalized chemists until investigations by X-ray crystallography in the late 20th century explained its many properties and uses.
Ware, Mike. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 612.
Applications of Chemistry |
Coordination Compounds |
Dyes / Pigments |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Photochemistry |
Toxicology
Metal Electrodeposition on an Integrated, Screen-Printed Electrode Assembly  Yieu Chyan and Oliver Chyan
Screen-printed, carbon strip electrodes illustrate the essential concepts of electrochemistry and electrodeposition; their light weight facilitates sensitive measurements of electrodeposited metal, allowing for the exploration of Faraday's law and electrodeposition efficiency.
Chyan, Yieu; Chyan, Oliver. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 565.
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis
Electrochemical Polishing of Silverware: A Demonstration of Voltaic and Galvanic Cells  Michelle M. Ivey and Eugene T. Smith
Using a battery and a graphite electrode, an electrolytic cell is constructed to generate a layer of tarnish on silverware. Students then determine that the tarnish can be removed by electrochemically converting it back to silver using aluminum foil and baking soda.
Ivey, Michelle M.; Smith, Eugene T. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 68.
Consumer Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Redox Titration of Ferricyanide to Ferrocyanide with Ascorbic Acid: Illustrating the Nernst Equation and Beer–Lambert Law  Tina H. Huang, Gail Salter, Sarah L. Kahn, and Yvonne M. Gindt
In this simple experiment, which illustrates the Nernst equation and BeerLambert law, students monitor the reduction of ferricyanide ion to ferrocyanide electrochemically and spectrophoto-metrically upon titration with ascorbic acid. The Nernst equation is used to calculate the standard reduction potential of the redox couple at pH 7 and the number of electrons transferred.
Huang, Tina H.; Salter, Gail; Kahn, Sarah L.; Gindt, Yvonne M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1461.
Coordination Compounds |
Electrochemistry |
Potentiometry |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Textbook Error: Short Circuiting an Electrochemical Cell  Judith M. Bonicamp and Roy W. Clark
Reports a serious error in the electrochemical diagrams in eight, 21st century texts and offers an analogy to electrical potential energy and a diagram to clarify the interrelationships between electromotive force E, reaction quotient Q, and Gibbs free energy G.
Bonicamp, Judith M.; Clark, Roy W. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 731.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Small-Scale and Low-Cost Electrodes for "Standard" Reduction Potential Measurements  Per-Odd Eggen, Lise Kvittingen, and Truls Grønneberg
This article describes how to construct three simple and inexpensive, microchemistry electrodes: hydrogen, chlorine, and copper.
Eggen, Per-Odd; Grønneberg, Truls; Kvittingen, Lise. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 671.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Student-Centered Learning
A Lemon Cell Battery for High-Power Applications  Kenneth R. Muske, Christopher W. Nigh, and Randy D. Weinstein
This article discusses the development of a lemon cell battery for high-power applications such as radios, portable cassette or CD players, and battery-powered toys.
Muske, Kenneth R.; Nigh, Christopher W.; Weinstein, Randy D. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 635.
Applications of Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
An Easy Way to Personalize Your Iron or Stainless Steel Items  Ejaz ur Rehman
Describes a simple and useful method for permanently labeling metallic items by the application of alternating current through a mask.
Rehman, Ejaz ur. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 40.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Effectiveness of Conceptual Change-Oriented Teaching Strategy To Improve Students' Understanding of Galvanic Cells  Ali Riza Özkaya, Musa Üce, Hakan Sariçayir, and Musa Sahin
This article presents efforts to develop a conceptual change-oriented strategy to teaching galvanic cells in electrochemistry. The objective is to assess the effectiveness of conceptual change-oriented instruction relative to conventional instruction using statistical comparisons.
Özkaya, Ali Riza; Üce, Musa; Sariçayir, Hakan; Sahin, Musa. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1719.
Electrochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Undergraduate Research
The Synthesis of Copper(II) Carboxylates Revisited  Kevin Kushner, Robert E. Spangler, Ralph A. Salazar, Jr., and J. J. Lagowski
Describes an electrochemical synthesis of copper(II) carboxylates for use in the general chemistry laboratory course for chemistry majors.
Kushner, Kevin; Spangler, Robert E.; Salazar, Ralph A., Jr.; Lagowski, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1042.
Carboxylic Acids |
Coordination Compounds |
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Solutions / Solvents |
Transition Elements |
Undergraduate Research |
Synthesis
Electropolymerized Conducting Polymer as Actuator and Sensor Device: An Undergraduate Electrochemical Laboratory Experiment  María T. Cortés and Juan C. Moreno
A trilayer formed by two conducting polymer films sandwiched around an adhesive polymer layer works as actuator and sensor simultaneously. This device can be bent up to 180 and it can be used as a sensing device of physical chemistry parameters such as cell temperature and electrolyte concentration. In this article, it is shown in a didactic way how to electrochemically synthesize ClO4-doped polypyrrole (PPy) films, how to fabricate a trilayer device, and how to evaluate its actuating and sensing capabilities. The required materials are simple and a complicated setup is not necessary.
Cortés, María T.; Moreno, Juan C. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1372.
Electrochemistry |
Materials Science |
Undergraduate Research |
Polymerization |
Applications of Chemistry
Teaching pH Measurements with a Student-Assembled Combination Quinhydrone Electrode  Fritz Scholz, Tim Steinhardt, Heike Kahlert, Jens R. Pörksen, and Jürgen Behnert
A combination pH electrode that can be assembled by the student is described. It consists of a glass holder and two sensors in the form of rubber stoppers that contain quinhydrone and graphite. The combination electrode is suitable to teach potentiometric measurements, pH measurements, and the interplay of acidbase and redox equilibria. The electrode meets highest safety standards and overcomes the troubles associated with the use of the conventional quinhydrone electrode.
Scholz, Fritz; Steinhardt, Tim; Kahlert, Heike; Pörksen, Jens R.; Behnert, Jürgen. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 782.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry
Procedure for Decomposing a Redox Reaction into Half-Reactions  Ilie Fishtik and Ladislav H. Berka
The principle of stoichiometric uniqueness provides a simple algorithm to check whether a simple redox reaction may be uniquely decomposed into half-reactions in a single way. For complex redox reactions the approach permits a complete enumeration of a finite and unique number of ways a redox reaction may be decomposed into half-reactions. Several examples are given.
