TIGER

Journal Articles: 119 results
Oven versus Bunsen Burner When Heating Copper(II) Chloride Dihydrate  Michael C. Wirtz
In "greening up" the classical stoichiometry experiment where students determine the formula of copper(II) chloride dihydrate, it is critical that teachers and instructors use a 110°C oven rather than a Bunsen burner. Copper(II) chloride dihydrate decomposes at temperatures above 300°C, releasing chlorine gas.
Wirtz, Michael C. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1345.
Laboratory Management |
Stoichiometry
Using Pooled Data and Data Visualization To Introduce Statistical Concepts in the General Chemistry Laboratory   Robert J. Olsen
This article describes how data pooling and visualization can be employed in the first-semester general chemistry laboratory to introduce core statistical concepts such as central tendency and dispersion of a data set.
Olsen, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 544.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
Demonstration Extensions: Flame Tests and Electrolysis  Ed Vitz
Provides suggestions to supplement traditional demonstrations involving flame tests and water hydrolysis.
Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 522.
Alcohols |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Electrochemical Polishing of Silverware: A Demonstration of Voltaic and Galvanic Cells  Michelle M. Ivey and Eugene T. Smith
Using a battery and a graphite electrode, an electrolytic cell is constructed to generate a layer of tarnish on silverware. Students then determine that the tarnish can be removed by electrochemically converting it back to silver using aluminum foil and baking soda.
Ivey, Michelle M.; Smith, Eugene T. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 68.
Consumer Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
A New Colorimetric Assay of Tabletop Sweeteners Using a Modified Biuret Reagent  Christopher J. Fenk, Nathan Kaufman, and Donald G. Gerbig, Jr.
Presents a new, fast and effective colorimetric analysis of aspartame that incorporates a less caustic biuret reagent and visible spectroscopic analysis for selective detection in aqueous solutions using readily available instrumentation.
Fenk, Christopher J.; Kaufman, Nathan; Gerbig, Donald G., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1676.
Consumer Chemistry |
Coordination Compounds |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Food Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Amino Acids
Lewis Structure Representation of Free Radicals Similar to ClO  Warren Hirsch and Mark Kobrak
An unconventional Lewis structure is proposed to explain the properties of the free radical ClO and a series of its isoelectronic analogues, particularly trends in the spin density of these species.
Hirsch, Warren; Kobrak, Mark. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1360.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Computational Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Free Radicals |
Lewis Structures |
Molecular Modeling |
MO Theory |
Valence Bond Theory
The Chemistry of Swimming Pool Maintenance  Carl Salter and David L. Langhus
This paper examines the key ideas behind swimming pool chemistry -- the central importance of pH and its effect on chlorine sanitation and calcium carbonate solubility. The paper also reviews the analytical procedures and common practices used to monitor and control pool chemistry or correct problems.
Salter, Carl; Langhus, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1124.
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
pH |
Photochemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Water / Water Chemistry
Primo Levi and The Periodic Table: Teaching Chemistry Using a Literary Text  Viktoria Klara Lakatos Osorio, Peter Wilhelm Tiedemann, and Paulo Alves Porto
Describes the use of a problem-solving activity with first-year undergraduate students based on an excerpt from Primo Levi's book The Periodic Table.
Osorio, Viktoria Klara Lakatos; Tiedemann, Peter Wilhelm; Porto, Paulo Alves. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 775.
Metals |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Reactions |
Student-Centered Learning
Magnesium Chloride  Jay A. Young
The hazards of magnesium chloride are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 412.
Laboratory Management
Magnesium  Jay A. Young
The hazards of magnesium are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 411.
Laboratory Management |
Metals
Measurement of the Isotopic Ratio of 10B/11B in NaBH4 by 1H NMR  Murray Zanger and Guillermo Moyna
A simple and remarkably accurate method for estimating the isotopic ratio between 10B and 11B through the use of 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is presented. The experiment relies on the splitting caused by 10B (I = 3) and 11B (I = 3/2) on the 1H signal of a proton directly bound to boron, a phenomenon readily observed on an aqueous sample of NaBH4. In combination with a brief lecture or prelaboratory presentation, this laboratory can serve to introduce students to magnetic properties as well as theoretical and experimental aspects of NMR spectroscopy as early as the freshman-level chemistry.
Zanger, Murray; Moyna, Guillermo. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1390.
Instrumental Methods |
Magnetic Properties |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Isotopes
Analysis of OxiClean: An Interesting Comparison of Percarbonate Stain Removers  Jeffrey D. Bracken and David Tietz
Several different brands of oxygen-based multipurpose stain removers consist of simple mixtures of sodium percarbonate and sodium carbonate. A small sample of each brand of stain remover is decomposed and then analyzed. The observed difference in mass allows students to accurately determine the percentages of each component of the stain remover. A back-titration experiment and a precipitation reaction are performed to confirm the complete decomposition of the original mixture.
Bracken, Jeffrey D.; Tietz, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 762.
Stoichiometry |
Consumer Chemistry
Magnesium Sulfate  Jay A. Young
The hazards of magnesium sulfate are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 678.
Laboratory Management
Magnesium Oxide  Jay A. Young
The hazards of magnesium oxide are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 677.
Laboratory Management
A Laser-Pointer-Based Spectrometer for Endpoint Detection of EDTA Titrations  Christopher E. Dahm, James W. Hall, and Brian E. Mattioni
A simple laser-pointer-based spectrometer has been developed for endpoint detection of EDTA titrations of magnesium and calcium. This spectrometer was built to decrease the uncertainty in determining the endpoint of titrations performed with a Calmagite indicator. With a photoresistor as the detector, and with the aid of a voltage-divider circuit, the quantity of light being absorbed can be followed with a simple pHvoltmeter. Students determine the endpoint by graphing the data and applying simple mathematics. BeerLambert studies with the spectrometer also show excellent agreement for a given set of solutions.
Dahm, Christopher E.; Hall, James W.; Mattioni, Brian E. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1787.
Dyes / Pigments |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Carbon Tetrachloride  Jay A. Young
The hazards of carbon tetrachloride are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1416.
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Dichloromethane  Jay A. Young
The hazards of dichloromethane are discussed.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1415.
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Boiling Point versus Mass  Michael Laing
I am very pleased that Ronald Rich has written making these comments, because he is pre-eminent in this field, beginning with his early book, Periodic Correlations.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 642.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Boiling Point versus Mass   Ronald L. Rich
Laing gave a useful examination of the boiling points of small molecules versus molecular mass. However, a molecule escaping from a liquid is not closely analogous to a satellite breaking free from the earths gravitational field with the requirement of a minimum escape velocity, such that the required kinetic energy is proportional to the mass of the satellite at that escape velocity.
Rich, Ronald L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 642.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Liquids |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Chlorine  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for chlorine.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 186.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Sodium Dichromate Dihydrate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium dichromate dihydrate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1251.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium hydrogen carbonate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1250.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Stoichiometry of the Reaction of Magnesium with Hydrochloric Acid  Venkat Chebolu and Barbara C. Storandt
Using a pressure sensor to measure the production of hydrogen by a reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid.
Chebolu, Venkat; Storandt, Barbara C. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 305.
Stoichiometry |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Reactions
Aluminum Oxide, Al2O3  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for aluminum oxide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 258.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Salt Crystals—Science behind the Magic  Charles F. Davidson and Michael R. Slabaugh
Discussion of sodium chloride and factors that influence the shape of the crystals it forms.
Davidson, Charles F.; Slabaugh, Michael R. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 155.
Consumer Chemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Solids
Use of Chloroisocyanuarates for Disinfection of Water: Application of Miscellaneous General Chemistry Topics  Gabriel Pinto and Brian Rohrig
Using the chlorination of water (using sodium dichloroisocyanurate and trichloroisocyanuric acid) to develop general chemistry concepts; includes question for students and answers.
Pinto, Gabriel; Rohrig, Brian. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 41.
Stoichiometry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Photochemistry
Sodium Nitrate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium nitrate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1414.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Sodium Carbonate (anhydrous) Na2CO3  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for anhydrous sodium carbonate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1315.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Sodium Acetate CH3COONa  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium acetate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1314.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Sodium Fluoride  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium fluoride.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1197.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Sodium Hypochlorite Solution  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium hypochlorite solution.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1196.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 798.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Sodium  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 425.
Physical Properties |
Laboratory Management |
Metals
Boiling Points of the Family of Small Molecules CHwFxClyBrz: How Are They Related to Molecular Mass?  Michael Laing
Investigating the role of molecular mass in determining boiling points of small molecules.
Laing, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1544.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Liquids |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
A Simple Computer-Interfaced Calorimeter: Application to the Determination of the Heat of Formation of Magnesium Oxide  Sze-Shun Wong, Natasha D. Popovich, and Shelley J. Coldiron
Design, construction, and laboratory instructional application of a simple computer-controlled, constant-pressure calorimeter.
Wong, Sze-Shun; Popovich, Natasha D.; Coldiron, Shelley J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 798.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Thermodynamics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Sodium Hydroxide  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for sodium hydroxide.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 447.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties
Crystallization from a Supersaturated Solution of Sodium Acetate  Jamil Ahmad
An overhead projector demonstration is described, in which sodium acetate trihydrate crystallizes out from a supersaturated solution that has been poured on a transparency. When seeded with a crystal of the salt, crystallization starts, and its progress can be followed on the screen.
Ahmad, Jamil. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1446.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solutions / Solvents
Ionic Crystals: A Simple and Safe Lecture Demonstration of the Preparation of NaI from Its Elements  Zelek S. Herman
A simple and safe classroom demonstration showing the production of sodium iodide (NaI) crystals from elemental sodium and elemental (molecular) iodine is presented. The demonstration, which is quite impressive, naturally fits into the discussion of ionic bonding and the alkali halide crystals.
Herman, Zelek S. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 619.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Thermodynamics |
Ionic Bonding |
Crystals / Crystallography
Dioxin, Not Doomsday  Jeffrey M. Zimpleman
On the basis of findings from epidemiologic cohort studies, dioxin appears not to be as potent a carcinogen or teratogen as popularly thought. In fact, through its antiestrogenic properties, dioxin may provide a weapon against breast cancer.
Zimpleman, Jeffrey M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1662.
Toxicology
Ammonia Can Crush  Ed Vitz
When a 12-oz aluminum soft drink can filled with ammonia or hydrogen chloride gas is inverted and dipped into water, the rapidly dissolving gas evacuates the can and the can is crushed before water can be drawn into it. This demonstrates, among other things, the remarkable strength of hydrogen bonds.
Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 932.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Hydrogen Bonding
A Simple, Safe Way To Prepare Halogens and Study Their Visual Properties at a Technical Secondary School  Domingo A. Liprandi, Orlando R. Reinheimer, José F. Paredes, and Pablo C. L'Argentière
In this paper we propose an easy-to-build apparatus to obtain chlorine, bromine, and iodine. The experiment was developed considering not only theoretical and safety conditions but simplicity and clarity as well.
Liprandi, Domingo A.; Reinheimer, Orlando R.; Paredes, José F.; L'Argentière, Pablo C. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 532.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Microscale Thermite Reactions  Francisco J. Arnáiz, Rafael Aguado, and Susana Arnáiz
The reaction of aluminum with the oxides of a variety of elements illustrates exothermic reactions that require a high activation energy. It is also an appropriate experiment with regard to the discussion of Ellingham diagrams. When drama is not the main objective, conducting these reactions at microscale level offers numerous advantages over the usual scale.
Arnáiz, Francisco J.; Aguado, Rafael; Arnáiz, Susana. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1630.
Microscale Lab |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Acid-Base Chemistry of the Aluminum Ion in Aqueous Solution  Edward Koubek
A demonstration of the amphoteric behavior of aluminum is given based on an older report that was given many years ago.
Koubek, Edward. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 60.
Coordination Compounds |
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
An Easy Way To Make Chlorine Water  L. H. Holmes Jr.
Chlorine water can be made easily by mixing hypochlorite and hydrochloric acid. The equilibrium lies toward Cl2 in the reaction HOCl + HCl -> Cl2 + H2O and this can be used to make chlorine water from sodium hypochlorite and hydrochloric acid if the presence of NaCl in the chlorine water does not interfere with its use.
Holmes Jr; L. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1326.
Synthesis
ACS National Historic Chemical Landmark: Charles Martin Hall's Discovery of the Electrochemical Process for Aluminum  Norman C. Craig
Oberlin College and the Cleveland Section of the American Chemical Society hosted a celebration in which Charles Martin Hall's discovery of the electrochemical process for extracting aluminum metal from the ore was designated as a National Historic Chemical Landmark by the ACS.
Craig, Norman C. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1269.
Electrochemistry
The Sodium Rainbow  Miroslav Proksa
A new approach to the reaction of sodium with water to produce a "rainbow" of colors.
Proksa, Miroslav. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 942.
Acids / Bases |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Manageable Measurement Method for Sodium  Mario Branca and Steven Loiselle
The use of sodium in chemical research is hampered by its reactivity in moist air, which leads to difficult handling and measurement methods. We describe a simple method using disposable microcapillary pipettes for small quantity applications.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 857.
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab
The Comparative Performance of Batteries: The Lead-Acid and the Aluminum-Air Cells  Xavier LeRoux, Gerry A. Ottewill, and Frank C. Walsh
An experimental program designed to convey, to students aged 16 through undergraduate, the principles of battery electrochemistry through a comparative study of two different systems, the lead acid cell and aluminum air cell, is described.
LeRoux, Xavier; Ottewill, Gerry A.; Walsh, Frank C. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 811.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Applications of Chemistry
Sodium Chloride Revisited  Robert V. Stick and Mauro Mocerino
This "Tested Demonstration" describes the preparation of sodium chloride from its elements, sodium and chlorine. Along the way, tests for chlorine, iodine, and the chloride ion are included.
Stick, Robert V.; Mocerino, Mauro. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 539.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Oxidation / Reduction
Reduction of Viologen Bisphosphonate Dihalide with Aluminum Foil  Peter Abeta Iyere
An elegant undergraduate experiment similar to the popular "Iodine Clock Reaction" employs the reduction of methyl viologen by hydroxide ion. This demonstration can be used as prelaboratory discussion for an undergraduate kinetic experiment based on the same phenomenon.
Iyere, Peter Abeta. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 455.
Kinetics |
Equilibrium
A Convenient Way to Generate Hydrogen Chloride: In the Freshman Lab  Francisco J. Arnáiz
A convenient way to generate hydrogen chloride.
Arnáiz, Francisco J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1139.
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Augmenting a classical electrochemical demonstration  Yochum, Susan M.; Luoma, John R.
Substituting magnesium for zinc in the copper/zinc electrochemical cell to enhance student understanding of electrochemistry; includes data and analysis.
Yochum, Susan M.; Luoma, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 55.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Elementary Riddles  Eckley, Doris.
The riddles highlight some contradictory properties of elements and their compounds.
Eckley, Doris. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1051.
Laboratory Explosion Danger from Mixing Magnesium and Copper Oxide  Vella, Alfred J.
Hazard of mixing magnesium and copper(II) oxide while heating; danger of thermite-type reactions in general.
Vella, Alfred J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 328.
Metals
A WARNING: Explosion Hazards of Reacting Magnesium and Aluminum with Powdered Silver Nitrate  Laing, Michael
Danger of reacting Mg and AgNO3, Al and AgNO3.
Laing, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 270.
Metals |
Reactions
Pyrotechnic Reactions Without Oxygen  Wright, Stephen W.
Reaction of K3FeF6 with Al and poly(tetrafluoroethylene) with Mg.
Wright, Stephen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 251.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
An inexpensive, yet strong, way to assemble aluminum rod lattices  Brisbois, Ronald G.
An inexpensive yet strong way to assemble aluminum rod lattices to help with setting up reactions or apparatus.
Brisbois, Ronald G. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 506.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The aluminum can as electrochemical energy source  Lehman, Thomas A.; Renich, Paul; Schmidt, Norman E.
A high-current electrochemical cell made from aluminum cans and scraps of copper wire that illustrates important electrochemical principles.
Lehman, Thomas A.; Renich, Paul; Schmidt, Norman E. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 495.
Electrochemistry
Recycling of sodium waste  Hubler-Blank, Bettina; Witt, Michael; Roesky, Herbert W.
Methods for handling and recycling a dangerous and costly chemical.
Hubler-Blank, Bettina; Witt, Michael; Roesky, Herbert W. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 408.
Laboratory Management
Sodium D line emission from pickles  Appling, Jeffrey R.; Yonke, Fredrick J.; Edgington, Richard A.; Jacobs, Steve
Presentation of an alternate technique to generate visible atomic emission of sodium atoms that should be useful in a classroom demonstration.
Appling, Jeffrey R.; Yonke, Fredrick J.; Edgington, Richard A.; Jacobs, Steve J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 250.
Photochemistry
Bleaching with Chlorine: Another Tomato Juice Demonstration   Nemetz, Thomas M.; Ball, David W.
Bubbling chlorine gas through tomato juice produces dramatic color changes. This paper provides safe instructions for the demonstration.
Nemetz, Thomas M.; Ball, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 154.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Reactions
Microscale experiments: Dissolved oxygen and chloride determination in water  Crosson, Mary; Gibb, Reen
Determining the dissolved oxygen and chloride content of water samples through titrations.
Crosson, Mary; Gibb, Reen J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 830.
Microscale Lab |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
The pH range of the Mohr titration for chloride ion can be usefully extended to 4-10.5  Finlayson, A. C.
The pH ranges found in textbooks for this titration are misleading because of inadequate explanations for their basis.
Finlayson, A. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 559.
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
The preparation of halogen waters   Diemente, Damon
Aqueous solutions of halogens can provide important demonstrations regarding periodicity, however many instructors are understandably hesitant to handle halogens. This author discusses the safe handling of halogens.
Diemente, Damon J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 932.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Chloride in natural waters: An environmental application of a potentiometric titration  Lisensky, George; Reynolds, Kelly.
An environmental application of a potentiometric titration to determine chloride found in fresh water.
Lisensky, George; Reynolds, Kelly. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 334.
Potentiometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Green Chemistry |
Geochemistry |
Quantitative Analysis
The H2 + Cl2 explosion as a chemical analogue of the photoelectric effect: A true quantum mechanical demonstration  Knox, Kerro
The photochemical hydrogen-chlorine reaction affords a good example of the quantum aspect of light and its interaction with matter.
Knox, Kerro J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 897.
Reactions |
Quantum Chemistry |
Photochemistry
Consumer chemistry demonstrations  Carberry, Edward; Gonnella, Thomas; Eliason, Robert
Demonstrating the hazards of mixing an acidic cleaner with bleach and the light-absorbing ability of sunscreens.
Carberry, Edward; Gonnella, Thomas; Eliason, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1041.
Consumer Chemistry |
Nonmajor Courses |
Photochemistry |
Toxicology
Textbook error: Industrial production of alumina  Kennard, Colin H. L.
In the industrial world, the Al(OH)4- is reprecipitated by dropping the temperature and pressure, and the supersaturated solution seeded.
Kennard, Colin H. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 313.
Industrial Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
Questions from a can of Pepsi  Mitchell, Tony
A can of Pepsi can be the starting point of countless chemistry questions that students can relate to. The author encourages other instructors to think about helping students understand chemistry as it relates to contemporary society.
Mitchell, Tony J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1070.
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Physical Properties |
Food Science |
Nutrition |
Gases |
Acids / Bases |
Metals
Electrochemical cells using sodium silicate   Rapp, Bernard, FSC
A procedure of assembly and execution of a demonstration of an electrochemical cell using sodium silicate.
Rapp, Bernard, FSC J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 358.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
An overhead demonstration of some descriptive chemistry of the halogens and LeChtelier's principle  Hansen, Robert C.
Colorful demonstrations that illustrate Le Chtelier's principle, solubility rules, and periodic trends.
Hansen, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 264.
Equilibrium |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
The effect of pH and chloride ion concentration on the mobilities of various cations in soil  Brown, Melody; Sutherland, Mary; Leharne, Stephen
Measuring the mobilities of cations (particularly of toxic metals) in soils using soil thin layer chromatography.
Brown, Melody; Sutherland, Mary; Leharne, Stephen J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 448.
pH |
Agricultural Chemistry |
Metals |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Introduction to overhead projector demonstrations  Kolb, Doris
General suggestions for using the overhead projector and 21 demonstrations. [Debut]
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 348.
Rate Law |
Reactions |
Catalysis |
Equilibrium |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases
Methods for preparing aqueous solutions of chlorine and bromine for halogen displacement reactions  Hiegel, Gene A.; Abdala, Miguel H.; Burke, S. Vincent; Beard, Donald P.
Alternatives to handling and storing cylinders of chlorine gas and containers of liquid bromine.
Hiegel, Gene A.; Abdala, Miguel H.; Burke, S. Vincent; Beard, Donald P. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 156.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Laboratory Management
Spectrophotometric titration of a mixture of calcium and magnesium  Fulton, Robert; Ross, Michael; Schroeder, Karl
Because the conditions chosen for the titration are not well suited to visual endpoints, students become aware of the unique advantage of spectrophotometric titrations.
Fulton, Robert; Ross, Michael; Schroeder, Karl J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 721.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Coordination Compounds |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
A quick test for the highly colored ions of the aluminum-nickel group  Grenda, Stanley C.
This paper intends to present a technique that eliminates errors in the analysis of the nickel subgroup cations.
Grenda, Stanley C. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 720.
Qualitative Analysis |
Coordination Compounds
How to get the most from the dichromate volcano demonstration: Aluminothermy  Trogler, William C.
Reducing the green ash produced by the dichromate volcano (Cr2O3) with aluminum in a thermite-like display.
Trogler, William C. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 908.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Start the term with a bang  Clare, Sheldon I.
The reaction of sodium in water is used to ignite a piece of filter paper.
Clare, Sheldon I. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 635.
Reactions
Dyeing of anodized aluminum  Grotz, Leonard C.
Anodization of Al is widely practiced in industry to improve the corrosion resistance of articles made of aluminum.
Grotz, Leonard C. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 763.
Industrial Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Dyes / Pigments |
Applications of Chemistry
A simultaneous analysis problem for advanced general chemistry laboratories  Leary, James J.; Gallaher, T. N.
The goal of this experiment is to determine the percentage Mg3N2 and the percentage Mg formed when magnesium metal is ignited in a crucible using a Bunsen burner.
Leary, James J.; Gallaher, T. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 673.
Quantitative Analysis |
Stoichiometry
Determination of sodium in salt substitute by flame emission spectroscopy  Goodney, David E.
Using this procedure a student should be able to report the ppm Na in a salt substitute with an error of a few percent.
Goodney, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 875.
Food Science |
Consumer Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Spontaneous combustion of familiar substances in chlorine  Briggs, Thomas S.
Reacting chlorine generated from liquid bleach with red phosphorus (from a match book) and iron from steel wool.
Briggs, Thomas S. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 788.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Ignition of magnesium in porcelain  Feinstein, H. I.
Demonstrating the presence of nitrogen in air without ruining the porcelain glaze of a crucible.
Feinstein, H. I. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 159.
Laboratory Management |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis
Recycling silver chloride  Thall, Edwin
A simple way to reduce lab cost by recycling silver in the academic lab.
Thall, Edwin J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 561.
Laboratory Management
Dramatic demonstrations for a large audience: The formation of hydroxyl ions in the reaction of sodium with water   Hutton, Alan T.
This procedure allows the popular sodium-reacting-with-water reaction to be observable in large lecture theaters.
Hutton, Alan T. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 506.
Reactions |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Dramatic demonstrations for a large audience: The formation of hydroxyl ions in the reaction of sodium with water   Hutton, Alan T.
This procedure allows the popular sodium-reacting-with-water reaction to be observable in large lecture theaters.
Hutton, Alan T. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 506.
Reactions |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Bent thermometer  Smith, Douglas D.
Reducing the breakage of thermometers, using CO2 as an insecticide, and improving the demonstration of the reaction between sodium and water.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 742.
Laboratory Management |
Applications of Chemistry |
Metals |
Reactions
A Demonstration of burning magnesium and dry ice  Driscoll, Jerry A.
This demonstration is a new, exciting approach to an older demonstration.
Driscoll, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 450.
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Reactions
Solvay synthesis of sodium hydrogen carbonate. An undergraduate laboratory experiment  Kirksey, H. Graden
There has been little in the undergraduate laboratory literature on the Solvay synthesis. This author shares an activity that can be done with introductory students.
Kirksey, H. Graden J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 272.
Synthesis
Determination of the percent Na4EDTA in bathroom cleaners  Kump, K. I.; Palocsay, F. A.; Gallaher, T. N.
There has been much publicity recently about the importance and virtues of relevant experiments in chemistry lab courses. This experiment is for the general chemistry student involving the analysis of bathroom cleaners and determining the concentration of active ingredients.
Kump, K. I.; Palocsay, F. A.; Gallaher, T. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 265.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH |
Consumer Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis
Biochemical roles of some essential metal ions  J. Chem. Educ. Staff
Summarizes the important biochemical roles played by ions of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron, cobalt, and copper.
J. Chem. Educ. Staff J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 761.
Metals |
Organometallics |
Bioinorganic Chemistry
Display of sodium as a shiny metal  Davidson, Scott
Involves adding a few drops of a high molecular weight secondary alcohol to delay oxidation of the sodium while stored under kerosene.
Davidson, Scott J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 29.
Metals
Singlet oxygen in aqueous solution: A lecture demonstration   Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.; Williams, Lloyd G.
Lecture demonstrations involving chemiluminescence are useful for the purpose both of displaying chemical phenomena and of illustrating specific principles.
Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.; Williams, Lloyd G. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 358.
Photochemistry |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Spectroscopy
Chlorine in your water  Smith, J. G.
The use, chemistry, and alternatives to chlorine and chlorine compounds in water supplies.
Smith, J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 656.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry
Corrosion  Slabaugh, W. H.
The topic of corrosion extends several basic concepts of electrochemistry with which students can relate. This article outlines: standard electrochemical potentials; corrosion of iron' corrosion of aluminum; application of electrochemical concepts; and ideas for some experiments.
Slabaugh, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 218.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Consumer Chemistry |
Electrochemistry
Roadside salt pollution and the absorption-emission spectra of sodium: A general chemistry experiment  Tripp, Terrance B.; Nadeau, Jeanne L.
This experiment illustrates the absorption-emission spectra of atoms by analyzing soil samples for sodium. The experiment also stimulates an awareness of the environmental problems associated with the accumulation of common salt along roadsides resulting from ice removal operations.
Tripp, Terrance B.; Nadeau, Jeanne L. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 130.
Spectroscopy
Miscellaneous  Alyea, Hubert N.
13 demonstrations, including electrophoresis, electrolysis, corrosion inhibition, endothermic and exothermic reactions, crystals and crystallization, reactions with sodium, and the kinetics of H2O2 decomposition.
Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A387.
Electrophoresis |
Dyes / Pigments |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Reactions |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Kinetics
Detection of chloride, bromide, and iodide following sodium fusion  McCullough, Thomas; Allaire, Pierre N.; Boettcher, Brian R.
Presents the use of paper chromatography in conjunction with the sodium fusion detection of chloride, bromide, and iodide.
McCullough, Thomas; Allaire, Pierre N.; Boettcher, Brian R. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 217.
Qualitative Analysis |
Chromatography
A novel synthesis of magnesium carbide  Lauren, Paul M.
Demonstrates the synthesis of magnesium carbide from calcium carbide and magnesium ribbon.
Lauren, Paul M. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A569.
Synthesis
Group III. Aluminum. The rare earths   Alyea, Hubert N.; Klug, Evangeline B.
Demonstrations include birthstones, the preparation of Al from Fe, amphoteric Al(OH)3, aluminon test for Al, crude vs pure ceric salts, ceric sulfate + Fe++, and ceric sulfate + hydrogen peroxide.
Alyea, Hubert N.; Klug, Evangeline B. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A59.
Quantitative Analysis
Studying the chemical properties of metallic aluminum  Feifer, Nathan
Studying the chemical properties of aluminum is made much easier by first producing an amalgam by treating aluminum with mercurous nitrate.
Feifer, Nathan J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 648.
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction
Group 1. The Alkali Metals. The Copper Group   Mancuso, Carl J.; Alyea, Hubert N.
Demonstrations include the density and melting point of copper versus sodium, the conductivity of sodium, the reactivity with water of groups IA vs IB, and the stability of CO3--, HCO3-, and hydroxides of groups IA vs IB.
Mancuso, Carl J.; Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A919.
Metals |
Reactions |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Physical Properties
Group II. The Alkaline Earths. The Zinc Group A. Magnesium  Owens, Charles; Young, James A.
Demonstration of magnesium with steam and carbon dioxide.
Owens, Charles; Young, James A. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A1053.
Ionization, electricity B. (continued) Production of electricity   Hornbeck, LeRoy; Barnard, Robert; Jackman, Kenneth; Ulery, Denver; Rogers, Crosby
Demonstrations include magnesium + acid ringing a bell, magnesium + acid lighting a bulb, couples without a salt bridge, and half-cells with salt bridge and microammeter.
Hornbeck, LeRoy; Barnard, Robert; Jackman, Kenneth; Ulery, Denver; Rogers, Crosby J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A585.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry
Detection of chloride ion in the presence of bromide, iodide, and thiocyanate ions  Paul, Armine D.; Gibson, John A., Jr.
Summarizes and evaluates several published methods for detecting chloride ions in the presence of bromide, iodide, and thiocyanate ions.
Paul, Armine D.; Gibson, John A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 440.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
Effect of chloride ion on precipitation of cadmium sulfide  O'Donnell, T. A.
Adding NaCl or KCl to suspended CdS causes the suspension to disappear.
O'Donnell, T. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A313.
Precipitation / Solubility |
pH |
Equilibrium
Electrolysis of sodium through glass  Dutton, F. B.
Sodium is deposited on the inside of a light bulb immersed in molten NaNO3.
Dutton, F. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A313.
Electrochemistry
A reaction tube for sodium and chlorine  Barnard, W. Robert
Describes reacting sodium and chlorine in Pyrex tubing.
Barnard, W. Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A49.
Reactions |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Magnesium cell for demonstration  Mathur, Prem Behari; Paul, Nityanandan J.
Describes a cell system consisting of copper and magnesium plates or ribbon immersed in copper sulfate solution.
Mathur, Prem Behari; Paul, Nityanandan J. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 43.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Analysis of an aluminum-zinc alloy: A general chemistry laboratory  Masterton, W. L.
In this experiment, students determine the percentage composition of an aluminum-zinc alloy by measuring the volume of hydrogen generated when reacted with excess acid.
Masterton, W. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 558.
Metals
A spot test analysis of the group III cations  Marion, Stephen P.; Zlochower, Isaac
This procedure may be used for the direct determination of the group III cations, for a quick confirmation of the results obtained in the regular scheme of analysis, or for teaching another technique in analytical chemistry.
Marion, Stephen P.; Zlochower, Isaac J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 379.
Qualitative Analysis
Letters to the editor  De Ment, Jack
The author relates an explosion involving aluminum powder.
De Ment, Jack J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 308.
Explosive hazard of aluminum-liquid oxygen mixtures  Austin, Calvin M.; Rohrer, Charles S.; Seifert, Ralph L.
Details the serious explosive hazards and ignition properties of aluminum-liquid oxygen mixtures; this demonstration should NEVER be used for classroom or public viewing purposes.
Austin, Calvin M.; Rohrer, Charles S.; Seifert, Ralph L. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 54.
Oxidation / Reduction
Textbook errors: XV. Miscellanea  Mysels, Karol J.
Textbooks errors considered include the solubility of acetates, the effect of light on reactions, tetrahedral carbon, the production of aluminum, and fumaric acid.
Mysels, Karol J. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 32.
Photochemistry |
Covalent Bonding
Sodium through glass: A lecture demonstration experiment involving electrons, ions, and atoms  Alpern, D. K.
Sodium metal is deposited inside an incandescent bulb lowered into molten sodium nitrate.
Alpern, D. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 289.
Letters to the editor  Sastry, K. R. Krishna
Silicon crucibles should not be used with magnesium or calcium as some of the metal reacts with the silicon to form the silicide.
Sastry, K. R. Krishna J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 155.
Laboratory Management
Letters to the editor  Kapp, George
Presents a demonstration of chlorine's ability to bleach wet or moist but not dry materials.
Kapp, George J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 414.
Effect of water on the interaction of aluminum and iodine  Azmatullah, Syed; Viswanathan, Argot
A drop of water added to powdered aluminum and iodine initiates a vigorous reaction.
Azmatullah, Syed; Viswanathan, Argot J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 447.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Reactions
Letters to the editor  Wolf, Milton G.
The results of collecting chlorine through the displacement of saturated aqueous solutions of calcium chloride and sodium chloride.
Wolf, Milton G. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 48.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Gases