TIGER

Journal Articles: 577 results
Ionic Blocks  Richard S. Sevcik, Rex Gamble, Elizabet Martinez, Linda D. Schultz, and Susan V. Alexander
"Ionic Blocks" is a teaching tool designed to help middle school students visualize the concepts of ions, ionic compounds, and stoichiometry. It can also assist high school students in reviewing their subject mastery.
Sevcik, Richard S.; Gamble, Rex; Martinez, Elizabet; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1631.
Ionic Bonding |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmajor Courses |
Stoichiometry
The Electrochemical Synthesis of Transition-Metal Acetylacetonates  S. R. Long, S. R. Browning, and J. J. Lagowski
The electrochemical synthesis of transition-metal acetylacetonates can assist in the transformation of an entry-level laboratory course into a research-like environment where all members of a class are working on the same problem, but each student has a personal responsibility for the synthesis and characterization of a specific compound.
Long, S. R.; Browning, S. R.; Lagowski, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1429.
Coordination Compounds |
Electrochemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Physical Properties |
Synthesis |
Transition Elements |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
New Observations on the Copper-to-Silver-to-Gold Demonstration  Dorin Bejan, Jeff Hastie, and Nigel J. Bunce
This analysis of the classic copper-to-silver-to-gold demonstration describes the deposition of zinc in the form of the silver-colored alloy ?-brass, the evolution of hydrogen at the copper cathode, and the behavior of the associated electrochemical cell.
Bejan, Dorin; Hastie, Jeff; Bunce, Nigel J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1381.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction
Elemental Chem Lab  Antonio Joaquín Franco Mariscal
Three puzzles use the symbols of 45 elements to spell the names of 32 types of laboratory equipment usually found in chemical labs.
Franco Mariscal, Antonio Joaquín. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1370.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Introducing Undergraduate Students to Electrochemistry: A Two-Week Discovery Chemistry Experiment  Kenneth V. Mills, Richard S. Herrick, Louise W. Guilmette, Lisa P. Nestor, Heather Shafer, and Mauri A. Ditzler,
Within the framework of a laboratory-focused, guided-inquiry pedagogy, students discover the Nernst equation, the spontaneity of galvanic cells, concentration cells, and the use of electrochemical data to calculate equilibrium constants.
Mills, Kenneth V.; Herrick, Richard S.; Guilmette, Louise W.; Nestor, Lisa P.; Shafer, Heather;Ditzler, Mauri A. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1116.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Equilibrium
Preparation of Conducting Polymers by Electrochemical Methods and Demonstration of a Polymer Battery  Hiromasa Goto, Hiroyuki Yoneyama, Fumihiro Togashi, Reina Ohta, Akitsu Tsujimoto, Eiji Kita, and Ken-ichi Ohshima
The electrochemical polymerization of aniline and pyrrole, and demonstrations of electrochromism and the polymer battery effect, are presented as demonstrations suitable for high school and introductory chemistry at the university level.
Goto, Hiromasa; Yoneyama, Hiroyuki; Togashi, Fumihiro; Ohta, Reina; Tsujimoto, Akitsu; Kita, Eiji; Ohshima, Ken-ichi. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1067.
Aromatic Compounds |
Conductivity |
Electrochemistry |
Materials Science |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Polymerization
Prussian Blue: Artists' Pigment and Chemists' Sponge  Mike Ware
The variable composition of Prussian blue tantalized chemists until investigations by X-ray crystallography in the late 20th century explained its many properties and uses.
Ware, Mike. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 612.
Applications of Chemistry |
Coordination Compounds |
Dyes / Pigments |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Photochemistry |
Toxicology
Metal Electrodeposition on an Integrated, Screen-Printed Electrode Assembly  Yieu Chyan and Oliver Chyan
Screen-printed, carbon strip electrodes illustrate the essential concepts of electrochemistry and electrodeposition; their light weight facilitates sensitive measurements of electrodeposited metal, allowing for the exploration of Faraday's law and electrodeposition efficiency.
Chyan, Yieu; Chyan, Oliver. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 565.
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis
Yet Another Variation on the Electrolysis of Water at Iron Nails  Mark T. Stauffer and Justin P. Fox
Describes a variation on the electrolysis of water with iron nails in which a sharp contrast in the colors produced effectively demonstrates electrolysis and the diffusion of oxidized and reduced species from the electrodes.
Stauffer, Mark T.; Fox, Justin P. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 523.
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Netorials  Rebecca Ottosen, John Todd, Rachel Bain, Mike Miller, Liana Lamont, Mithra Biekmohamadi, and David B. Shaw
Netorials is a collection of about 30 online tutorials on general chemistry topics designed as a supplement for high school or college introductory courses. Each Netorial contains several pages of interactive instruction that includes animated mouse-overs, questions for students to answer, and manipulable molecular structures.
Ottosen, Rebecca; Todd, John; Bain, Rachel; Miller, Mike; Lamont. Liana; Biekmohamadi, Mithra; Shaw, David B. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 463.
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Reactions |
VSEPR Theory |
Stoichiometry
Electrochemical Polishing of Silverware: A Demonstration of Voltaic and Galvanic Cells  Michelle M. Ivey and Eugene T. Smith
Using a battery and a graphite electrode, an electrolytic cell is constructed to generate a layer of tarnish on silverware. Students then determine that the tarnish can be removed by electrochemically converting it back to silver using aluminum foil and baking soda.
Ivey, Michelle M.; Smith, Eugene T. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 68.
Consumer Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
How Many Atomic Layers of Zinc Are in a Galvanized Iron Coating?   Shui-Ping Yang
This article describes a guided inquiry and problem solving experiment in which students use a novel gasometric assembly to determine the thickness and number of atomic layers of zinc coating on galvanized iron wires and nails.
Yang, Shui-Ping. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1792.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis |
Rate Law
A Fast Coulometric Estimation of Avogadro's Number  Nicholas C. Thomas
Using simple materials found in any high school or college laboratory, an electrochemical method of determining Avogadro's number is presented.
Thomas, Nicholas C. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1667.
Electrochemistry |
Gases
Redox Titration of Ferricyanide to Ferrocyanide with Ascorbic Acid: Illustrating the Nernst Equation and Beer–Lambert Law  Tina H. Huang, Gail Salter, Sarah L. Kahn, and Yvonne M. Gindt
In this simple experiment, which illustrates the Nernst equation and BeerLambert law, students monitor the reduction of ferricyanide ion to ferrocyanide electrochemically and spectrophoto-metrically upon titration with ascorbic acid. The Nernst equation is used to calculate the standard reduction potential of the redox couple at pH 7 and the number of electrons transferred.
Huang, Tina H.; Salter, Gail; Kahn, Sarah L.; Gindt, Yvonne M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1461.
Coordination Compounds |
Electrochemistry |
Potentiometry |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
The Penny Experiment Revisited: An Illustration of Significant Figures, Accuracy, Precision, and Data Analysis  Joseph Bularzik
In this general chemistry laboratory the densities of pennies are measured by weighing them and using two different methods to measure their volumes. The average and standard deviation calculated for the resulting densities demonstrate that one measurement method is more accurate while the other is more precise.
Bularzik, Joseph. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1456.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmajor Courses |
Physical Properties
Mercury Beating Heart: Modifications to the Classical Demonstration  Metodija Najdoski, Valentin Mirceski, Vladimir M. Petruševski, and Sani Demiri
The classic mercury beating heart demonstration is modified with various electrolytes.
Najdoski, Metodija; Mirceski, Valentin; Petruševski, Vladimir M.; Demiri, Sani. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1292.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Surface Science
Building a Low-Cost, Six-Electrode Instrument To Measure Electrical Properties of Self-Assembled Monolayers of Gold Nanoparticles  Ralph W. Gerber and Maria Oliver-Hoyo
The multimeter testing apparatus described is an inexpensive and easy to construct analogdigital meter that can be used for quantitative measurements of self-assembled gold monolayers.
Gerber, Ralph W.; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1177.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Nanotechnology |
Surface Science |
Electrochemistry
Peer-Developed and Peer-Led Labs in General Chemistry  Lorena Tribe and Kim Kostka
Describes a student-developed and led laboratory curriculum as a model for producing a more student-centered and rich laboratory experience in general chemistry laboratories.
Tribe, Lorena; Kostka, Kim. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1031.
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Laboratory Management |
Thermodynamics |
Student-Centered Learning
The Origin of the Names Malic, Maleic, and Malonic Acid  William B. Jensen
Explores the origins of the terms malic, maleic, and malonic acid.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 924.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Teaching Mathematics to Chemistry Students with Symbolic Computation  J. F. Ogilvie and M. B. Monagan
The authors explain how the use of mathematical software improves the teaching and understanding of mathematics to and by chemistry students while greatly expanding their abilities to solve realistic chemical problems.
Ogilvie, J. F.; Monagan, M. B. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 889.
Chemometrics |
Computational Chemistry |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Textbook Error: Short Circuiting an Electrochemical Cell  Judith M. Bonicamp and Roy W. Clark
Reports a serious error in the electrochemical diagrams in eight, 21st century texts and offers an analogy to electrical potential energy and a diagram to clarify the interrelationships between electromotive force E, reaction quotient Q, and Gibbs free energy G.
Bonicamp, Judith M.; Clark, Roy W. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 731.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Exploring Faraday's Law of Electrolysis Using Zinc–Air Batteries with Current Regulative Diodes  Masahiro Kamata and Miei Paku
Describes a new educational experiment using low-cost zincair batteries and current regulative diode arrays to quickly confirm Faraday's law of electrolysis.
Kamata, Masahiro; Paku, Miei. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 674.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Oxidation / Reduction
Small-Scale and Low-Cost Electrodes for "Standard" Reduction Potential Measurements  Per-Odd Eggen, Lise Kvittingen, and Truls Grønneberg
This article describes how to construct three simple and inexpensive, microchemistry electrodes: hydrogen, chlorine, and copper.
Eggen, Per-Odd; Grønneberg, Truls; Kvittingen, Lise. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 671.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Student-Centered Learning
A Lemon Cell Battery for High-Power Applications  Kenneth R. Muske, Christopher W. Nigh, and Randy D. Weinstein
This article discusses the development of a lemon cell battery for high-power applications such as radios, portable cassette or CD players, and battery-powered toys.
Muske, Kenneth R.; Nigh, Christopher W.; Weinstein, Randy D. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 635.
Applications of Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Sudoku Puzzles for First-Year Organic Chemistry Students  Alice L. Perez and G. Lamoureux
Sudoku puzzles are used to help the students learn the correspondence between the names of amino acids, their abbreviations, and codes; and the correspondence between the names of functional groups, their structures, and abbreviations.
Perez, Alice L.; Lamoureux, G. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 614.
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkylation |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Amino Acids |
MO Theory |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Student-Centered Learning |
Alkynes |
Amides
Sudoku Puzzles as Chemistry Learning Tools  Thomas D. Crute and Stephanie A. Myers
Sudoku puzzles that use a mixture of chemical terms and symbols serve as a tool to encourage the necessary repetition and attention to detail desired for mastering chemistry. The classroom-ready examples provided use polyatomic ions, organic functional groups, and strong nucleophiles. Guidelines for developing additional puzzles are described.
Crute, Thomas D.; Myers, Stephanie A. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 612.
Learning Theories |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Student-Centered Learning
A Simple and Inexpensive Salt Bridge for Demonstrations Involving a Galvanic Cell  Charles A. Liberko
A saturated sponge is a quick, economical, and reliable way to allow ions to transfer between the two half cells in a galvanic cell.
Liberko, Charles A. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 597.
Conductivity |
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Introducing New Learning Tools into a Standard Classroom: A Multi-Tool Approach to Integrating Fuel-Cell Concepts into Introductory College Chemistry   Matthew J. DAmato, Kenneth W. Lux, Kenneth A. Walz, Holly Walter Kerby, and Barbara Anderegg
Describes an approach to deliver the science and engineering concepts involved in fuel-cell technology to the introductory college chemistry classroom using traditional lectures, multimedia learning objects, and a lab activity to enhance student learning in a hands-on, interactive manner.
DAmato, Matthew J.; Lux, Kenneth W.; Walz, Kenneth A.; Kerby, Holly Walter; Anderegg, Barbara. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 248.
Electrochemistry |
Materials Science |
Nanotechnology |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Membranes
An Easy Way to Personalize Your Iron or Stainless Steel Items  Ejaz ur Rehman
Describes a simple and useful method for permanently labeling metallic items by the application of alternating current through a mask.
Rehman, Ejaz ur. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 40.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Effectiveness of Conceptual Change-Oriented Teaching Strategy To Improve Students' Understanding of Galvanic Cells  Ali Riza Özkaya, Musa Üce, Hakan Sariçayir, and Musa Sahin
This article presents efforts to develop a conceptual change-oriented strategy to teaching galvanic cells in electrochemistry. The objective is to assess the effectiveness of conceptual change-oriented instruction relative to conventional instruction using statistical comparisons.
Özkaya, Ali Riza; Üce, Musa; Sariçayir, Hakan; Sahin, Musa. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1719.
Electrochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Undergraduate Research
The Use of Dots in Chemical Formulas  William B. Jensen
Traces the origins and uses of dots in chemical formulas.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1590.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Concentration Scales for Sugar Solutions  David W. Ball
Examines several special scales used to indicate the concentration of sugar solutions and their application to industry.
Ball, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1489.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Food Science |
Solutions / Solvents
Classifying Matter: A Physical Model Using Paper Clips  Bob Blake, Lynn Hogue, and Jerry L. Sarquis
By using colored paper clips, students can represent pure substances, mixtures, elements, and compounds and then discuss their similarities and differences. This model is advantageous for the beginning student who would not know enough about the detailed composition of simple materials like milk, brass, sand, and air to classify them properly.
Blake, Bob; Hogue, Lynn; Sarquis, Jerry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1317.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solids |
Student-Centered Learning
More on the Nature of Resonance  Robert C. Kerber
The author continues to find the use of delocalization preferable to resonance.
Kerber, Robert C. . J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1291.
Aromatic Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Resonance Theory |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
More on the Nature of Resonance  William B. Jensen
Supplements a recent article on the interpretation of resonance theory with three additional observationsone historical and two conceptual.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1290.
Aromatic Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Resonance Theory
The Synthesis of Copper(II) Carboxylates Revisited  Kevin Kushner, Robert E. Spangler, Ralph A. Salazar, Jr., and J. J. Lagowski
Describes an electrochemical synthesis of copper(II) carboxylates for use in the general chemistry laboratory course for chemistry majors.
Kushner, Kevin; Spangler, Robert E.; Salazar, Ralph A., Jr.; Lagowski, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1042.
Carboxylic Acids |
Coordination Compounds |
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Solutions / Solvents |
Transition Elements |
Undergraduate Research |
Synthesis
Acid–Base Chemistry According to Robert Boyle: Chemical Reactions in Words as well as Symbols  David E. Goodney
Examples of acidbase reactions from Robert Boyle's The Sceptical Chemist are used to illustrate the rich information content of chemical equations. Boyle required lengthy passages of florid language to describe what can be done quite simply with a chemical equation.
Goodney, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1001.
Acids / Bases |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Nonmajor Courses |
Reactions |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Octachem Model: Organic Chemistry Nomenclature Companion  Joaquin Palacios
The Octachem model is an educational physical model designed to guide students in the identification, classification, and naming of the chemical structures of organic compounds. In this article the basic concepts of Octachem model are presented, and the physical model and contents are described.
Palacios, Joaquin. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 890.
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Esters |
Ethers |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Valence, Oxidation Number, and Formal Charge: Three Related but Fundamentally Different Concepts  Gerard Parkin
The purpose of this article is to clarify the terms valence, oxidation number, coordination number, formal charge, and number of bonds and illustrate how the valence of an atom in a molecule provides a much more meaningful criterion for establishing the chemical reasonableness of a molecule than does the oxidation number.
Parkin, Gerard. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 791.
Coordination Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Lewis Structures |
Oxidation State |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The Rainbow Wheel and Rainbow Matrix: Two Effective Tools for Learning Ionic Nomenclature  Joseph S. Chimeno, Gary P Wulfsberg, Michael J. Sanger, and Tammy J. Melton
This study compared the learning of ionic nomenclature by three different methods, one traditional and the other two using game formats. The game formats were found to be more effective in helping students develop a working knowledge of chemical nomenclature.
Chimeno, Joseph S.; Wulfsberg, Gary P.; Sanger, Michael J.; Melton, Tammy J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 651.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmajor Courses
Revisiting Molar Mass, Atomic Mass, and Mass Number: Organizing, Integrating, and Sequencing Fundamental Chemical Concepts  Stephen DeMeo
It is often confusing for introductory chemistry students to differentiate between molar mass, atomic mass, and mass number as well as to conceptually understand these ideas beyond a surface level. One way to improve understanding is to integrate the concepts, articulate their relationships, and present them in a meaningful sequence.
DeMeo, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 617.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Physical Properties
Nomenclature Made Practical: Student Discovery of the Nomenclature Rules  Michael C. Wirtz, Joan Kaufmann, and Gary Hawley
Presents a method to teach chemical nomenclature to students in an introductory chemistry course that utilizes the discovery-learning model. Inorganic compounds are grouped into four categories and introduced through separate activities interspersed throughout the first semester to provide context and avoid confronting the student with all of the nomenclature rules at once.
Wirtz, Michael C.; Kaufmann, Joan; Hawley, Gary. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 595.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmetals |
Student-Centered Learning
Acrostic Puzzles in the Classroom  Dorothy Swain
Acrostic puzzles are an effective vehicle to expose students to the history and philosophy of science without lecturing.
Swain, Dorothy. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 589.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmajor Courses |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
If It's Resonance, What Is Resonating?  Robert C. Kerber
This article reviews the origin of the terminology associated with the use of more than one Lewis-type structure to describe delocalized bonding in molecules and how the original usage has evolved to reduce confusion
Kerber, Robert C. . J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 223.
Aromatic Compounds |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Resonance Theory
Are Some Elements More Equal Than Others?  Ronald L. Rich
Presents a new periodic chart with 18 columns but no interruptions of atomic numbers at Lanthanum or Actinum, and no de-emphasis of elements 57-71 or 89-103 by seeming to make footnotes of them. It shows some elements more than once in order to illuminate multiple relationships in chemical behavior.
Rich, Ronald L. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1761.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Inner Transition Elements |
Main-Group Elements |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Oxidation State |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements
Laboratory Experiments on the Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 7: Microscale Production of Ozone  Jorge G. Ibanez, Rodrigo Mayen-Mondragon, M. T. Moran-Moran, Alejandro Alatorre-Ordaz, Bruce Mattson, and Scot Eskestrand
Ozone, a powerful oxidizing and disinfecting agent, is produced electrochemically in the undergraduate laboratory with simple equipment and under very mild conditions. Tests are given to characterize it, to observe its action in simulated environmental applications, and to measure its rate of production.
Ibanez, Jorge G.; Mayen-Mondragon, Rodrigo; Moran-Moran, M. T.; Alatorre-Ordaz, Alejandro; Mattson, Bruce; Eskestrand, Scot. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1546.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Electropolymerized Conducting Polymer as Actuator and Sensor Device: An Undergraduate Electrochemical Laboratory Experiment  María T. Cortés and Juan C. Moreno
A trilayer formed by two conducting polymer films sandwiched around an adhesive polymer layer works as actuator and sensor simultaneously. This device can be bent up to 180 and it can be used as a sensing device of physical chemistry parameters such as cell temperature and electrolyte concentration. In this article, it is shown in a didactic way how to electrochemically synthesize ClO4-doped polypyrrole (PPy) films, how to fabricate a trilayer device, and how to evaluate its actuating and sensing capabilities. The required materials are simple and a complicated setup is not necessary.
Cortés, María T.; Moreno, Juan C. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1372.
Electrochemistry |
Materials Science |
Undergraduate Research |
Polymerization |
Applications of Chemistry
Improving Conceptions in Analytical Chemistry: ci Vi = cf Vf  Margarita Rodríguez-López and Arnaldo Carrasquillo Jr.