Fishtik, Ilie; Berka, Ladislav H. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 553.
Stoichiometry |
Equilibrium |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Thermodynamics
Isolation of Copper from a 5–Cent Coin. An Example of Electrorefining  Steven G. Sogo
The United States 5cent coin, commonly known as a "nickel", is made of an alloy containing 75% copper and 25% nickel. The experiment is a visually appealing illustration of the process of electrorefining using selective reduction.
Sogo, Steven G. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 530.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals
Photogalvanic Cells for Classroom Investigations: A Contribution for Ongoing Curriculum Modernization  Claudia Bohrmann-Linde and Michael W. Tausch
Laboratory experiments examining the fundamental processes in the conversion of light into electrical energy using photogalvanic cells have been developed. These simple cells are suitable for classroom investigations examining the operating principles of photogalvanic cells and the influence of different parameters on their efficiency.
Bohrmann-Linde, Claudia; Tausch, Michael W. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1471.
Electrochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Palm-Based Data Acquisition Solutions for the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory  Susan Hudgins, Yu Qin, Eric Bakker, and Curtis Shannon
Handheld computers provide a compact and cost-effective means to log data in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory. Handheld computers have the ability to record multiple forms of data, be programmed for specific projects, and later have data transferred to a personal computer for manipulation and analysis.
Hudgins, Susan; Qin, Yu; Bakker, Eric; Shannon, Curtis. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1303.
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Lithium Batteries: A Practical Application of Chemical Principles  Richard S. Treptow
In recent years batteries have emerged in the marketplace that take advantage of the unique properties of lithium. Lithium metal is an attractive choice to serve as a battery anode because it is easily oxidized and it produces an exceptionally high amount of electrical charge per unit-weight.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1015.
Consumer Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Applications of Chemistry
Lithium Batteries: A Practical Application of Chemical Principles  Richard S. Treptow
In recent years batteries have emerged in the marketplace that take advantage of the unique properties of lithium. Lithium metal is an attractive choice to serve as a battery anode because it is easily oxidized and it produces an exceptionally high amount of electrical charge per unit-weight.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1015.
Consumer Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Applications of Chemistry
Determination of Avogadro's Number by Improved Electroplating  Carlos A. Seiglie
Electroplating procedure to accurately determine Avogadro's number or Faraday's constant.
Seiglie, Carlos A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 668.
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Quantitative Analysis |
Stoichiometry
Simple Recipes for Prebiotic Soup: A High School or Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory  Marisol Martinez-Meeler, Nika Aljinovic, and Dorothy Swain
Replicating Stanley Miller's prebiotic soup experiment for introductory chemistry; includes experimental apparatus and analysis of the products.
Martinez-Meeler, Marisol; Aljinovic, Nika; Swain, Dorothy. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 665.
Amino Acids |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Chromatography |
Electrochemistry |
Proteins / Peptides |
Synthesis |
Applications of Chemistry
Why Do Some Batteries Last Longer Than Others?  Michael J. Smith and Colin A. Vincent
Comparing the energy content of the cathode material of different commercial batteries using a test cell.
Smith, Michael J.; Vincent, Colin A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 851.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Applications of Chemistry
A Direct Methanol Fuel Cell  Orfeo Zerbinati
Materials and methods for construction of a direct methanol fuel cell.
Zerbinati, Orfeo. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 829.
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Conceptual Difficulties Experienced by Prospective Teachers in Electrochemistry: Half-Cell Potential, Cell Potential, and Chemical and Electrochemical Equilibrium in Galvanic Cells  Ali Riza Özkaya
Study of prospective teachers' conceptual understanding of topics in electrochemistry.
Özkaya, Ali Riza. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 735.
Electrochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Redox Redux: Recommendations for Improving Textbook and IUPAC Definitions  Ed Vitz
Defining oxidation / reduction reactions as those in which oxidation states of the reactant(s) change.
Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 397.
Electrochemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
The Electrolytic Recovery of Copper from Brass. A Laboratory Simulation of an Industrial Application of Electrical Energy  Domenico Osella, Mauro Ravera, Cristina Soave, and Sonia Scorza
Procedure demonstrating the electrolytic purification of copper.
Osella, Domenico; Ravera, Mauro; Soave, Cristina; Scorza, Sonia. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 343.
Electrochemistry |
Materials Science |
Metals
A Chemically Relevant Model for Teaching the Second Law of Thermodynamics  Bryce E. Williamson and Tetsuo Morikawa
Presentation of a chemically relevant model that exemplifies many aspects of the second law: reversibility, path dependence, and extrapolation in terms of electrochemistry and calorimetry.
Williamson, Bryce E.; Morikawa, Tetsuo. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 339.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Thermodynamics
Melting Point, Density, and Reactivity of Metals  Michael Laing
Using melting points and densities to the predict the relative reactivities of metals.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1054.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Physical Properties |
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Electrochemistry
Laboratory Experiments on Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 5: Indirect H2S Remediation  J. G. Ibanez
Experiment to introduce students in general chemistry, environmental chemistry, or electrochemistry to the concept of indirect electrolysis, its application in environmental remediation schemes, the role of a mediator, and the application of redox chemistry concepts.
Ibanez, J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 778.
Electrochemistry |
Gases |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry
Structure and Content of Some Primary Batteries  Michael J. Smith and Colin A. Vincent
An experiment that complements electrochemical characterization and allows students to explore the structure of commercial cells and calculate the anode and cathode capacities from the stoichiometry of the cell reaction.
Smith, Michael J.; Vincent, Colin A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 519.
Consumer Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Undergraduate Research |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Applications of Chemistry
Observations on Lemon Cells  Jerry Goodisman
The lemon cell, consisting of pieces of two different metals stuck into a lemon or other fruit, is pictured in many general chemistry textbooks without being discussed; manuscript describes simple experiments, suitable for the general chemistry laboratory, which elucidate how this kind of cell works.
Goodisman, Jerry. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 516.
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Electrical Deflection of Polar Liquid Streams: A Misunderstood Demonstration  Maryam Ziaei-Moayyed, Edward Goodman, and Peter Williams
The electrical deflection of polar liquid streams, commonly used as a textbook illustration of the behavior of polar molecules, is shown to be due to the formation of electrically charged droplets in the polar liquid stream, induced by a nearby charged object, rather than any force exerted on molecular dipoles.
