TIGER

Journal Articles: 146 results
Sampling the Soils Around a Residence Containing Lead-Based Paints: An X-ray Fluorescence Experiment  Steven J. Bachofer
A soil sampling experiment using field portable instruments was conducted at a pre-1950 construction known to have lead-based paint. Students collected data following regulatory protocols at multiple locations within and outside of the house's dripline, reported their results, and provided the owner advice on methods to minimize contact with contaminated soil.
Bachofer, Steven J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 980.
Applications of Chemistry |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Nonmajor Courses |
Spectroscopy |
Toxicology |
Metals
Identification of an Unknown Compound by Combined Use of IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and Mass Spectrometry: A Real-Life Experience in Structure Determination  Louis J. Liotta and Magdalena James-Pederson
In this introductory organic chemistry experiment, students are expected to operate NMR, IR, and GCMS instrumentation to obtain spectra which are interpreted to elucidate the chemical structure of the assigned compounds without the benefit of a list of possible unknowns.
Liotta, Louis J.; James-Pederson, Magdalena. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 832.
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Spectroscopy
Integrating Advanced High School Chemistry Research with Organic Chemistry and Instrumental Methods of Analysis  Brian J. Kennedy
Describes the unique opportunities in chemistry available at a science and technology magnet high school. Students may select entry-level courses such as honors and advanced placement chemistry, take electives in organic chemistry with instrumental methods of analysis, and ultimately complete a senior chemical analysis research course.
Kennedy, Brian J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 393.
Applications of Chemistry |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis |
Undergraduate Research |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Student-Centered Learning
Introduction of Differential Scanning Calorimetry in a General Chemistry Laboratory Course: Determination of Heat Capacity of Metals and Demonstration of the Law of Dulong and Petit  Ronald P. D'Amelia, Vincent Stracuzzi, and William F. Nirode
The work described herein discusses the use of differential scanning calorimetry in a general chemistry laboratory course to determine the specific heat capacities of metals and introduce the empirical law of Dulong and Petit.
D'Amelia, Ronald P.; Stracuzzi, Vincent; Nirode, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 109.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Heat Capacity |
Instrumental Methods |
Thermal Analysis
E = mc2: An Intuitive Derivation  James J. Leary and William H. Ingham
Einstein's famous equation E = mc2 is derived using a thought experiment that can easily be understood by any serious student of chemistry.
Leary, James J.; Ingham, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1651.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Instrumental Methods
Teaching Science in Art  Erich S. Uffelman
Describes two linked, interdisciplinary courses examining conservation science and the history of 17th-century Dutch painting. Strengths and limitations of the approaches taken are discussed and key resources cited.
Uffelman, Erich S. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1617.
Applications of Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Instrumental Methods |
Lasers |
Mass Spectrometry |
Spectroscopy
Fluorescent Fun: Using a Homemade Fluorometer  M. Farooq Wahab
A homemade fluorometer is used to investigate the fluorescence of highlighter marker ink with a flashlight or white LED as a light source, colored cellophane sheets as filters, and the human eye as a detector. The activity illustrates the concepts of excitation and emission, Stokes shift, and the dependence of fluorescence on the intensity of light.
Wahab, M. Farooq. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1312A.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Student-Centered Learning
Digitally Enhanced Thin-Layer Chromatography: An Inexpensive, New Technique for Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis  Amber Victoria Irish Hess
Thin-layer chromatography enhanced by digital photography is ideal for high school and college labs and can perform qualitative and quantitative analysis comparable to more expensive, high-performance TLC equipment. Using common photo-editing software, one can quickly produce multi-spectral scans, densitograms, and calibration curves, output previously limited to HPTLC.
Hess, Amber Victoria Irish. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 842.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography
The Analysis of a Murder, a Case Study  Frank J. Dinan, Steven H. Szczepankiewicz, Melinda Carnahan, and Michael T. Colvin
In conjunction with a forensic chemistry case study, students perform strontium determinations, use the data to locate a victim's origin, and act as detectives to formulate a plan to apprehend the murderers.
Dinan, Frank J.; Szczepankiewicz, Steven H.; Carnahan, Melinda; Colvin, Michael T. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 617.
Applications of Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Atomic Spectroscopy
An Inquiry-Based Chemistry Laboratory Promoting Student Discovery of Gas Laws  A. M. R. P. Bopegedera
This article describes a laboratory in which students discover the gas laws using Vernier sensors and Microsoft Excel.
Bopegedera, A. M. R. P. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 465.
Gases |
Instrumental Methods |
Physical Properties
Introduction of Differential Scanning Calorimetry in a General Chemistry Laboratory Course: Determination of Thermal Properties of Organic Hydrocarbons  Ronald DAmelia, Thomas Franks, and William F. Nirode
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a rugged, easy-to-use instrumental method for thermal analysis determinations. The work described herein discusses the use of DSC in a general chemistry laboratory course to determine thermal properties such as melting points, ?fusionH, ?fusionS, and introduce the concept of polymorphism for organic hydrocarbons.
DAmelia, Ronald; Franks, Thomas; Nirode, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 453.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Instrumental Methods |
Physical Properties |
Thermal Analysis |
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Introduction of Differential Scanning Calorimetry in a General Chemistry Laboratory Course: Determination of Molar Mass by Freezing Point Depression  Ronald P. D'Amelia, Thomas Franks, and William F. Nirode
The work described herein uses differential scanning calorimetry to determine the molar mass of three unknowns (nonvolatile organic hydrocarbons) by freezing point depression.
D'Amelia, Ronald P.; Franks, Thomas; Nirode, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1537.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Thermal Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents
Weak Acid pKa Determination Using Capillary Zone Electrophoresis  Mike Solow
In this experiment, students use capillary zone electrophoresis to determine the effective mobility of benzoic acid at two different hydrogen ion concentrations. A plot of these data yields the pKa of benzoic acid.
Solow, Mike. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1194.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Carboxylic Acids |
Electrophoresis |
Instrumental Methods
Classroom Demonstrations of Concepts in Molecular Fluorescence  Jonathan P. Blitz, Daniel J. Sheeran, and Thomas L. Becker
A multichannel CCD-array spectrophotometer and handheld UV lamp are utilized to acquire and project in real-time the fluorescence emission spectra of quinine, fluorescein, eosin yellow, and rhodamine B.
Blitz, Jonathan P.; Sheeran, Daniel J.; Becker, Thomas L. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 758.