A common misconception related to analytical chemistry, which may be generalized as the failure to recognize and to account analytically for changes in substance density, is discussed. A cautionary example is made through the use of mass-based units of composition during volumetric dilution. The correct application of the volumetric dilution equation ci Vi = cf Vf is discussed. A quantitative description of the systematic error introduced by incorrect use of the volumetric dilution equation is also specified.
Rodríguez-López, Margarita; Carrasquillo, Arnaldo, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1327.
Industrial Chemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents
The Origins of Positive and Negative in Electricity  William B. Jensen
In response to a reader query, the column traces the origins of the terms "positive" and "negative" in electricity.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 988.
Electrochemistry
Teaching pH Measurements with a Student-Assembled Combination Quinhydrone Electrode  Fritz Scholz, Tim Steinhardt, Heike Kahlert, Jens R. Pörksen, and Jürgen Behnert
A combination pH electrode that can be assembled by the student is described. It consists of a glass holder and two sensors in the form of rubber stoppers that contain quinhydrone and graphite. The combination electrode is suitable to teach potentiometric measurements, pH measurements, and the interplay of acidbase and redox equilibria. The electrode meets highest safety standards and overcomes the troubles associated with the use of the conventional quinhydrone electrode.
Scholz, Fritz; Steinhardt, Tim; Kahlert, Heike; Pörksen, Jens R.; Behnert, Jürgen. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 782.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry
Procedure for Decomposing a Redox Reaction into Half-Reactions  Ilie Fishtik and Ladislav H. Berka
The principle of stoichiometric uniqueness provides a simple algorithm to check whether a simple redox reaction may be uniquely decomposed into half-reactions in a single way. For complex redox reactions the approach permits a complete enumeration of a finite and unique number of ways a redox reaction may be decomposed into half-reactions. Several examples are given.
Fishtik, Ilie; Berka, Ladislav H. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 553.
Stoichiometry |
Equilibrium |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Thermodynamics
Empirical Formulas and the Solid State: A Proposal  William B. Jensen
This brief article calls attention to the failure of most introductory textbooks to point out explicitly the fact that nonmolecular solids do not have molecular formulas and suggests some practical remedies for improving textbook coverage of this subject. The inadequacies of the terms "empirical formula" and "molecular formula" are also discussed, and the terms "relative compositional formula" and "absolute compositional formula" are proposed as more appropriate alternatives.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1772.
Solid State Chemistry |
Solids |
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Using Organic Light-Emitting Electrochemical Thin-Film Devices To Teach Materials Science  Hannah Sevian, Sean Müller, Hartmut Rudmann, and Michael F. Rubner
Light-emitting thin films provide an excellent opportunity to learn about principles of electrochemistry, spectroscopy, microscopic structure of the solid state, basic circuits, and engineering design. There is currently strong interest in academic and industrial engineering research centering on developing organic light-emitting devices for applications in flat panel displays. In this educational module, designed for high school or introductory undergraduate courses, students learn how to make a ruthenium-based thin-film device. In the process, they learn about the solid-state electrochemistry at work in the film, as well as the electroluminescence that results when current passes through the device.
Sevian, Hannah; Müller, Sean; Rudmann, Hartmut; Rubner, Michael F. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1620.
Electrochemistry |
Photochemistry |
Materials Science |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solid State Chemistry
Etymology as an Aid to Understanding Chemistry Concepts  Nittala S. Sarma
Recognition of word roots and the pattern of evolution of scientific terms can be helpful in understanding chemistry concepts (gaining knowledge of new concepts represented by related terms). The meaning and significance of various etymological roots, occurring as prefixes and suffixes in technical terms particularly of organic chemistry, are explained in a unified manner in order to show the connection of various concepts vis  vis the terms in currency. The meanings of some special words and many examples are provided.
Sarma, Nittala S. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1437.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The Origin of the Mole Concept  William B. Jensen
In response to a reader query, the column traces the origins of the mole concept in chemistry.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1409.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A Small-Scale and Low-Cost Apparatus for the Electrolysis of Water  Per-Odd Eggen and Lise Kvittingen
This article describes how to construct two simple, inexpensive, and illustrative apparatuses using disposable polyethene pipets and floral wire for electrolysis of water. These apparatuses suit various grades and curricula.
Eggen, Per-Odd; Kvittingen, Lise. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1337.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
SI for Chemists: A Modification  Robert D. Freeman
To correct my original blunder, I recommend that the name "amount of substance" be replaced by "quant" (rather than posos). The word "quant" is in standard dictionaries and has a single meaning related to boating.
Freeman, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 802.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
SI for Chemists: Another Position  Tomislav Cvitas
I must say that I agree neither with what was said in the original commentary by R. D. Freeman, nor with the letter by P. Karol.
Cvitas, Tomislav. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 801.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
SI for Chemists: Persistent Problems, Solid Solutions; SI Basic Units: The Kilogram and the Mole  Robert D. Freeman
Karols letter is a prime example of the type of article about which he complains in his first paragraph. There are four major flaws in Karols suggestions.
Freeman, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 800.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
SI for Chemists: Persistent Problems, Solid Solutions. SI Basic Units: The Kilogram and the Mole  Paul J. Karol
The persistent perceived problem with the base units kilogram and mole addressed in those journal articles is resolvable once it is finally recognized that we have been using a double standard: the international platinumiridium kilogram prototype and 12C.
Karol, Paul J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 800.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Quantitative Analysis |
Stoichiometry
SI for Chemists: Persistent Problems, Solid Solutions. SI Basic Units: The Kilogram and the Mole  Paul J. Karol
The persistent perceived problem with the base units kilogram and mole addressed in those journal articles is resolvable once it is finally recognized that we have been using a double standard: the international platinumiridium kilogram prototype and 12C.
Karol, Paul J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 800.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Quantitative Analysis |
Stoichiometry
The Effective Use of an Interactive Software Program To Reduce Students' Misconceptions about Batteries  E.-M. Yang, T. J. Greenbowe, and T. Andre
In this study, college students enrolled in an introductory chemistry course were asked a series of open-ended questions about electrochemistry, flashlights, and batteries. Misconceptions were identified, analyzed, and used to develop and test an Interactive Software Program (ISP).
Yang, E.-M.; Greenbowe, T. J.; Andre, T. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 587.
Electrochemistry |
Learning Theories |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Student-Centered Learning
Isolation of Copper from a 5–Cent Coin. An Example of Electrorefining  Steven G. Sogo
The United States 5cent coin, commonly known as a "nickel", is made of an alloy containing 75% copper and 25% nickel. The experiment is a visually appealing illustration of the process of electrorefining using selective reduction.
Sogo, Steven G. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 530.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals
Functional Group Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
This puzzle contains 24 names and terms from organic chemistry in a 12 ? 12 letter matrix. A descriptive narrative with underlined spaces to be filled gives clues to the terms students need to find.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 517.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Organic Chemistry Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
This puzzle contains 27 names and terms from organic chemistry in a 13 ? 13 letter matrix. A descriptive narrative with underlined spaces to be filled gives clues to the terms students need to find.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 515.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Caveman Chemistry: 28 Projects, from the Creation of Fire to the Production of Plastics (Kevin M. Dunn)  Michael S. Matthews
In Caveman Chemistry, Kevin Dunn presents a historically oriented hands-on introduction to chemistry and chemical technology that is tremendously entertaining.
Matthews, Michael S. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 490.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Natural Products |
Nonmajor Courses
Photogalvanic Cells for Classroom Investigations: A Contribution for Ongoing Curriculum Modernization  Claudia Bohrmann-Linde and Michael W. Tausch
Laboratory experiments examining the fundamental processes in the conversion of light into electrical energy using photogalvanic cells have been developed. These simple cells are suitable for classroom investigations examining the operating principles of photogalvanic cells and the influence of different parameters on their efficiency.
Bohrmann-Linde, Claudia; Tausch, Michael W. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1471.
Electrochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Palm-Based Data Acquisition Solutions for the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory  Susan Hudgins, Yu Qin, Eric Bakker, and Curtis Shannon
Handheld computers provide a compact and cost-effective means to log data in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory. Handheld computers have the ability to record multiple forms of data, be programmed for specific projects, and later have data transferred to a personal computer for manipulation and analysis.
Hudgins, Susan; Qin, Yu; Bakker, Eric; Shannon, Curtis. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1303.
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Reactions (→) vs Equations (=)  S. R. Logan
A recent chemical kinetics text uses an equals sign for an overall reaction, whereas an arrow is used in each of the reaction steps that are proposed to constitute the mechanism, and for any elementary process.
Logan, S. R. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1258.
Kinetics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Organic Nomenclature  David B. Shaw and Laura R. Yindra
Organic Nomenclature is a drill-and-practice exercise in naming organic compounds (using both common and IUPAC names) and identifying structural formulas. It consists of multiple-choice questions where a name or formula is given and the correct formula or name is chosen from a list of five possible answers.
Shaw, David B.; Yindra, Laura R. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1223.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Lithium Batteries: A Practical Application of Chemical Principles  Richard S. Treptow
In recent years batteries have emerged in the marketplace that take advantage of the unique properties of lithium. Lithium metal is an attractive choice to serve as a battery anode because it is easily oxidized and it produces an exceptionally high amount of electrical charge per unit-weight.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1015.
Consumer Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Applications of Chemistry
Inorganic Nomenclature   David Shaw
Drill-and-practice exercises in naming and writing formulas for ionic and covalent inorganic compounds.
Shaw, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 711.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials
pH Titration Simulator   N. Papadopoulos and M. Limniou
Windows software that simulates a pH titration.
Papadopoulos, N.; Limniou, M. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 709.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Determination of Avogadro's Number by Improved Electroplating  Carlos A. Seiglie
Electroplating procedure to accurately determine Avogadro's number or Faraday's constant.
Seiglie, Carlos A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 668.
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Quantitative Analysis |
Stoichiometry
Simple Recipes for Prebiotic Soup: A High School or Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory  Marisol Martinez-Meeler, Nika Aljinovic, and Dorothy Swain
Replicating Stanley Miller's prebiotic soup experiment for introductory chemistry; includes experimental apparatus and analysis of the products.
Martinez-Meeler, Marisol; Aljinovic, Nika; Swain, Dorothy. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 665.
Amino Acids |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Chromatography |
Electrochemistry |
Proteins / Peptides |
Synthesis |
Applications of Chemistry
Organic Functional Group Playing Card Deck  Michael J. Welsh
Organic functional group playing card deck used for review of the name and structure of organic functional groups that can be used to play any game that a normal deck of cards is used for.
Welsh, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 426.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmajor Courses |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Amides |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters |
Ethers |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis
The Name Game: Learning the Connectivity between the Concepts  Marina C. Koether
Game in which students review words (names of elements and compounds, instrumentation, types of reactions) using an ice-breaker-type activity; each student given a word that they can't see but everyone else can; must learn their name by asking as few yes-no questions as possible.
Koether, Marina C. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 421.
Instrumental Methods |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Terminology: Four Puzzles from One Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Tips for constructing multiple wordsearch puzzles; example of a lab safety wordsearch provided.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 414.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Learning Theories |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Find the Symbols of Elements Using a Letter Matrix Puzzle  V. D. Kelkar
Letter matrix puzzle using chemical symbols.
Kelkar, V. D. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 411.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Main-Group Elements |
Transition Elements |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials
The Chemical Adventures of Sherlock Holmes: The Blackwater Escape  Thomas G. Waddell and Thomas R. Rybolt
A chemical mystery involving electrochemistry and featuring Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson.
Waddell, Thomas G.; Rybolt, Thomas R. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 401.
Electrochemistry |
Materials Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Applications of Chemistry
Teaching Chemistry Using From the Earth to the Moon  James G. Goll and Stacie L. Mundinger
Teaching chemistry using From the Earth to the Moon (an HBO original movie series).
Goll, James G.; Mundinger, Stacie L. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 292.
Electrochemistry |
Chemometrics |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Applications of Chemistry
Mole, Mole per Liter, and Molar: A Primer on SI and Related Units for Chemistry Students  George Gorin
A brief historical overview of the SI system, the concept of the mole and the definition of mole unit, the status of the liter in the metric and SI systems, and the meaning of molar and molarity.
Gorin, George. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 103.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents |
Enrichment / Review Materials
What's in a Name?   Robert M. Hanson
Quiz that asks questions that are helpful in determining what is happening in an aqueous solution.
Hanson, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1380.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The Chemical Name Game  Robert M. Hanson
Provides practice in learning about names and properties of chemical species.
Hanson, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1380.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Physical Properties
An Interactive Graphical Approach to Temperature Conversions  Jonathan Mitschele
Activity to demonstrate the relationship between the Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature scales by graphing measurements of English- and metric-unit thermometers.
Mitschele, Jonathan. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1235.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
A Structure–Activity Investigation of Photosynthetic Electron Transport. An Interdisciplinary Experiment for the First-Year Laboratory  Kerry K. Karukstis, Gerald R. Van Hecke, Katherine A. Roth, and Matthew A. Burden
Investigation in which students measure the effect of several inhibitors (herbicides) on the electron transfer rate in chloroplasts and formulate a hypothesis between the inhibitor's activity and its structure as a means of using a physical technique to measure a chemical process in a biological system.
Karukstis, Kerry K.; Van Hecke, Gerald R.; Roth, Katherine A.; Burden, Matthew A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 985.
Biophysical Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds |
Plant Chemistry
Chemistry Formatter Add-ins for Microsoft Word and Excel  Christopher King
MS Word and Excel add-ins that automatically convert chemistry symbols and notations.
King, Christopher. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 896.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Why Do Some Batteries Last Longer Than Others?  Michael J. Smith and Colin A. Vincent
Comparing the energy content of the cathode material of different commercial batteries using a test cell.
Smith, Michael J.; Vincent, Colin A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 851.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Applications of Chemistry
A Direct Methanol Fuel Cell  Orfeo Zerbinati
Materials and methods for construction of a direct methanol fuel cell.
Zerbinati, Orfeo. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 829.
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Conceptual Difficulties Experienced by Prospective Teachers in Electrochemistry: Half-Cell Potential, Cell Potential, and Chemical and Electrochemical Equilibrium in Galvanic Cells  Ali Riza Özkaya
Study of prospective teachers' conceptual understanding of topics in electrochemistry.
Özkaya, Ali Riza. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 735.
Electrochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Redox Redux: Recommendations for Improving Textbook and IUPAC Definitions  Ed Vitz
Defining oxidation / reduction reactions as those in which oxidation states of the reactant(s) change.
Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 397.
Electrochemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
The Electrolytic Recovery of Copper from Brass. A Laboratory Simulation of an Industrial Application of Electrical Energy  Domenico Osella, Mauro Ravera, Cristina Soave, and Sonia Scorza
Procedure demonstrating the electrolytic purification of copper.
Osella, Domenico; Ravera, Mauro; Soave, Cristina; Scorza, Sonia. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 343.
Electrochemistry |
Materials Science |
Metals
A Chemically Relevant Model for Teaching the Second Law of Thermodynamics  Bryce E. Williamson and Tetsuo Morikawa
Presentation of a chemically relevant model that exemplifies many aspects of the second law: reversibility, path dependence, and extrapolation in terms of electrochemistry and calorimetry.
Williamson, Bryce E.; Morikawa, Tetsuo. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 339.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Thermodynamics
The Lead-Acid Battery: Its Voltage in Theory and in Practice  Richard S. Treptow
Lead-acid battery fundamentals, cell voltage and the Nernst equation, and an analysis of actual battery performance.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 334.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry
Correctly Expressing Atomic Weights (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1438)  Moreno Paolini, Giovanni Cercignani, and Carlo Bauer
Alternative units in which to express atomic weight.
Paolini, Moreno; Cercignani, Giovanni; Bauer, Carlo. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 163.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Learning Theories
Correctly Expressing Atomic Weights (re J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1438)  George Gorin
Alternative units in which to express atomic weight.
Gorin, George. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 163.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Learning Theories
Just Breathe: The Oxygen Content of Air   JCE Editorial Staff
Students estimate the percent oxygen (volume) in air using steel wool in a test tube that is inverted in a beaker of water. Oxygen in the trapped air reacts with iron to form rust, and the water level rises inside the test tube; within 30-45 minutes, the majority of oxygen is consumed.
JCE Editorial Staff. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 512A.
Electrochemistry |
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction
Learning the Functional Groups: Keys to Success  Shannon Byrd and David P. Hildreth
Classification activity and scheme for learning functional groups.
Byrd, Shannon; Hildreth, David P. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1355.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Melting Point, Density, and Reactivity of Metals  Michael Laing
Using melting points and densities to the predict the relative reactivities of metals.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1054.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Physical Properties |
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Electrochemistry
Is Every Transparent Liquid Water?  Muhamad Hugerat and Sobhi Basheer
Comparisons of the properties (polarity, electric conductivity, color change due to the presence of an acid-base indicator, and electrolysis) of three transparent and colorless liquids: water, glycerol, hexane, and ethanol.
Hugerat, Muhamad; Basheer, Sobhi. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1041.
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Conductivity |
Electrophoresis
Laboratory Experiments on Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 5: Indirect H2S Remediation  J. G. Ibanez
Experiment to introduce students in general chemistry, environmental chemistry, or electrochemistry to the concept of indirect electrolysis, its application in environmental remediation schemes, the role of a mediator, and the application of redox chemistry concepts.
Ibanez, J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 778.
Electrochemistry |
Gases |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry
Structure and Content of Some Primary Batteries  Michael J. Smith and Colin A. Vincent
An experiment that complements electrochemical characterization and allows students to explore the structure of commercial cells and calculate the anode and cathode capacities from the stoichiometry of the cell reaction.
Smith, Michael J.; Vincent, Colin A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 519.
Consumer Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Undergraduate Research |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Applications of Chemistry
Observations on Lemon Cells  Jerry Goodisman
The lemon cell, consisting of pieces of two different metals stuck into a lemon or other fruit, is pictured in many general chemistry textbooks without being discussed; manuscript describes simple experiments, suitable for the general chemistry laboratory, which elucidate how this kind of cell works.
Goodisman, Jerry. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 516.
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Krebs Cycle Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Puzzle with 46 names, terms, prefixes, and acronyms that describe the citric acid (Krebs) cycle.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 515.
Metabolism |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Glycolysis Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Puzzle with 30 names, terms, prefixes, and acronyms that describe glycolysis and fermentation.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 503.
Metabolism |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Carbohydrates
b-Oxidation Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Puzzle with 36 names, terms, prefixes, and acronyms that describe lipid metabolism.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 483.
Metabolism |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Lipids
Protein Structure Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Puzzle with 37 names, terms, prefixes, and acronyms that describe protein structure.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 474.
Proteins / Peptides |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Electrical Deflection of Polar Liquid Streams: A Misunderstood Demonstration  Maryam Ziaei-Moayyed, Edward Goodman, and Peter Williams
The electrical deflection of polar liquid streams, commonly used as a textbook illustration of the behavior of polar molecules, is shown to be due to the formation of electrically charged droplets in the polar liquid stream, induced by a nearby charged object, rather than any force exerted on molecular dipoles.
Ziaei-Moayyed, Maryam; Goodman, Edward; Williams, Peter. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1520.
Electrochemistry
Correctly Expressing Atomic Weights   Moreno Paolini, Giovanni Cercignani, and Carlo Bauer
Proposal on the basis of clear-cut formulas that, contrary to customary statements, atomic and molecular weights should be expressed as dimensional quantities (masses) in which the Dalton (= 1.663 x 10-24 g) is taken as the unit.
Paolini, Moreno; Cercignani, Giovanni; Bauer, Carlo. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1438.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Learning Theories
Are We Taking Symbolic Language for Granted?   Paul Marais and Faan Jordaan
This study formed part of a broader investigation into the role of language in teaching and learning chemical equilibrium. Students were tested for their understanding of 25 words and five symbols commonly used in connection with chemical equilibrium. This test showed that most of the students had an inadequate grasp of the meaning of all five symbols. It also showed that, on the average, their understanding of symbols was more problematic than their understanding of words.
Marais, Paul; Jordaan, Faan. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1355.
Equilibrium |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Potentiometric Determination of CO2 Concentration in the Gaseous Phase: Applications in Different Laboratory Activities  Eduardo Cortón, Santiago Kocmur, Liliana Haim, and Lydia Galagovsky
The first lab comprises the calibration of a CO2 potentiometric detector with gas mixtures. The CO2 and CO2-free air required for the gaseous samples are produced in the lab by an inexpensive and simple apparatus. In the second lab, the CO2 potentiometric device is used to measure CO2 uptake and release during different metabolic processes.
Cortón, Eduardo; Kocmur, Santiago; Haim, Liliana; Galagovsky, Lydia. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1188.
Electrochemistry |
Gases |
Quantitative Analysis |
Metabolism
Understanding Electrochemical Thermodynamics through Entropy Analysis  Thomas H. Bindel
This discovery-based activity involves entropy analysis of galvanic cells. The intent of the activity is for students to discover the fundamentals of electrochemical cells through a combination of entropy analysis, exploration, and guided discovery.
Bindel, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1031.
Electrochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
News from Online: Learning Communities  Carolyn Sweeney Judd
Summary of a variety of online, chemistry resources.
Judd, Carolyn Sweeney. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 808.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Classroom Nomenclature Games--BINGO  Thomas D. Crute
The use of games in the chemistry classroom can provide instruction, feedback, practice, and fun. A modification of a BINGO game to chemical nomenclature and a specific application to alkanes are described. Tips on preparation of materials, and suggested variations including inorganic nomenclature are presented.
Crute, Thomas D. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 481.
Learning Theories |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmajor Courses
Sugar Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Wordsearch puzzle containing 29 names, terms, prefixes and acronyms that describe sugars and their polymers.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 480.
Carbohydrates |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Lipid Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Wordsearch puzzle containing 37 names, terms, prefixes and acronyms that describe lipids.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 479.
Lipids |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
How to Make Learning Chemical Nomenclature Fun, Exciting, and Palatable  Joseph Chimeno
One great challenge that introductory chemistry students have is learning the names of various chemical compounds. To make chemical nomenclature fun, exciting, and palatable, the "Rainbow Wheel" was developed at North Iowa Area Community College.
Chimeno, Joseph. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 144.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Using a Teaching Model to Correct Known Misconceptions in Electrochemistry  P. A. Huddle, Margaret Dawn White, and Fiona Rogers
A concrete teaching model for electrochemistry is presented here. It addresses many common student misconceptions about current flow by demonstrating what is occurring at the microscopic level in an electrochemical cell. Both the scope and limitations of the model are discussed.
Huddle, Penelope Ann; White, Margaret Dawn; Rogers, Fiona. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 104.
Electrochemistry |
Learning Theories
Determination of the Fundamental Electronic Charge via the Electrolysis of Water  Brittany Hoffman, Elizabeth Mitchell, Petra Roulhac, Marc Thomes, and Vincent M. Stumpo
In an illuminating experiment suitable for secondary school students, a Hoffman electrolysis apparatus is employed to determine the fundamental electronic charge. The volume and pressure of hydrogen gas produced via the electrolysis of water during a given time interval are measured.
Hoffman, Brittany; Mitchell, Elizabeth; Roulhac, Petra; Thomes, Marc; Stumpo, Vincent M. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 95.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Electrochemistry |
Gases |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The Use of Extent of Reaction in Introductory Courses  Sebastian G. Canagaratna
This article discusses the use of the extent of reaction as an alternative to the traditional approach to stoichiometry in first-year chemistry. The method focuses attention on the reaction as a whole rather than on pairs of reagents as in the traditional approach. The balanced equation is used as the unit of change.
Canagaratna, Sebastian G. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 52.
Stoichiometry |
Thermodynamics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Amino Acids, Aromatic Compounds, and Carboxylic Acids: How Did They Get Their Common Names?  Sam H. Leung
This article provides a brief survey of the origins of the common names of some amino acids, aromatic compounds, and carboxylic acids.
Leung, Sam H. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 48.
Amino Acids |
Aromatic Compounds |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Carboxylic Acids
A Simple Experiment for Ion Migration  Karl E. Bessler and Daniel de Oliveira Campos
A simple, versatile, and low-cost version of a qualitative ion migration experiment is presented, which needs a minimum amount of chemicals and can be performed by inexperienced students. In the experiment cations and anions (preferably colorless or faintly colored) migrate toward one another and on combination produce insoluble and strongly colored compounds.
Bessler, Karl E.; Campos, Daniel de O. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1516.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Electrophoresis
Chemistry Comes Alive! Vol. 3: Abstract of Special Issue 23 on CD-ROM  Jerrold J. Jacobsen and John W. Moore
Volume 3 contains several related topics generally included in an introductory chemistry course. The general areas are Enthalpy and Thermodynamics, Oxidation-Reduction, and Electrochemistry.
Jacobsen, Jerrold J.; Moore, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1311.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Lemon Cells Revisited  Radhakrishnamurty, P.
Analysis of the reactions and nature of the electrodes in the lemon cell.
Radhakrishnamurty, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1190.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Oxidation / Reduction
The Evolution of the Celsius and Kelvin Temperature Scales and the State of the Art  Julio Pellicer, M. Amparo Gilabert, and Ernesto Lopez-Baeza
A physical analysis is given of the evolution undergone by the Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales, from their definition to the present day.
Pellicer, Julio; Gilabert, M. Amparo; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 911.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Thermodynamics |
Learning Theories
Letters  
Extending the rule for rounding significant figures of products and quotients.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 897.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
An Analysis of College Chemistry Textbooks As Sources of Misconceptions and Errors in Electrochemistry  Michael J. Sanger and Thomas J. Greenbowe
The oxidation-reduction and electrochemistry chapters of 10 introductory college chemistry textbooks were reviewed for misleading or erroneous statements, using a list of student misconceptions. As a result of this analysis, we provide suggestions for chemistry instructors and textbook authors.
Sanger, Michael J.; Greenbowe, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 853.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Learning Theories
Calculating Units with the HP 48G Calculator  Matthew E. Morgan
The HP 48G's units function can make simple calculations, such as converting grams to moles, or more complex unit analysis, such as gas law calculations. Examples and calculator keystrokes for both of these examples are included in this article.
Morgan, Matthew E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 631.
Learning Theories |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Periodic Puns for the Classroom  Paul E. Vorndam
Some puns on the names of the elements are presented.
Vorndam, Paul E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 492.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Learning Theories
Using Games To Teach Chemistry. 2. CHeMoVEr Board Game  Jeanne V. Russell
A board game similar to Sorry or Parcheesi was developed. Students must answer chemistry questions correctly to move their game piece around the board. Card decks contain questions on balancing equations, identifying the types of equations, and predicting products from given reactants.
Russell, Jeanne V. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 487.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Using Games to Teach Chemistry. 1. The Old Prof Card Game  Philip L. Granath and Jeanne V. Russell
A card game has been developed and used to teach nomenclature of the elements and their symbols in the first laboratory session of General Chemistry. The game both helps the students learn or review the symbols of the elements and is a good "icebreaker" where students learn the names of other students.
Granath, Philip L.; Russell, Jeanne V. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 485.
Learning Theories |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Student Construction of a Gel-Filled Ag/AgCl Reference Electrode for Use in a Potentiometric Titration  James M. Thomas
Instructions for the preparation of a Ag/AgCl "reference"-type electrode that uses a gel-type matrix are given. In addition, construction steps are provided for a very sturdy Pt-nichrome "inert" electrode, which can be used many times. Together, these two electrodes, along with a multivoltmeter, have been used successfully to determine the percent of iron in Fe(NH4)2(SO4)2 and in Fe2O2 unknowns purchased commercially.
Thomas, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 97.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
The Nernst Equation: Determination of Equilibrium Constants for Complex Ions of Silver  Martin L. Thompson and Laura J. Kateley
The experiment requires a voltmeter capable of recording millivolts (or a good pH meter) and inexpensive chemicals. It allows students to check the validity of the Nernst equation and compare their experimental Kform values to reported ones.
Thompson, Martin L.; Kateley, Laura J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 95.
Equilibrium |
Coordination Compounds |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
CHEMiCALC (4000161) and CHEMiCALC Personal Tutor (4001108), Version 4.0 (by O. Bertrand Ramsay)  Scott White and George Bodner
CHEMiCALC is a thoughtfully designed software package developed for use by high school and general chemistry students, who will benefit from the personal tutor mode that helps to guide them through unit conversion, empirical formula, molecular weight, reaction stoichiometry, and solution stoichiometry calculations.
White, Scott; Bodner, George M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 34.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
Developing and Using Conceptual Computer Animations for Chemistry Instruction  K. A. Burke, Thomas J. Greenbowe, and Mark A. Windschitl
This paper discusses several issues surrounding the development and use of instructional conceptual computer animations.
Burke, K. A.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.; Windschitl, Mark A. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1658.
Electrochemistry |
Learning Theories
Temperature Scale Conversion as a Linear Equation: True Unit Conversion vs Zero-Offset Correction  Reuben Rudman
The equation used for the interconversion between the Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature scales is in reality the general case of the straight-line equation (y = ax + b). This equation is the paradigm for many of the calculations taught in introductory chemistry.
Rudman, Reuben. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1646.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Chromatographic Separation Techniques for Undergraduates  Darwin B. Dahl, John T. Riley, and Thomas K. Green
Over the past several years the Chemistry Department at Western Kentucky University (WKU) has sought to strengthen its undergraduate program departmental through acquisition of FT-NMR, fluorescence, electrochemical, thermal analysis, laser Raman, microscale organic, and polymer laboratory instrumentation; this has enabled the department to build a successful undergraduate program.
Dahl, Darwin B.; Riley, John T.; Green, Thomas K. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1209.
Separation Science |
Chromatography |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Raman Spectroscopy |
Electrochemistry |
Photochemistry |
Thermal Analysis |
Microscale Lab
Automatic Titrators in the Analytical and Physical Chemistry Laboratories  Kathryn R. Williams
In 1995 the University of Florida received an NSF-ILI grant to purchase six automatic titrators, which have now been successfully integrated into the analytical and physical chemistry teaching laboratories. After they have mastered fundamental techniques, students in the introductory analytical laboratory gain experience with automated analyses in three experiments: the iodimetric analysis of ascorbic acid, the determination of polymer molecular weight, and the analysis of chloride by ion selective electrode.
Williams, Kathryn R. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1133.
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Oxygen vs Dioxygen: Diatomic/Monatomic Usage  Sharon, Jared B.
Using the name dioxygen for O2.
Sharon, Jared B. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1089.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Demonstrating Electron Transfer and Nanotechnology: A Natural Dye-Sensitized Nanocrystalline Energy Converter  Greg P. Smestad and Michael Gratzel
A unique solar cell fabrication procedure has been developed using natural anthocyanin dyes extracted from berries. It can be reproduced with a minimum amount of resources in order to provide an interdisciplinary approach for lower-division undergraduate students learning the basic principles of biological extraction, physical chemistry, and spectroscopy as well as environmental science and electron transfer.
Smestad, Greg P.; Grtzel, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 752.
Photochemistry |
Plant Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Dyes / Pigments |
Nanotechnology |
Separation Science |
Spectroscopy
Sugar Dehydration without Sulfuric Acid: No More Choking Fumes in the Classroom!  Todd P. Silverstein and Yi Zhang
Our demonstration uses no sulfuric acid, yields relatively little smoke, and produces an exciting and unpredictable growing column of black carbon.
Silverstein, Todd P.; Zhang, Yi. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 748.
Carbohydrates |
Thermodynamics |
Electrochemistry |
Solid State Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Slide Projector Corrosion Cell  Silvia Tejada, Estela Guevara, and Esperanza Olivares
The process of corrosion can be demonstrated in a slide projector, since the cell is in the shape of a slide, or on the stage of an overhead projector by setting up a simple galvanic cell. Corrosion occurs as the result of a galvanic cell reaction, in which the corroding metal acts as the anode. Several simple demonstrations relating to corrosion are described here.
Tejada, Silvia; Guevara, Estela; Olivares, Esperanza. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 747.
Electrochemistry |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Applications of Chemistry
A Closer Look at the Addition of Equations and Reactions  Damon Diemente
Chemists occasionally find it convenient or even necessary to express an overall reaction as the sum of two or more component reactions. A close examination, however, reveals that the resemblance between chemical algebraic equations is entirely superficial, and that the real meaning of addition in chemical equations is subtle and varies from case to case. In high-school courses, students are likely to encounter the addition of equations in thermochemistry, in electrochemistry, and in kinetics.
Diemente, Damon. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 319.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Reactions
Lemon Cells Revisited - The Lemon-Powered Calculator  Daniel J. Swartling and Charlotte Morgan
Using lemons to create a voltaic cell to run items that students would use in their everyday lives drives home that chemistry plays an integral role in their lives.
Swartling, Daniel J.; Morgan, Charlotte. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 181.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Applications of Chemistry
The Electromotive Series and Other Non-Absolute Scales  Gavin D. Peckham
Stresses the reference-state approach for students learning the electromotive series and other non-absolute scales.
Peckham, Gavin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 49.
Electrochemistry
ACS National Historic Chemical Landmark: Charles Martin Hall's Discovery of the Electrochemical Process for Aluminum  Norman C. Craig
Oberlin College and the Cleveland Section of the American Chemical Society hosted a celebration in which Charles Martin Hall's discovery of the electrochemical process for extracting aluminum metal from the ore was designated as a National Historic Chemical Landmark by the ACS.
Craig, Norman C. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1269.
Electrochemistry
Celsius to Fahrenheit and Vice Versa - Quick, Exact, and Neat  S. C. Dutta Roy
A quick, exact, and neat method is given for conversion of Celsius to Fahrenheit temperatures and vice versa.
Roy, S. C. Dutta. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1199.
Learning Theories |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Constructing Chemical Concepts through a Study of Metals and Metal Ions: Guided Inquiry Experiments for General Chemistry  Ram S. Lamba, Shiva Sharma, and Baird W. Lloyd
A set of inquiry-based experiments designed to help students develop an understanding of basic chemical concepts within the framework of studying the properties and reactivity of metals and metal ions.
Lamba, Ram S.; Sharma, Shiva; Lloyd, Baird W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1095.
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry
A Note on the Term "Chalcogen"  William B. Jensen
It is argued that the best translation of the term "chalcogen" is "ore former." It is further suggested that the term chalcogenide should be replaced with the term chalcide in order to maintain a parallelism with the terms halogen and halide.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1063.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Descriptive Chemistry
A Simple Laboratory Demonstration of Electrochromism  Bertil Forslund
A laboratory exercise in which students are asked to construct an electrochromic cell, consisting of a thin, transparent layer of WO3 on a glass plate with a thin, transparent, and conducting surface coating of doped SnO2.
Forslund, Bertil. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 962.
Electrochemistry |
Materials Science |
Solid State Chemistry
Ionization or Dissociation?  Emeric Schultz
The use of the terms Dissociation and Ionization in the teaching of chemistry is discussed. It is suggested that the term dissociation, and what it suggests in terms of ordinary language, is inappropriate when used in certain contexts. Since an alternate and more physically correct term, specifically ionization, is available for these contexts, it is argued that this term be used consistently in these contexts.
Schultz, Emeric. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 868.
Equilibrium |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Students' Misconceptions in Electrochemistry Regarding Current Flow in Electrolyte Solutions and the Salt Bridge  Michael J. Sanger and Thomas J. Greenbowe
Several researchers have documented students' misconceptions in electrochemistry. One reason for the interest in studying electrochemistry is that surveys of students and teachers suggest that students find this topic difficult and research confirms that students' beliefs about problem complexity affect their performance and learning.
Sanger, Michael J.; Greenbowe, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 819.
Learning Theories |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A Low-Cost and High-Performance Conductivity Meter  Rogerio T. da Rocha, Ivano G. R. Gutz, and Claudimir L. do Lago
A two-electrode conductivimeter is described, which keep good performance in spite of its low cost.
da Rocha, Rogerio T. ; Gutz, Ivano G.R. ; do Lago, Claudimir L. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 572.
Instrumental Methods |
Conductivity |
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Synthesis and Characterization of a Conduction Polymer: An Electrochemical Experiment for General Chemistry  Roger K. Bunting, Karsten Swarat, DaJing Yan, Duane Finello
The electrochemical synthesis of a free-standing film of polypyrrole, using commonly available equipment and materials, is described at a level suitable to application in a general chemistry laboratory. Also described are methods to quantitatively assess the doping level and to characterize the polymer film in terms of its conductivity as a function of temperature.
Bunting, Roger K.; Swarat, Karsten; Yan, DaJing; Finello, Duane. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 421.
Electrochemistry |
Conductivity
Three Programs for DOS: Abstract of Volume 10B, Number 1 2. Periodic Table Games  John S. Martin
The Periodic Table Games are intended to expose students to the vocabulary of chemistry: formulas, combination rules, and descriptive chemistry. They may be played by an individual against the computer, or by several competing players.
Martin, John S. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 346.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Exponential Notation  Gavin D Peckham
Suggestion for streamlined typing of exponential notation.
Peckham, Gavin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 64.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Small Scale Electrolytic Cells  Anderson, Guy E.
A method is given for a quantitative electrolysis experiment that does not require specialized equipment.
Anderson, Guy E. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A172.
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Microscale Lab |
Quantitative Analysis |
Electrochemistry
Interfacing "8088" Computers in the Chemistry Laboratory  James Goodrich and Bill Durham
The goal of using such puzzles is to provide a bit of variety to beginning chemistry students and reduce the tedium of memorizing chemical names.
Goodrich, James; Durham, Bill. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A130.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Displaying Chemical Formulas in Microsoft Excel  E. Joseph Billo
An Excel macro which automates the entry of subscripts in Excel spreadsheets is described. The macro is assigned to a custom button on Excel's standard toolbar, so that, after typing a text label containing a chemical formula, clicking the button automatically formats the text as a chemical formula.
Billo, E. Joseph. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A40.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Electrode Processes and Aspects Relating to Cell EMF, Current, and Cell Components in Operating Electrochemical Cells: Precollege and College Student Interpretation  N. A. Ogude and J. D. Bradleu
Four areas that present difficulty among high school pupils and tertiary level students in relation to the processes that take place in operating electrochemical cells were identified, including conduction in the electrolyte, electrical neutrality, electrode processes and terminology, and aspects relating to cell emf, current, and cell components. A 20-item questionnaire was designed to determine how widespread misconceptions in these areas were.
Ogude, N. A.; Bradley, J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1145.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
The Chemical and Educational Appeal of the Orange Juice Clock  Paul B. Kelter, James D. Carr, Tanya Johnson, and Carlos Mauricio Castro-Acuña
The Orange Juice Clock, in which a galvanic cell is made from the combination of a magnesium strip, a copper strip, and juice in a beaker, has been a popular classroom, conference, and workshop demonstration for nearly 10 years. The discussion that follows considers the recent history, chemistry, and educational uses of the demonstration.
Kelter, Paul B.; Carr, James D.; Johnson, Tanya; Castro-Acuña, Carlos Mauricio. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1123.
Electrochemistry
A Simple Method for Determining the Temperature Coefficient of Voltaic Cell Voltage  Alfred E. Saieed, Keith M. Davies
This article describes a relatively simple method for preparing voltaic cells, and through their temperature coefficient, ?E/?T, it explores relationships between ?G, ?H,and ?S for the cell reactions involved.
Saieed, Alfred E.; Davies, Keith M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 959.
Electrochemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Oxidation / Reduction
Inorganic Nomenclature  ten Hoor, Marten J.
Inorganic naming schemes should be brought in line with IUPAC recommendations.
ten Hoor, Marten J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 825.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The Comparative Performance of Batteries: The Lead-Acid and the Aluminum-Air Cells  Xavier LeRoux, Gerry A. Ottewill, and Frank C. Walsh
An experimental program designed to convey, to students aged 16 through undergraduate, the principles of battery electrochemistry through a comparative study of two different systems, the lead acid cell and aluminum air cell, is described.
LeRoux, Xavier; Ottewill, Gerry A.; Walsh, Frank C. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 811.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Applications of Chemistry
Using Physics Principles in the Teaching of Chemistry  Warren Gulden
Chemistry and physics may be separate subjects, but that should not prohibit the use of physics in a chemistry course. When this is done, students can use traditional physics principles or laws for the purpose of understanding chemistry better.
Gulden, Warren. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 771.
Ionic Bonding |
Physical Properties |
Electrochemistry |
Hydrogen Bonding
Interactive Computer Visualization in the Introductory Chemistry Curriculum  Victoria M. Bragin
This project explores the use of technological innovations to facilitate learning in introductory chemistry courses by those with a poor academic background, while also challenging those prepared to master the curriculum.
Bragin, Victoria M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 747.
Gases |
Rate Law |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Electrochemistry
SIRS: Simulations and Interactive Resources, III  Martin, John S.
Simulations and Interactive Resources (SIRs) are designed to support interactive lectures in introductory chemistry. This third issue of SIRs includes five new SIRs as well as updated and final versions of all previously published SIRs.
Martin, John S. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 722.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Reactions |
Electrochemistry |
Kinetics
Constant-Current Coulometric Titration of Hydrochloric Acid  James Swim, Edward Earps, Laura M. Reed, and David Paul
In this experiment we have combined the titration of a strong acid with a strong base and the electrolysis of water into one complete laboratory experience.
James Swim, Edward Earps, Laura M. Reed, and David Paul. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 679.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
The Incredible "Glowing" Pickle and Onion and Potato and...  Rubin Battino and Peter M. Weimer
There are many demonstrations about electrical conductivity that are illuminating, but the incredible glowing pickle is the most dramatic and eye-catching. In this paper we describe how to achieve the same effect with an onion, a potato, a head of cabbage, and a grapefruit, as well as a simple and safe device to hold these foods.
Weimer, Peter M.; Battino, Rubin. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 456.
Food Science |
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Which E^o Is It? The Story of a Student Discovery  Ron C. Cooke and Grover C. Willis
A homework problem called for the computation of the E^o for the reaction 2Cu+ --> Cu+2 + Cu. Two students independently worked on this problem and calculated answers of +0.359 V and +0.181 V respectively, using E^o for the half reactions from a table in the book.
Cooke, Ron C.; Willis, Grover C. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 450.
Electrochemistry
An Excel 4.0 Add-in Function to Calculate Molecular Mass  Christian Hauck
185. In this paper, a Microsoft Excel 4.0 add-in function is presented, which consists of a parser to interpret molecular formulas and a database containing three values for the atomic masses for every element: the mass number of the most abundant isotope, the mass of the most abundant isotope, and the atomic weight.
Hauck, Christian. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 433.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Work Done by a Chemical Reaction  Henry Brouwer
The use of the "hot dog clock" has been the focus of discussions in a number of areas of electrochemistry. Included in these have been oxidation-reduction potentials, battery construction, salt bridges, electrolytes, and the concentration of ions in certain foods.
Brouwer, Henry. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 354.
Electrochemistry |
Food Science |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
CAI for Chemistry  Lesile Glasser, John D. Bradley, George Brink, and Pam van Zyl
These six programs provide an opportunity for interactive practice of general chemistry material.
Glasser, L.; Bradley, J. D.; Brink, G.; van Zyl, P. . J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 323.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Electrochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Small-Scale Potentiometry and Silver One-Pot Reactions  David W. Brooks, Dianne Epp, and Helen B. Brooks
Apparatus and method for construction and application of a silver reference electrode in silver one-pot reactions.
Brooks, David W.; Epp, Dianne; Brooks, Helen B. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A162.
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Potentiometry |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Microscale Lab
From Christmas Ornament to Glass Electrode  Rogério T. da Rocha, Ivano G. R. Gutz, and Claudimir L. do Lago
Instructions and use of a homemade glass electrode for pH measurements/titrations.
Da Rocha, Rogerio T.; Gutz, Ivano G. R.; do Lago, Claudimir L. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1135.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management |
pH
Photosynthesis: Why Does It Occur?  J. J. MacDonald
Explanation of why photosynthesis occurs; stating that it is merely the reverse of respiration is misleading.
MacDonald, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1113.
Plant Chemistry |
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Photochemistry |
Electrochemistry
Dimensional Analysis: An Analogy to Help Students Relate the Concept to Problem Solving  James R. McClure
Using dominoes to help students understand the conversion factor method of dimensional analysis.
McClure, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1093.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Celsius to Fahrenheit--Quick and Dirty  Colin Hester
Simple algorithm for converting Celsius temperature to Fahrenheit temperature.
Hester, Colin. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1026.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
What Does It Mean?: Reflections on Concentration, Activity, and Electrode Potential  Pietro Lanza
Explanation of electrode potential and the mechanism of the electrode process for determining concentration.
Lanza, Pietro. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1009.
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Electrochemistry
A New Low-Cost Apparatus for Electrolysis of Water   Chieko Suzuki
Low-cost alternative to the Hofmann apparatus for the electrolysis of water.
Suzuki, Chieko. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 912.
Electrochemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Those Baffling Subscripts  Arthur W. Friedel and David P. Maloney
Study of the difficulties students have in interpreting subscripts correctly and distinguishing atoms from molecules when answering questions and solving problems.
Friedel, Arthur W.; Maloney, David P. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 899.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Osmotic Pressure and Electrochemical Potential--A Parallel   Rainer Bausch
Comparison of osmotic pressure and electrochemical potential.
Bausch, Rainer. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 713.
Electrochemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Membranes |
Transport Properties
Small Scale One-Pot Reactions of Copper, Iron, and Silver  Epp, Dianne N.
Investigation of a series of reactions involving copper, iron, and silver, all conducted with very small quantities in a single well.
Epp, Dianne N. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 545.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility
Resistance Measurement as a Tool for Corrosion Studies  Singh, N. P.; Gupta, S. C.; Sood, B. R.
Procedure for determining the rate of corrosion by measuring changes in the resistance of a thin wire or strip of metal; sample data and analysis included.
Singh, N. P.; Gupta, S. C.; Sood, B. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 465.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Rate Law |
Reactions |
Electrochemistry
The "Golden Penny" Demonstration: An Explanation of the Old Experiment and the Rational Design of the New and Simpler Demonstration.  Szczepankiewicz, Steven H.; Bieron, Joseph F.; Kozik, Mariusz
An explanation and simpler/safer design for the classical "gold penny" demonstration.
Szczepankiewicz, Steven H.; Bieron, Joseph F.; Kozik, Mariusz J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 386.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
An Easily Constructed Salicylate-Ion-Selective Electrode for Use in the Instructional Laboratory  Creager, Stephen E.; Lawrence, Kyle D.; Tibbets, Craig R.
Construction and use of a salicylate-ion-selective electrode; includes a calibration curve.
Creager, Stephen E.; Lawrence, Kyle D.; Tibbets, Craig R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 274.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Ion Selective Electrodes
Measuring with a Purpose: Involving Students in the Learning Process  Metz, Patricia A.; Pribyl, Jeffrey R.
Constructivist learning activities for helping students to understand measurement, significant figures, uncertainty, scientific notation, and unit conversions.
Metz, Patricia A.; Pribyl, Jeffrey R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 130.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics |
Constructivism
Use of Electrochemical Concentration Cells to Demonstrate the Dimeric Nature of Mercury(I) in Aqueous Media  Bhattacharya, Deepta; Peters, Dennis G.
Experimental procedure for demonstrating that divalent mercury is monovalent in aqueous solution; includes data and analysis.
Bhattacharya, Deepta; Peters, Dennis G. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 64.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Augmenting a classical electrochemical demonstration  Yochum, Susan M.; Luoma, John R.
Substituting magnesium for zinc in the copper/zinc electrochemical cell to enhance student understanding of electrochemistry; includes data and analysis.
Yochum, Susan M.; Luoma, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 55.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
An Electrochemistry Experiment: Hydrogen Evolution Reaction on Different Electrodes   Marin, D.; Medicuti, F.; Teijeiro, C.
This paper presents a simple laboratory experiment designed to acquaint the student with overvoltage in the hydrogen evolution reaction.
Marin, D.; Medicuti, F.; Teijeiro, C. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A277.
Electrochemistry |
Ion Selective Electrodes
Determination of Ionic Mobilities by Thin-Layer Electrodeposition   Kuhn, Alexander; Argoul, Francoise
The authors describe a new method for the determination of ionic mobilities. An advantage of the measurement described is that it allows its demonstration within the framework of the student's practical training in ionic conductivity.
Kuhn, Alexander; Argoul, Francoise J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A273.
Electrochemistry |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Metals
Salt Bridge Using Soil Moist  Brooks, David W.; Brooks, Helen B.
Using Soil Moist in the stem of a plastic transfer pipet as an effective salt bridge for small scale electrochemical experiments.
Brooks, David W.; Brooks, Helen B. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A62.
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry
Metric for Me! A Layperson's Guide to the Metric System for Everyday Use with Exercises, Problems, and Estimations (Schoemaker, Robert W.)  
Title of interest.
J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A23.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A Chemistree  Murov, Steven
The electrocuted pickle demonstration has an new twist in which a Christmas tree was formed using fluorescing pickles.
Murov, Steven J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1082.
Electrochemistry
Not So Late Night Chemistry with USD  Koppang, Miles D.; Webb, Karl M.; Srinivasan, Rekha R.
Through the program, college students enhance their knowledge and expertise on a chemical topic and gain experience in scientific presentations. They also serve as role models to the high school students who can relate to college students more easily than the chemistry faculty members and their high school students.
Koppang, Miles D.; Webb, Karl M.; Srinivasan, Rekha R. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 929.
Forensic Chemistry |
Polymerization |
Electrochemistry |
Isotopes |
Acids / Bases
Candy Sprinkles To Illustrate One Part Per Million  Meloan, Clifton E.; Meloan, Mindy L.; Meloan, John M.
1,000,000 colored candy sprinkles (5,246 g) with a single black one placed in a clear, spherical fish tank.
Meloan, Clifton E.; Meloan, Mindy L.; Meloan, John M. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 658.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Symbolic Algebra and Stoichiometry  DeToma, Robert P.
Applying symbolic algebra (instead of the factor-label method) to stoichiometry calculations.
DeToma, Robert P. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 568.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
An Interactive Multimedia Software Program for Exploring Electrochemical Cells  Greenbowe, Thomas J.
The "Electrochemical Workbench" is one component of a software package that allows students and faculty to explore building and testing electrochemical cells by simulating a chemistry laboratory in which students can perform experiments.
Greenbowe, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 555.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Basic Principles of Scale Reading  Peckham, Gavin D.
Steps and basic principles of reading the scales of laboratory instruments.
Peckham, Gavin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 423.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Organic Nomenclature  Shaw, David B.
Drill-and-practice exercise in naming organic compounds and identifying structural formulas.
Shaw, David B. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 421.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Using the Biological Cell in Teaching Electrochemistry  Merkel, Eva Gankiewicz
How electricity is produced in a simple cell is correlated with how commercial batteries work; this concept can then be related to how living cells send electrical impulses.
Merkel, Eva Gankiewicz J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 240.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Equilibrium
Classroom Demonstration of Fluid Flow as a Result of an Ionic Current in a Magnetic Field  Ritchie, Ian M.; Power, Gregory P.
Using corroding zinc to observe fluid flow in the presence of a magnetic field.
Ritchie, Ian M.; Power, Gregory P. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 158.
Electrochemistry
Mole and Chemical Amount: A Discussion of the Fundamental Measurements of Chemistry  Gorin, George
Demonstrates that the mole is little different from other units of measurement.
Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 114.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Patriotic Electrolysis of Water  DuPre, Donald B.
Producing reversible red, white and blue in a single Petri dish.
DuPre, Donald B. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 70.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Ionic Conduction and Electrical Neutrality in Operating Electrochemical Cells: Pre-College and College Student Interpretations  Ogude, A. N.; Bradley, J. D.
Results of an investigation on pre-college and college student difficulties regarding the qualitative interpretation of the microscopic processes that take place in operating chemical cells.
Ogude, A. N.; Bradley, J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 29.
Conductivity |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Photon-initiated hydrogen-chlorine reaction: A student experiment at the microscale level   Egolf, Leanne M.; Keiser, Joseph T.
This lab offers a way to integrate the principles of thermodynamics and kinetics as well as other valuable instrumental methods.
Egolf, Leanne M.; Keiser, Joseph T. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A208.
Covalent Bonding |
Ionic Bonding |
Electrochemistry |
Free Radicals |
Microscale Lab |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics
An expanded silver ion equilibria demonstration: Including use of the Nernst equation and calculation of nine equilibrium constants   Anderson, Robert Hunt
A modification of a demonstration that yields a quantitative measure of ions.
Anderson, Robert Hunt J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 940.
Electrochemistry |
Ion Exchange
A high school adventure  Cullen, Schuyler; Pardini, Aaron; Vang, Yeng; Wasinger, Erik; Ball, Jenelle; Cooke, Ron; Willis, Grover
Prompted by their students discovery an error in a popular lab activity, these authors encourage readers of the Journal to think about the meaning and importance of inquiry in science education.
Cullen, Schuyler; Pardini, Aaron; Vang, Yeng; Wasinger, Erik; Ball, Jenelle; Cooke, Ron; Willis, Grover J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 823.
Electrochemistry
The electrician's multimeter in the chemistry teaching laboratory: Part 2: Potentiometry and conductimetry  Sevilla, Fortunato, III; Alfonso, Rafael L.; Andres, Roberto T.
Further applications of the multimeter in chemistry laboratories are discussed in this paper: potentiometry, reduction potentials and cell EMF, the Nerst equations, pH measurements, titration, conductimetry, and conduction of solutions.
Sevilla, Fortunato, III; Alfonso, Rafael L.; Andres, Roberto T. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 580.
Acids / Bases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Potentiometry
Electronegativity and bond type: I. Tripartate separation  Sproul, Gordon D.
As a unifying concept of bonding, electronegativity has been widely applied but gets only a limited treatment in most general chemistry texts.
Sproul, Gordon D. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 531.
Ionic Bonding |
Covalent Bonding |
Electrochemistry
The aluminum can as electrochemical energy source  Lehman, Thomas A.; Renich, Paul; Schmidt, Norman E.
A high-current electrochemical cell made from aluminum cans and scraps of copper wire that illustrates important electrochemical principles.
Lehman, Thomas A.; Renich, Paul; Schmidt, Norman E. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 495.
Electrochemistry
Gallium beating heart   Ealy, James L., Jr.
Oscillating gallium in a Petri dish offers an exciting demonstration.
Ealy, James L., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 491.
Electrochemistry |
Metals
Coloring titanium and related metals by electrochemical oxidation  Gaul, Emily
Procedure for anodizing metals as a companion experiment to electroplating. The activity is very appealing to students in visual arts.
Gaul, Emily J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 176.
Metals |
Electrochemistry |
Nonmajor Courses
Chemical Demonstrations: A Handbook for Teachers of Chemistry, Volume 4 (Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.)  Kauffman, George B.
78 procedures grouped into two chapters, one on clock reactions, the other on electrochemistry, batteries, electrolytic cells, and plating.
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A187.
Reactions |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Fractal structures for the overhead projector   Silverman, L. Phillip
One of the most interesting electrochemistry demonstrations is the production of dendritic silver fractals via electrodeposition onto water. The demonstration can be adapted easily for use on an overhead projector.
Silverman, L. Phillip J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 928.
Electrochemistry
Helping students to develop an hypothesis about electrochemistry: A demonstration with a lab report and supplemental worksheet   VanderZee, Chester
Author shares a successful electrochemistry demonstration with calculations and assessment.
VanderZee, Chester J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 924.
Electrochemistry |
Metals
The metric system  Mason, Lynn M.
Metric conversions commonly encountered in chemistry and biology, with tests over each lesson.
Mason, Lynn M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 818.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Chemometrics
Misusing "molecular"  Goldberg, David E.
In discussing net ionic equations, the authors of many general chemistry textbooks call the overall equation a "molecular equation", which is misleading at best and incorrect at worst.
Goldberg, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 776.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Imprecise numbers and incautious safety procedure mar experiment.  Nelson, Robert N.
Problems with significant figures and safety concerns regarding two published experiments.
Nelson, Robert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 688.
Reactions |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Electricity/electronic experiments for the chemistry laboratory.  Braun, Robert D.
Experiments that permit students to observe the behavior of simple electrical circuits, including a DC constant current source, voltage divider, diodes, logic gates, flip-flops, and the seven-segment display.
Braun, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 671.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods
The anode and the sunrise.  Mierzecki, Roman.
Etymology of the terms anode and cathode.
Mierzecki, Roman. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 657.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Teaching inorganic nomenclature: A systematic approach.  Lind, Gerhard.
Convenient flow charts for naming inorganic compounds.
Lind, Gerhard. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 613.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Gravimetric-gasometric determination of zinc on galvanized nails.  Burgstahler, Albert W.
A simple acid-dissolution method for a combined gravimetric-gasometric determination of the amount of zinc coating galvanized nails through reaction with HCl.
Burgstahler, Albert W. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 575.
Gravimetric Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis |
Stoichiometry |
Electrochemistry
Significant figures: A classroom demonstration  Kirksey, H. Graden.
Demonstration to show students the function and importance of significant figures in a measurement.
Kirksey, H. Graden. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 497.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A mole of salt crystals-Or how big is the Avogadro number?  Hoyt, William.
Calculations designed to help students put the size of Avogadro's number into perspective.
Hoyt, William. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 496.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Views of nursing professionals on chemistry course content for nursing education  Walhout, Justine S.; Heinschel, Judie.
Analysis of survey conducted of deans of schools of nursing, chairs of nursing departments, and registered nurses regarding courses required of nursing students and the importance of different units of measure and 39 chemistry topics to the nursing profession.
Walhout, Justine S.; Heinschel, Judie. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 483.
Medicinal Chemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The world's largest human salt bridge  Silverman, L. Phillip; Bunn, Barbara B.
On a beautiful April afternoon, the 1500 students had fun and learned something about electrochemistry, and they helped set a world's record for the "Longest Human Salt Bridge".
Silverman, L. Phillip; Bunn, Barbara B. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 309.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
The use of equilibrium notation in listings of standard potentials.  Donkersloot, Maarten C. A.
The difficulty in equilibrium notation of standard electrode potentials is due to the convention that half-reactions must be written as reductions if the given potential is to be called a (standard) electrode potential.
Donkersloot, Maarten C. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 256.
Equilibrium |
Electrochemistry
Cyclic indicator color change by titrant electrogeneration.  Stock, John T.
A simple but striking demonstration of coulometric titration.
Stock, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 253.
Electrochemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
A lemon-powered clock   Letcher, Trevor M.; Sonemann, Aubrey W.
Because a watch or crystal-quartz clock use very small batteries they can be powered with a number of "homemade" power sources.
Letcher, Trevor M.; Sonemann, Aubrey W. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 157.
Electrochemistry |
Food Science
The conversion of chemical energy: Part 1. Technological examples  Wink, Donald J.
When a chemical reaction occurs, the energy of the chemical species may change and energy can be released or absorbed from the surroundings. This can involve the exchange of chemical energy with another kind of energy or with another chemical system.
Wink, Donald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 108.
Reactions |
Thermodynamics |
Electrochemistry |
Photosynthesis
Electrochemical measurements in general chemistry lab using a student-constructed Ag-AgCl reference electrode  Ahn, M. K.; Reuland, D. J.; Chadd, K. D.
This paper describes a simple method of making a reproducible and durable reference electrode for use by freshmen chemistry students.
Ahn, M. K.; Reuland, D. J.; Chadd, K. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 74.
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The Voltaic pile: A stimulating general chemistry experiment   Scharlin, Pirketta; Battino, Rubin
An inexpensive, simple, and fun way to illustrate many of the principles in electrochemistry.
Scharlin, Pirketta; Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 665.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
A low-cost, portable, and safe apparatus for lecture hall conductivity demonstration  Mercer, Gary D.
This article describes an easily constructed apparatus for the measurement of conductivity that overcomes current restrictions and avoids bare wires.
Mercer, Gary D. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 619.
Electrochemistry |
Conductivity
Recovery of silver from and some uses for waste silver chloride  Murphy, J. A.; Ackerman, A. H.; Heeren, J. K.
Procedures for conversion to silver nitrate, using waste AgCl as an oxidizing agent, and electrodepositon experiments.
Murphy, J. A.; Ackerman, A. H.; Heeren, J. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 602.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Teaching photometry with overhead projector experiments   Gutz, Ivano G. R.; Angnes, Lucio; Pedrotti, Jairo J.
Description of a photometry demonstration with an overhead projector.
Gutz, Ivano G. R.; Angnes, Lucio; Pedrotti, Jairo J. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 325.
Potentiometry |
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Half cell reactions: Do students ever see them?   Ciparick, Joseph D.
This demonstration shows more clearly that there are two real half reactions.
Ciparick, Joseph D. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 247.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Reactivity of nickel  Birk, James P.; Ronan, Martha; Bennett, Imogene; Kinney, Cheri
A series of experiments which lead to observations about the reactivity of nickel. [Debut]
Birk, James P.; Ronan, Martha; Bennett, Imogene; Kinney, Cheri J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 48.
Reactions |
Quantitative Analysis |
Coordination Compounds |
Oxidation State |
Electrochemistry
Organic Nomenclature (Lampman, Gary)  Damey, Richard F.
An interactive tutorial / drill for naming organic compounds.
Damey, Richard F. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A220.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Ethers |
Alcohols |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Phenols
A simple demonstration of ion migration  Little, John G.
The migration of copper(II) and chromate ions is illustrated using a simple apparatus.
Little, John G. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1063.
Electrochemistry
Electrochemical conventions: Responses to a provocative opinion (6)  Martin-Sanchez, M.; Martin-Sanchez, MaT
The solution may be to use the etymological meaning of anode and cathode.
Martin-Sanchez, M.; Martin-Sanchez, MaT J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 992.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Electrochemical conventions: Responses to a provocative opinion (5)  Sweeting, Linda M.
The chemical potential of the electrons, not their "richness" determines direction of flow.
Sweeting, Linda M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 992.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Electrochemical conventions: Responses to a provocative opinion (4)  Fochi, Giovanni
It is sufficient to show what part of the circuit is the electric generator.
Fochi, Giovanni J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 992.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Electrochemical conventions: Responses to a provocative opinion (3)  Woolf, A. A.
There are no shortcuts in teaching the electrochemistry of galvanic cells; the process in each cell must be treated holistically.
Woolf, A. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 992.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Electrochemical conventions: Responses to a provocative opinion (2)  Castellan, Gilbert W.
The difficulty is not so much confusion over conventions as the actual wrong use of terminology.
Castellan, Gilbert W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 991.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Electrochemical conventions: Responses to a provocative opinion (1)  Freeman, Robert D.
There is no convincing evidence of confusion regarding electrochemical conventions and the author's proposed solutions are unacceptable.
Freeman, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 990.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Avogadro's number, moles, and molecules  McCullough, Thomas, CSC
A simple diagram that relates Avogadro's number, moles, and number of atoms / molecules.
McCullough, Thomas, CSC J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 783.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
Pop-up units converter  Filby, Gordon; Klusmann, Martin
Program that provides conversion factors and calculations among a variety of units.
Filby, Gordon; Klusmann, Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 770.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Name for the basic physical quantity n, symbol for relative mass  Nelson, P. G.
Recommendations for naming the basic physical quantity n, symbol for relative mass.
Nelson, P. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 628.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
A significant example: How many days in a century?  Lisensky, George
Calculating the number of days in a century can help clarify the subject of significant figures.
Lisensky, George J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 562.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Membrane material for a galvanic cell  Eggleton, Gordon L; Williamson, John J.; Johnson, Donna K.
The tubes for each electrode are prepared from a disposable polystyrene serological pipet.
Eggleton, Gordon L; Williamson, John J.; Johnson, Donna K. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 527.
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Electrochemistry
Development of a new design for multipurpose meter: "Calo-pH Meter"   Paris, Michel R.; Aymes, Daniel J.; Poupon, Rene; Gavasso, Roland
The purpose of this article is to describe the design of a common box that can be turned into a simple voltmeter, a pH meter, or a calorimeter.
Paris, Michel R.; Aymes, Daniel J.; Poupon, Rene; Gavasso, Roland J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 507.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry |
pH |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Redox reactions and the electropotential axis   Vella, Alfred J.
An introductory discussion should not get bogged down with the problems of representing cells by standard cell diagrams and notations and instead should concentrate on the chemistry of galvanic cells and the use of these cells in describing the concepts of redox chemistry.
Vella, Alfred J. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 479.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Electrochemistry
Wet labs, computers, and spreadsheets  Durham, Bill
The following is a description of some commonly encountered experiments that have been modified for computerized data acquisition.
Durham, Bill J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 416.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Kinetics |
Electrochemistry
An effective approach to teaching electrochemistry  Birss, Viola I.; Truax, D. Rodney
By interweaving concepts from thermodynamics and chemical kinetics with those of electrochemical measurement, the authors provide students with an enriched appreciation of the utility of ideas from kinetics and thermodynamics.
Birss, Viola I.; Truax, D. Rodney J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 403.
Electrochemistry |
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics
Please, no angstrometer!  Gorin, George
Instead of urging the adoption of more prefixes, there is good reason to propose that some of them be eliminated.
Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 277.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Construction and evaluation of an inexpensive reference electrode with internal electrolyte in agar matrix  Victoria, Leandro; Ortega, M. Gloria; Ibanez, Jose A.
In this paper the authors show how to construct a reference electrode of Ag/AgCl with an internal electrolyte in agar matrix.
Victoria, Leandro; Ortega, M. Gloria; Ibanez, Jose A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 179.
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The construction and use of commercial voltaic cell displays in freshman chemistry   Shearer, Edmund C.
This contribution reports two displays in electrochemistry which serve to increase student interest, show a practical application, and illustrate how chemistry and technology work together.
Shearer, Edmund C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 158.
Electrochemistry
The human salt bridge   Scharlin, Pirketta; Battino, Rubin
In this paper the authors describe a simple device designed for use on an overhead projector to illustrate the "human salt bridge".
Scharlin, Pirketta; Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 156.
Electrochemistry
Quantities, Units, and Symbols in Physical Chemistry (Mills, Ian; Cvitas, Tomislav; Homann, Klaus; Kallay, Nikola; Kuchitsu, Kozo)  Freeman, Robert D.
Everything you ever wanted to know about physical quantities, symbols, and units.
Freeman, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A188.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Chemical Nomenclature and Balancing Equations (Bergwall Educational Software)  Kling, Timothy A.
These computer programs deal exclusively with the subjects of inorganic nomenclature and balancing simple equations.
Kling, Timothy A. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A41.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Exception to solving chem problems without the factor-label approach (the author replies)  Cardulla, Frank
There are other ways to teach problem solving, and they can produce competent, successful, and enthusiastic students.
Cardulla, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1066.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Exception to solving chem problems without the factor-label approach  Gillette, Marcia L.
The classroom analogy Cardulla uses could be made much more meaningful if it were used to demonstrate the relation between what is obvious and what is not.
Gillette, Marcia L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1065.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Amending the IUPAC Green Book  Tykodi, R. J.
Suggested amendments to the IUPAC Green Book regarding standardized chemical terminology and units of measure.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1064.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Elementary my dear Watson  Helser, Terry L.
A puzzle using the names and symbols of the elements.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 980.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Current efficiency in electrolysis  Bricker, Clark E.
Demonstration apparatus that can be used to show the effect of various variables on the current efficiency for the deposition of copper.
Bricker, Clark E. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 954.
Electrochemistry
Fundamental concepts in the teaching of chemistry: Part 1. The two worlds of the chemist make nomenclature manageable  Loeffler, Paul A.
A proposal to precisely define and consistently employ the terms chemical substance and chemical species; the article uses the classification of matter and nomenclature as examples of the scheme's application.
Loeffler, Paul A. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 928.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Learning Theories
Alleviating the common confusion caused by polarity in electrochemistry  Moran, P. J.; Gileadi, E.
The issue of polarity encountered in electrochemistry and relevant to a variety of electrochemical concepts often confuses students and is an unnecessary deterrent to the study of electrochemistry.
Moran, P. J.; Gileadi, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 912.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Atlantic-Pacific sig figs  Stone, Helen M.
Examples of applications of significant figures in calculations.
Stone, Helen M. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 829.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
How to visualize Avogadro's number  van Lubeck, Henk
Three examples to help students visualize the size of a mole.
van Lubeck, Henk J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 762.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Electrochemistry of the zinc-silver oxide system. Part 2. Practical measurements of energy conversion using commercial miniature cells  Smith, Michael J.; Vincent, Colin A.
Experiments in which "button cells" are discharged and charged under controlled conditions so that practical energy conversions and a number of other parameters may be studied.
Smith, Michael J.; Vincent, Colin A. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 683.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Confusion over electrochemical conventions: A proposed solution  Al-Soudi, Helen
The present teaching of electrochemistry in U.S. texts leads to confusion.
Al-Soudi, Helen J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 630.
Electrochemistry
A versatile compact reference electrode  Kusuda, Kousuke
Construction of a compact saturated calomel electrode.
Kusuda, Kousuke J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 531.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry
Using a projecting voltmeter to introduce voltaic cells  Solomon, Sally; Lee, Jeffrey; Schnable, Joseph; Wirtel, Anthony
Using a transparent "projecting" voltmeter and assembling a zinc versus copper cell one component at a time allows students to develop a more concrete notion of the nature of a voltaic cell and the potential it produces.
Solomon, Sally; Lee, Jeffrey; Schnable, Joseph; Wirtel, Anthony J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 510.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Transformation of old two-electrode polarographs into three-electrode systems  Papadopoulos, N.; Linardis, P.
In this work a simple circuit is proposed that can transform a two-electrode polarograph into a three-electrode system.
Papadopoulos, N.; Linardis, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 419.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Different Choices (author response)  Kemp, H.R.
Ronald Rich discusses the use of descriptive units in the problem of calculating the concentration of a 96% sulfuric acid solution of a known density.
Kemp, H.R. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 271.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Physical Properties
Different Choices  Rich, Ronald L.
Kemp wisely advocates that the values of physical quantities be treated as independent of the units used.
Rich, Ronald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 271.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Physical Properties
Concerning Units (author response)  Wadlinger, Robert
Strobel's additional comments are most welcome, especially his electron-volt argument.
Wadlinger, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 271.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Concerning Units  Strobel, Pierre
Wadlinger rightly pointed out a number of traps and misunderstandings resulting from an omission of such descriptive units as atom or wave. Here are some more examples, which any chemist dealing with some physics is likely to encounter.
Strobel, Pierre J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 270.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Searching Chemical Abstracts Online in undergraduate chemistry: Part 2. Registry (structure) File: molecular formulas, names, and name fragments  Krumpolc, Miroslav; Trimakas, Diana; Miller, Connie
This data base, essentially a subject index, consists of substance names, their Registry Numbers and characteristics, and actual structural representations.
Krumpolc, Miroslav; Trimakas, Diana; Miller, Connie J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 26.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Electrolytic migration of ions  Llorens-Molina, Juan A.
This demonstration uses a thin layer of gelatin in place of the usual filter paper so that the migration can be viewed using an overhead projector.
Llorens-Molina, Juan A. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1090.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Ion Exchange |
Electrochemistry |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Experimental work with tin(II) chloride in a high school   Sanchez, Manuela Martin
The author describes a final-project performed by students that integrates concepts of hydrolysis, Le Chatelier's principle, and electrolysis. Students seek answers to questions such as: "What reactions were involved; why is an aqueous solution of SnCl2 acidic; how can elemental tin be recovered from the system?"
Sanchez, Manuela Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 898.
Separation Science |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Equilibrium |
Oxidation / Reduction
The interconversion of electrical and chemical energy: The electrolysis of water and the hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell  Roffia, Sergio; Concialini, Vittorio; Paradisi, Carmen
Presentation of a simple apparatus that allows an instructor to perform the electrolysis of water and the back conversion of the products to water while overcoming some typical drawbacks encountered in this process.
Roffia, Sergio; Concialini, Vittorio; Paradisi, Carmen J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 725.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Electrochemistry
Soap bubbles and precipitate membranes: Two historical semipermeability experiments adapted for teaching purposes  Nicolini, Nicoletta; Pentella, Antonio
These demonstrations are based on the historical experiments that established our understanding of semipermeability and osmosis.
Nicolini, Nicoletta; Pentella, Antonio J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 614.
Gases |
Surface Science |
Transport Properties |
Electrochemistry
Acid pickling with amines: an experiment in applied chemistry for high school or freshman chemistry   Spears, Steven G.; Spears, Larry G.; Spears, Joycelyn C.
A brief description of the removal of corrosion products and millscale from the surface of ferrous metals by acid pickling.
Spears, Steven G.; Spears, Larry G.; Spears, Joycelyn C. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 457.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Electrochemistry
Electrochemical cells using sodium silicate   Rapp, Bernard, FSC
A procedure of assembly and execution of a demonstration of an electrochemical cell using sodium silicate.
Rapp, Bernard, FSC J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 358.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
The interconversion of electrical and chemical energy: The electrolysis of water and the hydrogen oxygen fuel cell  Roffia, Sergio; Conciallini, Vittorio; Paradisi, Carmen
The authors discuss some common drawbacks to typical electrolysis demonstrations and present an apparatus that overcomes these drawbacks.
Roffia, Sergio; Conciallini, Vittorio; Paradisi, Carmen J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 272.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Stoichiometry |
Electrochemistry
A homemade lemon battery  Worley, John D.; Fournier, James
A brief note about how two instructors worked on and built a successful lemon battery.
Worley, John D.; Fournier, James J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 158.
Electrochemistry
Principles of electronegativity Part I. General nature  Sanderson, R. T.
The concept of electronegativity has been modified, expanded, and debated. The concept can be used to help students gain valuable insights and understanding of the cause-and-effect relationship between atomic structure and compound properties. This is the first in a series of articles that explores the important concept of electronegativity.
Sanderson, R. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 112.
Electrochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Mnemonic for Z and E nomenclature  Thomas, C. W.
A visual reminder that makes it unnecessary to memorize the German terms.
Thomas, C. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 44.
Diastereomers |
Alkenes |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Writing Chemical Formulas, Review I (Ross, Don)  Sweeney-Hammond, Kathleen
Program to give students practice in writing chemical formulas and to facilitate the understanding of balancing positive and negative charges in a chemical formula.
Sweeney-Hammond, Kathleen J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A90.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Writing Chemical Formulas, Review I (Ross, Don)  Pavlovich, Joseph M.
Program to give students practice in writing chemical formulas and to facilitate the understanding of balancing positive and negative charges in a chemical formula.
Pavlovich, Joseph M. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A88.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Fractal structures obtained by electrodeposition of silver at an air-water interface  Ligon, Woodfin V., Jr.
Growing dendritic crystals of silver
Ligon, Woodfin V., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1053.
Electrochemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography
Electrochemistry demonstrations with an overhead projector  Ward, Charles R.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.
A template designed to fit on the surface of an overhead projector and demonstrate electrochemical phenomena.
Ward, Charles R.; Greenbowe, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1021.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
More electrolysis experiments for the overhead projector  Kolb, Kenneth E.
Electrolytic cell made up of two 9-V batteries and suggestions for the electrolysis of several different materials.
Kolb, Kenneth E. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 891.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Outmoded terminology: The normal hydrogen electrode  Ramette, R. W.
As educators, we should not confuse the "normal hydrogen electrode" with the "standard hydrogen electrode".
Ramette, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 885.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The many chemical names for H2O  Treptow, Richard S.
"Inventing" names for water to illustrate the limitations of any naming system.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 697.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Safe and reliable electrode storage  Williams, Howard P.
A container that prevents evaporation and keeps electrodes ready for use.
Williams, Howard P. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 556.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Electrochemistry |
Ion Selective Electrodes
Making sense of the nomenclature of the oxyacids and their salts  Rodgers, Glen E.; State, Harold M.; Bivens, L.
An overall scheme or "roadmap" for naming oxyacids and their salts.
Rodgers, Glen E.; State, Harold M.; Bivens, L. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 409.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases
Allotropes and polymorphs  Sharma, B. D.
Definitions and examples of allotropes and polymorphs.
Sharma, B. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 404.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Molar and equivalent amounts and concentrations  Kohman, Truman P.
What are the quantities of which molar and normal are units?
Kohman, Truman P. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 246.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Using NASA and the space program to help high school and college students learn chemistry. Part II. The current state of chemistry in the space program  Kelter, Paul B.; Snyder, William E.; Buchar, Constance S.
Examples and classroom applications in the areas of spectroscopy, materials processing, and electrochemistry.
Kelter, Paul B.; Snyder, William E.; Buchar, Constance S. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 228.
Astrochemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Materials Science |
Electrochemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography
Demonstration of the pH changes during the electrolysis of water  Habich, A.; Hausermann, H. R.
Demonstration of the pH changes around the anode and cathode during the electrolysis of water.
Habich, A.; Hausermann, H. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 171.
Electrochemistry |
pH
The electrolysis of water: An improved demonstration procedure   Heideman, Stephen
The usual use of sulfuric acid as the electrolyte in the demonstration of the electrolysis of water does not allow students to observe the accompanying pH changes at the electrodes.
Heideman, Stephen J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 809.
Water / Water Chemistry |
pH |
Electrochemistry
Electrodeposition of nickel on copper  Manjkow, Joseph; Levine, Dana
In the classroom, one can demonstrate electroplating by the simple, fast, inexpensive, and visually interesting reaction between nickel ions and copper metal.
Manjkow, Joseph; Levine, Dana J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 809.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Oxidation / Reduction
SI and non-SI units of concentration: A truce?  Rich, Ronald L.
These authors examine whether a truce could be promoted by filling a chemical gap in the System Internationale with special attention on concentration.
Rich, Ronald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 784.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Find-the-pairs  Ryan, Jack
73. Bits and pieces, 29. A computer game that can help students avoid the drudgery of memorizing such essential items as elemental names and symbols or conversion factors.
Ryan, Jack J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 626.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A flowchart for dimensional analysis  Graham, D. M.
A flowchart to help students organize their thoughts when solving conversion problems.
Graham, D. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 527.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
Where did that number come from?   DeLorenzo, Ronald
With more careful labeling and handling of numbers, instructors can reduce the confusion students sometimes feel when watching problems being solved by the instructor on the board.
DeLorenzo, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 514.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Coulombic models in chemical bonding. II. Dipole moments of binary hydrides  Sacks, Lawrence J.
A discussion of Coulumbic models and their aid in understanding chemical bonding.
Sacks, Lawrence J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 373.
Electrochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Covalent Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions
Goals in teaching electrochemistry  Maloy, J. T.
Important concepts regarding the subject of electrochemistry.
Maloy, J. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1018.
Electrochemistry
Electrochemistry  Perkins, Ronald I.
Why electrochemistry is important.
Perkins, Ronald I. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1018.
Electrochemistry
An individualized Nernst equation experiment  Hambly, Gordon F.
Each student is assigned a target voltage for a copper / silver voltaic cell.
Hambly, Gordon F. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 875.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Mathematics in the chemistry classroom. Part 1. The special nature of quantity equations  Dierks, Werner; Weninger, Johann; Herron, J. Dudley
Differences between operation on quantities and operation on numbers and how chemical quantities should be described mathematically.
Dierks, Werner; Weninger, Johann; Herron, J. Dudley J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 839.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Quick conductivity cell  Williams, Howard P.
A simple cell for indicating the relative conductivity of electrolytes, nonelectrolytes, and weak electrolytes.
Williams, Howard P. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 799.
Electrochemistry |
Conductivity |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Elemental etymology: What's in a name?  Ball, David W.
Summarizes patterns to be found among the origins of the names of the elements.
Ball, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 787.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The definition and symbols for the quantity called "molarity" or "concentration" and for the SI units of this quantity  Gorin, George
An alternative formulation for concentration and the SI units for this quantity.
Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 741.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents
Conversion of standard thermodynamic data to the new standard state pressure  Freeman, Robert D.
Analyzes the changes that will be required to convert standard thermodynamic data from units of atmospheres to the bar.
Freeman, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 681.
Thermodynamics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Estimating the one electron reduction potential for vanadium (V) by chemical techniques: An experiment for general chemistry  Wentworth, R. A. D.
Procedure requires no electrochemical equipment because the method depends solely upon observations of the spontaneity of the reactions of V(V) with a series of potential reducing agents and V(IV) with a series of potential oxidizing agents.
Wentworth, R. A. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 440.
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Electrochemical errors  DeLorenzo, Ron
Ten examples of the unexpected consequences that have resulted from ignorance regarding electrochemistry.
DeLorenzo, Ron J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 424.
Electrochemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Working backwards is a forward step in the solution of problems by dimensional analysis  Drake, Robert F.
Solving chemistry calculations by determining the units of the desired answer and then working backwards using dimensional analysis.
Drake, Robert F. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 414.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Nuclear synthesis and identification of new elements  Seaborg, Glenn T.
Review of descriptive terms, nuclear reactions, radioactive decay modes, and experimental methods in nuclear chemistry.
Seaborg, Glenn T. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 392.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Isotopes
The origin and adoption of the Stock system  Kauffman, George B.; Jrgensen, Christian Klixbll
The history and development of the Stock system of inorganic nomenclature.
Kauffman, George B.; Jrgensen, Christian Klixbll J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 243.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Toward a more rational terminology  Tykodi, R. J.
Recommended changes in the terms atomic weight, molecular weight, gram atomic / molecular / formula weights, gram equivalent weight, specific heat / volume / density, and chemical equation.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 241.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Water electrolysis-A surprising experiment  Kelsh, Dennis J.
Using aluminum wire for the cathode will produce "too much" hydrogen.
Kelsh, Dennis J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 154.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Electrochemistry
Aqueous hydrogen peroxide: Its household uses and concentration units  Webb, Michael J.
Includes some simple weight / volume calculations and their answers.
Webb, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 152.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents
Five Avogadro's number problems  Todd, David
Five problems involving Avogadro's number.
Todd, David J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 76.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
The mole: Questioning format can make a difference  Lazonby, John N.; Morris, Jane E.; Waddington, David J.
Study of 2,695 high school students that found that it is the piecing together of the individual steps involved in mole calculations that presents the main difficulty for students.
Lazonby, John N.; Morris, Jane E.; Waddington, David J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 60.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
A LAP on moles: Teaching an important concept  Ihde, John
The objective of the Learning Activity Packet on moles include understanding the basic concept of the mole as a chemical unit, knowing the relationships between the mole and the atomic weights in the periodic table, and being able to solve basic conversion problems involving grams, moles, atoms, and molecules. [Debut]
Ihde, John J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 58.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A new meaning of the terms acid and base hydrolysis  Milic, Nikola B.
Suggestions for distinguishing between solvation, hydration, and solvolysis, and hydrolysis reactions that produce hydroxo and protonated complexes.
Milic, Nikola B. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1066.
Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
The unit gram/mole and its use in the description of molar mass  Gorin, G.
How is molar mass related to the quantity called "molecular (or atomic) weight"?
Gorin, G. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1045.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
The emergence of stochastic theories: What are they and why are they special?  Freeman, Gordon R.
Examines the word stochastic and its opposite, deterministic, and points out why stochastic models are receiving new emphasis of late.
Freeman, Gordon R. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 944.
Kinetics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
An inexpensive, very high impedance digital voltmeter for selective electrodes  Caceci, Marco S.
Design and construction of an instrument that exceeds in accuracy and input impedance most expensive commercial pH meters and potentiometers.
Caceci, Marco S. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 935.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry |
pH
An easily constructed secondary battery  Yamana, Shukichi; Murakami, Mitsuhiro
Constructing a very simple secondary battery from an aqueous solution of sodium chloride and other household materials
Yamana, Shukichi; Murakami, Mitsuhiro J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 713.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Natural sources of ionizing radiation  Bodner, George M.; Rhea, Tony A.
Units of radiation measurement, calculations of radiation dose equivalent, sources of ionizing radiation and its biological effects.
Bodner, George M.; Rhea, Tony A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 687.
Natural Products |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Photoelectrochemical solar cells  McDevitt, John T.
An introduction to photoelectrochemical cells and topics pertaining to solar energy conversion.
McDevitt, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 217.
Photochemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Semiconductors |
Applications of Chemistry
Teaching factor-label method without sleight of hand  Garrett, James M.
As an aid in teaching the factor-label method, the author has developed a rather simple card game involving the matching of symbols and colors.
Garrett, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 962.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Metal-ligand complexes-a calculation challenge  Ramette, R. W.
The purpose of this paper is to illustrate one of the most important experimental methods for studying complex equilibria and to present synthetic data as a challenge to the many sophisticated calculation procedure that enjoy various degrees of loyalty around the world.
Ramette, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 946.
Equilibrium |
Metals |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Coordination Compounds
A simple and dramatic demonstration of overvoltage  Bradford, John L.; Davis, Alvie L.
This demonstration is easily visualized only for small groups, but can be displayed for a large audience by using an overhead projector.
Bradford, John L.; Davis, Alvie L. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 674.
Potentiometry |
Electrochemistry |
Metals
Convenient relations for the estimation of bond ionicity in A-B type compounds  Barbe, Jacques
Calculating the electronegative differences between atoms does not always give an accurate prediction of bond strength.
Barbe, Jacques J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 640.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Metals |
Electrochemistry
A visual analogy for metallic deposition  Hartwig, Dcio R.; Filho, Romeu C. Rocha
Metallic deposition stoichiometry problems are difficult for students to visualize. A clever visual tool is explained in this article.
Hartwig, Dcio R.; Filho, Romeu C. Rocha J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 591.
Metals |
Electrochemistry |
Stoichiometry
The spilled can of paint   Perkins, Robert
The writer describes a problem for students to work out in order to better understand units of conversion.
Perkins, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 343.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
A convenient salt bridge for electrochemical experiments in the general chemistry laboratory  Howell, B. A.; Cobb, V. S.; Haaksma, R. A.
These authors share some advice for a setting up a salt bridge.
Howell, B. A.; Cobb, V. S.; Haaksma, R. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 273.
Electrochemistry
Understanding electrochemistry: Some distinctive concepts  Faulkner, Larry R.
This article addresses a few basic ideas about electrochemical systems that cause confusion among novice students. From State-of-the-Art Symposium: Electrochemistry, ACS meeting, Kansas City, 1982.
Faulkner, Larry R. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 262.
Electrochemistry
Electrochemistry in the general chemistry curriculum  Chambers, James Q.
Students in introductory chemistry courses at large universities do not develop sufficient understanding of electrochemical phenomenon. From State-of-the-Art Symposium: Electrochemistry, ACS meeting, Kansas City, 1982.
Chambers, James Q. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 259.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
A novel classification of concentration units  MacCarthy, Patrick
Concentration units can be a source of confusion for students. This article presents a treatment on this topic that may help students understand the differences between these units.
MacCarthy, Patrick J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 187.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Numbers in chemical names  Fernelius, W. Conard
Discusses the various ways that numbers are used in the formulas and names of chemical compounds.
Fernelius, W. Conard J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 964.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Oxidation State
Solar energy: Hydrogen and oxygen  Farrell, John J.
Demonstrating the electrolysis of water with solar energy.
Farrell, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 925.
Electrochemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Reduction potentials and hydrogen overvoltage: An overhead projector demonstration  Ramette, Richard W.
Relates the scale of standard reduction potentials to the observed behavior of metals in their reactions with hydrogen ion to produce hydrogen gas.
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 866.
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction
Demonstration of electrochemical cell properties by a simple, colorful oxidation-reduction experiment  Hendricks, Lloyd J.; Williams, John T.
The color of a solution close to an electrode is changed from that of the bulk solution to either of two contrasting colors, depending on whether the electrode reaction is a reduction or oxidation.
Hendricks, Lloyd J.; Williams, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 586.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
The underprepared student, scientific literacy and Piaget: Reflections on the role of measurement in scientific discussion  Kurland, Daniel J.
The need for an explicit instructional component that stresses the notion of measurement as a means of physical description.
Kurland, Daniel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 574.
Learning Theories |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Potential uses for broken or worn-out glass or combination electrodes  Boring, Wayne C.; Winchell, Deborah L.
When a glass or combination electrode is no longer useful for pH measurements, it can be used in at least two ways.
Boring, Wayne C.; Winchell, Deborah L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 425.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Electrochemistry
Powers of ten  Herman Miller, Inc.
New version of the 1968 original.
Herman Miller, Inc. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 166.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
How much cholesterol is in your body?  Chamizo G., Jose Antonio
Calculations involving the size and proportion of the body consisting of cholesterol.
Chamizo G., Jose Antonio J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 151.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Lipids
The extinction coefficient: S.I. and the dilemma of its units-six options  Wigfield, Donald C.
Six options for dealing with units in regards to the extinction coefficient.
Wigfield, Donald C. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 27.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Red cabbage and the electrolysis of water  Skinner, James F.
The demonstration profiled here has proven effective in bringing together concepts from acid-base chemistry and electrochemistry.
Skinner, James F. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 1017.
Electrochemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Red cabbage and the electrolysis of water  Skinner, James F.
The demonstration profiled here has proven effective in bringing together concepts from acid-base chemistry and electrochemistry.
Skinner, James F. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 1017.
Electrochemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Theory and practical use of an hydrogen electrode in aqueous-organic media  Letellier, P.; Millot, F.; Baffier, N.; Combes, R.
These authors make a case for a greater use of hydrogen electrodes for acidity measurements in student laboratory courses.
Letellier, P.; Millot, F.; Baffier, N.; Combes, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 576.
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
How big is Avogadro's number (or how small are atoms, molecules and ions)  Fulkrod, John E.
Calculating the volume occupied by Avogadro's number of drops of water helps students understand the magnitude of this quantity while giving them practice at using scientific notation and the metric system.
Fulkrod, John E. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 508.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
Notation for order of addition  Niewahner, J. H.
The notation described here will enable a student to include in the chemical equation an implied statement regarding the order of addition.
Niewahner, J. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 461.
Reactions |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Introduction to chemical nomenclature  Friedstein, Harriet

Friedstein, Harriet J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 414.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Groups and subgroups in the periodic table of the elements: A proposal of modification in the nomenclature  Araneo, Antonio
A proposal to eliminate the "A" and "B" designations of subgroups and replace them with letters referring directly to the electronic structures of atoms.
Araneo, Antonio J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 784.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Synthesis and decomposition of ZnI2  Walker, Noojin
Illustrates direct combination, decomposition, the effect of a catalyst, recrystallization of sublimed I2, and electrolysis.
Walker, Noojin J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 738.
Synthesis |
Reactions |
Catalysis |
Electrochemistry
An approximate determination of Avogadro's constant  Szll, Thomas; Dennis, David; Jouas, Jean-Pierre; Wong, Mabel
An experiment to determine a value for Avogadro's number by determining the relationship between the number of electrons flowing through an acidified solution of water and the number of moles of electrons which reduce hydrogen ions to produce hydrogen gas.
Szll, Thomas; Dennis, David; Jouas, Jean-Pierre; Wong, Mabel J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 735.
Stoichiometry |
Electrochemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
An applied exam in coordination chemistry  Pantaleo, Daniel C.
Students draw from a pool of stock chemicals and answer questions based on its formula and observed properties.
Pantaleo, Daniel C. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 669.
Coordination Compounds |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A "road map" problem for freshman chemistry students  Burness, James H.
Question suitable for a take-home type of exam.
Burness, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 647.
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Electroforming: An improvised experiment on electroplating  Gorodetsky, Malka; Singerman, Ammon
The difference between electroplating and electroforming, and an experiment in the latter.
Gorodetsky, Malka; Singerman, Ammon J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 514.
Electrochemistry |
Industrial Chemistry
Compact comments  Rhodes, Gale; Goodmanson, David
A clear derivation of a temperature scale interconversion equation can be carried out by plotting temperatures of one scale against corresponding temperatures of the other.
Rhodes, Gale; Goodmanson, David J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 506.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Chem-deck: How to learn to write the formulas of chemical compounds (or lose your shirt)  Sherman, Alan; Sherman, Sharon J.
A game that helps students learn to name compounds and write chemical formulas.
Sherman, Alan; Sherman, Sharon J. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 503.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Correlating Celsius and Fahrenheit temperatures by the "unit calculus"  Gorin, George
Deriving the mathematical relationship between Celsius and Fahrenheit temperatures.
Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 350.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Adopting SI units in introductory chemistry  Davies, William G.; Moore, John W.
Conventions associated with SI units, conversion relationships commonly used in chemistry, and a roadmap method for solving stoichiometry problems.
Davies, William G.; Moore, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 303.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Artifacts and the Electromotive Series  Mickey, Charles D.
The chemistry of metals and its application to archeology.
Mickey, Charles D. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 275.
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Applications of Chemistry |
Metallurgy |
Reactions
Electrical energy from cells - A corridor demonstration  Gilbert, George L.
A display that demonstrates the charge and discharge of a solar cell, fuel cell, and storage cell.
Gilbert, George L. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 216.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Applications of Chemistry
The failed experiment as a teaching aid  Frugoni, Juan A Coch; Figueira, Alvaro Rocha
Intentionally using faulty experiments to increase student interest and participation; and example of a failed experiment regarding Faraday's laws of electrolysis is offered.
Frugoni, Juan A Coch; Figueira, Alvaro Rocha J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 179.
Electrochemistry
A substitute for mercury electrode contacts  Bradford, John L.
Substituting steel wool or copper turnings for mercury as electrode contacts.
Bradford, John L. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 159.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry
A copper mirror: Electroless plating of copper  Hill, John W.; Foss, Dennis L.; Scott, Lawrence W.
An experiment or demonstration of the electroless plating of copper in a watch glass.
Hill, John W.; Foss, Dennis L.; Scott, Lawrence W. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 752.
Electrochemistry
Corrosion: A Waste of energy  J. Chem. Educ. Staff
Thermodynamics and electrochemical aspects of corrosion, and inhibition of the corrosion process.
J. Chem. Educ. Staff J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 673.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry |
Metals |
Thermodynamics |
Electrochemistry
Response to Comments on "SI Units? A Camel is a Camel"  Adamson, Arthur W.
Comments on an earlier article regarding SI units.
Adamson, Arthur W. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 665.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters on SI Units  Dingledy, David
Comments on an earlier article regarding SI units.
Dingledy, David J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 665.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters on SI Units  Heslop, R. B.
Comments on an earlier article regarding SI units.
Heslop, R. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 665.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
An apologia for accepting at least an approximation to SI  Wright, P. G.
Comments on earlier articles regarding SI units.
Wright, P. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 663.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
On finding a middle ground for SI  Nelson, Robert A.
Comments on an earlier article regarding SI units.
Nelson, Robert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 661.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Empirical formulas  Ryan, Dennis P.
This question forces one to duplicate the line of reasoning used by Dalton in his initial formulation of atomic weights; it tests for the ability to deduce atomic sizes and to calculate empirical formulas.
Ryan, Dennis P. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 528.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Isoenzymes  Daugherty, N. A.
The separation, identification, and measurement of isoenzymes is an appropriate topic for a special lecture in general chemistry.
Daugherty, N. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 442.
Enzymes |
Proteins / Peptides |
pH |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Electrochemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
The electrophoresis of indicators: An analogy to isoenzyme separation  Daugherty, N. A.; Lavallee, D. K.
A lecture demonstration that illustrates the principles involved in the separation of isoenzymes but avoids the problems inherent in isoenzyme separations.
Daugherty, N. A.; Lavallee, D. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 353.
Electrochemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Dyes / Pigments |
Enzymes |
Separation Science
A simple and inexpensive solar energy experiment  Evans, J. H.; Pedersen, L. G.
Uses solid state technology to demonstrate the direct generation of electricity and the electrochemical generation of hydrogen.
Evans, J. H.; Pedersen, L. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 339.
Solid State Chemistry |
Semiconductors |
Electrochemistry
Hey, watch your language!  Herron, J. Dudley
If we do not use our words with care, we introduce and reinforce confusion.
Herron, J. Dudley J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 330.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The ambit of chemistry  Vitz, Edward W.
Proposal to revise the standard definition of chemistry to one that focusses on atoms and molecules rather than simply matter.
Vitz, Edward W. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 327.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
How many significant digits in 0.05C?  Power, James D.
Textbooks abound with erroneous examples, such as 33F = 0.56C.
Power, James D. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 239.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The chemical equation. Part I: Simple reactions  Kolb, Doris
A chemical equation is often misunderstood by students as an "equation" that is used in chemistry. However, a more accurate description is that it is a concise statement describing a chemical reaction expressed in chemical symbolism.
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 184.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Reactions
Electroplating of polyethylene  Gorodetsky, Malka
In the process of reorganizing a first-year chemistry laboratory for engineering students the authors have developed experiments that reproduce the approach in solving industrial chemical problems.
Gorodetsky, Malka J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 66.
Industrial Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals
What is an element?  Kolb, Doris
Reviews the history of the discovery, naming, and representation of the elements; the development of the spectroscope and the periodic table; radioactive elements and isotopes; allotropes; and the synthesis of future elements.
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 696.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Isotopes
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
330-333. Four questions and their answers; includes comments made by readers on earlier questions 130, 153, 154, 171, 172, 181.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 678.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Metals |
pH
Electrochemical demonstration: Motor driven by a simple galvanic cell  Skinner, J. F.
A Zn / Zn 2+ Cu 2+ / Cu (Daniel) cell operates a small motor.
Skinner, J. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 619.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Equations of electromagnetism from CGS to SI  Cvitas, T.; Kallay, N.
A general procedure for changing any CGS formula into SI.
Cvitas, T.; Kallay, N. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 530.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Lecture demonstration digital multimeter  Myers, Gardiner H.; Dugan, Robert J.
Plans for a Lecture Demonstration Digital Multimeter used to measure and display electric potential, current, temperature, pressure, and pH.
Myers, Gardiner H.; Dugan, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 495.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
pH |
Electrochemistry
The Electrolysis of water - Fuel cell reactions  Feinstein, H. I.; Gale, Vernon
Design and operation of a fuel cell that operates an LED or small electric motor.
Feinstein, H. I.; Gale, Vernon J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 432.
Electrochemistry
A convenient notation for powers of ten and logarithms  Oesterreicher, H.
A convenient notation for powers of ten and logarithms that does not require superscripts.
Oesterreicher, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 367.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A simple lab demonstrating energy transformation  Miller, Daniel W.
Building and investigating a sulfuric acid / lead electrolytic cell.
Miller, Daniel W. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 245.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Thermodynamics
Lower valent oxo acids of phosphorus and sulfur  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy
Reviews current practice and some of the problems with partial solutions.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 30.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Names for elements  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
System for naming new, heavy elements.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 583.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Deflection of falling solvents by an electric field  Brindle, I. D.; Tomlinson, R. H.
Using the deflection of a falling liquid by an electrically charged rod to demonstrate the polarity of molecules is misleading at best.
Brindle, I. D.; Tomlinson, R. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 382.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Electrochemistry
Mysterious stoichiometry  Bowman, L. H.; Shull, C. M.
The student's task in this experiment is to determine the composition of a compound of chromium produced in an electrolytic cell.
Bowman, L. H.; Shull, C. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 186.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Stoichiometry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
A lab to motivate weak students  Loveridge, Glen
A lab activity on the electrolysis of water. [Debut]
Loveridge, Glen J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 102.
Electrochemistry
A lab to motivate weak students  Loveridge, Glen
A lab activity on the electrolysis of water. [Debut]
Loveridge, Glen J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 102.
Electrochemistry
Electrochemistry in organisms. Electron flow and power output  Chirpich, Thomas P.
Electrochemical calculations at an elementary level can be readily applied to living organisms and generate further student interest in electrochemistry.
Chirpich, Thomas P. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 99.
Electrochemistry |
Bioenergetics
Corrosion  Slabaugh, W. H.
The topic of corrosion extends several basic concepts of electrochemistry with which students can relate. This article outlines: standard electrochemical potentials; corrosion of iron' corrosion of aluminum; application of electrochemical concepts; and ideas for some experiments.
Slabaugh, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 218.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Consumer Chemistry |
Electrochemistry
Reference electrodes  Caton, Roy D., Jr.
Examines reference electrodes, including both aqueous and nonaqueous reference electrodes.
Caton, Roy D., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, A571.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods
Racing car batteries  Plumb, Robert C.; Combs, R. E.; Connelly, J. M.
Illustrating the Nernst equation and Faraday's laws using the example of the silver-zinc batteries used in racing cars.
Plumb, Robert C.; Combs, R. E.; Connelly, J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 857.
Applications of Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
Six questions that can be answered with the application of basic chemical principles.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 847.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Metals |
Plant Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Applications of Chemistry
A semimicro salt bridge  McCullough, Thomas, C. S. C.
Using capillary U-tubes as semimicro salt bridges.
McCullough, Thomas, C. S. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 781.
Electrochemistry |
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Computer program for identifying alkane structures  Davidson, Scott
A Fortran IV computer program to identify and name alkane structure having C1-C16 main chains and C1-C4 side chains is available.
Davidson, Scott J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 707.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A stabilized linear direct reading conductance apparatus. The solvolysis of t-butyl chloride  Cyr, T.; Prudhomme, J.; Zador, M.
A simple ac conductivity apparatus for experiments in chemical kinetics is described; the instrument is sufficiently reliable that it can be used by first year students and assembled in a few hours.
Cyr, T.; Prudhomme, J.; Zador, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 572.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Kinetics
Electron affinity. The zeroth ionization potential  Brooks, David W.; Meyers, Edward A.; Sicilio, Fred; Nearing, James C.
It is the purpose of this article to present the merits of adopting the terminology zeroth ionization potential to describe the energy change that occurs when a gaseous anion loses an electron.
Brooks, David W.; Meyers, Edward A.; Sicilio, Fred; Nearing, James C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 487.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Charge and mass of the electron. An introductory experiment  Thompson, C. C.
Procedure for the electrolytic determination of the charge and mass of the electron requiring only the use of a balance and the careful recording of data.
Thompson, C. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 435.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Electrochemistry |
Metals
Derivatives of oxo acids. IUPAC Publications on Nomenclature. Other International Reports. SI Units  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Summarizes the nomenclature of oxo acid derivatives.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 341.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
Six questions requiring an application of chemical principles.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 281.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Lipids |
Gases |
Electrochemistry
A socially relevant problem in unit and dimension conversions  Bernstein, Stanley
An activity in which students determine the cheapest source of nutritional iron by considering a variety of food products.
Bernstein, Stanley J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 65.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nutrition |
Food Science |
Consumer Chemistry
Positive ions and binary compounds  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Guidelines for the names of positive ions and binary compounds; also errata from past articles in this series.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 844.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Free energies of formation measurements on solid-state electrochemical cells  Rollino, J. A.; Aronson, S.
This experiment demonstrates in a direct fashion the relationship between the Gibbs free energy of formation of an ionic solid and the emf of an electrochemical cell.
Rollino, J. A.; Aronson, S. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 825.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Solid State Chemistry |
Organometallics
Significant digits in logarithm-antilogarithm interconversions  Jones, Donald E.
Most textbooks are in error in the proper use of significant digits when interconverting logarithms and antilogarithms.
Jones, Donald E. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 753.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
A simple method for testing the adhesion of electrodeposits  Ajuria-Garza, Sergio
A simple test that can be used with low-adhesion electrodeposits involves attempting to peel off the deposit with a pressure-sensitive adhesive tape.
Ajuria-Garza, Sergio J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 706.
Electrochemistry
A simple method for testing the adhesion of electrodeposits  Ajuria-Garza, Sergio
A simple test that can be used with low-adhesion electrodeposits involves attempting to peel off the deposit with a pressure-sensitive adhesive tape.
Ajuria-Garza, Sergio J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 706.
Electrochemistry
Definition of standard states  Lukens, David C.
A suggested sequence of definitions for the standard state.
Lukens, David C. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 654.
Thermodynamics |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Edison's chemical meter  Vanderbilt, Byron M.
Thomas Edison invented the chemical meter to measure the rate at which electricity was being used.
Vanderbilt, Byron M. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 626.
Applications of Chemistry |
Electrochemistry
Durable chrome plating  Plumb, Robert C.; Saur, Roger L.
How chrome plating works to protect bumpers from corrosion.
Plumb, Robert C.; Saur, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 626.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry |
Kinetics
Durable chrome plating  Plumb, Robert C.; Saur, Roger L.
How chrome plating works to protect bumpers from corrosion.
Plumb, Robert C.; Saur, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 626.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry |
Kinetics
Electrochemical reactions in batteries. Emphasizing the MnO2 cathode of dry cells  Kozawa, Akiya; Powers, R. A.
The purpose of this article is to make a simplified, but current presentation of the electrochemical reactions in batteries, particularly those of the manganese dioxide cathode of dry cells.
Kozawa, Akiya; Powers, R. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 587.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Applications of Chemistry
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
Six questions requiring the application of basic principles of chemistry.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 538.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Applications of Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Astrochemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Metals
Gimmicks for mid-year motivation  Adams, Richard C.
Suggestions include directions for making peanut brittle, examining common, antiquated names for chemical compounds, and periodic puns.
Adams, Richard C. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 536.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Consumer Chemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The presentation of electrode potentials using an energy level diagram  Pinfold, T. A.
The tabular form in which standard electrode potentials are usually presented often leads to confusion that can be diminished by representing the electrochemical series on an energy diagram like that provided.
Pinfold, T. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 506.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
An inexpensive DC ohmmeter  Getzin, Donald R.
Design for an inexpensive DC ohmmeter.
Getzin, Donald R. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 442.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry
Biogalvanic cells  Plumb, Robert C.; Hobey, W. D.
Explains the chemistry behind the potential development of an electrochemical cell that generates electricity using inert electrodes implanted in bodily fluids.
Plumb, Robert C.; Hobey, W. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 413.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Electrographic analysis of the iron triad. A general chemistry experiment  Feinstein, H. I.
Electrochemical tests for iron, cobalt, and nickel.
Feinstein, H. I. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 268.
Electrochemistry |
Qualitative Analysis
A general chemistry experiment for the blind  Hiemenz, Paul C.; Pfeiffer, EIizabeth
Presents a method for weighing and a conductometric titration that relies on an audio signal.
Hiemenz, Paul C.; Pfeiffer, EIizabeth J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 263.
Minorities in Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Electrochemistry
Computer evaluation of titrations by Gran's method. An analytical chemistry experiment  MacDonald, Timothy J.; Barker, Barbara J.; Caruso, Joseph A.
A computer program has been developed for the evaluation of potentiometric redox titration data by Gran's method.
MacDonald, Timothy J.; Barker, Barbara J.; Caruso, Joseph A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 200.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry |
Acids / Bases
Numbers in nomenclature  Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M.
Examines how multiplying affixes are used, particularly in inorganic nomenclature.
Fernelius, W. C.; Loening, Kurt; Adams, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 49.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
When your car rusts out  Knockemus, Ward
Explains the rusting of a car by considering electrochemical corrosion and the Nernst equation.
Knockemus, Ward J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 29.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry |
Reactions
Miscellanea No. 6  Eberhardt, W. H.
A collection of clarified, underemphasized, and misunderstood topics, including cell electromotive force and disproportionate reactions; partially miscible liquids and upper consolute temperatures; enthalpy and free energy of formation; and magnetic moment.
Eberhardt, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 829.
Electrochemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics |
Magnetic Properties
SI units in physico-chemical calculations  Norris, A. C.
This article demonstrates how the adoption of SI units affects some of the more important physico-chemical calculations found at the undergraduate level.
Norris, A. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 797.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Le Chtelier's principles - Conductivity of solutions  Kasimer, Philip
Observing conductivity of a dilute solution of glacial acetic acid before and after the addition of a magnesium ribbon.
Kasimer, Philip J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A439.
Equilibrium |
Electrochemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Miscellaneous  Alyea, Hubert N.
13 demonstrations, including electrophoresis, electrolysis, corrosion inhibition, endothermic and exothermic reactions, crystals and crystallization, reactions with sodium, and the kinetics of H2O2 decomposition.
Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A387.
Electrophoresis |
Dyes / Pigments |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Reactions |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Kinetics
General chemistry experiments: Six short, inexpensive procedures  Heit, M. L.; Dauphinee, G. A.
These simple experiments involve conductivity comparisons of derivatives of the acetate ion, paper chromatography, sublimation, the effect of temperature on equilibrium, the detection of I-, and an example of an equilibrium shift.
Heit, M. L.; Dauphinee, G. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 532.
Electrochemistry |
Chromatography |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Equilibrium |
Oxidation / Reduction
Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Strong, Laurence E.
(1) What evidence, understandable and acceptable to students, do most teachers cite to describe the transfer of charge from one electrode to another in the direct current electrolysis of an electrolyte solution? (2) What is a compound? - answer by Strong. (3) What is a molecule? - answer by Strong.
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Strong, Laurence E. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 523.
Electrochemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Car Won't Start?  Nash, Leonard K.; Plumb, Robert C.
Examines the questions, "Does the voltage of a battery drop with temperature" and "Does the ability of a battery to deliver current decrease with temperature?"
Nash, Leonard K.; Plumb, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 382.
Electrochemistry |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
The mole again!  Haack, N. H.
Discusses the definition of the mole.
Haack, N. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 324.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A bridge-rectifier-milliammeter instrument for conductance studies  Nordmann, J.; Steinberg, Edwin
Modification of an earlier described instrument.
Nordmann, J.; Steinberg, Edwin J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 241.
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Isopoly and heteropoly compounds: A general chemistry laboratory experiment  Kauffman, George B.; Vartanian, Paul F.
This procedure involves the preparation of isopoly and heteropoly salts and introduces the beginning student to liquid-liquid extraction, titration, ion exchange, conductance, and a variety of synthetic and analytical techniques.
Kauffman, George B.; Vartanian, Paul F. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 212.
Synthesis |
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry
Intensive and extensive properties  Redlich, Otto
Defines and discusses the differences between intensive and extensive properties.
Redlich, Otto J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 154.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Physical versus chemical change  Gensler, Walter J.
Defines and discusses the differences between physical and chemical changes.
Gensler, Walter J. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 154.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Intensive and extensive properties  Redlich, Otto
Defines and discusses the differences between intensive and extensive properties.
Redlich, Otto J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 154.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Choppin, Gregory R.; Young, J. P.
(1) Is there more to nuclear stability than only the neutron to proton ration? - answer by Choppin. (2) What are the products generated by the electrolysis of molten potassium nitrate with stainless steel electrodes? - answer by Young.
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Choppin, Gregory R.; Young, J. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 73.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Isotopes |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Electrochemistry
Transistorized power sources for constant current coulometric titration  Stock, John T.
This coulometric titrator uses a complementary pair of transistors to minimize heating affects and improve stability with respect to temperature; an example of experimental use for the apparatus is included.
Stock, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 858.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry
Potentiometric determination of solubility product constants: A laboratory experiment  Tackett, Stanford L.
This paper describes an experiment in which measured potentials and calculated activity coefficients are used to obtain the solubility product constants of silver halides.
Tackett, Stanford L. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 857.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
The standard electrode potential of the silver-silver bromide electrode  Venable, R. L.; Roach, D. V.
Calculations of the standard electrode potential of the silver-silver bromide electrode indicate that many values listed in textbooks are incorrect.
Venable, R. L.; Roach, D. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 741.
Electrochemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis
Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; House, J. E., Jr.; Campbell, J. A.
(1) When is the rule valid that the rate of reaction approximately doubles with a ten-degree temperature rise? - answer by House. (2) On the colors of transition metal complexes. (3) On an electrolysis experiment in which an acid solution is used to minimize the hydrolysis of Cu 2+. - answer by Campbell.
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; House, J. E., Jr.; Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 674.
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Transition Elements |
Coordination Compounds |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Acids / Bases
A simple amperostat for coulometric titration  Vincent, Colin A.; Ward, J. G.
Describes the circuit, assembly, and performance of a simple amperostat for coulometric titration.
Vincent, Colin A.; Ward, J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 613.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Fuel conversion in transport phenomena  Gerlach, E. R.
Calculations comparing the fuel efficiency of a hummingbird with that of a Volkswagen.
Gerlach, E. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 455.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Haight, Gilbert P., Jr.; Rechnitz, Garry A.
(1) Suggestions for presenting the relationship between the Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature scales. (2) Why are 4s rather than 3d electrons involved in the first and second ionizations of the first row transition elements? - answer by Haight. (3) The basis for the mnemonic ordering of atomic orbitals. (4) What is a liquid-liquid membrane electrode? Is it the same as an ion-selective electrode? - answer by Rechnitz.
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Haight, Gilbert P., Jr.; Rechnitz, Garry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 444.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Transition Elements |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Electrochemistry |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Membranes
Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Quagliano, James V.; Danehy, James P.
(1) Why different potential for copper/zinc cells when using nitrates vs. sulfates? Why is neither cell potential as large as predicted by Nerst equation? (2) Do elements in the zinc subgroup belong to the transition series? - answer by Quagliano. (3) How can the 2,4,5-trichloro derivative of phenoxyacetic acid be prepared? - answer by Danehy.
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Quagliano, James V.; Danehy, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 227.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Metals |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds
Disc electrophoresis  Brewer, John M.; Ashworth, Raymond B.
Describes the procedures involved in separating proteins or nucleic acids through disc electrophoresis.
Brewer, John M.; Ashworth, Raymond B. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 41.
Electrochemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Proteins / Peptides |
Separation Science
Avogadro's number by four methods  Slabaugh, W. H.
Describes a project by two general chemistry students to compare four methods for finding Avogadro's number; this article focusses on the electroplating method.
Slabaugh, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 40.
Stoichiometry |
Electrochemistry
The cell potential and the distance between electrodes  Lauren, Paul M.
This demonstration illustrates the importance of the role played by ion diffusion in determining the magnitude of the emf of a primary cell.
Lauren, Paul M. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A691.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
The languages of chemistry. Reading, writing, and understanding equations (Walker, Ruth A.; Johnston, Helen)  Fiekers, Bernard A.

Fiekers, Bernard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A620.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Oxidation of copper by hydrochloric acid  Walker, Noojin; George, Donald L.
Demonstrates the oxidation of copper by hydrochloric acid.
Walker, Noojin; George, Donald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A429.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry
A dual range direct current power supply for student use  Mowery, Dwight F., Jr.
Presents a design for and the performance of a dual range direct current power supply for student use.
Mowery, Dwight F., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 739.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry
Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Bolte, John
(1) Is the mole a number or a weight? (2) Is there an easy way to locate a compound by volume and page in Beilstein? (3) What are the stages evident in a gas discharge tube as the pressure of the gas and the voltage are changed? - answer by Bolte
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.; Bolte, John J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 718.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Gases
Mole fraction versus molality  Creak, G. Alan
Mole fractions are not always unambiguous when used in the context of ionic solutions.
Creak, G. Alan J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 622.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Verification of the form of the Nernst equation: An experiment for introductory chemistry  Evans, James S.
In this experiment, students record data for the concentration dependence of the ferrous-ferric half-cell potential at a platinum electrode, using a silver-silver ion reference electrode, a salt bridge, and a voltmeter.
Evans, James S. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 532.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Effect of complexing agents on oxidation potentials  Helsen, Jef
A short note on a simple experiment to demonstrate the effect of complexing agents on the oxidation-reduction properties of redox couples such as Fe3+/Fe2+.
Helsen, Jef J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 518.
Coordination Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry
Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.
(1) How can half-reactions be added to determine potentials? (2) What is the approximate size and weight of uranium-235 necessary for a chain reaction to occur? (3) What is the distinction between an inhibitor and a negative catalyst?
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 477.
Electrochemistry |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Catalysis
The Becquerel effect  Ensanian, Minas
A short note on a demonstration of the Becquerel effect.
Ensanian, Minas J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 240.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A lecture room digital multimeter  Barnard, W. Robert.; Kelley, John C.; Gidden, Robert; Eberhardt, William H.
Presents a design for a lecture room digital multimeter and a lecture table manometer.
Barnard, W. Robert.; Kelley, John C.; Gidden, Robert; Eberhardt, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 206.
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Normality and molality: The expendables  Sacks, L. J.
Discusses objections against normality and molality.
Sacks, L. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 183.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Coulometric titration of cyclohexene with bromine  Evans, Dennis H.
Describes the coulometric titration of cyclohexene with bromine appropriate for an introductory course.
Evans, Dennis H. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 88.
Electrochemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Metallurgy D. Refining the Metal  Alyea, Hubert N.
Copper refined by electroplating.
Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A717.
Metallurgy |
Metals |
Electrochemistry
Group 1. The Alkali Metals C. The Copper Group  Alyea, Hubert N.; Mancuso, Carl J.; Bernard, Robert
Demonstrations include electroplating copper, Fehling's test, the silver mirror (Ag+ + tartrate), insoluble silver salts, photo-film + hypo, hypo fixer + silver coin, and a solution of gold in aqua-regia.
Alyea, Hubert N.; Mancuso, Carl J.; Bernard, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A1005.
Electrochemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Metals
Letter to the editor  Brescia, Frank
Calls on instructors not to confuse students with inappropriate definitions of work.
Brescia, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 771.
Thermodynamics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Significant figures and correlation of parameters  DeTar, DeLos F.
Examines the two quite different meanings for the term significant figures as applied to the parameters of an equation.
DeTar, DeLos F. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 759.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Microapparatus for demonstrating electrophoresis on paper  Stock, John T.; DeThomas, A. V.
This article describes a microapparatus for demonstrating electrophoresis on paper that is powered by a 9 V battery.
Stock, John T.; DeThomas, A. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 415.
Microscale Lab |
Electrochemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The significance of significant figures  Pinkerton, Richard C.; Gleit, Chester E.
This paper is an attempt to clarify some of our ideas about numerical data, measurements, mathematical operations, and significant figures.
Pinkerton, Richard C.; Gleit, Chester E. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 232.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Textbooks errors. Miscellanea no. 5  Mysels, Karol J.
Considers inconsistencies in the units involved in thermodynamic expressions, incorrect units given for equivalent conductivity, oscillations in polargraphic measurements, and inconsistencies in dealing with catalysis.
Mysels, Karol J. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 44.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Thermodynamics |
Catalysis
Ionization, Electricity D. Special electrical phenomena   Bernard, Robert; Slabaugh, W. H.
Demonstrations include cation analysis, conductivity during the titration of Ba(OH)2 + HCl vs H2C2O4, and conductivity during the titration of Ba(OH)2 + HCl vs H3PO4.
Bernard, Robert; Slabaugh, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A901.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Conductivity
Ionization, Electricity C. Consumption of electricity   Bernard, Robert; Owens, Charles; Holman, J. S.; Peischl, C. J.
Demonstrations include the electrolysis of ZnCl2, electrodeposition of Pb, lead chromate by electrolysis, and manufacturing NaOH and Cl2 by the Hg-process.
Bernard, Robert; Owens, Charles; Holman, J. S.; Peischl, C. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A901.
Electrochemistry
Ionization, electricity. B. Production of electricity. C. Consumption of electricity.  Jackman, Kenneth; Ulery, Denver; Rogers, Crosby; Hornbeck, LeRoy G.; Barnard, Robert; Alyea, Hubert N.; Jackman, Kenneth V.; Burke, Christie
Demonstrations include the hydrogen electrode, H-electrode generating its own H2, consumption of electricity, Zn-Cu coupling, overvoltage, the Faraday effect, lead storage battery, and the electrolysis of NaCl.
Jackman, Kenneth; Ulery, Denver; Rogers, Crosby; Hornbeck, LeRoy G.; Barnard, Robert; Alyea, Hubert N.; Jackman, Kenneth V.; Burke, Christie J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A658.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Ionization, electricity B. (continued) Production of electricity   Hornbeck, LeRoy; Barnard, Robert; Jackman, Kenneth; Ulery, Denver; Rogers, Crosby
Demonstrations include magnesium + acid ringing a bell, magnesium + acid lighting a bulb, couples without a salt bridge, and half-cells with salt bridge and microammeter.
Hornbeck, LeRoy; Barnard, Robert; Jackman, Kenneth; Ulery, Denver; Rogers, Crosby J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A585.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry
Porous glass salt bridges  Durst, Richard A.
Describes the characteristics and applications of porous glass salt bridges.
Durst, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 437.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry
The MKS temperature scale  Georgian, John C.
A temperature scale to fit into the MKS system of units is proposed.
Georgian, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 414.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Electro-osmosis as a demonstration experiment. Coupled irreversible effects and direct energy conversion  Dixon, John R.; Schafer, Frank W.
When a stream of water is forced through a porous pug or other resistance associated with a pressure drop, an electrical potential is developed between the high and low pressure sides of the resistance.
Dixon, John R.; Schafer, Frank W. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 380.
Electrochemistry
Simple experiments in amperometry. Determination of acids, oxidizing agents  Feldman, Frederic J.
Amperometry, the measurement of current resulting from an electrochemical reaction at the electrode, is a simple means of determining the concentration of an electroactive species. An experiment is described here for the determination of acids or oxidizing agents by amperometry.
Feldman, Frederic J. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 378.
Quantitative Analysis |
Electrochemistry
Letter to the editor  Onwood, D. P.
Discusses variations in the usage of the terms "acid" and "base," including Lowry-Bronsted and Lewis systems.
Onwood, D. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 335.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Simple equipment for automatic potentiometric pH titrations  Olsen, Eugene D.
This paper describes a simple yet versatile apparatus employing a siphon pipet to deliver titrant solution automatically and accurately during the course of a titration.
Olsen, Eugene D. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 310.
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Electrical conductance apparatus  Steinberg, Edwin E.; Nordmann, J.
A circuit diagram for an electrical conductance apparatus that is safe, accurate, and allows for qualitative measurements.
Steinberg, Edwin E.; Nordmann, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 309.
Electrochemistry |
Conductivity |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Molecules versus moles  Guggenheim, E. A.
Now that the mass of molecules is known with great accuracy, there is nothing to be gained in continuing to use moles.
Guggenheim, E. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 250.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Electrode potentials  Shombert, Donald
Changes in the potential observed for two Daniell cells are due to changes in ion concentrations.
Shombert, Donald J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A215.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium
Potentiometer for the general chemistry laboratory  Wood, Stanley E.; Anderson, C. B.
A circuit diagram is presented for a potentiometer used to verify the Nernst equation and investigate other electrochemical phenomenon.
Wood, Stanley E.; Anderson, C. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 659.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Student potentiometer using a zener diode  Atkinson, George F.
Presents a circuit diagram for a student potentiometer using a zener diode.
Atkinson, George F. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 656.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry
Potentiometric titration of aspirin in ethanol  Shen, Samuel Y.; Gilman, Alfred J.
This experiment illustrates the potentiometric end point in nonaqueous acid-base titrations.
Shen, Samuel Y.; Gilman, Alfred J. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 540.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases
Units of measurement: An early application of Avogadro's number  Brasted, Robert C.
A comparison is made between the measured volume of a regular metallic solid and its theoretical volume as calculated using Avogadro's number.
Brasted, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 472.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Metals |
Physical Properties
A temperature-independent concentration unit  Blumberg, A. A.; Siska, P. E.; San Filippo, Joseph, Jr.
Describes a new system of concentration, termed molicity by the authors.
Blumberg, A. A.; Siska, P. E.; San Filippo, Joseph, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 420.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents
Simplified temperature conversion  Midgley, Calvin P.
This simple method for temperature conversion can be done without pencil and paper.
Midgley, Calvin P. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 322.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Derivation of equations for the interconversion of concentration units  Mills, Alfred P.
Presents the derivation of equations for the interconversion of concentration units.
Mills, Alfred P. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 314.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Modified exponential number notation  Frigerio, Norman A.
Suggests the notation 1P3 and 1N3 to represent 1000 and 0.001, respectively.
Frigerio, Norman A. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 213.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Several designs for constructing potentiometers  Battino, Rubin
This paper describes several designs for constructing inexpensive potentiometers that possess a practical degree of precision.
Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 211.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Electrolysis: H2O and H2O2  Eberhardt, William H.
This demonstration involves the concurrent electrolysis of water and hydrogen peroxide.
Eberhardt, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A591.
Electrochemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry
Metallic reduction of aqueous hydrogen chloride  Walker, Noojin, Jr.
Calcium reacts with HCl to liberate hydrogen gas.
Walker, Noojin, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A477.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Electrochemistry
An MKS system of units for chemists  Strong, Frederick C.
It would be worth investigating whether the MKS system would be useful in chemistry.
Strong, Frederick C. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 621.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Systematic names for the tartaric acids  Baxter, J. N.
Examines the use of the small capital letters D and L in naming tartaric acids.
Baxter, J. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 619.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases |
Carbohydrates |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers
Electrophoresis using thin layer materials  Criddle, W. J.; Moody, G. J.; Thomas, J. D. R.
Thin layer materials prepared for chromatography are used for electrophoresis.
Criddle, W. J.; Moody, G. J.; Thomas, J. D. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 609.
Electrochemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
A simple quantitative electrolysis experiment for first year chemistry  Petrucci, Ralph H.; Moews, P. C., Jr.
This simple and inexpensive electrolysis experiment for first year chemistry allows a quantitative application of Faraday's laws without the need for analytical balances.
Petrucci, Ralph H.; Moews, P. C., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 552.
Electrochemistry
Lexicon of international and national units (Clason, W. E.)  Kieffer, William F.

Kieffer, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 519.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Demonstration notes: Chemiluminescence in electrolysis  Villarreal, Fidel; Garcia, Octavio
Suggests a modification to the usual chemiluminescence demonstration with luminol.
Villarreal, Fidel; Garcia, Octavio J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A477.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Electrolysis of sodium through glass  Dutton, F. B.
Sodium is deposited on the inside of a light bulb immersed in molten NaNO3.
Dutton, F. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A313.
Electrochemistry
Analysis of aspirin: A conductometric titration  Proctor, J. S.; Roberts, J. E.
Suggests research questions based on an earlier published article.
Proctor, J. S.; Roberts, J. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A306.
Undergraduate Research |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Conductivity
Oxidation of bromide and iodide ions  Dutton, Frederic B.
Color changes are indicative of oxidation reactions of bromide and iodide ions.
Dutton, Frederic B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A241.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Electrochemistry
Oxidation of bromide and iodide ions  Dutton, Frederic B.
Color changes are indicative of oxidation reactions of bromide and iodide ions.
Dutton, Frederic B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A241.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Electrochemistry
An experiment with galvanic cells: For the general chemistry laboratory  Dillard, Clyde R.; Kammeyer, Patty Hall
Describes a simple, low-cost galvanic cell and its use to compare various metallic electrodes.
Dillard, Clyde R.; Kammeyer, Patty Hall J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 363.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Metals
Letters to the editor  Linde, Charlotte
Suggests the term "ionocule" for the opposite of molecule.
Linde, Charlotte J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 270.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Magnesium cell for demonstration  Mathur, Prem Behari; Paul, Nityanandan J.
Describes a cell system consisting of copper and magnesium plates or ribbon immersed in copper sulfate solution.
Mathur, Prem Behari; Paul, Nityanandan J. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 43.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Letters  Goldberg, David E.
The author suggests using the term "continuous chain" rather than "straight" chain so as to reduce confusion regarding the geometry of carbon chains.
Goldberg, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 319.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Ultramacro and ultramicro science terms  de Ment, Jack
Proposes a convenient and consistent set of metric prefixes for very large and very small multiples and sub-multiples.
de Ment, Jack J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 587.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Electrolytic conductivity: A demonstration experiment  Thomas, William B.
Describes a simple method of measuring electrolytic conductivity based on Ohm's law.
Thomas, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 531.
Electrochemistry |
Conductivity |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Editorially Speaking  Kieffer, William F.
Discussion of the conventions, definitions, and symbols of thermodynamics.
Kieffer, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 489.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Thermodynamics
The carbon-12 scale of atomic masses  Labbauf, Abbas
Examines the concept of atomic weight and the rise and coexistence of the oxygen and carbon scales of atomic mass.
Labbauf, Abbas J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 282.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Physical Properties
Editorially speaking  Kieffer, William F.
Discusses differences between mass and weight.
Kieffer, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 275.
Physical Properties |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters  Crawford, Crayton M.
Comments on use of the term equivalent weights and the determination of equivalent mass.
Crawford, Crayton M. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 637.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
Molecular weights by cryoscopy: A general chemistry laboratory experiment  Mikulak, Robert; Runquist, Olaf
Presents an experiment determining the cryoscopic constant of cyclohexanol.
Mikulak, Robert; Runquist, Olaf J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 557.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Moles and equivalents: Quantities of matter  Cohen, Irwin
Examines the various means of describing and measuring quantities of matter, including the mole and the equivalent.
Cohen, Irwin J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 555.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters  Foy, John R.
Suggests a modification to an earlier proposed definition for the term mole.
Foy, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 554.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters  Bieber, Theodore I.
Provides a concise definition for the mole.
Bieber, Theodore I. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 554.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters  Cohen, Irwin
Proposes use of the term cardinal weight.
Cohen, Irwin J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 554.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A redefinition of "mole"  Lee, Shiu
Proposes improvements to a set of terms related to gram formula weights.
Lee, Shiu J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 549.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A low cost direct current source for the laboratory  Barnard, W. Robert.; Woodriff, Ray
Presents a low cost source of variable direct current.
Barnard, W. Robert.; Woodriff, Ray J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 521.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry
Letters  Laughton, P. M.
A short discussion on the meaning of empirical formula.
Laughton, P. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 378.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Is there an alternative to pH?  Crane, Francis E., Jr.
Provides some alternatives to the traditional definition of pH that introductory students may find more intuitive and less confusing.
Crane, Francis E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 365.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Faraday's laws in one equation  Strong, Frederick C.
Presents a derivation of a single-equation statement of Faraday's laws.
Strong, Frederick C. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 98.
Electrochemistry
The mole and related quantities  Guggenheim, E. A.
Examines some of the terminology associated with the mole and expressing amounts of substances.
Guggenheim, E. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 86.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Student experiment with filter paper electrophoresis  Garvin, James E.
The effect of electrical charge in determining some of the properties of amino acids and proteins can be simply and convincingly demonstrated to the student by means of filter paper electrophoresis.
Garvin, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 36.
Separation Science |
Electrophoresis |
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides |
Electrochemistry
New Prefixes for Units  
Outlines new recommendations for standardized metric prefixes.
J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 85.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters to the editor  Hall, Arthur C.
The molality-molarity paradox presented in an earlier article is artificial rather than apparent.
Hall, Arthur C. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 584.
Stoichiometry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Potentiometric measurements of equilibria: In general chemistry laboratory  Chesick, J. P.; Patterson, Andrew, Jr.
The authors describe an experiment in which the solubility product of silver chloride, the ionization constant of the silver-ammonia complex, and the ionization constant of acetic acid can be determined with one afternoon of work.
Chesick, J. P.; Patterson, Andrew, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 496.
Electrochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
The growth of lead trees in silicic acid gels  Hurd, Charles B.; Lamareaux, Harry F.
The fact that more active metals, such as zinc and cadmium, will replace lead in solutions of lead salts is well known; it is not so well known that the lead deposited will form an attractive, tree-like growth, particularly if supported in a gel.
Hurd, Charles B.; Lamareaux, Harry F. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 472.
Electrochemistry
Common sources of confusion; Electrode sign conventions  Anson, Fred C.
Examines common sources of confusion with respect to electrode signs and recommends new conventions.
Anson, Fred C. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 394.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
A molality-molarity paradox?  Toby, Sidney
The author points out that there seems no obvious reason why molality could not equal molarity in a solution whose density is less than unity.
Toby, Sidney J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 230.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Letters  Copley, G. N.
The author proposes terms and symbolism to represent different phase changes.
Copley, G. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 528.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters  Fisher, D. Jerome
A spirited discussion regarding terminology for crystal classes.
Fisher, D. Jerome J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 214.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters  Donohue, Jerry
A spirited discussion regarding terminology for crystal classes.
Donohue, Jerry J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 214.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Nomenclature of phase transition  McDonald, James E.
Discusses the curious situation in which the terminology of chemistry and physics has only five words to describe the six possible transitions between three states of matter.
McDonald, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 205.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters  Pokras, Lewis
The author proposes the term "senacule" as analagous to molecule and to be used to refer to ionic species.
Pokras, Lewis J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 159.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Revised inorganic (Stock) nomenclature for the general chemistry student  Brasted, Robert C.
Examines the Stock System as applied to teaching general chemistry and naming binary compounds of nonmetals and metals, complex entities, and oxy-anions.
Brasted, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 136.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Some demonstrations with the overhead projector  Keenan, C. W.
This paper describes the construction and use of demonstration apparatus to be used in conjunction with an overhead projector.
Keenan, C. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 36.
Electrochemistry |
Gases |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Transport Properties
A suggested convention for the representation of ionic substances  Sunderwirth, Stanely G.
The author suggests conventions for the representation of ionic substances that may prove less confusing for introductory students.
Sunderwirth, Stanely G. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 520.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Recent developments concerning the signs of electrode potentials  Licht, Truman S.; deBethune, Andre J.
It is the purpose of this paper to review recent developments concerning the signs of electrode potentials, particularly with respect to single electrode potential, half-reaction potential, and half-cell electromotive force.
Licht, Truman S.; deBethune, Andre J. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 433.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Some electrochemical experiments for freshmen  Gorman, Mel
The purpose of this discussion is to present an exercise for freshman laboratory work involving electrochemical unknowns and special electrode potential projects not usually studied in the first-year course.
Gorman, Mel J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 409.
Electrochemistry |
Qualitative Analysis
Letters to the editor  Campbell, J. A.
The author includes an interpretation of the "Beating Heart Experiment" which was omitted in an earlier Journal article.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 362.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
A simplified electrolysis apparatus  Teichman, Louis
Describes a simplified electrolysis apparatus using a plastic dish, two electrodes, and two test tubes.
Teichman, Louis J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 291.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry
Letters to the editor  Foster, Laurence S.
Thanks a reader for pointing out a misstatement in an earlier article involving atomic mass units and avograms.
Foster, Laurence S. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 477.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Letters to the editor  Mayper, Stuart A.
Points out a misstatement in an earlier article involving atomic mass units and avograms.
Mayper, Stuart A. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 477.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Nuclear batteries  Garrett, Alfred B.
Describes the structure, operation, and application of nuclear batteries.
Garrett, Alfred B. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 446.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Electrochemistry
Movable symbols and formulas as a teaching aid  Lippincott, W. T.; Wheaton, Roger
Movable magnetic squares with symbols and formulas printed on them are used as a visual teaching aid involving a variety of fundamental chemistry concepts.
Lippincott, W. T.; Wheaton, Roger J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 15.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Letters to the editor  Weiner, Samuel
Discusses some of the semantic confusions that plague teaching in chemistry.
Weiner, Samuel J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 646.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Apparatus for the demonstration of conductivity of electrolytes  Suter, Hans A.; Kaelber, Lorraine
This device uses a continuous flow of water and a light bulb to demonstrate the conductivity of electrolytes.
Suter, Hans A.; Kaelber, Lorraine J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 640.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Conductivity
Trends in chemical education  Currier, Arnold J.
Topics examined include chemical nomenclature, the organization of subject matter in chemistry, carbon chemistry versus qualitative analysis, the laboratory versus the textbook, and supplies in chemistry teachers.
Currier, Arnold J. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 286.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Qualitative Analysis
Gram equivalent weights  Meldrum, William B.
The purpose of this paper is to review briefly the subject of equivalent weights and the more directly applicable gram equivalents and to offer a general method by which they may be deduced from chemical equations.
Meldrum, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 48.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
Crossword puzzle solution  Brown, Curtis L.
Solution to a crossword puzzle appearing earlier in this issue of the Journal.
Brown, Curtis L. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 330.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Crossword puzzle of chemical symbols  Brown, Curtis L.
A crossword puzzle of chemical symbols and molecular formulas.
Brown, Curtis L. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 298.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters to the editor  Steinhardt, Ralph G., Jr.
The author replies to a commentary on his earlier article regarding the definition of "spectrum."
Steinhardt, Ralph G., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 217.
Spectroscopy |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters to the editor  Rosenbaum, E. J.
Commentary on an earlier article regarding the definition of "spectrum."
Rosenbaum, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 216.
Spectroscopy |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters to the editor  Lash, M. E.
The author clarifies the definition of critical temperature, which is often stated uncritically in textbooks.
Lash, M. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 102.
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters  Azcuenaga-Chacon, J. V.
The author suggests that valence electrons be called "valentrons."
Azcuenaga-Chacon, J. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 155.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters  Hackney, J. C.
The author elaborates on the source of a fallacy in the calculation of an overall redox potential by combination of two half-cell potentials.
Hackney, J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 472.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Miscellaneous experiments  Damerel, Charlotte I.
Offers three demonstrations, the first involving molecular models illustrating the generation of optical isomers in a laboratory synthesis; the second demonstrating that liquid sodium chloride conducts and electric current; and the third examining the flow of electric current in an electrochemical galvanic cell.
Damerel, Charlotte I. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 296.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers |
Conductivity |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Letters  Brescia, Frank
The author calls for someone to invent another term for the word resonance as applied to the field of molecular structure.
Brescia, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 261.
Resonance Theory |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Combining half-reactions and their standard electrode potentials  Miller, Sidney I.
To increase the value of standard electrode potential tables, a new method of combination of half-cell reactions is proposed.
Miller, Sidney I. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 140.
Electrochemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
On accenting observations in chemistry  Campbell, J. A.
A chemical equations is, for many a student, such a complete abstraction that he would be hard put to describe the actual observations that would be made in a process for which he was supplied the complete equation.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 634.
Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The overhead projector and chemical demonstrations  Slabaugh, W. H.
Chemical demonstrations described for use with an overhead projector include the relative activity of metals, the electrolysis of water, the random motion of gas molecules, the action of metal couples, the relative strength of acids, the qualitative aspects of optical activity, and electrochemistry.
Slabaugh, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 579.
Metals |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Electrochemistry in the freshman course  Meldrum, William B.
This paper emphasizes the importance of electrochemical concepts in the freshman chemistry course.
Meldrum, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 282.
Electrochemistry