Ziaei-Moayyed, Maryam; Goodman, Edward; Williams, Peter. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1520.
Electrochemistry
Potentiometric Determination of CO2 Concentration in the Gaseous Phase: Applications in Different Laboratory Activities  Eduardo Cortón, Santiago Kocmur, Liliana Haim, and Lydia Galagovsky
The first lab comprises the calibration of a CO2 potentiometric detector with gas mixtures. The CO2 and CO2-free air required for the gaseous samples are produced in the lab by an inexpensive and simple apparatus. In the second lab, the CO2 potentiometric device is used to measure CO2 uptake and release during different metabolic processes.
Cortón, Eduardo; Kocmur, Santiago; Haim, Liliana; Galagovsky, Lydia. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1188.
Electrochemistry |
Gases |
Quantitative Analysis |
Metabolism
Understanding Electrochemical Thermodynamics through Entropy Analysis  Thomas H. Bindel
This discovery-based activity involves entropy analysis of galvanic cells. The intent of the activity is for students to discover the fundamentals of electrochemical cells through a combination of entropy analysis, exploration, and guided discovery.
Bindel, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1031.
Electrochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Using a Teaching Model to Correct Known Misconceptions in Electrochemistry  P. A. Huddle, Margaret Dawn White, and Fiona Rogers
A concrete teaching model for electrochemistry is presented here. It addresses many common student misconceptions about current flow by demonstrating what is occurring at the microscopic level in an electrochemical cell. Both the scope and limitations of the model are discussed.
Huddle, Penelope Ann; White, Margaret Dawn; Rogers, Fiona. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 104.
Electrochemistry |
Learning Theories
A Simple Experiment for Ion Migration  Karl E. Bessler and Daniel de Oliveira Campos
A simple, versatile, and low-cost version of a qualitative ion migration experiment is presented, which needs a minimum amount of chemicals and can be performed by inexperienced students. In the experiment cations and anions (preferably colorless or faintly colored) migrate toward one another and on combination produce insoluble and strongly colored compounds.
Bessler, Karl E.; Campos, Daniel de O. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1516.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Electrophoresis
An Analysis of College Chemistry Textbooks As Sources of Misconceptions and Errors in Electrochemistry  Michael J. Sanger and Thomas J. Greenbowe
The oxidation-reduction and electrochemistry chapters of 10 introductory college chemistry textbooks were reviewed for misleading or erroneous statements, using a list of student misconceptions. As a result of this analysis, we provide suggestions for chemistry instructors and textbook authors.
Sanger, Michael J.; Greenbowe, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 853.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Learning Theories
Student Construction of a Gel-Filled Ag/AgCl Reference Electrode for Use in a Potentiometric Titration  James M. Thomas
Instructions for the preparation of a Ag/AgCl "reference"-type electrode that uses a gel-type matrix are given. In addition, construction steps are provided for a very sturdy Pt-nichrome "inert" electrode, which can be used many times. Together, these two electrodes, along with a multivoltmeter, have been used successfully to determine the percent of iron in Fe(NH4)2(SO4)2 and in Fe2O2 unknowns purchased commercially.
Thomas, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 97.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
The Nernst Equation: Determination of Equilibrium Constants for Complex Ions of Silver  Martin L. Thompson and Laura J. Kateley
The experiment requires a voltmeter capable of recording millivolts (or a good pH meter) and inexpensive chemicals. It allows students to check the validity of the Nernst equation and compare their experimental Kform values to reported ones.
Thompson, Martin L.; Kateley, Laura J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 95.
Equilibrium |
Coordination Compounds |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Automatic Titrators in the Analytical and Physical Chemistry Laboratories  Kathryn R. Williams
In 1995 the University of Florida received an NSF-ILI grant to purchase six automatic titrators, which have now been successfully integrated into the analytical and physical chemistry teaching laboratories. After they have mastered fundamental techniques, students in the introductory analytical laboratory gain experience with automated analyses in three experiments: the iodimetric analysis of ascorbic acid, the determination of polymer molecular weight, and the analysis of chloride by ion selective electrode.
Williams, Kathryn R. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1133.
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Demonstrating Electron Transfer and Nanotechnology: A Natural Dye-Sensitized Nanocrystalline Energy Converter  Greg P. Smestad and Michael Gratzel
A unique solar cell fabrication procedure has been developed using natural anthocyanin dyes extracted from berries. It can be reproduced with a minimum amount of resources in order to provide an interdisciplinary approach for lower-division undergraduate students learning the basic principles of biological extraction, physical chemistry, and spectroscopy as well as environmental science and electron transfer.
Smestad, Greg P.; Grtzel, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 752.
Photochemistry |
Plant Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Dyes / Pigments |
Nanotechnology |
Separation Science |
Spectroscopy
Slide Projector Corrosion Cell  Silvia Tejada, Estela Guevara, and Esperanza Olivares
The process of corrosion can be demonstrated in a slide projector, since the cell is in the shape of a slide, or on the stage of an overhead projector by setting up a simple galvanic cell. Corrosion occurs as the result of a galvanic cell reaction, in which the corroding metal acts as the anode. Several simple demonstrations relating to corrosion are described here.
Tejada, Silvia; Guevara, Estela; Olivares, Esperanza. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 747.
Electrochemistry |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Applications of Chemistry
A Closer Look at the Addition of Equations and Reactions  Damon Diemente
Chemists occasionally find it convenient or even necessary to express an overall reaction as the sum of two or more component reactions. A close examination, however, reveals that the resemblance between chemical algebraic equations is entirely superficial, and that the real meaning of addition in chemical equations is subtle and varies from case to case. In high-school courses, students are likely to encounter the addition of equations in thermochemistry, in electrochemistry, and in kinetics.
Diemente, Damon. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 319.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Reactions
Lemon Cells Revisited - The Lemon-Powered Calculator  Daniel J. Swartling and Charlotte Morgan
Using lemons to create a voltaic cell to run items that students would use in their everyday lives drives home that chemistry plays an integral role in their lives.
Swartling, Daniel J.; Morgan, Charlotte. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 181.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Applications of Chemistry
The Electromotive Series and Other Non-Absolute Scales  Gavin D. Peckham
Stresses the reference-state approach for students learning the electromotive series and other non-absolute scales.
Peckham, Gavin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 49.
Electrochemistry
A Low-Cost and High-Performance Conductivity Meter  Rogerio T. da Rocha, Ivano G. R. Gutz, and Claudimir L. do Lago
A two-electrode conductivimeter is described, which keep good performance in spite of its low cost.
da Rocha, Rogerio T. ; Gutz, Ivano G.R. ; do Lago, Claudimir L. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 572.
Instrumental Methods |
Conductivity |
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Synthesis and Characterization of a Conduction Polymer: An Electrochemical Experiment for General Chemistry  Roger K. Bunting, Karsten Swarat, DaJing Yan, Duane Finello
The electrochemical synthesis of a free-standing film of polypyrrole, using commonly available equipment and materials, is described at a level suitable to application in a general chemistry laboratory. Also described are methods to quantitatively assess the doping level and to characterize the polymer film in terms of its conductivity as a function of temperature.
Bunting, Roger K.; Swarat, Karsten; Yan, DaJing; Finello, Duane. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 421.
Electrochemistry |
Conductivity
The Chemical and Educational Appeal of the Orange Juice Clock  Paul B. Kelter, James D. Carr, Tanya Johnson, and Carlos Mauricio Castro-Acuña
The Orange Juice Clock, in which a galvanic cell is made from the combination of a magnesium strip, a copper strip, and juice in a beaker, has been a popular classroom, conference, and workshop demonstration for nearly 10 years. The discussion that follows considers the recent history, chemistry, and educational uses of the demonstration.
Kelter, Paul B.; Carr, James D.; Johnson, Tanya; Castro-Acuña, Carlos Mauricio. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1123.
Electrochemistry
A Simple Method for Determining the Temperature Coefficient of Voltaic Cell Voltage  Alfred E. Saieed, Keith M. Davies
This article describes a relatively simple method for preparing voltaic cells, and through their temperature coefficient, ?E/?T, it explores relationships between ?G, ?H,and ?S for the cell reactions involved.
Saieed, Alfred E.; Davies, Keith M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 959.
Electrochemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Oxidation / Reduction
From Christmas Ornament to Glass Electrode  Rogério T. da Rocha, Ivano G. R. Gutz, and Claudimir L. do Lago
Instructions and use of a homemade glass electrode for pH measurements/titrations.
Da Rocha, Rogerio T.; Gutz, Ivano G. R.; do Lago, Claudimir L. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1135.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management |
pH
Photosynthesis: Why Does It Occur?  J. J. MacDonald
Explanation of why photosynthesis occurs; stating that it is merely the reverse of respiration is misleading.
MacDonald, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1113.
Plant Chemistry |
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Photochemistry |
Electrochemistry
What Does It Mean?: Reflections on Concentration, Activity, and Electrode Potential  Pietro Lanza
Explanation of electrode potential and the mechanism of the electrode process for determining concentration.
Lanza, Pietro. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1009.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Electrochemistry
Osmotic Pressure and Electrochemical Potential--A Parallel   Rainer Bausch
Comparison of osmotic pressure and electrochemical potential.
Bausch, Rainer. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 713.
Electrochemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Membranes |
Transport Properties
Resistance Measurement as a Tool for Corrosion Studies  Singh, N. P.; Gupta, S. C.; Sood, B. R.
Procedure for determining the rate of corrosion by measuring changes in the resistance of a thin wire or strip of metal; sample data and analysis included.
Singh, N. P.; Gupta, S. C.; Sood, B. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 465.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Rate Law |
Reactions |
Electrochemistry
The "Golden Penny" Demonstration: An Explanation of the Old Experiment and the Rational Design of the New and Simpler Demonstration.  Szczepankiewicz, Steven H.; Bieron, Joseph F.; Kozik, Mariusz
An explanation and simpler/safer design for the classical "gold penny" demonstration.
Szczepankiewicz, Steven H.; Bieron, Joseph F.; Kozik, Mariusz J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 386.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
An Easily Constructed Salicylate-Ion-Selective Electrode for Use in the Instructional Laboratory  Creager, Stephen E.; Lawrence, Kyle D.; Tibbets, Craig R.
Construction and use of a salicylate-ion-selective electrode; includes a calibration curve.
Creager, Stephen E.; Lawrence, Kyle D.; Tibbets, Craig R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 274.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Ion Selective Electrodes
Use of Electrochemical Concentration Cells to Demonstrate the Dimeric Nature of Mercury(I) in Aqueous Media  Bhattacharya, Deepta; Peters, Dennis G.
Experimental procedure for demonstrating that divalent mercury is monovalent in aqueous solution; includes data and analysis.
Bhattacharya, Deepta; Peters, Dennis G. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 64.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
An Electrochemistry Experiment: Hydrogen Evolution Reaction on Different Electrodes   Marin, D.; Medicuti, F.; Teijeiro, C.
This paper presents a simple laboratory experiment designed to acquaint the student with overvoltage in the hydrogen evolution reaction.
Marin, D.; Medicuti, F.; Teijeiro, C. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A277.
Electrochemistry |
Ion Selective Electrodes
Determination of Ionic Mobilities by Thin-Layer Electrodeposition   Kuhn, Alexander; Argoul, Francoise
The authors describe a new method for the determination of ionic mobilities. An advantage of the measurement described is that it allows its demonstration within the framework of the student's practical training in ionic conductivity.
Kuhn, Alexander; Argoul, Francoise J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A273.
Electrochemistry |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Metals
Using the Biological Cell in Teaching Electrochemistry  Merkel, Eva Gankiewicz
How electricity is produced in a simple cell is correlated with how commercial batteries work; this concept can then be related to how living cells send electrical impulses.
Merkel, Eva Gankiewicz J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 240.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Equilibrium
Photon-initiated hydrogen-chlorine reaction: A student experiment at the microscale level   Egolf, Leanne M.; Keiser, Joseph T.
This lab offers a way to integrate the principles of thermodynamics and kinetics as well as other valuable instrumental methods.
Egolf, Leanne M.; Keiser, Joseph T. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A208.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Electrochemistry |
Free Radicals |
Microscale Lab |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics
A high school adventure  Cullen, Schuyler; Pardini, Aaron; Vang, Yeng; Wasinger, Erik; Ball, Jenelle; Cooke, Ron; Willis, Grover
Prompted by their students discovery an error in a popular lab activity, these authors encourage readers of the Journal to think about the meaning and importance of inquiry in science education.
Cullen, Schuyler; Pardini, Aaron; Vang, Yeng; Wasinger, Erik; Ball, Jenelle; Cooke, Ron; Willis, Grover J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 823.