Dyes / Pigments |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
An Introduction to Polymer Processing, Morphology, and Property Relationships through Thermal Analysis of Plastic PET Bottles. Exercises Designed to Introduce Students to Polymer Physical Properties  H. Darrell Iler, Eric Rutt, and Seth Althoff
Through thermal analyses of poly(ethylene terephthlate) (PET) bottles, students are introduced to the relationships between processing, morphology, and physical properties of polymer materials.
Iler, H. Darrell; Rutt, Eric; Althoff, Seth. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 439.
Applications of Chemistry |
Heat Capacity |
Instrumental Methods |
Materials Science |
Thermal Analysis
An Improved Flame Test for Qualitative Analysis Using a Multichannel UV–Visible Spectrophotometer  Jonathan P. Blitz, Daniel J. Sheeran, and Thomas L. Becker
Describes the application of a multichannel array spectrometer equipped with a fiber optic probe for the acquisition of emission spectra as a means of performing flame tests for qualitative analysis in the general chemistry laboratory.
Blitz, Jonathan P.; Sheeran, Daniel J.; Becker, Thomas L. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 277.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Qualitative Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Simple and Inexpensive Computer Interface to a Durrum Stopped-Flow Apparatus Tested Using the Iron(III)–Thiocyanate Reaction  Craig M. Hoag
Describes a computer interface between a Durrum model 110 stopped-flow apparatus and a LabPro voltage probe using LoggerPro software from Vernier. This probe and software can be used to measure and record data from most instruments normally connected to an oscilloscope or chart recorder.
Hoag, Craig M. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1823.
Instrumental Methods |
Kinetics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Coordination Compounds |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Gas Permeability of Polymers  Bruno Lunelli
By studying a number of soft drinks with color but with or without phosphoric acid, the authors have determined that the required 20-fold dilution required in the Determination of Phosphorus in Cola Drinks is not to dilute the color but merely to place the sample within the calibration range of the analysis.
Lunelli, Bruno. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1471.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Gases |
Transport Properties
Measurement of the Isotopic Ratio of 10B/11B in NaBH4 by 1H NMR  Murray Zanger and Guillermo Moyna
A simple and remarkably accurate method for estimating the isotopic ratio between 10B and 11B through the use of 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is presented. The experiment relies on the splitting caused by 10B (I = 3) and 11B (I = 3/2) on the 1H signal of a proton directly bound to boron, a phenomenon readily observed on an aqueous sample of NaBH4. In combination with a brief lecture or prelaboratory presentation, this laboratory can serve to introduce students to magnetic properties as well as theoretical and experimental aspects of NMR spectroscopy as early as the freshman-level chemistry.
Zanger, Murray; Moyna, Guillermo. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1390.
Instrumental Methods |
Magnetic Properties |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Isotopes
A Networked NMR Spectrometer: Configuring a Shared Instrument  David Alonso, G. William Mutch, Peter Wong, Steven Warren, Bal Barot, Jan Kosinski, and Mark Sinton
Andrews University, Lake Michigan College, and Southwestern Michigan College established an educational consortium in southwest lower Michigan. An FT-NMR spectrometer was installed at AU and networked with the community colleges. Students and faculty from LMC and SMC visit Andrews on a regular basis to receive training and operate the NMR. The instrument is accessible via the Internet for data acquisition, processing, and transfer. The spectrometer has helped the consortium schools improve the quality of chemistry education, exposed students in chemistry courses to the concepts and techniques of modern NMR spectroscopy, and strengthened the collaboration between the chemistry faculty of the three schools. This article describes the NMR network configuration and the methodology for NMR data acquisition and distribution.
Alonso, David; Mutch, G. William; Wong, Peter; Warren, Steven; Barot, Bal; Kosinski, Jan; Sinton, Mark. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1342.
Instrumental Methods |
NMR Spectroscopy
Investigating the Photoelectric Effect Using LEDs and a Modular Spectroscope  Lucia Diaz and Charles A. Smith
With a modular spectroscope, students can monitor the effect of adjusting individually the position and orientation of the light source, grating, and slits. Investigating the position of the individual components dramatically illustrates the advantages of using long monochromators in conjunction with narrow slit widths in maximum-resolution spectroscopy. Once students fully understand the operation of the modular spectroscope, they calibrate it using a light source with a known spectrum. A circuit board containing colored light-emitting diodes (i.e., LEDs) is then used to measure a value for Plancks constant through a photoelectric-effect-type equation.
Diaz, Lucia; Smith, Charles A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 906.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis |
Spectroscopy
Appropriate Use of Blanks, Standards, and Controls in Chemical Measurements  Mark F. Vitha, Peter W. Carr, and Gary A. Mabbott
It is critical to teach students the use of control samples, blanks, standards, dummy analyses, and system suitability checks to increase confidence in measurements. This article is intended as a concise primer on these topics that faculty can distribute to and discuss with their laboratory and research students, particularly undergraduate students. Our experience suggests that students sometimes do not appreciate the fundamental differences between these concepts. This article directly addresses those differences and clarifies the distinct functions served by each.
Vitha, Mark F.; Carr, Peter W.; Mabbott, Gary A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 901.
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
Calibration |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Checkerboard Chromatography  Charles A. Smith
This hands-on activity allows students to simulate chromatographic simulations using a grid, colored pieces of paper, and a six-sided die. Students observe the separation as it is occurring and perform experiments on flow rate, column length, and mobile phase composition.
Smith, Charles A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 384A.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science
Introduction of Mass Spectrometry in a First-Semester General Chemistry Laboratory Course: Quantification of MTBE or DMSO in Water  Mike Solow
An experiment has been developed to introduce first-semester general chemistry students to mass spectrometry. Students analyze water samples contaminated with a known compound, either DMSO or MTBE. Students are asked to determine the concentration of the compound in the water. In performing this experiment, students should learn (i) how the mass of an atom or molecule is determined, (ii) the effect of the presence of different isotopes on molecular mass, (iii) the role of an internal standard, and (iv) how mass spectrometry is used in answering various scientific questions.
Solow, Mike. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1172.
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography
The Multi-Initiative Dissemination Project Workshops: Who Attends Them and How Effective Are They?  K. A. Burke, Thomas J. Greenbowe, and John I. Gelder
Multi-Initiative Dissemination Project (MID) workshops funded by NSF are designed to expose college instructors from two- and four-year institutions to classroom active-learning techniques from the perspective of four of the NSF-funded chemistry reform projects.
Burke, K. A.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.; Gelder, John I. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 897.
Professional Development |
Learning Theories |
Instrumental Methods
Application of a Datalogger in Biosensing: A Reagentless Hydrogen Peroxide Biosensor  Lihua Ma and Martin M. F. Choi
The article describes the use of a datalogger in conjunction with an oxygen sensor to fabricate a hydrogen peroxide biosensor.
Ma, Lihua; Choi, Martin M. F. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 862.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
Chem 111: A General Education Course in Organic Structure Determination  Stuart C. Clough, René P. F. Kanters, and Emma W. Goldman
A course in organic structure determination has proven to be effective in addressing the general education science requirement for liberal arts and business majors who have only a basic high school chemistry background.
Clough, Stuart C.; Kanters, René P. F.; Goldman, Emma W. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 834.
Nonmajor Courses |
Instrumental Methods
Remote NMR Data Acquisition and Processing in the Organic Chemistry Curriculum  Caleb Benefiel, Ron Newton, Gregory J. Crouch, and Karen Grant
A procedure for enabling remote and hands-on access to a Varian Mercury 300 MHz Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectrometer in a large organic chemistry laboratory is described. Additionally, procedures for remotely connecting two high schools and a community college to the NMR are also described.
Benefiel, Caleb; Newton, Ron; Crouch, Gregory J.; Grant, Karen. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1494.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Palm-Based Data Acquisition Solutions for the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory  Susan Hudgins, Yu Qin, Eric Bakker, and Curtis Shannon
Handheld computers provide a compact and cost-effective means to log data in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory. Handheld computers have the ability to record multiple forms of data, be programmed for specific projects, and later have data transferred to a personal computer for manipulation and analysis.
Hudgins, Susan; Qin, Yu; Bakker, Eric; Shannon, Curtis. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1303.
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Simulating Chromatographic Separations in the Classroom  Charles A. Smith and F. Warren Villaescusa
Using this classroom simulation, students develop a set of rules used to investigate the effect of flow rate, column dimension, particle size, and mobile/stationary phase affinity on chromatographic separations. While performing the simulation, the concepts of longitudinal and eddy diffusion are dramatically illustrated.
Smith, Charles A.; Villaescusa, F. Warren. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1023.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science
Classification of Vegetable Oils by Principal Component Analysis of FTIR Spectra  David A. Rusak, Leah M. Brown, and Scott D. Martin
Comparing unknown samples of vegetable oils to known samples using FTIR and principal component analysis (PCA) and nearest means classification (NMC).
Rusak, David A.; Brown, Leah M.; Martin, Scott D. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 541.
IR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Food Science |
Lipids |
Chemometrics |
Qualitative Analysis |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Incorporating Scanning Probe Microscopy into the Undergraduate Chemistry Curriculum  David W. Lehmpuhl
Project at Colorado State University - Pueblo, to incorporate scanning probe microscopy into the undergraduate curriculum through demonstrations, a hands-on instrumental analysis experiment, and undergraduate research projects.
Lehmpuhl, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 478.
Instrumental Methods |
Nanotechnology |
Surface Science |
Undergraduate Research
The Name Game: Learning the Connectivity between the Concepts  Marina C. Koether
Game in which students review words (names of elements and compounds, instrumentation, types of reactions) using an ice-breaker-type activity; each student given a word that they can't see but everyone else can; must learn their name by asking as few yes-no questions as possible.
Koether, Marina C. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 421.
Instrumental Methods |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials
A General Chemistry Laboratory Theme: Spectroscopic Analysis of Aspirin  Houston Byrd and Stephen E. O’Donnell
A laboratory sequence designed for introductory chemistry students that focusses on the synthesis and spectroscopic (IR and NMR) and chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of aspirin as an alternative to traditional general chemistry laboratories.
Byrd, Houston; O’Donnell, Stephen E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 174.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Chromatography |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
The Analysis of Seawater: A Laboratory-Centered Learning Project in General Chemistry  Jodye I. Selco, Julian L. Roberts, Jr., and Daniel B. Wacks
Experiment designed to introduce students to qualitative and quantitative analysis methods (gravimetric analysis, potentiometric titration, ion-selective electrodes, and atomic absorption and atomic emission spectroscopy) in the context of an overall analysis of an environmental sample.
Selco, Jodye I.; Roberts, Julian L., Jr.; Wacks, Daniel B. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 54.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Potentiometry
Chemistry Comes Alive!, Volume 6
Abstract of Special Issue 30, a CD-ROM of Laboratory Techniques
  Jerrold J. Jacobsen, John W. Moore, John F. Zimmerman, and Lois M. Browne
Summary of Chemistry Comes Alive! Volume 6 focussing on laboratory techniques; includes manipulating and transferring samples, measuring, separating and purifying, safety, and quantitative techniques in volumetric analysis.
Jacobsen, Jerrold J.; Moore, John W.; Zimmerman, John F.; Browne, Lois M. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1381.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis
A Film Canister Colorimeter  James Gordon, Alan James, Stephanie Harman, and Kristen Weiss
Constructing a low-cost, low-tech colorimeter that illustrates all of a colorimeter's elementary components and a fundamental application of spectroscopy (determining the unknown concentration of a solution).
Gordon, James; James, Alan; Harman, Stephanie; Weiss, Kristen. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1005.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Structure and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. An Experiment for the General Chemistry Laboratory  Rosa M. Dávila and R. K. Widener
Lab exercise to introduce first-year students to the concepts of functional groups and isomerism, as well as using NMR spectroscopy to determine simple molecular structures.
Dávila, Rosa M.; Widener, R. K. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 997.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Instrumental Methods
Microscale pH Titrations Using an Automatic Pipet  Edward B. Flint, Carrie L. Kortz, and Max A. Taylor
A technique for microscale pH titrations using 1-5 mL of analyte and titrant.
Flint, Edward B.; Kortz, Carrie L.; Taylor, Max A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 705.
Acids / Bases |
Instrumental Methods |
Microscale Lab |
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
News from Online: Chemistry and Art  Carolyn Sweeney Judd
Web sites devoted to neutron activation analysis, carbon dating, X-ray fluorescence, polarized light spectroscopy, pigments and paints, and the arts in general.
Judd, Carolyn Sweeney. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1322.
Dyes / Pigments |
Instrumental Methods |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
Chemistry, Color, and Art  Mary Virginia Orna
The history and chemistry of common pigments.
Orna, Mary Virginia. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1305.
Chromatography |
Dyes / Pigments |
Instrumental Methods |
Natural Products |
Plant Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
News from Online: Teaching with Chemical Instrumentation on the Web  Thomas G. Chasteen
Variety of web-based animations on analytical instrumentation; WWW addresses for software, plug-ins, sites for images and animations, references for designing sites, and sites regarding specific analytical techniques.
Chasteen, Thomas G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1144.
Instrumental Methods |
Molecular Modeling |
Spectroscopy |
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy
Instruments and Experimentation in the History of Chemistry
edited by Frederic L. Holmes and Trevor H. Levere
  Jeffrey Kovac
Collection of 14 essays on the history of experimentation and its accompanying instrumentation in chemistry.
Kovac, Jeffrey. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1027.
Instrumental Methods
A Simple Computer-Interfaced Calorimeter: Application to the Determination of the Heat of Formation of Magnesium Oxide  Sze-Shun Wong, Natasha D. Popovich, and Shelley J. Coldiron
Design, construction, and laboratory instructional application of a simple computer-controlled, constant-pressure calorimeter.
Wong, Sze-Shun; Popovich, Natasha D.; Coldiron, Shelley J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 798.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Thermodynamics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Using a Diode Laser Pointer to Count Drops and Automate Titration Systems  Paul Ogren, Steve Nelson, and Ian Henry
A diode laser pointer is used to construct a simple system for recording drops falling from a buret. The drop signal is recorded together with one or more measurement signals by a LabVIEW-based programmable interfacing system. A standard buret is converted to a Mariotte buret to provide a constant drop-addition rate.
Ogren, Paul; Nelson, Steve; Henry, Ian. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 353.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
Infrared Spectroscopy in the General Chemistry Lab  Margaret A. Hill
Three laboratory exercises in which students learn to interpret infrared spectra for simple structural identification. A polymer identification lab uses familiar household polymer samples and teaches students how to use infrared spectral data to determine what bond types are present in the polymers. In a second lab, students learn to prepare potassium bromide pellets of fluorene derivatives and identify them by their functional group differences. The final exercise combines IR with several other lab techniques to identify an organic acid from a field of fourteen possibilities.
Hill, Margaret A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 26.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Determination of Aspartame and Caffeine in Carbonated Beverages Utilizing Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry  H. Robert Bergen III, Linda M. Benson, and Stephen Naylor
High school students utilize ESI-MS in an analysis of aspartame and caffeine. The lab is procedurally simple and the results clearly demonstrate the potential and limitations of ESI-coupled mass spectrometry.
Bergen, H. Robert, III; Benson, Linda M.; Naylor, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1325.
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Quantitative Analysis
Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy of Calcium in Foodstuffs in Non-Science-Major Courses  Keith S. Kostecka
Non-science-major students are introduced to the concept of ppm, prepare AAS standard solutions, digest foodstuffs in nitric acid, conduct AAS analysis for Ca, determine mass percentage of calcium in the sample, and check calcium levels in various food items on the Internet with a critical eye.
Kostecka, Keith S. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1321.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Nonmajor Courses |
Quantitative Analysis |
Food Science
A Simple Laboratory-Constructed Automatic Titrator  Kurt L. Headrick, Terry K. Davies, and Aaron N. Haegele
The construction of a simple automatic titrator is described. The buret is replaced with a metering pump to provide a constant flow of titrant. The output from the pH meter is sent to a recorder via a laboratory- constructed differentiator, allowing the results to be plotted as potential versus time, first or second derivative
Headrick, Kurt L.; Davies, Terry K.; Haegele, Aaron N. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 389.
Instrumental Methods |
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
An Inexpensive Commercially Available Analog-to-Digital Converter  Gary W. Breton
The use of an inexpensive analog-to-digital converter for interfacing gas chromatographs to computers in a teaching laboratory environment is described. Raw data may be read, processed, and printed from software supplied with the converter to afford chromatograms of acceptable quality.
Breton, Gary W. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 262.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography
Calculator-Based Instrumentation: The Design of a Digital Interface Based on I2C Technology  A. B. Hickman, W. G. Delinger, and Robin S. Helburn
In this work, we describe the interfacing of a digital temperature sensor to a Texas Instruments TI-85 calculator to make a portable instrument. The design of the interface is based on an integrated circuit that uses the inter-integrated circuit (I2C) protocol.
Hickman, A. B.; Delinger, W. G.; Helburn, Robin S. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 255.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Learning Quality Assurance/Quality Control Using U.S. EPA Techniques. An Undergraduate Course for Environmental Chemistry Majors  Susan M. Libes
In the environmental realm, quality control (QC) includes activities associated with sampling, sample preservation and storage, method validation, and analysis involving solids, liquids, and gases. Students should be led to discover the need for QC by first performing analyses with little guidance. This is followed by a class discussion in which they critique their data.
Libes, Susan. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1642.
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry
A Simple Supplementary Offset Device for Data Acquisition Systems  Thomas Kappes and Peter C. Hauser
The device described in this article offers in a simple way the possibility of extending the offset range and can be combined with any data acquisition system. The signal offset is obtained by adding a manually adjustable voltage to the raw signal.
Kappes, Thomas; Hauser, Peter C. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1429.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Analysis of Soft Drinks Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Mentorship  Arkim Wilson, Craig Myers, George Crull, Michael Curtis, and Pamela Pasciak Patterson
This mentorship was designed to expose a student to the laboratory routine for a chemist at Bristol Myers Squibb Company (BMS). The student visited BMS, collaborated with BMS scientists, and actually completed a project on site. He was asked to determine the identity of an unknown sample of soft drink retrieved from a fictitious crime scene using NMR spectroscopy.
Wilson, Arkim; Myers, Craig; Crull, George; Curtis, Michael; Pasciak, Pamela M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1414.
Instrumental Methods |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Student / Career Counseling
Demonstration of Optical Rotatory Dispersion of Sucrose  S. M. Mahurin, R. N. Compton, and Richard N. Zare
A method for demonstrating and measuring the optical activity of chiral molecules in solution is described in which the rotation of linearly polarized light is directly observed at right angles to the propagation of light in the liquid.
Mahurin, S. M.; Compton, Robert N.; Zare, Richard N. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1234.
Instrumental Methods |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Carbohydrates
Precision and Accuracy in Measurements (the author replies)  Treptow, Richard S.
Relation between instrument resolution and skill.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 471.
Chemometrics |
Instrumental Methods
Precision and Accuracy in Measurements  Thomsen, Volker
The difference between instrument resolution and precision.
Thomsen, Volker J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 471.
Chemometrics |
Instrumental Methods
Chemistry of the Heaviest Elements-One Atom at a Time  Darleane C. Hoffman and Diana M. Lee
A 75-year perspective of the chemistry of the heaviest elements, including a 50-year retrospective view of past developments, a summary of current research achievements and applications, and some predictions about exciting, new developments that might be envisioned within the next 25 years.
Hoffman, Darleane C.; Lee, Diana M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 331.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Isotopes |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Separation Science |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Effect of Sample Size on Sampling Error: An Experiment for Introductory Analytical Chemistry  Joseph E. Vitt and Royce C. Engstrom
Students acquire samples of various size from a binary population, calculate the relative standard deviations for each sample size, and compare these results with those predicted by the binomial distribution. This experiment gives excellent agreement for the pooled student data, and the results show the expected decrease in sampling error as the sample size increases.
Vitt, Joseph E.; Engstrom, Royce C. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 99.
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Chemometrics
Student Construction of a Gel-Filled Ag/AgCl Reference Electrode for Use in a Potentiometric Titration  James M. Thomas
Instructions for the preparation of a Ag/AgCl "reference"-type electrode that uses a gel-type matrix are given. In addition, construction steps are provided for a very sturdy Pt-nichrome "inert" electrode, which can be used many times. Together, these two electrodes, along with a multivoltmeter, have been used successfully to determine the percent of iron in Fe(NH4)2(SO4)2 and in Fe2O2 unknowns purchased commercially.
Thomas, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 97.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Spectroscopy of Simple Molecules  C. Baer and K. Cornely
A spectroscopy experiment in which students utilize IR and NMR spectroscopy to identify the structures of three unknowns from a list of 15 carefully chosen simple organic molecules. In taking IR and NMR spectra, students learn to use state-of-the-art instrumentation that is used by practicing chemists.
Baer, Carl; Cornely, Kathleen. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 89.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A Solid-State Water Flow Fault Safety Switch for the Chemical Laboratory  Jonas Gruber, Rosamaria Wu Chia Li, and Isaac Gruber
A low cost solid-state water flow fault switch with a thermal sensing device is described that cuts the electric power of the heating element, normally employed in distillation and reflux devices, whenever their cooling water streams are impaired. This to prevent any possible escape of distillate vapours which may be toxic or flammable.
Gruber, Jonas; Li, Rosamaria Wu Chia; Gruber, Isaac. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1132.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
The Thermometer as a Simple Instrument  George F. Atkinson
The liquid-in-glass thermometer is used as a simple example of designing a measurement instrument which requires no previous knowledge of topics like electricity or optics.
Atkinson, George F. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 849.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
A Decade of Instrumentation and Laboratory Improvement  John W. Moore
The National Science Foundation's Instrumentation and Laboratory Improvement (ILI) program is a little over ten years old, and its first ten years (1985-1994) have been thoroughly evaluated by an independent research and consulting firm, Westat, Inc. According to their report, "the program's first decade of activity has been rich and fertile", and "the seed money provided by NSF has yielded value well beyond its initial investments."
Moore, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 799.
Administrative Issues |
Instrumental Methods
A Guided Inquiry Approach to NMR Spectroscopy  Laura E. Parmentier, George C. Lisensky, and Brock Spencer
The authors present a novel way to introduce NMR spectroscopy into the general chemistry curriculum as part of a week-long aspirin project in their one-semester introductory course. Purity is determined by titration and IR and NMR spectroscopy.
Laura E. Parmentier, George C. Lisensky, and Brock Spencer. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 470.
Learning Theories |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Should Advanced Instruments Be Used in Introductory Courses?  Jack K. Steehler
Author argues whether or not to use advanced instruments in general/introductory chemistry courses.
Steehler, Jack K. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 274.
Learning Theories |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Simple and Inexpensive 8-Bit Analog to Digital Converter for the PCs Parallel Port  Orfeo Zerbinati
A simple and inexpensive 8-bit analog to digital (ADC) converter based on the ADC0804 integrated circuit, for replacing stripchart recorders by measuring analog voltages through the Centronics port (printer or parallel output) of an IBM-compatible personal computer, is proposed.
Zerbinati, Orfeo. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1241.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
IR Spectroscopy or Hooke's Law at the Molecular Level - A Joint Freshman Physics-Chemistry Experience  Jeffrey T. Burke
The activity described is intended to unify for the student the topics of IR spectroscopy and Hooke's Law. This is accomplished by first working with springs and masses and then by acquiring and comparing the IR spectra of chloroform and chloroform-d.
Burke, Jeffrey T. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1213.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Modeling
Getting Close with the Instructional Scanning Tunneling Microscope  Carl Steven Rapp
This state-of-the-art instrumentation is making it possible for students to actually view atoms in their own classroom. What is truly amazing, however, is that the ISTM can be set up and atomic resolution images obtained in about an hour.
Rapp, Carl Steven. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1087.
Instrumental Methods |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nanotechnology |
Surface Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Low-Cost Constant Temperature Heating Block  Charles G. Shevlin, Ward Coppersmith, Christopher Fish, Stanley Vlock, William Vellema
A simple constant temperature heat block was constructed from readily available materials. The configuration of the heating block can be constructed to meet the needs of any laboratory.
Shevlin, Charles G.; Coppersmith, Ward; Fish, Christopher; Vlock, Stanley; Vellema, William. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 958.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An Integrated-Circuit Temperature Sensor for Calorimetry and Differential Temperature Measurement  Mark Muyskens
Application of an integrated-circuit (IC) temperature sensor which is easy-to-use, inexpensive, rugged, easily computer-interfacable and has good precision is described. The design, based on the National Semiconductor LM35 IC chip, avoids some of the difficulties associated with conventional sensors (thermocouples, thermistors, and platinum resistance thermometers) and a previously described IC sensor.
Muyskens, Mark. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 850.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermal Analysis |
Thermodynamics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
A General Chemistry Experiment Incorporating Synthesis and Structural Determination  Hal Van Ryswyk
An experiment for the general chemistry laboratory is described wherein gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) are used to characterize the products of a series of microscale reactions on vanillin.
Van Ryswyk, Hal. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 842.
Instrumental Methods |
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Spectroscopy
A Low-Cost and High-Performance Conductivity Meter  Rogerio T. da Rocha, Ivano G. R. Gutz, and Claudimir L. do Lago
A two-electrode conductivimeter is described, which keep good performance in spite of its low cost.
da Rocha, Rogerio T. ; Gutz, Ivano G.R. ; do Lago, Claudimir L. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 572.
Instrumental Methods |
Conductivity |
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Quantitative Conductance Apparatus  Danny Burns and Don Lewis
Circuitry, electrode configuration and calibration procedures are described for a conductance device. An alternative construction of the circuit is given allowing computer capture of the instrument response.
Burns, Danny; Lewis, Don. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 570.
Instrumental Methods |
Conductivity |
Liquids |
Solutions / Solvents |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Analysis of Mouthwash  Eleanor Siegrist and Guy Anderson
Students analyze commercial mouthwash solutions in order to identify the dyes which are present and determine the alcohol content.
Siegrist, Eleanor ; Anderson, Guy. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 567.
Consumer Chemistry |
Chromatography |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Dyes / Pigments
Screening and Sequential Experimentation: Simulations and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Experiments  Richard J. Stolzberg
Students are introduced to screening and sequential experimentation using simulations and experimentation. The work begins with spreadsheet simulations and practice with the experimental design software. Students learn how to use the graphical output, normal quantile plots, to recognize the specific factors that affect the result of an experiment. In the laboratory, students make a preliminary investigation of the effect of six variables (flame observation height, flame stoichiometry, acetic acid, lamp current, wavelength, and slit width) on the atomic absorption signal for silver.
Stolzberg, Richard. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 216.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectroscopy: Part I. Instrumentation and Spectral Interpretation  Steven A. Hofstadler, Ray Bakhtiar, and Richard D. Smith
ESI-MS is now one of the most widely utilized and fastest growing mass spectrometric techniques for the analysis of biomolecular species. This article is intended to introduce the theory, principles, and instrumentation of ESI-MS to teachers, researchers, and future researchers with a rudimentary knowledge of ion formation, separation, and detection processes.
Hofstadler, Steven A.; Bakhtiar, Ray; and Smith, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A82.
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods |
Bioanalytical Chemistry
An LC/Particle Beam/MS Experiment for Undergraduates  Norman Sproch, Kelly J. Begin, and Robert J. Morris

Sproch, Norman; Begin, Kelly J.; Morris, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A33.
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
HPLC
Four Programs for Windows: Abstract of Volume 4D, Number 2: PSL Photometer  Steven D. Gammon
The majority of freshman chemistry laboratory programs include experiments that employ visible spectroscopy to teach Beer's law and derive related concentration information. These experiments are often done with a Baush and Lomb Spectronic 20 or Spectronic 21. We have developed an alternative instrument and software that offers significant advantages over the above spectrometers.
Gammon, Steven D. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1077.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis
Effects of Solution Physical Properties on Copper and Chromium Signals in Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry  Fàbio R. P. Rocha, Joaquim A. Nòbrega
Instrumental techniques, such as flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), are frequently used in chemical analysis. Independently of the technique used, the chemical principles must be considered to assure that the analytical results are correct.
Rocha, Fàbio R. P.; Nòbrega , Joaquim A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 982.
Physical Properties |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Instrumental Methods
First Day in Organic Lab  Christine K. F. Hermann
This experiment is designed to introduce students to the techniques of reflux, distillation, gas chromatography, and the determination of boiling point and melting point during one lab period.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 852.
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Physical Properties |
Qualitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
NMR Shielding and the Periodic Table  I. P. Gerothanassis and C. G. Kalodimos
The object of this article is to find periodic, structurally significant observables that can be correlated to the nuclear shielding or alternatively to investigate whether chemical shift can be used to intensify the periodic disposition of valence electrons.
Gerothanassis, I. P.; Kalodimos, C. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 801.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Instrumental Methods
An Integrated Curriculum for First- and Second-Year Chemistry Courses  T. R. Rettich, David N. Bailey, Forrest J. Frank, and Jeffrey A. Frick
Key features of this innovation are the integration of organic and inorganic chemical concepts throughout the first two years of the curriculum, the incorporation of modern instrumentation into lecture and laboratory beginning the first semester, and the matching of topic development to student ability throughout the two-year sequence.
T. R. Rettich, David N. Bailey, Forrest J. Frank, and Jeffrey A. Frick. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 638.
Instrumental Methods
GC-MS and GC-FTIR Characterization of Products: From Classical Freshman and Sophomore Syntheses  D. S. Amenta, T. C. Devore, T. N. Gallaher, C. M. Zook, and J. A. Mosbo
The GC separation of ferrocene, acetylferrocene, and diacetylferrocene is accomplished in less than ten minutes. In addition to the operation of the instrument, the students are introduced to the interpretation of mass spectra and library aided spectral identification.
D. S. Amenta, T. C. Devore, T. N. Gallaher, C. M. Zook, and J. A. Mosbo. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 572.
Instrumental Methods |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
Are They Really Sloppy?: A Comparative Analysis of Student Performance in the Laboratory  Katalin Kovács-Hadady and István Fábián
The performance of the students in the analytical laboratory was tested in a potentiometric determination of fluoride ion in anti-caries dental tablets. The analytical results determined by freshman students and experienced personnel were compared.
Kovács-Hadady, Katalin; Fábián, István. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 461.
Potentiometry |
Instrumental Methods
In This Issue  
The instruments that chemists use in their research have changed dramatically in the past decades. The explosion in new techniques and their instrumental counterparts has been made possible by two significant advances.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 288.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods
Instrumentation and Laboratory Improvement Grants in Chemistry  
Listing of the 1995 awards in chemistry under the Instrumentation and Laboratory Improvement Program (ILI) of the Division of Undergraduate Education (DUE).
J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A214.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Obtaining a Spectrum Easily: Using a Single-Beam Spectrophotometer  Mattson, Miranda E.; Mattson, William A.
Using a single-beam spectrophotometer (e.g. Spec 20) to obtain a spectrum.
Mattson, Miranda E.; Mattson, William A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 569.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Instrumental Methods
Introduction of Modern Instrumentation in the First Two Years of Chemistry: The Iowa Chemistry Curriculum Network (IACCN)  Greenbowe, Thomas J.
Project to incorporate three modular instructional resources on modern instrumentation into the first two years of college chemistry.
Greenbowe, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 534.
Instrumental Methods
Qualitative and Instrumental Analysis of Environmentally Significant Elements (Chasteen, Thomas G.)  Bath, Donald
A supplementary lab text.
Bath, Donald J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A261.
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis
Basic Principles of Scale Reading  Peckham, Gavin D.
Steps and basic principles of reading the scales of laboratory instruments.
Peckham, Gavin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 423.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
LIMSport (V): pH Data Acquisition: An Inexpensive Probe and Calibration Software  Vitz, Ed; Betts, Thomas A.
161. Construction and use of a "software pH meter".
Vitz, Ed; Betts, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 412.
pH |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Computer-Aided Experiments for Introductory Chemistry  Moore, John W.; Hunsberger, Lynn R.; Gammon, Steven D.
Examples of experiments done with the IBM Personal Science Laboratory (PSL) in freshman chemistry.
Moore, John W.; Hunsberger, Lynn R.; Gammon, Steven D. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 403.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Instrumental Methods
Determination of sugars in food products: Using HPLC and electrochemical detection at a Cu electrode  Luo, Peifang; Luo, Matthew Z.; Baldwin, Richard P.
This lab activity takes advantage of the fact that students' interest in a lab is increased when common life experiences are drawn upon.
Luo, Peifang; Luo, Matthew Z.; Baldwin, Richard P. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 679.
Chromatography |
Applications of Chemistry |
Food Science |
Instrumental Methods |
Solutions / Solvents
A freshman laboratory program without chromium  Wilcox, Mary F.; Koch, Judith G.
Because of the toxicity of chromium, there has been a challenge to preserve the pedagogy of activities involving chromium while eliminating the use of this metal and ion. This paper presents such alternatives.
Wilcox, Mary F.; Koch, Judith G. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 488.
Gravimetric Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
A water treatment experiment (chemical hardness) for nonscience majors  Soriano, David S.; Draeger, Jon A.
Description of an activity used in a nonmajors course called 'Chemistry and Society'.
Soriano, David S.; Draeger, Jon A. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 414.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Nonmajor Courses |
Instrumental Methods
LIMSport (II): Use of the Interfaced Balance for Pressure Measurements, Streamlined Syntheses, and Titrations  Vitz, Ed
145. LIMSport facilitates direct acquisition of data from a variety of sensors into a spreadsheet.. This article explores the use of LIMSport in understanding gas laws.
Vitz, Ed J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 63.
Gases |
Instrumental Methods
Electricity/electronic experiments for the chemistry laboratory.  Braun, Robert D.
Experiments that permit students to observe the behavior of simple electrical circuits, including a DC constant current source, voltage divider, diodes, logic gates, flip-flops, and the seven-segment display.
Braun, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 671.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods
Art, archaeology, and analytical chemistry: A synthesis of the liberal arts  Beilby, Alvin L.
Examples of applications of instrumental methods of analysis in art and archeology (with references).
Beilby, Alvin L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 437.
Applications of Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods
HPLC: A Practical Technique for Future Chemists  
HPLC has been particularly helpful in separating the large molecules dealt with in biochemistry, and, therefore, it is essential that future chemists know how to use this technique routinely.
J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 260.
HPLC |
Instrumental Methods
Inert atmosphere techniques for the microscale laboratory   Newton, Thomas A.
A system developed to introduce students to working under inert atmosphere.
Newton, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A60.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Microscale Lab
Incorporation of consumer products in the teaching of analytical chemistry   Lieu, Van T.; Kalbus, Gene E.
A development and selection of a number of experiments involving the use of common consumer products for incorporation into quantitative and instrumental analysis laboratories.
Lieu, Van T.; Kalbus, Gene E. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 207.
Applications of Chemistry |
Alcohols |
Acids / Bases |
Food Science |
Consumer Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
Computer interfacing to laboratory instruments: How to minimize noise interferences  Karpinski, Mary
Suggestions for replacing mechanical, analog data recorders with computer-based data-acquisition systems, particularly in terms of minimizing noise.
Karpinski, Mary J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A100.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Instrumental Methods
The History and Preservation of Chemical Instrumentation (Stock, John T.; Orna, Mary Virginia)  Kauffman, George B.
18 papers presented on the title subject presented at the 190th meeting of the American Chemical Society in Chicago in September of 1985.
Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A27.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
One simple solution to erratic instrument behavior  Huitink, Geraldine M.
Eliminating erratic needle movement on pH meters and Spec 20 spectrophotometers by eliminating rubber soled shoes and the static electricity they generate.
Huitink, Geraldine M. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 530.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Management
Information management systems in the undergraduate instrumental analysis laboratory. Part II: Applications of LIMS  Merrer, Robert J.
A Laboratory Information Management System is applied to two instrumental analysis experiments .
Merrer, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, A173.
Laboratory Management |
Instrumental Methods
Single-pan balances, buoyancy, and gravity or "a mass of confusion"  Battino, Rubin; Williamson, Arthur G.
Most manufacturers of balances either do not understand the idea of buoyancy corrections or believe them to be irrelevant.
Battino, Rubin; Williamson, Arthur G. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 51.
Physical Properties |
Instrumental Methods
Influence of temperature and catalyst on the decomposition of potassium chlorate in a simple DTA apparatus  Wiederholt, Erwin
The authors describe the use of a simple DTA-apparatus in demonstrating the catalytic effects of MnO2 and Al2O3 on the decomposition temperature of KClO3.
Wiederholt, Erwin J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 431.
Kinetics |
Instrumental Methods |
Catalysis |
Reactions |
Rate Law
Determination of phosphoric acid in cola beverages: a colorimetric and pH titration experiment for general chemistry  Murphy, Joe
Two techniques are compared so that students gain an appreciation for the greater sensitivity and selectivity of colorimetric compared to titrimetric methods of analysis.
Murphy, Joe J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 420.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Consumer Chemistry
Chemical instrumentation for the visually handicapped  Anderson, James L.
An approach developed for introducing visually handicapped students to chemical instrumentation via experiments on operational amplifiers as examples of some of the electronic building blocks of chemical instrumentation.
Anderson, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 871.
Minorities in Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods
The standardization of pH meters: A comparison of procedures for different types of instruments  Lund, Walter
Discusses the various approaches to the standardization of pH meters and the limitations of the various procedures.
Lund, Walter J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 129.
Instrumental Methods |
pH |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Calibration |
Acids / Bases
Versatile pen-holder for chart recorders  Nieschlag, Henry J.
Using a small binder clip as a versatile pen-holder for chart recorders.
Nieschlag, Henry J. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 542.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Reference electrodes  Caton, Roy D., Jr.
Examines reference electrodes, including both aqueous and nonaqueous reference electrodes.
Caton, Roy D., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, A571.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods
A stabilized linear direct reading conductance apparatus. The solvolysis of t-butyl chloride  Cyr, T.; Prudhomme, J.; Zador, M.
A simple ac conductivity apparatus for experiments in chemical kinetics is described; the instrument is sufficiently reliable that it can be used by first year students and assembled in a few hours.
Cyr, T.; Prudhomme, J.; Zador, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 572.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Kinetics
Measurement or interpretation?  Atkinson, George F.
Questions the trend of moving away from teaching students how to make valid experimental measurements.
Atkinson, George F. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 226.
Instrumental Methods
Increased utilization of electronic apparatus  Twigg, Martyn V.
It is possible to utilize more fully an electronic instrument by connecting it to several probes via a simple switch unit.
Twigg, Martyn V. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 191.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A bridge-rectifier-milliammeter instrument for conductance studies  Nordmann, J.; Steinberg, Edwin
Modification of an earlier described instrument.
Nordmann, J.; Steinberg, Edwin J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 241.
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
A laboratory course on digital computers in chemical instrumentations  Perone, S. P.
Examines on-line computerized experimentation in the laboratory, and educational program in computerized instrumentation, and hardware for on-line experimentation and interface design.
Perone, S. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 105.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
The control of temperature - Part two  van Swaay, Maarten
Focusses on the design, characteristics, and operation of thermocouples and thermistors.
van Swaay, Maarten J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A565.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Management
Transistorized power sources for constant current coulometric titration  Stock, John T.
This coulometric titrator uses a complementary pair of transistors to minimize heating affects and improve stability with respect to temperature; an example of experimental use for the apparatus is included.
Stock, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 858.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry
Potentiometric determination of solubility product constants: A laboratory experiment  Tackett, Stanford L.
This paper describes an experiment in which measured potentials and calculated activity coefficients are used to obtain the solubility product constants of silver halides.
Tackett, Stanford L. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 857.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Analytical chemistry for honors applied chemistry students  Atkinson, G. F.
This paper outlines the analytical chemistry content of a new program being introduced at the University of Waterloo (Ontario, Canada) and discusses some of the rationale underlying the development.
Atkinson, G. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 519.
Instrumental Methods
Construction and uses of an inexpensive polarimeter  Vennos, Mary S.
Presents a design of an inexpensive polarimeter and its use to determine the specific rotation of sucrose and the concentration of an unknown sucrose solution.
Vennos, Mary S. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 459.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Photochemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers |
Instrumental Methods |
Noncovalent Interactions
Integrated circuits in the instrumental laboratory  Scherer, George A.
A brief introduction to integrated circuits that exemplifies their use in instrumentation through the construction of a square wave generator, audio amplifier, decimal counting unit, and operational amplifier.
Scherer, George A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 399.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Semiconductors
Recent developments in calorimetry: Part two. Some associated measurements (cont.)  Wilhoit, Randolph C.
Examines the measurement of electricity, calorimetric standards, solution calorimetry, and specific types of calorimeters.
Wilhoit, Randolph C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A685.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Recent developments in calorimetry (continued) Part 2. Some associated measurements  Wilhoit, Randolph C.
Topics examined include thermocouples, resistance thermometers, thermistors, and quartz crystal thermometers.
Wilhoit, Randolph C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A629.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Recent developments in calorimetry. Part 1. Introductory survey of calorimetry  Wilhoit, Randolph C.
Explores the scope and purpose of calorimetric investigation, types of calorimeters, areas of calorimetric investigation and the procedures and calculations involved.
Wilhoit, Randolph C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A571.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Avoiding parallax error when reading a mercury manometer  Carroll, H. L.
This short note describes a simple method employing graph paper to avoid parallax error when reading a mercury manometer.
Carroll, H. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 763.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Condensed norms: ACS cooperative examinations  
Provides norms for the 1966 ACS high school, inorganic, instrumental analysis, and quantitative analysis chemistry tests.
J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 243.
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis
Audio attachment for a simple scaler  Borke, Mitchell L.; Murray, Alex
Presents a circuit diagram and parts list for an audio attachment for a simple scaler.
Borke, Mitchell L.; Murray, Alex J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 593.
Instrumental Methods |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
Instrumentation for micrometry and microscopy. Part three  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines optical principles of the compound microscope, the role of the eye, the process of visual magnification, image quality, resolution versus magnification, and microscope objective and ocular lenses.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A775.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Management
Instrumentation for micrometry and microscopyPart 2  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines dispersion, chromatic aberration and correction, highly corrected magnifiers, limitations of single lenses, and the compound microscope.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A619.
Instrumental Methods
Instrumentation for micrometry and microscopy  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines types of magnifiers, the biconvex lens and its applications, magnification, depth of focus, limitations of simple lenses, and spherical correction and aberration.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A565.
Instrumental Methods
A simple constant-flow device for use in titrimetric analysis  van Swaay, M.; Lolley, R. F.
Presents the design and an evaluation of performance for a simple constant-flow device for use in titrimetric analysis.
van Swaay, M.; Lolley, R. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 381.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
Several designs for constructing potentiometers  Battino, Rubin
This paper describes several designs for constructing inexpensive potentiometers that possess a practical degree of precision.
Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 211.
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Modified single deflection weighing  Knudson, George E.
Describes a single deflection method of weighing using older, double pan balances.
Knudson, George E. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 449.
Instrumental Methods
An inexpensive Littrow spectrograph  Thorn, Craig
A spectrograph of sufficient quality for introductory students need not be expensive is one is willing to construct it from readily available parts.
Thorn, Craig J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 209.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An inexpensive spectrograph of moderately high resolution  Schoenbeck, Ralph; Tabbutt, Frederick D.
This article describes a spectrograph with a resolving power greater than 6000 that can easily be built for a minimal cost.
Schoenbeck, Ralph; Tabbutt, Frederick D. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 452.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Inexpensive polarimeter for demonstrations and student use  Garvin, James E.
This paper describes an easily assembled and inexpensive polarimeter and reports some results of its use in student experiments.
Garvin, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 515.
Instrumental Methods
pH meters (continued)  Lewin, S. Z.
Considers the standardization, calibration, and testing of pH meters, as well as Beckman pH meters.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, A595.
Instrumental Methods |
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Calibration
Balances (continued)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the design and operation of single pan, constant-load balances and recording balances.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, A67.
Instrumental Methods
Balances  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the design, characteristics, and operation of various balances.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, A7.
Instrumental Methods
Use of radioisotopes in the college chemistry laboratory  Phillips, David; Maybury, Robert H.
Provides experiments and experiences working with constructed Geiger counters and radioisotopes.
Phillips, David; Maybury, Robert H. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 133.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Isotopes |
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis |
Kinetics
The analysis of a silver-copper alloy  Baine, Ogden; Banewicz, John
The copper in silver-brazing alloy is analyzed colorimetrically using a simple photometer constructed for this experiment.
Baine, Ogden; Banewicz, John J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 297.
Metals |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis
Finding the rest point of an undamped analytical balance  Stacy, Irving F.
Provides a mathematical analysis for finding the rest point of an undamped analytical balance.
Stacy, Irving F. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 90.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Chemometrics
Some improvised apparatus  Casimir, Sister Mary
Presents several examples of simple equipment constructed by high school students, some for demonstrations and others for use in the lab.
Casimir, Sister Mary J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 69.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods