TIGER

Journal Articles: 87 results
Appreciating Oxygen  Hilton M. Weiss
Photosynthetic flora and microfauna utilize light from the sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates and oxygen. While these carbohydrates and their derivative hydrocarbons are generally considered to be fuels, it is the thermodynamically energetic oxygen molecule that traps, stores, and provides almost all of the energy that powers life on earth.
Weiss, Hilton M. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1218.
Bioenergetics |
Metabolism |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Photosynthesis |
Thermodynamics
Simple Potentiometric Determination of Reducing Sugars  Henry Moresco, Pedro Sanson, and Gustavo Seoane
Describes a potentiometric method for reducing sugar quantification. Its advantages include simplicity, low cost, and the ability to be conducted in colored and turbid samples. This analysis is also safer than the standard LaneEynon method for the determination of reducing sugars.
Moresco, Henry; Sanson, Pedro; Seoane, Gustavo. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1091.
Carbohydrates |
Potentiometry |
Quantitative Analysis
A Simple Laboratory Experiment To Determine the Kinetics of Mutarotation of D-Glucose Using a Blood Glucose Meter  Carlos E. Perles and Pedro L. O. Volpe
A simple commercial blood glucose meter is used to follow the kinetics of mutarotation of D-glucose in aqueous solution. The results may be compared with those obtained using an automatic polarimeter.
Perles, Carlos E.; Volpe, Pedro L. O. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 686.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Bioanalytical Chemistry |
Carbohydrates |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Solutions / Solvents |
Stereochemistry
Converting Municipal Waste into Automobile Fuel: Ethanol from Newspaper  Mark Mascal and Richard Scown
In this experiment, waste newspaper is pulped with acid and its cellulose hydrolyzed to produce glucose syrup that is fermented and distilled to yield ethanol. In doing so, students are introduced to carbohydrate chemistry and the use of fermentation in organic synthesis.
Mascal, Mark; Scown, Richard. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 546.
Acids / Bases |
Alcohols |
Applications of Chemistry |
Biotechnology |
Carbohydrates |
Qualitative Analysis |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Kinetic Analysis of Amylase Using Quantitative Benedict's and Iodine Starch Reagents  Beverly Cochran, Deborah Lunday, and Frank Miskevich
This laboratory emphasizes that enzymes mediate the conversion of a substrate into a product and that either the concentration of product or reactant may be used to follow the course of a reaction. It does so by using an inexpensive scanner and open-source image analysis software to quantify amylase activity through the breakdown of starch and the appearance of glucose.
Cochran, Beverly; Lunday, Deborah; Miskevich, Frank. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 401.
Biosynthesis |
Carbohydrates |
Catalysis |
Enzymes |
Food Science |
Nutrition |
Quantitative Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
The A1c Blood Test: An Illustration of Principles from General and Organic Chemistry  Robert C. Kerber
The glycated hemoglobin blood test is a key measure of the effectiveness of glucose control in diabetics. The chemistry of glucose in the bloodstream, which underlies the test and its impact, provides an illustration of the importance of chemical equilibrium and kinetics to a major health problem.
Kerber, Robert C. . J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1541.
Applications of Chemistry |
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Carbohydrates |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Proteins / Peptides |
Bioorganic Chemistry
An Alternative Procedure for Carbohydrate Analysis of Bananas: Cheaper and Easier  C. Michele Davis-McGibony, Randall R. Bennett, Arthur D. Bossart II, and S. Todd Deal
The use of commercially available glucose test strips for home diabetic care is described as a new approach for determining the glucose concentrations in a ripening banana.
Davis-McGibony, C. Michele; Bennett, Randall R.; Bossart, Arthur D., II; Deal, S. Todd. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1543.
Applications of Chemistry |
Carbohydrates |
Food Science |
Nutrition |
Plant Chemistry
Chemical Bonding Makes a Difference!  Mary Harris
This report describes a PowerPoint presentation that shows how a small difference in bonding can result in a drastic change in the properties of a material.
Harris, Mary. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1435.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Materials Science |
Polymerization |
Carbohydrates
Acetal Protecting Groups in the Organic Laboratory: Synthesis of Methyl 4,6-O-Benzylidene-α-D-Glucopyranoside  Alexei V. Demchenko, Papapida Pornsuriyasak, and Cristina De Meo
The synthesis of methyl 4,6-O-benzylidene-a-D-glucopyranoside provides an opportunity to synthesize a cyclic acetal; stereoselectively introduce a chirality center; and learn extraction, evaporation, precipitation, optical rotation, melting point measurement, thin-layer chromatography, IR-spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and various NMR techniques.