Electrochemistry
The electrician's multimeter in the chemistry teaching laboratory: Part 2: Potentiometry and conductimetry  Sevilla, Fortunato, III; Alfonso, Rafael L.; Andres, Roberto T.
Further applications of the multimeter in chemistry laboratories are discussed in this paper: potentiometry, reduction potentials and cell EMF, the Nerst equations, pH measurements, titration, conductimetry, and conduction of solutions.
Sevilla, Fortunato, III; Alfonso, Rafael L.; Andres, Roberto T. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 580.
Acids / Bases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Potentiometry
Electronegativity and bond type: I. Tripartate separation  Sproul, Gordon D.
As a unifying concept of bonding, electronegativity has been widely applied but gets only a limited treatment in most general chemistry texts.
Sproul, Gordon D. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 531.
Ionic Bonding |
Covalent Bonding |
Electrochemistry
The aluminum can as electrochemical energy source  Lehman, Thomas A.; Renich, Paul; Schmidt, Norman E.
A high-current electrochemical cell made from aluminum cans and scraps of copper wire that illustrates important electrochemical principles.
Lehman, Thomas A.; Renich, Paul; Schmidt, Norman E. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 495.
Electrochemistry
Electricity/electronic experiments for the chemistry laboratory.  Braun, Robert D.
Experiments that permit students to observe the behavior of simple electrical circuits, including a DC constant current source, voltage divider, diodes, logic gates, flip-flops, and the seven-segment display.
Braun, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 671.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods
The world's largest human salt bridge  Silverman, L. Phillip; Bunn, Barbara B.
On a beautiful April afternoon, the 1500 students had fun and learned something about electrochemistry, and they helped set a world's record for the "Longest Human Salt Bridge".
Silverman, L. Phillip; Bunn, Barbara B. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 309.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
The use of equilibrium notation in listings of standard potentials.  Donkersloot, Maarten C. A.
The difficulty in equilibrium notation of standard electrode potentials is due to the convention that half-reactions must be written as reductions if the given potential is to be called a (standard) electrode potential.
Donkersloot, Maarten C. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 256.
Equilibrium |
Electrochemistry
A lemon-powered clock   Letcher, Trevor M.; Sonemann, Aubrey W.
Because a watch or crystal-quartz clock use very small batteries they can be powered with a number of "homemade" power sources.
Letcher, Trevor M.; Sonemann, Aubrey W. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 157.
Electrochemistry |
Food Science
The conversion of chemical energy: Part 1. Technological examples  Wink, Donald J.
When a chemical reaction occurs, the energy of the chemical species may change and energy can be released or absorbed from the surroundings. This can involve the exchange of chemical energy with another kind of energy or with another chemical system.
Wink, Donald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 108.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Electrochemistry |
Photosynthesis
Electrochemical measurements in general chemistry lab using a student-constructed Ag-AgCl reference electrode  Ahn, M. K.; Reuland, D. J.; Chadd, K. D.
This paper describes a simple method of making a reproducible and durable reference electrode for use by freshmen chemistry students.
Ahn, M. K.; Reuland, D. J.; Chadd, K. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 74.
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Reactivity of nickel  Birk, James P.; Ronan, Martha; Bennett, Imogene; Kinney, Cheri
A series of experiments which lead to observations about the reactivity of nickel. [Debut]
Birk, James P.; Ronan, Martha; Bennett, Imogene; Kinney, Cheri J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 48.
Reactions |
Quantitative Analysis |
Coordination Compounds |
Oxidation State |
Electrochemistry
Electrochemical conventions: Responses to a provocative opinion (6)  Martin-Sanchez, M.; Martin-Sanchez, MaT
The solution may be to use the etymological meaning of anode and cathode.
Martin-Sanchez, M.; Martin-Sanchez, MaT J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 992.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Electrochemical conventions: Responses to a provocative opinion (5)  Sweeting, Linda M.
The chemical potential of the electrons, not their "richness" determines direction of flow.
Sweeting, Linda M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 992.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Electrochemical conventions: Responses to a provocative opinion (4)  Fochi, Giovanni
It is sufficient to show what part of the circuit is the electric generator.
Fochi, Giovanni J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 992.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Electrochemical conventions: Responses to a provocative opinion (3)  Woolf, A. A.
There are no shortcuts in teaching the electrochemistry of galvanic cells; the process in each cell must be treated holistically.
Woolf, A. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 992.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Electrochemical conventions: Responses to a provocative opinion (2)  Castellan, Gilbert W.
The difficulty is not so much confusion over conventions as the actual wrong use of terminology.
Castellan, Gilbert W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 991.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Development of a new design for multipurpose meter: "Calo-pH Meter"   Paris, Michel R.; Aymes, Daniel J.; Poupon, Rene; Gavasso, Roland
The purpose of this article is to describe the design of a common box that can be turned into a simple voltmeter, a pH meter, or a calorimeter.
Paris, Michel R.; Aymes, Daniel J.; Poupon, Rene; Gavasso, Roland J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 507.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry |
pH |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
An effective approach to teaching electrochemistry  Birss, Viola I.; Truax, D. Rodney
By interweaving concepts from thermodynamics and chemical kinetics with those of electrochemical measurement, the authors provide students with an enriched appreciation of the utility of ideas from kinetics and thermodynamics.
Birss, Viola I.; Truax, D. Rodney J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 403.
Electrochemistry |
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics
Construction and evaluation of an inexpensive reference electrode with internal electrolyte in agar matrix  Victoria, Leandro; Ortega, M. Gloria; Ibanez, Jose A.
In this paper the authors show how to construct a reference electrode of Ag/AgCl with an internal electrolyte in agar matrix.
Victoria, Leandro; Ortega, M. Gloria; Ibanez, Jose A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 179.
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The human salt bridge   Scharlin, Pirketta; Battino, Rubin
In this paper the authors describe a simple device designed for use on an overhead projector to illustrate the "human salt bridge".
Scharlin, Pirketta; Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 156.
Electrochemistry
Alleviating the common confusion caused by polarity in electrochemistry  Moran, P. J.; Gileadi, E.
The issue of polarity encountered in electrochemistry and relevant to a variety of electrochemical concepts often confuses students and is an unnecessary deterrent to the study of electrochemistry.
Moran, P. J.; Gileadi, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 912.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
A versatile compact reference electrode  Kusuda, Kousuke
Construction of a compact saturated calomel electrode.
Kusuda, Kousuke J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 531.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry
Using a projecting voltmeter to introduce voltaic cells  Solomon, Sally; Lee, Jeffrey; Schnable, Joseph; Wirtel, Anthony
Using a transparent "projecting" voltmeter and assembling a zinc versus copper cell one component at a time allows students to develop a more concrete notion of the nature of a voltaic cell and the potential it produces.
Solomon, Sally; Lee, Jeffrey; Schnable, Joseph; Wirtel, Anthony J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 510.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Transformation of old two-electrode polarographs into three-electrode systems  Papadopoulos, N.; Linardis, P.
In this work a simple circuit is proposed that can transform a two-electrode polarograph into a three-electrode system.
Papadopoulos, N.; Linardis, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 419.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The interconversion of electrical and chemical energy: The electrolysis of water and the hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell  Roffia, Sergio; Concialini, Vittorio; Paradisi, Carmen
Presentation of a simple apparatus that allows an instructor to perform the electrolysis of water and the back conversion of the products to water while overcoming some typical drawbacks encountered in this process.
Roffia, Sergio; Concialini, Vittorio; Paradisi, Carmen J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 725.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Electrochemistry
Soap bubbles and precipitate membranes: Two historical semipermeability experiments adapted for teaching purposes  Nicolini, Nicoletta; Pentella, Antonio
These demonstrations are based on the historical experiments that established our understanding of semipermeability and osmosis.
Nicolini, Nicoletta; Pentella, Antonio J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 614.
Gases |
Surface Science |
Transport Properties |
Electrochemistry
Acid pickling with amines: an experiment in applied chemistry for high school or freshman chemistry   Spears, Steven G.; Spears, Larry G.; Spears, Joycelyn C.
A brief description of the removal of corrosion products and millscale from the surface of ferrous metals by acid pickling.
Spears, Steven G.; Spears, Larry G.; Spears, Joycelyn C. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 457.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Electrochemistry
Electrochemical cells using sodium silicate   Rapp, Bernard, FSC
A procedure of assembly and execution of a demonstration of an electrochemical cell using sodium silicate.
Rapp, Bernard, FSC J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 358.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
The interconversion of electrical and chemical energy: The electrolysis of water and the hydrogen oxygen fuel cell  Roffia, Sergio; Conciallini, Vittorio; Paradisi, Carmen
The authors discuss some common drawbacks to typical electrolysis demonstrations and present an apparatus that overcomes these drawbacks.
Roffia, Sergio; Conciallini, Vittorio; Paradisi, Carmen J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 272.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Stoichiometry |
Electrochemistry
Principles of electronegativity Part I. General nature  Sanderson, R. T.
The concept of electronegativity has been modified, expanded, and debated. The concept can be used to help students gain valuable insights and understanding of the cause-and-effect relationship between atomic structure and compound properties. This is the first in a series of articles that explores the important concept of electronegativity.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 112.
Electrochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Outmoded terminology: The normal hydrogen electrode  Ramette, R. W.
As educators, we should not confuse the "normal hydrogen electrode" with the "standard hydrogen electrode".
Ramette, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 885.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Safe and reliable electrode storage  Williams, Howard P.
A container that prevents evaporation and keeps electrodes ready for use.
Williams, Howard P. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 556.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Electrochemistry |
Ion Selective Electrodes
Using NASA and the space program to help high school and college students learn chemistry. Part II. The current state of chemistry in the space program  Kelter, Paul B.; Snyder, William E.; Buchar, Constance S.
Examples and classroom applications in the areas of spectroscopy, materials processing, and electrochemistry.
Kelter, Paul B.; Snyder, William E.; Buchar, Constance S. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 228.
Astrochemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Materials Science |
Electrochemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography
Goals in teaching electrochemistry  Maloy, J. T.
Important concepts regarding the subject of electrochemistry.
Maloy, J. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1018.
Electrochemistry
Estimating the one electron reduction potential for vanadium (V) by chemical techniques: An experiment for general chemistry  Wentworth, R. A. D.
Procedure requires no electrochemical equipment because the method depends solely upon observations of the spontaneity of the reactions of V(V) with a series of potential reducing agents and V(IV) with a series of potential oxidizing agents.
Wentworth, R. A. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 440.
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
An inexpensive, very high impedance digital voltmeter for selective electrodes  Caceci, Marco S.
Design and construction of an instrument that exceeds in accuracy and input impedance most expensive commercial pH meters and potentiometers.
Caceci, Marco S. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 935.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry |
pH
Photoelectrochemical solar cells  McDevitt, John T.
An introduction to photoelectrochemical cells and topics pertaining to solar energy conversion.
McDevitt, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 217.
Photochemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Semiconductors |
Applications of Chemistry
Metal-ligand complexes-a calculation challenge  Ramette, R. W.
The purpose of this paper is to illustrate one of the most important experimental methods for studying complex equilibria and to present synthetic data as a challenge to the many sophisticated calculation procedure that enjoy various degrees of loyalty around the world.
Ramette, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 946.
Equilibrium |
Metals |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Coordination Compounds
Understanding electrochemistry: Some distinctive concepts  Faulkner, Larry R.
This article addresses a few basic ideas about electrochemical systems that cause confusion among novice students. From State-of-the-Art Symposium: Electrochemistry, ACS meeting, Kansas City, 1982.
Faulkner, Larry R. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 262.
Electrochemistry
Electrochemistry in the general chemistry curriculum  Chambers, James Q.
Students in introductory chemistry courses at large universities do not develop sufficient understanding of electrochemical phenomenon. From State-of-the-Art Symposium: Electrochemistry, ACS meeting, Kansas City, 1982.
Chambers, James Q. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 259.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Reduction potentials and hydrogen overvoltage: An overhead projector demonstration  Ramette, Richard W.
Relates the scale of standard reduction potentials to the observed behavior of metals in their reactions with hydrogen ion to produce hydrogen gas.
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 866.
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction
Potential uses for broken or worn-out glass or combination electrodes  Boring, Wayne C.; Winchell, Deborah L.
When a glass or combination electrode is no longer useful for pH measurements, it can be used in at least two ways.
Boring, Wayne C.; Winchell, Deborah L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 425.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Electrochemistry
Red cabbage and the electrolysis of water  Skinner, James F.
The demonstration profiled here has proven effective in bringing together concepts from acid-base chemistry and electrochemistry.
Skinner, James F. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 1017.
Electrochemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Red cabbage and the electrolysis of water  Skinner, James F.
The demonstration profiled here has proven effective in bringing together concepts from acid-base chemistry and electrochemistry.
Skinner, James F. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 1017.
Electrochemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Theory and practical use of an hydrogen electrode in aqueous-organic media  Letellier, P.; Millot, F.; Baffier, N.; Combes, R.
These authors make a case for a greater use of hydrogen electrodes for acidity measurements in student laboratory courses.
Letellier, P.; Millot, F.; Baffier, N.; Combes, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 576.
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Electrical energy from cells - A corridor demonstration  Gilbert, George L.
A display that demonstrates the charge and discharge of a solar cell, fuel cell, and storage cell.
Gilbert, George L. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 216.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Applications of Chemistry
Corrosion: A Waste of energy  J. Chem. Educ. Staff
Thermodynamics and electrochemical aspects of corrosion, and inhibition of the corrosion process.
J. Chem. Educ. Staff J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 673.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry |
Metals |
Thermodynamics |
Electrochemistry
The electrophoresis of indicators: An analogy to isoenzyme separation  Daugherty, N. A.; Lavallee, D. K.
A lecture demonstration that illustrates the principles involved in the separation of isoenzymes but avoids the problems inherent in isoenzyme separations.
Daugherty, N. A.; Lavallee, D. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 353.
Electrochemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Dyes / Pigments |
Enzymes |
Separation Science
Electrochemical demonstration: Motor driven by a simple galvanic cell  Skinner, J. F.
A Zn / Zn 2+ Cu 2+ / Cu (Daniel) cell operates a small motor.
Skinner, J. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 619.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Lecture demonstration digital multimeter  Myers, Gardiner H.; Dugan, Robert J.
Plans for a Lecture Demonstration Digital Multimeter used to measure and display electric potential, current, temperature, pressure, and pH.
Myers, Gardiner H.; Dugan, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 495.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
pH |
Electrochemistry
Deflection of falling solvents by an electric field  Brindle, I. D.; Tomlinson, R. H.
Using the deflection of a falling liquid by an electrically charged rod to demonstrate the polarity of molecules is misleading at best.
Brindle, I. D.; Tomlinson, R. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 382.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Electrochemistry
A lab to motivate weak students  Loveridge, Glen
A lab activity on the electrolysis of water. [Debut]
Loveridge, Glen J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 102.
Electrochemistry
A lab to motivate weak students  Loveridge, Glen
A lab activity on the electrolysis of water. [Debut]
Loveridge, Glen J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 102.
Electrochemistry
Electrochemistry in organisms. Electron flow and power output  Chirpich, Thomas P.
Electrochemical calculations at an elementary level can be readily applied to living organisms and generate further student interest in electrochemistry.
Chirpich, Thomas P. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 99.
Electrochemistry |
Bioenergetics
Corrosion  Slabaugh, W. H.
The topic of corrosion extends several basic concepts of electrochemistry with which students can relate. This article outlines: standard electrochemical potentials; corrosion of iron' corrosion of aluminum; application of electrochemical concepts; and ideas for some experiments.
Slabaugh, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 218.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Consumer Chemistry |
Electrochemistry
Reference electrodes  Caton, Roy D., Jr.
Examines reference electrodes, including both aqueous and nonaqueous reference electrodes.
Caton, Roy D., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, A571.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods
Racing car batteries  Plumb, Robert C.; Combs, R. E.; Connelly, J. M.
Illustrating the Nernst equation and Faraday's laws using the example of the silver-zinc batteries used in racing cars.
Plumb, Robert C.; Combs, R. E.; Connelly, J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 857.
Applications of Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Free energies of formation measurements on solid-state electrochemical cells  Rollino, J. A.; Aronson, S.
This experiment demonstrates in a direct fashion the relationship between the Gibbs free energy of formation of an ionic solid and the emf of an electrochemical cell.
Rollino, J. A.; Aronson, S. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 825.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Solid State Chemistry |
Organometallics
Edison's chemical meter  Vanderbilt, Byron M.
Thomas Edison invented the chemical meter to measure the rate at which electricity was being used.
Vanderbilt, Byron M. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 626.
Applications of Chemistry |
Electrochemistry
Durable chrome plating  Plumb, Robert C.; Saur, Roger L.
How chrome plating works to protect bumpers from corrosion.
Plumb, Robert C.; Saur, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 626.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry |
Kinetics
Durable chrome plating  Plumb, Robert C.; Saur, Roger L.
How chrome plating works to protect bumpers from corrosion.
Plumb, Robert C.; Saur, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 626.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry |
Kinetics
Electrochemical reactions in batteries. Emphasizing the MnO2 cathode of dry cells  Kozawa, Akiya; Powers, R. A.
The purpose of this article is to make a simplified, but current presentation of the electrochemical reactions in batteries, particularly those of the manganese dioxide cathode of dry cells.
Kozawa, Akiya; Powers, R. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 587.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Applications of Chemistry
The presentation of electrode potentials using an energy level diagram  Pinfold, T. A.
The tabular form in which standard electrode potentials are usually presented often leads to confusion that can be diminished by representing the electrochemical series on an energy diagram like that provided.
Pinfold, T. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 506.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Computer evaluation of titrations by Gran's method. An analytical chemistry experiment  MacDonald, Timothy J.; Barker, Barbara J.; Caruso, Joseph A.
A computer program has been developed for the evaluation of potentiometric redox titration data by Gran's method.
MacDonald, Timothy J.; Barker, Barbara J.; Caruso, Joseph A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 200.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry |
Acids / Bases
Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Strong, Laurence E.
(1) What evidence, understandable and acceptable to students, do most teachers cite to describe the transfer of charge from one electrode to another in the direct current electrolysis of an electrolyte solution? (2) What is a compound? - answer by Strong. (3) What is a molecule? - answer by Strong.
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Strong, Laurence E. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 523.
Electrochemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Transistorized power sources for constant current coulometric titration  Stock, John T.
This coulometric titrator uses a complementary pair of transistors to minimize heating affects and improve stability with respect to temperature; an example of experimental use for the apparatus is included.
Stock, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 858.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry
Potentiometric determination of solubility product constants: A laboratory experiment  Tackett, Stanford L.
This paper describes an experiment in which measured potentials and calculated activity coefficients are used to obtain the solubility product constants of silver halides.
Tackett, Stanford L. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 857.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
The standard electrode potential of the silver-silver bromide electrode  Venable, R. L.; Roach, D. V.
Calculations of the standard electrode potential of the silver-silver bromide electrode indicate that many values listed in textbooks are incorrect.
Venable, R. L.; Roach, D. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 741.
Electrochemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis
A simple amperostat for coulometric titration  Vincent, Colin A.; Ward, J. G.
Describes the circuit, assembly, and performance of a simple amperostat for coulometric titration.
Vincent, Colin A.; Ward, J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 613.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Haight, Gilbert P., Jr.; Rechnitz, Garry A.
(1) Suggestions for presenting the relationship between the Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature scales. (2) Why are 4s rather than 3d electrons involved in the first and second ionizations of the first row transition elements? - answer by Haight. (3) The basis for the mnemonic ordering of atomic orbitals. (4) What is a liquid-liquid membrane electrode? Is it the same as an ion-selective electrode? - answer by Rechnitz.
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Haight, Gilbert P., Jr.; Rechnitz, Garry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 444.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Transition Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Electrochemistry |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Membranes
Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Quagliano, James V.; Danehy, James P.
(1) Why different potential for copper/zinc cells when using nitrates vs. sulfates? Why is neither cell potential as large as predicted by Nerst equation? (2) Do elements in the zinc subgroup belong to the transition series? - answer by Quagliano. (3) How can the 2,4,5-trichloro derivative of phenoxyacetic acid be prepared? - answer by Danehy.
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Quagliano, James V.; Danehy, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 227.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Metals |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds
The cell potential and the distance between electrodes  Lauren, Paul M.
This demonstration illustrates the importance of the role played by ion diffusion in determining the magnitude of the emf of a primary cell.
Lauren, Paul M. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A691.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Verification of the form of the Nernst equation: An experiment for introductory chemistry  Evans, James S.
In this experiment, students record data for the concentration dependence of the ferrous-ferric half-cell potential at a platinum electrode, using a silver-silver ion reference electrode, a salt bridge, and a voltmeter.
Evans, James S. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 532.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Effect of complexing agents on oxidation potentials  Helsen, Jef
A short note on a simple experiment to demonstrate the effect of complexing agents on the oxidation-reduction properties of redox couples such as Fe3+/Fe2+.
Helsen, Jef J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 518.
Coordination Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry
Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.
(1) How can half-reactions be added to determine potentials? (2) What is the approximate size and weight of uranium-235 necessary for a chain reaction to occur? (3) What is the distinction between an inhibitor and a negative catalyst?
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 477.
Electrochemistry |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Catalysis
Electro-osmosis as a demonstration experiment. Coupled irreversible effects and direct energy conversion  Dixon, John R.; Schafer, Frank W.
When a stream of water is forced through a porous pug or other resistance associated with a pressure drop, an electrical potential is developed between the high and low pressure sides of the resistance.
Dixon, John R.; Schafer, Frank W. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 380.
Electrochemistry
Simple experiments in amperometry. Determination of acids, oxidizing agents  Feldman, Frederic J.
Amperometry, the measurement of current resulting from an electrochemical reaction at the electrode, is a simple means of determining the concentration of an electroactive species. An experiment is described here for the determination of acids or oxidizing agents by amperometry.
Feldman, Frederic J. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 378.
Quantitative Analysis |
Electrochemistry
Electrical conductance apparatus  Steinberg, Edwin E.; Nordmann, J.
A circuit diagram for an electrical conductance apparatus that is safe, accurate, and allows for qualitative measurements.
Steinberg, Edwin E.; Nordmann, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 309.
Electrochemistry |
Conductivity |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Electrode potentials  Shombert, Donald
Changes in the potential observed for two Daniell cells are due to changes in ion concentrations.
Shombert, Donald J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A215.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium
Several designs for constructing potentiometers  Battino, Rubin
This paper describes several designs for constructing inexpensive potentiometers that possess a practical degree of precision.
Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 211.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Potentiometric measurements of equilibria: In general chemistry laboratory  Chesick, J. P.; Patterson, Andrew, Jr.
The authors describe an experiment in which the solubility product of silver chloride, the ionization constant of the silver-ammonia complex, and the ionization constant of acetic acid can be determined with one afternoon of work.
Chesick, J. P.; Patterson, Andrew, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 496.
Electrochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
The growth of lead trees in silicic acid gels  Hurd, Charles B.; Lamareaux, Harry F.
The fact that more active metals, such as zinc and cadmium, will replace lead in solutions of lead salts is well known; it is not so well known that the lead deposited will form an attractive, tree-like growth, particularly if supported in a gel.
Hurd, Charles B.; Lamareaux, Harry F. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 472.
Electrochemistry
Common sources of confusion; Electrode sign conventions  Anson, Fred C.
Examines common sources of confusion with respect to electrode signs and recommends new conventions.
Anson, Fred C. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 394.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Recent developments concerning the signs of electrode potentials  Licht, Truman S.; deBethune, Andre J.
It is the purpose of this paper to review recent developments concerning the signs of electrode potentials, particularly with respect to single electrode potential, half-reaction potential, and half-cell electromotive force.
Licht, Truman S.; deBethune, Andre J. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 433.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Some electrochemical experiments for freshmen  Gorman, Mel
The purpose of this discussion is to present an exercise for freshman laboratory work involving electrochemical unknowns and special electrode potential projects not usually studied in the first-year course.
Gorman, Mel J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 409.
Electrochemistry |
Qualitative Analysis
Letters to the editor  Campbell, J. A.
The author includes an interpretation of the "Beating Heart Experiment" which was omitted in an earlier Journal article.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 362.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Nuclear batteries  Garrett, Alfred B.
Describes the structure, operation, and application of nuclear batteries.
Garrett, Alfred B. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 446.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Electrochemistry
Letters  Hackney, J. C.
The author elaborates on the source of a fallacy in the calculation of an overall redox potential by combination of two half-cell potentials.
Hackney, J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 472.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Combining half-reactions and their standard electrode potentials  Miller, Sidney I.
To increase the value of standard electrode potential tables, a new method of combination of half-cell reactions is proposed.
Miller, Sidney I. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 140.
Electrochemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials