Journal Articles: 65 results 

A Laboratory Experiment Using Molecular Models for an Introductory Chemistry Class Shahrokh Ghaffari Presents a new approach to using molecular models in teaching general chemistry concepts. Students construct molecular models and use them to balance simple chemical equations, demonstrate the law of conservation of mass, and discover the relationship between the mole and molecules and atoms. Ghaffari, Shahrokh. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1182.
Molecular Modeling 
Stoichiometry 
StudentCentered Learning

Interactive Demonstrations for Mole Ratios and Limiting Reagents Crystal Wood and Bryan Breyfogle The objective of this study was to develop interactive lecture demonstrations based on conceptualchange learning theory. Experimental instruction was designed for an introductory chemistry course for nonmajors to address misconceptions related to mole ratios and limiting reagents Wood, Crystal; Breyfogle, Bryan. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 741.
Learning Theories 
Reactions 
Stoichiometry 
StudentCentered Learning

Procedure for Decomposing a Redox Reaction into HalfReactions Ilie Fishtik and Ladislav H. Berka The principle of stoichiometric uniqueness provides a simple algorithm to check whether a simple redox reaction may be uniquely decomposed into halfreactions in a single way. For complex redox reactions the approach permits a complete enumeration of a finite and unique number of ways a redox reaction may be decomposed into halfreactions. Several examples are given. Fishtik, Ilie; Berka, Ladislav H. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 553.
Stoichiometry 
Equilibrium 
Electrochemistry 
Oxidation / Reduction 
Reactions 
Thermodynamics

Evaluating Students' Conceptual Understanding of Balanced Equations and Stoichiometric Ratios Using a Particulate Drawing Michael J. Sanger A total of 156 students were asked to provide freeresponse balanced chemical equations for a classic multiplechoice particulatedrawing question first used by Nurrenbern and Pickering. The balanced equations and the number of students providing each equation are reported in this study. The most common student errors included a confusion between the concepts of subscripts and coefficients and including unreacted chemical species in the equation. Sanger, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 131.
Stoichiometry 
KineticMolecular Theory

Using Knowledge Space Theory To Assess Student Understanding of Stoichiometry Ramesh D. Arasasingham, Mare Taagepera, Frank Potter, and Stacy Lonjers Using the concept of stoichiometry we examined the ability of beginning college chemistry students to make connections among the molecular, symbolic, and graphical representations of chemical phenomena, as well as to conceptualize, visualize, and solve numerical problems. Students took a test designed to follow conceptual development; we then analyzed student responses and the connectivities of their responses, or the cognitive organization of the material or thinking patterns, applying knowledge space theory (KST). The results reveal that the students' logical frameworks of conceptual understanding were very weak and lacked an integrated understanding of some of the fundamental aspects of chemical reactivity. Arasasingham, Ramesh D.; Taagepera, Mare; Potter, Frank; Lonjers, Stacy. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1517.
Learning Theories 
Stoichiometry 
Constructivism

The Decomposition of Zinc Carbonate: Using Stoichiometry To Choose between Chemical Formulas Stephen DeMeo To determine which formula corresponds to a bottle labeled "zinc carbonate", students perform qualitative tests on three of zinc carbonate's decomposition products: zinc oxide, carbon dioxide, and water. Next students make quantitative measurements to find molar ratios and compare them with the coefficients of the balanced chemical equations. This allows the correct formula of zinc carbonate to be deduced. DeMeo, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 119.
Gases 
Stoichiometry 
Quantitative Analysis

AlkaSeltzer Fizzing—Determination of Percent by Mass of NaHCO_{3} in AlkaSeltzer Tablets. An Undergraduate General Chemistry Experiment YuehHuey Chen and JingFun Yaung Lab activity that introduces the concept of a limiting reactant by incrementally increasing the amount of vinegar added to an Alka Seltzer tablet. Chen, YuehHuey; Yaung, JingFun. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 848.
Acids / Bases 
Quantitative Analysis 
Stoichiometry

Analysis of an Oxygen Bleach: A Redox Titration Lab Christine L. Copper and Edward Koubek Students balance the reaction of H2O2 and MnO4 in two different ways (one assuming that H2O2 is the oxygen source and a second assuming that MnO4 is the oxygen source), determine which of these balanced equations has the correct stoichiometry by titrating a standard H2O2 solution with KMnO4, and use the correct balanced equation to determine the mass percent of H2O2 in a commercially available bleach solution. Copper, Christine L.; Koubek, Edward. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 652.
Quantitative Analysis 
Oxidation / Reduction 
Stoichiometry 
Titration / Volumetric Analysis 
Consumer Chemistry

Using Games To Teach Chemistry. 2. CHeMoVEr Board Game Jeanne V. Russell A board game similar to Sorry or Parcheesi was developed. Students must answer chemistry questions correctly to move their game piece around the board. Card decks contain questions on balancing equations, identifying the types of equations, and predicting products from given reactants. Russell, Jeanne V. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 487.
Stoichiometry 
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols

Let's Dot Our I's and Cross Our T's Leenson, Ilya A.
Leenson, Ilya A. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1088.
Stoichiometry 
Oxidation / Reduction

A Challenging Balance P Glaister A difficulttobalance equation and how its solution might be approached. Glaister, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1368.
Stoichiometry

Redox Balancing without Puzzling Marten J. ten Hoor Once it has been established by experiment that the given reactants can indeed be converted into the given products, chemistry has done its job. Balancing the equation of the reaction is a matter of mathematics only. ten Hoor, Marten J. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1367.
Stoichiometry 
Oxidation / Reduction

A New and General Method for Balancing Chemical Equations by Inspections Chunshi Guo Any chemical equation, no matter how complicated, can be balanced by inspection. In fact, inspection is often the quickest and easiest way to balance complex equation. The method described here involves the use of "linked sets". It does not require the use of oxidation numbers of the splitting of equations into "half reactions". It can be used to balance all kinds of chemical equations, including ionic equations. Guo, Chunshi. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1365.
Stoichiometry

Balancing Chemical Equations by Inspection Zoltán Tóth The paper shows that the balancing chemical equations by inspection is not a trialanderror process, because a systematic procedure for the balancing simple and more complicated chemical equations without oxidation numbers or equations with several unknowns can be suggested. The proposed method is suitable for balancing all the chemical equations, including ionic equations, which have single unique solution. Toth, Zoltan. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1363.
Stoichiometry

On Balancing Chemical Equations: Past and Present William C. Herndon The main purposes of this paper are to give a listing of selected papers on balancing chemical equations that may be useful to chemistry teachers and potential authors as background material, and to provide some comparisons of methods. The selection criteria for the references were deliberately broad, in order to include a wide variety of topics and seminal historical citations, and the references are annotated to increase their usefulness. Herndon, William C. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1359.
Stoichiometry

Letter to the Editor about Letter to the Editor "Redox Challenges" from David M. Hart and Response from Roland Stout (J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A2267) Andrzej Sobkowiak Examples of a variety of redox equations. Sobkowiak, Andrzej. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1256.
Stoichiometry 
Reactions 
Oxidation / Reduction

Letter to the Editor about "Redox Challenges" by Roland Stout (J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1125) Rodger S. Nelson Solution for balancing a difficult equation using the conservation of mass. Nelson, Rodger S. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1256.
Stoichiometry

An Analysis of the Algebraic Method for Balancing Chemical Reactions John A. Olson A new aspect of this treatment is the mathematical formulation of a third condition involving a balance between oxidation and reduction. The treatment begins with the three general conditions that a balanced chemical reaction must satisfy. These conditions are then expressed in mathematical form that enables the stoichiometric coefficients to be determined. Olson, John A. . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 538.
Oxidation / Reduction 
Stoichiometry

Redox Challenges (the author replies) Stout, Roland Algebraic solution to balancing a redox equation. Stout, Roland J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A227.
Stoichiometry 
Oxidation / Reduction 
Oxidation State

Redox Challenges (2) Zaugg, Noel S. Algebraic solution to balancing a redox equation. Zaugg, Noel S. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A226.
Stoichiometry 
Oxidation / Reduction 
Oxidation State

Redox Challenges (1) Hart, David M. Algebraic solution to balancing a redox equation. Hart, David M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A226.
Stoichiometry 
Oxidation / Reduction 
Oxidation State

How Do I Balance Thee? ... Let Me Count the Ways! Lawrence A. Ferguson The author suggests that this would be a good equation for students to try to balance by trial and error because it has two different sets of coefficients that are not multiples of each other. Ferguson, Lawrence A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1129.
Stoichiometry

Redox Challenges: Good Times for Puzzle Fanatics Roland Stout Three difficult to balance redox equations. Stout, Roland. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1125.
Reactions 
Stoichiometry 
Oxidation / Reduction 
Enrichment / Review Materials

The Relationship between the Number of Elements and the Number of Independent Equations of Elemental Balance in Inorganic Chemical Equations R. Subramanian, N.K. Goh, and L. S. Chia The criterion for determining whether a chemical equation can be balanced fully by the algebraic technique and its application. Subramaniam, R.; Goh, N. K.; Chia, L. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 894.
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

REACT: Exploring Practical Thermodynamic and Equilibrium Calculations Ramette, Richard W. Description of REACT software to balance complicated equations; determine thermodynamic data for all reactants and products; calculate changes in free energy, enthalpy, and entropy for a reaction; and find equilibrium conditions for the a reaction. Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 240.
Stoichiometry 
Equilibrium 
Thermodynamics 
Chemometrics

Balancing a chemical equation: What does it mean? Filgueiras, Carlos A Students were puzzled by the idea that one chemical equation could be balanced in several different ways. This led to a fruitful discussion on how exact a science chemistry really is. Filgueiras, Carlos A J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 276.
Stoichiometry 
Oxidation / Reduction

Chemical equations are actually matrix equations Alberty, Robert A. Chemists tend to think that chemical equations are unique to chemistry and they are not used to thinking of chemical equations as the mathematical equations they in fact are. The objective of this paper is to illustrate the mathematical significance of chemical equations. Alberty, Robert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 984.
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

Nitric oxide leftovers Hornack, Fred M. This example shows that a stoichiometric problem can be solved in a number of different but equally valid ways. Hornack, Fred M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 496.
Stoichiometry 
Applications of Chemistry

Problem solving and requisite knowledge of chemistry Lythcott, Jean It is possible for students to produce right answers to chemistry problems without really understanding much of the chemistry involved. Lythcott, Jean J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 248.
Stoichiometry 
Learning Theories

A question of basic chemical literacy? Missen, Ronald W.; Smith, William R. The ability to read and write clearly in chemicalequation terms is not as well developed as it should be. The purpose of this "Provocative Opinion" is to draw attention to this problem, and to suggest specific remedies for its solution. Missen, Ronald W.; Smith, William R. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 217.
Stoichiometry

Chemistry according to ROF (Fee, Richard) Radcliffe, George; Mackenzie, Norma N. Two reviews on a software package that consists of 68 programs on 17 disks plus an administrative disk geared toward acquainting students with fundamental chemistry content. For instance, acids and bases, significant figures, electron configuration, chemical structures, bonding, phases, and more. Radcliffe, George; Mackenzie, Norma N. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A239.
Chemometrics 
Atomic Properties / Structure 
Equilibrium 
Periodicity / Periodic Table 
Periodicity / Periodic Table 
Stoichiometry 
Physical Properties 
Acids / Bases 
Covalent Bonding

Solving limiting reagent problems (the author replies) Kalantar, A. H. Thanks for clarification and suggestion. Kalantar, A. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 472.
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

Solving limiting reagent problems Skovlin, Dean O. Uncertainty in the meaning of the term X. Skovlin, Dean O. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 472.
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

A new method to balance chemical equations Garcia, Arcesio A simple method, applicable to any kind of reaction, that does not require the knowledge of oxidation numbers. Garcia, Arcesio J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 247.
Stoichiometry 
Oxidation State 
Reactions

The chemistry tutor (Rinehart, F.P.) Watkins, Stanley R.; Krugh, William D. Two reviews of a twodisk package that is designed to help students master the essential skills of equation balancing, stoichiometric,and limiting reagents calculations. Watkins, Stanley R.; Krugh, William D. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, A206.
Stoichiometry

Chemistry: Stoichiometry and Chemistry: Acids and Bases ( Frazin, J. and partners) Bendall, Victor I.; Roe, Robert, Jr. Two reviews of a software package that contains drill and practice programs that are suitable for beginning students of chemistry. Bendall, Victor I.; Roe, Robert, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, A204.
Stoichiometry 
Acids / Bases

A simpler method of chemical reaction balancing Harjadi, W. The author adds to some other approaches that appeared in this Journal that dealt with balancing a rather large chemical equation. Harjadi, W. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 978.
Stoichiometry

What can we do about Sue: A case study of competence Herron, J. Dudley; Greenbowe, Thomas J. A case study of a "successful" student who is representative of other successful students that are not prepared to solve novel problems. Herron, J. Dudley; Greenbowe, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 528.
Stoichiometry 
Learning Theories

On writing equations Campbell, J.A. The author presents a very direct approach to writing complicated equations without using a matrix approach. Campbell, J.A. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 63.
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

How should equation balancing be taught? Porter, Spencer K. Suggestions for balancing chemical equations. Porter, Spencer K. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 507.
Stoichiometry

Note to: method for balancing redox reactions containing hydroxyl ions Stark, Franz M. A much simpler way of balancing the equations presented. Stark, Franz M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 476.
Stoichiometry 
Oxidation / Reduction

Balancing complex chemical equations using a handheld calculator Alberty, Robert A. 37. Bits and pieces, 14. This article is primarily concerned the question: If certain specified chemical species are involved in a reaction, what are the stoichiometric coefficients? Alberty, Robert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 102.
Stoichiometry

Chemical equation balancing: A general method which is quick, simple, and has unexpected applications Blakley, G. R. Using matrices to solve mathematical equations and balance chemical equations. From "The Goals of General Chemistry  A Symposium." Blakley, G. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 728.
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

Balancing chemical equations with a calculator Kennedy, John H. A straightforward mechanical approach that leads quickly to a properly balanced equation. Kennedy, John H. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 523.
Stoichiometry

Balancing complex redox equations by inspection Kolb, Doris A stepbystep walk through of the inspection process for balancing equations. Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 642.
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

Pressure and the exploding beverage container Perkins, Robert R. The question in this article is an extension of exploding pop bottles to illustrate the balancing of a chemical equation, enthalpy, stoichiometry, and vapor pressure calculations, and the use of the Ideal Gas Equation. The question is aimed at the firstyear level student. Perkins, Robert R. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 363.
Stoichiometry 
Gases 
Thermodynamics 
Chemometrics

More on balancing redox equations Kolb, Doris Balancing atypical redox equations. Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 181.
Stoichiometry 
Oxidation / Reduction

Participatory lecture demonstrations Battino, Rubin Examples of participatory lecture demonstrations in chromatography, chemical kinetics, balancing equations, the gas laws, the kineticmolecular theory, Henry's law, electronic energy levels in atoms, translational, vibrational, and rotational energies of molecules, and organic chemistry. Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 39.
Chromatography 
KineticMolecular Theory 
Kinetics 
Stoichiometry 
Gases 
Atomic Properties / Structure 
Molecular Properties / Structure

Balancing an atypical redox equation Carrano, S. A. The author presents a particularly tricky redox problem and walks readers through a solution. Carrano, S. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 382.
Chemometrics 
Oxidation / Reduction 
Stoichiometry

The chemical equation. Part I: Simple reactions Kolb, Doris A chemical equation is often misunderstood by students as an "equation" that is used in chemistry. However, a more accurate description is that it is a concise statement describing a chemical reaction expressed in chemical symbolism. Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 184.
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics 
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols 
Reactions

A computer program designed to balance inorganic chemical equations Rosen, Allen I. A BASIC program designed to check the correct balancing of chemical equations. Rosen, Allen I. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 704.
Stoichiometry

A balancing act Schug, Kenneth A method for teaching introductory students how to balance chemical equations. Schug, Kenneth J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 370.
Stoichiometry

The paper clip mole  An undergraduate experiment Cassen, T. Paper clips are used to represent atoms and demonstrate the concept of atomic weight. Cassen, T. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 386.
Stoichiometry

Mole concept and limiting reagent in the laboratory Maio, Frances A. The author provides a stepwise approach to problems in limiting reagents and the mole concepts. Maio, Frances A. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 155.
Stoichiometry

Grading the copper sulfide experiment Novick, Seymour The author recommends a more liberal analysis in grading the copper sulfide experiment. Novick, Seymour J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 785.
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

Balancing equations (the author responds) Young, Jay A. Recognizes the referenced letter. Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 785.
Stoichiometry

Balancing equations Missen, R. W. The author provides an alternative answer to the question in the referenced article. Missen, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 785.
Stoichiometry

Application of diophantine equations to problems in chemistry Crocker, Roger The mathematical method of diophantine equations is shown to apply to two problems in chemistry: the balancing of chemical equations, and determining the molecular formula of a compound. Crocker, Roger J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 731.
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics 
Stoichiometry

Balancing ionic equations by the method of undetermined coefficients Haas, Rudy; Gayer, Karl H. Describes a mathematical method for balancing chemical equations. Haas, Rudy; Gayer, Karl H. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 537.
Stoichiometry 
Chemometrics

Redox revisited Lockwood, Karl L. Examines issues regarding instruction in oxidationreduction chemistry. Lockwood, Karl L. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 326.
Oxidation / Reduction 
Oxidation State 
Stoichiometry

Letters to the editor Perkins, Alfred J. A discussion of balancing redox equations in response to an earlier article in the Journal. Perkins, Alfred J. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 474.
Stoichiometry 
Oxidation / Reduction

Writing oxidationreduction equations: A review of textbook materials Yalman, Richard G. The purpose of this paper is to review those parts of a number of textbooks containing aids or suggestions to help students balance oxidationreduction reactions. Yalman, Richard G. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 215.
Stoichiometry 
Oxidation / Reduction 
Oxidation State

Balancing organic redox equations Burrell, Harold P. C. This paper presents a method for balancing organic redox equations based on the study of structural formulas and an artificial device  the use of hypothetical free radicals. Burrell, Harold P. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 77.
Stoichiometry 
Oxidation / Reduction 
Free Radicals

Material balances and redox equations Bennett, George W. It is the purpose of this paper to remind teachers of a third method of balancing redox equations that does not depend on ruleofthumb empiricism but relies on the conservation of matter. Bennett, George W. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 324.
Stoichiometry 
Oxidation / Reduction 
Oxidation State

Otis Coe Johnson and redox equations Bennett, George W. It is the purpose of this paper to point out what is basic verity and what is empiricism in Johnson's method for balancing oxidationreduction equations. Bennett, George W. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 157.
Oxidation / Reduction 
Oxidation State 
Stoichiometry