Demchenko, Alexei V.; Pornsuriyasak, Papapida; De Meo, Cristina. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 782.
Carbohydrates |
IR Spectroscopy |
Medicinal Chemistry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Synthesis
The Chemistry of Popcorn: Polymers of Glucose  William F. Coleman
The Featured Molecules this month are all polymers of glucose and include cellobiose, maltose, 10-mer of cellulose, 40-mer of amylose, and an amylopectin fragment.
Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 413.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Carbohydrates
Use of Optical Rotation and NMR Signal Counting To Identify Common Aldoses  John Almy
An inexpensive, small scale experiment for second semester organic students describes the unambiguous identification of a common aldose "unknown" from five possible candidates: glucose, mannose, galactose, arabinose, or xylose
Almy, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 708.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Carbohydrates |
Microscale Lab |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry
Application of Datalogger in Biosensing: A Glucose Biosensor  Martin M. F. Choi and Pui Shan Wong
Using an eggshell as a platform for the immobilization of glucose oxidase while determining glucose concentration through the depletion of oxygen as measured by an oxygen sensor and datalogger.
Choi, Martin M. F.; Wong, Pui Shan. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 982.
Carbohydrates |
Enzymes |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Carbohydrate Analysis: Can We Control the Ripening of Bananas?  S. Todd Deal, Catherine E. Farmer, and Paul F. Cerpovicz
Procedure to determine the carbohydrate composition of bananas at various stages of ripeness and testing various methods of storage for their effectiveness in preserving desirable qualities.
Deal, S. Todd; Farmer, Catherine E.; Cerpovicz, Paul F. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 479.
Carbohydrates |
Nutrition |
Food Science
Integrating HPLC and Electrochemistry: A LabVIEW-Based Pulsed Amperometric Detection System  Mark B. Jensen
Using the voltametry of glucose to develop a method for the pulsed amperometric detection of carbohydrates (glucose, fructose, and sucrose) following their separation by liquid chromatography.
Jensen, Mark B. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 345.
Chromatography |
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
HPLC |
Carbohydrates |
Separation Science |
Oxidation / Reduction
Factors Affecting Reaction Kinetics of Glucose Oxidase  Kristin A. Johnson
Demonstration based on a biochemical kinetics experiment in which the rate of reaction varies with the enzyme concentration, substrate concentration, substrate used in the reaction, and temperature.
Johnson, Kristin A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 74.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Proteins / Peptides |
Carbohydrates |
Catalysis |
Rate Law
Preparation of a D-Glucose-Derived Alkene. An E2 Reaction for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Peter Norris and Andrew Fluxe
Synthesis of four carbohydrate derivatives that highlight techniques such as inert atmosphere work, rotary evaporators, and flash column chromatography.
Norris, Peter; Fluxe, Andrew. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1676.
Carbohydrates |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Alkenes |
Elimination Reactions |
Chromatography
A Modification of a Lactase Experiment by Use of Commercial Test Strips  Tammy J. Melton
Using urinalysis test strips to detect the presence of glucose.
Melton, Tammy J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1243.
Carbohydrates |
Catalysis |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Enzymes |
Nonmajor Courses |
Qualitative Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Ethanol Metabolism and the Transition from Organic Chemistry to Biochemistry  Richard D. Feinman
Introducing alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase reactions in organic chemistry to ease transition to biochemistry.
Feinman, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1215.
Metabolism |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Alcohols |
Carbohydrates
Bioanalytical Experiments for the Undergraduate Laboratory: Monitoring Glucose in Sports Drinks  J. Justin Gooding, Wenrong Yang, and Manihar Situmorang
Introducing students to the techniques of bioanalytical chemistry by using a solution-based enzyme assay and an enzyme electrode for the analysis of glucose concentrations in sports drinks.
Gooding, J. Justin; Yang, Wenrong; Situmorang, Manihar. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 788.
Electrochemistry |
Enzymes |
Food Science |
Quantitative Analysis |
Applications of Chemistry |
Carbohydrates
Surfactant-Induced Osazone Formation at Room Temperature  K. Nagajyothi, P. S. Raghavan, and R. Gopalan
Using surfactants for speedy and easy identification of reducing sugars without heating.
Nagajyothi, K.; Raghavan, P. S.; Gopalan, R. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 728.
Catalysis |
Micelles |
Surface Science |
Carbohydrates |
Qualitative Analysis
Krebs Cycle Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Puzzle with 46 names, terms, prefixes, and acronyms that describe the citric acid (Krebs) cycle.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 515.
Metabolism |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Glycolysis Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Puzzle with 30 names, terms, prefixes, and acronyms that describe glycolysis and fermentation.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 503.
Metabolism |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Carbohydrates
Cabbage Patch Chemistry   JCE Editorial Staff
In this Activity, students make sauerkraut and also investigate the effect of changing one variable in the sauerkraut-making process. This Activity involves students for an entire month (the fermentation period). Related chemical concepts include organic chemistry, catalysts, and carbohydrates.
JCE Editorial Staff. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1432A.
Carbohydrates |
Catalysis |
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science
Enzymatic Spectrophotometric Reaction Rate Determination of Glucose in Fruit Drinks and Carbonated Beverages. An Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment for Food Science-Oriented Students  Argyro-Maria G. Vasilarou and Constantinos A. Georgiou
This laboratory experiment demonstrates the implementation of reaction rate kinetic methods of analysis, the use of enzymes as selective analytical reagents for the determination of substrates, the kinetic masking of ascorbic acid interference, and the analysis of glucose in drinks and beverages.
Vasilarou, Argyro-Maria G.; Georgiou, Constantinos A. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1327.
Enzymes |
Food Science |
Kinetics |
Quantitative Analysis |
Carbohydrates
The Other Double Helix--The Fascinating Chemistry of Starch  Robert D. Hancock and Bryon J. Tarbet
The chemistry of starch, particularly the structure of starch and starch granules.
Hancock, Robert D.; Tarbet, Bryon J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 988.
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Carbohydrates |
Food Science |
Stereochemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
SOS: A Mnemonic for the Stereochemistry of Glucose  Ronald Starkey
The mnemonic SOS (Same, Opposite, Same) can be helpful to recall the stereochemistry in either D-glucose or L-glucose. It refers to the configurations of C-2, C-3, and C-4 relative to that of C-5 in an aldohexose.
Starkey, Ronald. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 734.
Carbohydrates |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Sugar Wordsearch  Terry L. Helser
Wordsearch puzzle containing 29 names, terms, prefixes and acronyms that describe sugars and their polymers.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 480.
Carbohydrates |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
An Analytical Laboratory Experiment in Error Analysis: Repeated Determination of Glucose Using Commercial Glucometers  Paul L. Edmiston and Theodore R. Williams
Glucometers measure reflectance from enzyme test strips to quantitate glucose concentrations in blood. Since the typical measurement takes less than two minutes, large data sets can be obtained for statistical analysis. Students design experiments to answer specific questions concerning the performance of the glucometers.
Edmiston, Paul L.; Williams, Theodore R. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 377.
Chemometrics |
Carbohydrates |
Enzymes
An Alternative Procedure for the Glucose Oxidase Assay of Glucose as Applied to the Lactase Activity Assay  T. Corbin Mullis, Jeffery T. Winge, and S. Todd Deal
The glucose oxidase assay of glucose has been modified to eliminate the use of micropipets. The modification involves the use of disposable Pasteur pipets and a specified number of drops of each reagent. This simplified technique gives accurate and reproducible results.
Mullis, T. Corbin; Winge, Jeffery T.; Deal, S. Todd. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1711.
Enzymes |
Carbohydrates |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Identifying Softwoods and Hardwoods by Infrared Spectroscopy  Brady Barker and Noel L. Owen
Infrared spectra of 45 softwoods and hardwoods have been recorded. The wavenumber values of the carbonyl stretching vibration and one of the ring-breathing modes of lignin are used to distinguish softwoods from hardwoods. The differences between the absorption bands for the softwoods and hardwoods in each instance are shown to be statistically significant.
Barker, Brady; Owen, Noel L. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1706.
Carbohydrates |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Plant Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Demonstration of Optical Rotatory Dispersion of Sucrose  S. M. Mahurin, R. N. Compton, and Richard N. Zare
A method for demonstrating and measuring the optical activity of chiral molecules in solution is described in which the rotation of linearly polarized light is directly observed at right angles to the propagation of light in the liquid.
Mahurin, S. M.; Compton, Robert N.; Zare, Richard N. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1234.
Instrumental Methods |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Carbohydrates
A New Method To Convert the Fischer Projection of Monosaccharide to the Haworth Projection  Qing-zhi Zhang and Shen-song Zhang
The D,L-configuration of a sugar in Haworth projection can be directly determined by designating the R,S-configuration of the highest-numbered asymmetric carbon; that is, the most distant carbon from the anomeric carbon. The R-configuration at this carbon corresponds to the D-family, and S- to the L-family.
Zhang, Qing-zhi; Zhang, Shen-song. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 799.
Carbohydrates |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
A Simple Method To Demonstrate the Enzymatic Production of Hydrogen from Sugar  Natalie Hershlag, Ian Hurley, and Jonathan Woodward
In the experimental protocol described here, it has been demonstrated that the common sugar glucose can be used to produce hydrogen using two enzymes, glucose dehydrogenase and hydrogenase. No sophisticated or expensive hydrogen detection equipment is required-only a redox dye, benzyl viologen, which turns purple when it is reduced. The color can be detected by a simple colorimeter.
Hershlag, Natalie; Hurley, Ian; Woodward, Jonathan. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1270.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Carbohydrates |
Applications of Chemistry
Working with Enzymes - Where Is Lactose Digested? An Enzyme Assay for Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratories  Sandi R. Pope, Tonya D. Tolleson, R. Jill Williams, Russell D. Underhill, and S. Todd Deal
An enzyme assay utilizing lactase enzyme from crushed LactAid tablets and a 5% lactose solution ("synthetic milk"). In the experiment, the students assay the activity of the enzyme on the "synthetic milk" at pHs of approximately 1, 6, and 8 with the stated goal of determining where lactose functions in the digestive tract. The activity of the lactase may be followed chromatographically or spectrophotometrically.
Pope, Sandi R.; Tolleson, Tonya D.; Williams, R. Jill; Underhill, Russell D.; Deal, S. Todd. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 761.
Enzymes |
Carbohydrates |
Catalysis |
Chromatography |
Spectroscopy |
Nutrition
Sugar Dehydration without Sulfuric Acid: No More Choking Fumes in the Classroom!  Todd P. Silverstein and Yi Zhang
Our demonstration uses no sulfuric acid, yields relatively little smoke, and produces an exciting and unpredictable growing column of black carbon.
Silverstein, Todd P.; Zhang, Yi. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 748.
Carbohydrates |
Thermodynamics |
Electrochemistry |
Solid State Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Mini-Qualitative Carbohydrate Analysis Session  Johannes S. Malherbe and Cornelius J. Meyer
A qualitative analysis scheme for a limited selection of carbohydrates (i.e. some mono- and disaccharides) using a flowchart approach. Procedures, for the preparation of all reagents, the tests and a brief description of the results are detailed.
Malherbe, Johannes S.; Meyer, Cornelius J. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1304.
Carbohydrates |
Qualitative Analysis |
Nonmajor Courses
Protecting Groups in Carbohydrate Chemistry  Sigthór Pétursson
The most important protecting groups in carbohydrate chemistry are reviewed. The paper is aimed at those beginning to specialize in synthetic carbohydrate chemistry and at teachers with other specialties who wish to go beyond the content of general organic chemistry textbooks.
Petursson, Sigthor. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1297.
Carbohydrates |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Synthesis
Carbohydrate Dehydration Demonstrations  David A. Dolson, Rubin Battino, Trevor M. Letcher, K. H. Pegel, and N. Revaprasadu
Study of the dehydration of a carbohydrate by sulfuric acid and variables that influence the reaction (including type of sugar, sugar granule size, and amount of water added to sugar).
Dolson, David A.; Battino, Rubin; Letcher, Trevor M.; Pegel, K. H.; Revprasadu, N. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 927.
Carbohydrates |
Reactions
Di-O-Isopropylidene-Mannofuranose: An Introduction to Sugar Protecting Groups  Darcy, Raphael
The author describes the preparation of di-O-isopropylidene mannose as an introduction to sugar protecting-group chemistry, and an update for undergraduate sugar chemistry.
Darcy, Raphael J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1090.
Carbohydrates
A Handy Reagent for Testing the Reducing Power of Sugars  Sandell, Arvid
Using the reduction of copper(II) as a semi-quantitative test for reducing sugars.
Sandell, Arvid J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 346.
Carbohydrates |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Coordination Compounds
The Blue Bottle Experiment Revisited: How Blue? How Sweet?  Cook, A. Gilbert; Tolliver, Randi M.; Williams, Janelle E.
Determining whether other colors and carbohydrates are possible with the "Blue Bottle" reaction.
Cook, A. Gilbert; Tolliver, Randi M.; Williams, Janelle E. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 160.
Aromatic Compounds |
Reactions |
Rate Law |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Carbohydrates |
Oxidation / Reduction
An Informative Model of Haworth Structures  Rowe, H. Alan.
Exercise that gives students experience in manipulating Hawthorn structures.
Rowe, H. Alan. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 131.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Carbohydrates
Bioenergetics of glycolysis   Senkbeil, Edward
The following question involves the bioenergetic aspects of glycolysis. It is suitable for undergraduate biochemistry students, and it assumes that they have a copy of the pathway handy.
Senkbeil, Edward J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 412.
Bioenergetics |
Metabolism
NMR and the structure of D-glucose  Gurst, Jerome E.
A discussion of typical organic chemistry textbook treatment of NMR evidence of glucose structure.
Gurst, Jerome E. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1003.
Carbohydrates |
NMR Spectroscopy
Binary representation in carbohydrate nomenclature  McGinn, Clifford J.; Wheatley, William B.
A binary notation is used to indicate the structure of carbohydrates.
McGinn, Clifford J.; Wheatley, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 747.
Carbohydrates |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stereochemistry
The energetics of aerobic versus anaerobic respiration: A biophysical chemistry laboratory experiment using an adiabatic calorimeter  Champion, Timothy D.; Schwenz, Richard W.
The authors describe an exercise in which they measure the difference in energy gained from aerobic and anaerobic oxidation of glucose.
Champion, Timothy D.; Schwenz, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 528.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Biophysical Chemistry |
Carbohydrates
Biochemistry laboratory for the freshman chemistry curriculum  Falk, Peter M.
Intended to introduce students to two important biochemical principles: the study of biomolecules and metabolism.
Falk, Peter M. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 944.
Metabolism |
Carbohydrates |
Lipids |
Proteins / Peptides |
Plant Chemistry
Using an oval to represent carbohydrates with hexopyranose rings  Fulkrod, John E.
An shorthand alternative to representing hexopyranose rings using chair conformation structures.
Fulkrod, John E. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 485.
Carbohydrates |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Qualitative versus quantitative results: An experimental introduction to data interpretation  Johnson, Eric R.; Alter, Paula
This paper describes an experiment in which the student can ascertain the meaning of a negative result from a quantitative test on the same sample.
Johnson, Eric R.; Alter, Paula J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 440.
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Carbohydrates
Carbohydrate stereochemistry  Shallenberger, Robert S.; Wienen, Wanda J.
A progress in the development of general stereochemical principles has been significantly influenced by studies that led to determination of the crystalline and solution structures of sugars, the subject of carbohydrate chemistry is developed here in historical fashion.
Shallenberger, Robert S.; Wienen, Wanda J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 67.
Carbohydrates |
Stereochemistry
The biochemistry of brewing   Bering, Charles L.
There are few topics that hold the attention of students as much as the one presented in this paper.
Bering, Charles L. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 519.
Biological Cells |
Carbohydrates |
Applications of Chemistry |
Alcohols |
Metabolism |
Enzymes |
Biotechnology |
Molecular Biology |
Consumer Chemistry
A laboratory exercise in the determination of carbohydrate structures  White, Bernard J.; Robyt, John F.
A laboratory exercise in the determination of carbohydrate structures that introduces students to important aspects of science, such as designing experiments, making observations, and testing hypotheses.
White, Bernard J.; Robyt, John F. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 164.
Carbohydrates
Tollens's test, fulminating silver, and silver fulminate  Jenkins, Ian D.
Preparation, application, and misinformation regarding Tollens's test for aldehydes and reducing sugars.
Jenkins, Ian D. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 164.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Carbohydrates |
Qualitative Analysis |
Laboratory Management
Configurations of glucose and other aldoses: New twists and reflections an old problems  Bentley, Ronald; Popp, Janet L.
Develops a comprehensive treatment of the configurations of aldoses in terms of the concept of rotational symmetry.
Bentley, Ronald; Popp, Janet L. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 15.
Carbohydrates |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Simple rule for the conversion of Fischer monosaccharide projection formulas into Haworth representations  Argiles, J. M.
Many students struggle with memorizing Haworth structures, the authors provide some insight on this topic to help students.
Argiles, J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 927.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enantiomers |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Carbohydrates |
Molecular Modeling
Using concepts of exercise and weight control to illustrate biochemical principles  Zimmerman, S. Scott
Forms of stored energy in the body; caloric balance, exercise, and weight control; a recommended exercise program; the physiological effects of endurance training; and the biochemistry of running a marathon.
Zimmerman, S. Scott J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 882.
Metabolism |
Bioenergetics
The chemical composition of the cell  Holum, John R.
A broad outline of the chemical substances that occur in most cells.
Holum, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 877.
Biological Cells |
Lipids |
Carbohydrates |
Proteins / Peptides
Nutrition (diet) and athletics  Lineback, David R.
Nutritional requirements of athletes, energy use for various activities, carbohydrate loading, and myths and fallacies.
Lineback, David R. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 536.
Nutrition |
Bioenergetics |
Metabolism |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Carbohydrates
Sweet heat  O'Connor, Rod
What would be the net enthalpy change for the complete combustion of 5.00 g of glucose at body temperature?
O'Connor, Rod J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 889.
Carbohydrates |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Chemometrics
The metabolism of carbohydrates  
Traces the metabolism of carbohydrates and the flow of materials among the various resource pools in living systems.
J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 534.
Carbohydrates |
Metabolism |
Bioenergetics
Pre-vacation experiment: The effect of temperature and torsion on the structure of a saccharide  Ford, Linda Kay
An experiment in which students prepare salt-water taffy.
Ford, Linda Kay J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 550.
Carbohydrates |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Cycloamyloses  Bergeron, Raymond J.
Examines an unusual carbohydrate system of current interest in the hope of generating some enthusiasm for the topic.
Bergeron, Raymond J. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 204.
Carbohydrates |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Enzymes |
Spectroscopy
A polarimeter experiment for introductory courses  Gibas, Murray A.
This note describes an experiment which can be done with an inexpensive polarimeter, requires only about 20 minutes per student, and yet gives results accurate enough to satisfy the students.
Gibas, Murray A. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 462.
Enantiomers |
Carbohydrates |
Equilibrium
a[alpha]- and [bet]a-D-glucose pentaacetate. An experiment in structure assignment using NMR  Pearson, Wesley A.; Spessard, Gary O.
The synthesis and structural determination of alpha- and beta-D-glucose pentaacetate.
Pearson, Wesley A.; Spessard, Gary O. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 814.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Carbohydrates |
Synthesis
A new chemistry program for nursing and allied health students  Stanitski, Conrad L.; Sears, Curtis T., Jr.
Outlines and discusses the topics considered in a chemistry program for nursing and allied health students.
Stanitski, Conrad L.; Sears, Curtis T., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 226.
Nonmajor Courses |
Applications of Chemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Catalysis |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Metabolism |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
Analysis of reducing sugars in breakfast cereal and other foods. A general chemistry experiment  Bittman, Robert
The experiment described here has been introduced in the freshman chemistry laboratory and has been found to be of interest to the student and instructive as well.
Bittman, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 46.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Carbohydrates |
Food Science
Maple syrup production as a laboratory exercise  Burt, Norman E.
A primer to maple syrup production, a source for a variety of laboratory exercises.
Burt, Norman E. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 623.
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Carbohydrates
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
Five questions requiring an application of chemical principles and their solutions.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 128.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Proteins / Peptides |
pH |
Carbohydrates |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
Five questions requiring an application of basic chemical principles.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 269.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Agricultural Chemistry |
Metabolism |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Proteins / Peptides
Mercury poisoning  Strong, Laurence E.
Explains why mercury is poisonous.
Strong, Laurence E. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 28.
Toxicology |
Metabolism
A simplified proof of the constitution and configuration of D-glucose  Frohwein, Y, Z.
Presents a simplified proof of the constitution and configuration of D-glucose for students being introduced to carbohydrate chemistry.
Frohwein, Y, Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 55.
Carbohydrates |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enantiomers |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Biological oxidations and energy conservation  Kirschbaum, Joel
Examines the oxidative steps leading to the synthesis of ATP in living organisms and their metabolic control.
Kirschbaum, Joel J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 28.
Bioenergetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics |
Metabolism
Letter to the editor  Bhatnagar, Vijay Mohan
Distinguishes between alpha- and beta-amylose and their mixtures, particular with respect to iodimetric titrations.
Bhatnagar, Vijay Mohan J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 771.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Carbohydrates
Reaction rate analysis and instrumentation: An experiment for the analytical laboratory  Pardue, Harry L.; Burke, Michael F.; Jones, David O.
This experiment exemplifies the use of operational amplifiers for measurement and analog computation in determining the glucose utilizing glucose enzyme.
Pardue, Harry L.; Burke, Michael F.; Jones, David O. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 684.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Catalysis |
Enzymes |
Carbohydrates
The use of talc as a tlc adsorbent  Walsh, Brother Joseph M.
Describes the use of talc as a thin layer chromatography adsorbent, particularly with respect to the separation of flavonoids, sugars, and proteins.
Walsh, Brother Joseph M. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 294.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Proteins / Peptides |
Carbohydrates
Determination of glucose: A kinetics experiment for the analytical course  Toren, E. Clifford, Jr.
This determination of glucose demonstrates both kinetic and enzymatic methods of analysis.
Toren, E. Clifford, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 172.
Quantitative Analysis |
Carbohydrates |
Kinetics |
Enzymes
Polyethylene and pipecleaner models of biological polymers  Pollard, Harvey Bruce
An accurate method for modeling polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and proteins involves the use of pipecleaners, polyethylene tubing, and proteins.
Pollard, Harvey Bruce J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 327.
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Carbohydrates
Acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of sucrose: A student study of a reaction mechanism  Dawber, J. G.; Brown, D. R.; Reed, R. A.
By extending the experimental work in a kinetic study of the hydrolysis of sucrose, the beginning student in chemistry can gather some insight into the mechanism of the reaction.
Dawber, J. G.; Brown, D. R.; Reed, R. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 34.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions |
Carbohydrates
A panoramic approach to the proof of configuration of aldohexoses  Rosenblatt, David H.
Presents a didactic approach to the classical proofs of configuration of aldohexoses.
Rosenblatt, David H. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 271.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Carbohydrates
Systematic names for the tartaric acids  Baxter, J. N.
Examines the use of the small capital letters D and L in naming tartaric acids.
Baxter, J. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 619.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Acids / Bases |
Carbohydrates |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers
Evidence for the configuration on carbon 1 of d-glucose  Sickels, Jackson P.; Schultz, Harry P.
The pyranose forms of alpha- and beta-D-glucose, because of the cyclohexane conformations of their six-membered rings, do not explain the results of the conductivity of these sugars in boric acid.
Sickels, Jackson P.; Schultz, Harry P. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 343.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Carbohydrates
The geometry of giant molecules  Price, Charles C.
The author examines a variety of specific examples of natural and synthetic polymer molecules and describes how their geometric molecular arrangements influence their properties.
Price, Charles C. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 160.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Proteins / Peptides |
Carbohydrates
The pyranose structure of glucose  Miller, S. Porter
The author argues that a good rectangle is a better representation of the pyranose structure than a poor hexagon.
Miller, S. Porter J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 302.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Carbohydrates
Ciphered formulas in carbohydrate chemistry  Difini, Alvaro; Neto, Jose Difini
Describes the use of schematic formulas as an aid to rapidly representing configurations for monosaccharides.
Difini, Alvaro; Neto, Jose Difini J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 38.
Carbohydrates |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity
Schematic models of biochemical polymers  Blackwell, R. Quentin
Demonstrates the use of plastic necklace beads to represent polysaccharides, peptides and proteins, and nucleotides.
Blackwell, R. Quentin J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 500.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Proteins / Peptides |
Carbohydrates
Some difficulties and common errors related to the designation of sugar configurations  Abernethy, John Leo
Examines some difficulties and common errors related to the designation of sugar configurations.
Abernethy, John Leo J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 88.
Carbohydrates |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers
A mnemonic acid for aldoses  Deloach, Will S.; Brandon, Ann
Presents a mnemonic aid for remembering the D-aldoses (through the hexoses).
Deloach, Will S.; Brandon, Ann J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 136.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Carbohydrates