TIGER

Journal Articles: 75 results
Fog Machines, Vapors, and Phase Diagrams  Ed Vitz
This series of demonstrations elucidate the operation of commercial fog machines using common laboratory materials and can be adapted for elementary through tertiary levels. The formation of fogs is discussed in terms of the phase diagram for water and other chemical principles.
Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1385.
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Water / Water Chemistry
Using Graphs of Gibbs Energy versus Temperature in General Chemistry Discussions of Phase Changes and Colligative Properties  Robert M. Hanson, Patrick Riley, Jeff Schwinefus, and Paul J. Fischer
The use of qualitative graphs of Gibbs energy versus temperature is described in the context of chemical demonstrations involving phase changes and colligative properties at the general chemistry level.
Hanson, Robert M.; Riley, Patrick; Schwinefus, Jeff; Fischer, Paul J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1142.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics
EQVAPSIM: A Vapor–Liquid Equilibria of Binary Systems Computer Simulation by LabVIEW  A. Belletti, R. Borromei, and G. Ingletto
Reports the results of a program using LabVIEW software to simulate the construction of a phase diagram representing a liquidvapor equilibrium. The program models work in a real laboratory, including mistakes commonly made in this context.
Belletti, A.; Borromei, R.; Ingletto, G. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 879.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics |
Student-Centered Learning
Easy-To-Make Cryophoruses  Rubin Battino and Trevor M. Letcher
This article describes some simple and easy-to-make cryophoruses, ideal for demonstrating evaporative cooling to students at all levels.
Battino, Rubin; Letcher, Trevor M. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 561.
Lipids |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics |
Liquids
Understanding the Clausius–Clapeyron Equation by Employing an Easily Adaptable Pressure Cooker  Monica Galleano, Alberto Boveris, and Susana Puntarulo
Describes a laboratory exercise to understand the effect of pressure on phase equilibrium as described by the ClausiusClapeyron equation. The equipment required is a pressure cooker adapted with a pressure gauge and a thermometer in the lid, allowing the measurement of the pressure and the temperature of the chamber containing the water heated until vaporization.
Galleano, Monica; Boveris, Alberto; Puntarulo, Susana. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 276.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry
Gas Clathrate Hydrates Experiment for High School Projects and Undergraduate Laboratories  Melissa P. Prado, Annie Pham, Robert E. Ferazzi, Kimberly Edwards, and Kenneth C. Janda
Presents a procedure for preparing and studying propane clathrate hydrate. This experiment introduces students to this unusual solid while stimulating a discussion of the interplay of intermolecular forces, thermodynamics, and solid structure.
Prado, Melissa P.; Pham, Annie; Ferazzi, Robert E.; Edwards, Kimberly; Janda, Kenneth C. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1790.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Applications of Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Hydrogen Bonding
Enthalpy of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures: An Inexpensive Apparatus  Rubin Battino, David A. Dolson, Michael R. Hall, and Trevor M. Letcher
Describes an inexpensive apparatus for the determination of the vapor pressure of a liquid as a function of temperature for the purpose of calculating enthalpy changes of vaporization. Also described are a simple air thermostat and an inexpensive temperature controller based on an integrated temperature sensor.
Battino, Rubin; Dolson, David A.; Hall, Michael R.; Letcher, Trevor M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 822.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Lipids |
Phenols |
Physical Properties |
Thermodynamics |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Teaching Physical Chemistry Experiments with a Computer Simulation by LabVIEW  A. Belletti, R. Borromei, and G. Ingletto
This article reports on a computer simulation developed with the software LabVIEW of the physical chemistry experiment regarding the vapor pressure measurements of a pure liquid as a function of temperature, as well as a system of data collecting that emphasizes the similarities between the virtual and real experiment.
Belletti, A.; Borromei, R.; Ingletto, G. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1353.
Equilibrium |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Liquids |
Thermodynamics |
Gases |
Student-Centered Learning
Intermolecular and Intramolecular Forces: A General Chemistry Laboratory Comparison of Hydrogen Bonding in Maleic and Fumaric Acids  Frazier W. Nyasulu and John Macklin
This article presents a simple laboratory experiment that is designed to enhance students' understanding of inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonding by demonstrating the comparative effect of these phenomena on some chemical and physical properties.
Nyasulu, Frazier W.; Macklin, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 770.
Acids / Bases |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Thermodynamics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Popping Popcorn Kernels: Expanding Relevance with Linear Thinking  Jordan L. Bennett, Michael M. Fuson, and Thomas A. Evans
Graphing skills and an understanding of linear relationships are developed in the context of popping of individual popcorn kernels. Introductory-level chemistry students determine mass changes as the result of popping along with the volume and density of the popcorn flakes produced.
Bennett, Jordan L.; Fuson, Michael M.; Evans, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 414.
Carbohydrates |
Food Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
Theoretical Insights for Practical Handling of Pressurized Fluids  Alfonso Aranda and María del Prado Rodríguez
Introduces the basic considerations for managing pressurized fluids, mainly liquefied and compressed gases.
Aranda, Alfonso; Rodríguez, María del Prado. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 93.
Applications of Chemistry |
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
Chemistry of Moth Repellents  Gabriel Pinto
A real-life example consisting of the study of the different substances used as moth repellents is presented to introduce students to miscellaneous topics such as sublimation, intermolecular forces, insecticides, and the effect of moths on clothes. A set of questions about the most common moth repellents, well known to students, is used to motivate them to understand several everday phenomena through chemistry concepts.
Pinto, Gabriel. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1321.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Applications of Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Physical Properties |
Consumer Chemistry
Some Insights Regarding a Popular Introductory Gas Law Experiment  Ed DePierro and Fred Garafalo
This paper alerts readers to a potential source of error in one approach to the Dumas method as it is often practiced in introductory chemistry laboratories. The room-temperature vapor pressures of volatile compounds that might be considered as unknowns for the experiment lead to determined molar masses that are too low. The greater the vapor pressure of the compound, the lower the determined molar mass will be, when compared to the accepted value.
DePierro, Ed; Garafalo, Fred. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1194.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties
The q/T Paradox: Which "Contains More Heat", a Cup of Coffee at 95°C or a Liter of Icewater?  Ed Vitz and Michael J. Schuman
In this demonstration, heat is removed from 10 cm3 of water at ~95C and 42 cm3 of water at ~0C by adding each to a measured sample of liquid nitrogen. The heat removed from the water boils the N2(l), and the quantity of liquid nitrogen that is evaporated by boiling is determined. The quantity of heat that was absorbed is calculated from the heat of vaporization of liquid nitrogen and found to be about 10,000 J in the case of the hot water and 25,000 J in the case of the icewater.
Vitz, Ed; Schuman, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 856.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Heat Capacity |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
Fractional Distillation of Air and Other Demonstrations with Condensed Gases  Maria Oliver-Hoyo and William L. Switzer, III
This demonstration builds upon the commonly performed liquefaction of air not only to show the presence of nitrogen and oxygen, but also the presence of two other components, carbon dioxide and water. Several extensions are suggested: one to show boiling point elevation in solution and another to show the elevation of both boiling point and sublimation point with pressure. No special apparatus is required permitting presentations to audiences in a variety of settings. These demonstrations give the opportunity to discuss properties of gases, solution chemistry, and phase equilibria.
Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Switzer, William L., III. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 251.
Gases |
Qualitative Analysis |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
Teaching Entropy Analysis in the First-Year High School Course and Beyond  Thomas H. Bindel
A 16-day teaching unit is presented that develops chemical thermodynamics at the introductory high school level and beyond from exclusively an entropy viewpoint referred to as entropy analysis. Many concepts are presented, such as: entropy, spontaneity, the second law of thermodynamics, qualitative and quantitative entropy analysis, extent of reaction, thermodynamic equilibrium, coupled equilibria, and Gibbs free energy. Entropy is presented in a nontraditional way, using energy dispersal.
Bindel, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1585.
Thermodynamics
Another Variation on the "Whoosh Bottle" Theme  Dean J. Campbell
Additional safety considerations and a CO2 rocket car.
Campbell, Dean J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 31.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
Another Variation on the "Whoosh Bottle" Theme  Edward G. Senkbeil
Description of a similar demonstration and additional safety considerations.
Senkbeil, Edward G. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 31.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
Another Variation on the "Whoosh Bottle" Theme  Edward G. Senkbeil
Description of a similar demonstration and additional safety considerations.
Senkbeil, Edward G. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 31.
Thermodynamics |
Gases
Entropy Is Simple, Qualitatively  Frank L. Lambert
Explanation of entropy in terms of energy dispersal; includes considerations of fusion and vaporization, expanding gasses and mixing fluids, colligative properties, and the Gibbs function.
Lambert, Frank L. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1241.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases
Is Salt Melting When It Dissolves in Water?  Alan Goodwin
Analysis of the chemical meaning of the terms melting and dissolving.
Goodwin, Alan. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 393.
Liquids |
Solids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
The Lead-Acid Battery: Its Voltage in Theory and in Practice  Richard S. Treptow
Lead-acid battery fundamentals, cell voltage and the Nernst equation, and an analysis of actual battery performance.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 334.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry
On the Importance of Ideality  Rubin Battino, Scott E. Wood, and Arthur G. Williamson
Analysis of the utility of ideality in gaseous phenomena, solutions, and the thermodynamic concept of reversibility.
Battino, Rubin; Wood, Scott E.; Williamson, Arthur G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1364.
Thermodynamics |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents
The Isothermal Heat Conduction Calorimeter: A Versatile Instrument for Studying Processes in Physics, Chemistry, and Biology  Lars Wadsö, Allan L. Smith, Hamid Shirazi, S. Rose Mulligan, and Thomas Hofelich
A simple but sensitive isothermal heat-conduction calorimeter and five experiments for students to illustrate its use (heat capacity of solids, acid-base titration, enthalpy of vaporization of solvents, cement hydration, and insect metabolism).
Wadsö, Lars; Smith, Allan L.; Shirazi, Hamid; Mulligan, S. Rose; Hofelich, Thomas. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1080.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thermal Analysis |
Thermodynamics
Stories to Make Thermodynamics and Related Subjects More Palatable  Lawrence S. Bartell
Collection of anecdotes regarding the history and human side of chemistry.
Bartell, Lawrence S. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1059.
Surface Science |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Applications of Chemistry
An Alcohol Rocket Car--A Variation on the "Whoosh Bottle" Theme  Dean J. Campbell
Burning methanol in a wheeled milk jug.
Campbell, Dean J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 910.
Gases |
Thermodynamics
Are Fizzing Drinks Boiling? A Chemical Insight from Chemical Education Research  Alan Goodwin
The suggestion that fizzing drinks are examples of liquids boiling at room temperature has proved to be controversial among both chemists and chemical educators. This paper presents a case for believing this everyday system to be a good example of a boiling solution and the consequent separation of carbon dioxide from the solution to exemplify fractional distillation.
Goodwin, Alan. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 385.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Ultramicro-Boiling-Point Determination--A Modification  Henry Brouwer
The determination of microscale boiling points in a melting-point tube may be simplified by replacing the micro-bell bubbler with an ultrathin capillary tube bubbler.
Brouwer, Henry. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1480.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Thermodynamics of Water Superheated in the Microwave Oven  B. H. Erné
Water is conveniently heated above its normal boiling point in a microwave oven in a glass microwave oven teapot. Water stops boiling soon after heating is interrupted, but subsequently added rough particles can still act as nucleation centers for a brief, spectacular burst of steam bubbles. The heat to make those steam bubbles obviously comes from the water itself, so that one can conclude that the boiling water was superheated, which is confirmed with a thermometer.
Erné, B. H. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1309.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Liquids
Hell May Be Hotter Than Heaven After All (about J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 503)  M. N. Berberan-Santos
Estimation of temperatures in heaven and hell based on biblical information.
Berberan-Santos, Mário N. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1278.
Nonmajor Courses |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics
Ernest Rutherford, Avogadro's Number, and Chemical Kinetics Revisited (about J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 998-1003)  James E. Sturm
Estimation of temperatures in heaven and hell based on biblical information.
Sturm, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1278.
Nonmajor Courses |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Kinetics |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
Illustrating Thermodynamic Concepts Using a Hero's Engine  Pedro L. Muiño and James R. Hodgson
A modified Hero's engine is used to illustrate concepts of thermodynamics and engineering design suitable for introductory chemistry courses and more advanced physical chemistry courses. This demonstration is suitable to illustrate concepts like gas expansion, gas cooling through expansion, conversion of heat to work, interconversion between kinetic energy and potential energy, and feedback mechanisms.
Muio, Pedro L.; Hodgson, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 615.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
An Inexpensive Microscale Method for Measuring Vapor Pressure, Associated Thermodynamic Variables, and Molecular Weight  Jason C. DeMuro, Hovanes Margarian, Artavan Mkhikian, Kwang Hi No, and Andrew R. Peterson
Existing methods for measuring vapor pressure are too expensive or not quantitative enough for chemistry classes in secondary schools. Our method measures the vapor pressure inside a bubble trapped in a graduated microtube made from a disposable 1-mL glass pipet.
DeMuro, Jason C.; Margarian, Hovanes; Mkhikian, Artavan; No, Kwang Hi; Peterson, Andrew R. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1113.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Gases |
Microscale Lab |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Integrating Computers into the First-Year Chemistry Laboratory: Application of Raoult's Law to a Two-Component System  R. Viswanathan and G. Horowitz
First-year chemistry students are introduced to a spreadsheet program to calculate the boiling points of a two-component solution containing a volatile solute. The boiling points are predicted by combining the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and Raoult's law. A simple experimental setup is used to measure the boiling points of solutions of varying compositions.
Viswanathan, Raji; Horowitz, Gail. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1124.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Vapor Pressure Lowering by Nonvolatile Solutes  Gavin D. Peckham
This short article highlights a fundamental error that is entrenched in introductory chemistry textbooks. It is true that the addition of a nonvolatile solute causes a lowering in the vapor pressure of a solution. The error lies in attributing this vapor pressure lowering to the "blocking" of surface sites by nonvolatile particles. This is a totally fallacious argument for a number of reasons and the true explanation is to be found in the entropy changes that occur as a nonvolatile solute is added to a solution.
Peckham, Gavin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 787.
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics
The Thermodynamics of Drunk Driving  Robert Q. Thompson
Biological, chemical, and instrumental variables are described along with their contributions to the overall uncertainty in the value of BrAC/BAC.
Thompson, Robert Q. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 532.
Thermodynamics |
Nonmajor Courses |
Forensic Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Applications of Chemistry
Dynamite Demo?  Dale D. Clyde
Caution for boiling-water-with-ice demonstration.
Clyde, Dale D. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1130.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Liquids |
Gases
Kinetics in Thermodynamic Clothing: Fun with Cooling Curves: A First-Year Undergraduate Chemistry Experiment  Casadonte, Dominick J., Jr.
A series of experiments examining the phenomenon of cooling by producing part of the cooling curve for water at different initial temperatures, focussing on the fact that the curve is nonlinear (unlike the information presented in many texts).
Casadonte, Dominick J., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 346.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Kinetics
Journey around a Phase Diagram  Kildahl, Nicholas K.
This paper deals in depth with questions that arise from phase diagrams in an introductory level chemistry course.
Kildahl, Nicholas K. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1052.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases |
Liquids
Determining the thermal expansion coefficient of gases  Lehmann, Jochen K.
The authors improved the design of the apparatus and extended the experimental task on a recently published experiment for determining the zero point of the absolute temperature scale.
Lehmann, Jochen K. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 943.
Thermodynamics |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The thermodynamics of home-made ice cream.  Gibbon, Donald L.; Kennedy, Keith; Reading, Nathan; Quieroz, Mardsen.
Using the production of ice cream to teach heat capacity, viscosity, and freezing-point reduction.
Gibbon, Donald L.; Kennedy, Keith; Reading, Nathan; Quieroz, Mardsen. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 658.
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Understanding the fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in the subsurface environment  Chen, Chien T.
This article reviews our current understanding and then specifies the requirements for research that will improve our ability to detect hydrocarbons and predict their fate in the subsurface environment.
Chen, Chien T. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 357.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Boiling and freezing simultaneously - with a feeble vacuum pump!   Ellison, Mike
The author uses this demonstration of freezing and boiling at reduced pressure to reinforce concepts about energy effects in phase changes.
Ellison, Mike J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 325.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Thermodynamics
Vapor pressure demonstrations using a butane lighter  Delumyea, R. Del
The concept of the change of state of matter and particularly the volatitlity of liquids is an important concept taught in introductory chemistry courses.
Delumyea, R. Del J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 321.
Gases |
Physical Properties |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
An Ace reducing adapter for screw vials.  Canela, Ramon; Balcells, Merce.
Using this device, solvents contained in vials can be evaporated quickly without problems.
Canela, Ramon; Balcells, Merce. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 244.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solutions / Solvents |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Wet dry ice   Becker, Robert
A method for demonstrating the triple point of carbon dioxide in a safe way.
Becker, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 782.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
The temperature and pressure dependence of the equilibrium properties of a system: Introducing thermodynamics in the classroom  Solomon, Theodros
Introducing thermodynamics in the classroom in a manner that allows students to gain hints at the methods or approaches to be adopted.
Solomon, Theodros J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 294.
Thermodynamics
A vapor pressure demonstration   Sears, Jerry A.
The fact that all liquids exert a vapor pressure is an abstract concept that many students have difficulty understanding. The following demonstration offers dramatic, visual evidence of the pressure exerted by the vapor of a liquid.
Sears, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 427.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Liquids
Demonstration of vapor pressure  Richardson, W. S.
Demonstrating the vapor pressure of several different materials using a water manometer.
Richardson, W. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 968.
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Liquids
Fire walking, temperature, and heat   DeLorenzo, Ronald
Student interest piques when chemistry concepts are applied to this popular "trick".
DeLorenzo, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 976.
Thermodynamics
Simple demonstrations of the liquefaction of gases  Marzzacco, Charles J.
This demonstration uses simple hydrocarbons to demonstrate the important ideas of states of matter and changes in state.
Marzzacco, Charles J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 436.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Conversion of standard thermodynamic data to the new standard state pressure  Freeman, Robert D.
Analyzes the changes that will be required to convert standard thermodynamic data from units of atmospheres to the bar.
Freeman, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 681.
Thermodynamics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Molecular association and structure of hydrogen peroxide  Gigure, Paul A.
The typical textbook treatment of molecular association and structure of hydrogen peroxide, and the implications of these concepts for the physical properties of hydrogen peroxide tend to be oversimplified and inaccurate.
Gigure, Paul A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 399.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Hydrogen Bonding
Le Châtelier's principle: the effect of temperature on the solubility of solids in liquids  Brice, L. K.
The purpose of this article is to provide a rigorous but straightforward thermodynamic treatment of the temperature dependence of solubility of solids in liquids that is suitable for presentation at the undergraduate level. The present discussion may suggest how to approach the qualitative aspects of the subject for freshman.
Brice, L. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 387.
Thermodynamics |
Liquids |
Solids |
Chemometrics |
Equilibrium
Solar energy experiment for beginning chemistry  Davis, Clyde E.
This article introduces an experiment that incorporates chemical applications of solar energy into the curriculum.
Davis, Clyde E. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 158.
Thermodynamics |
Applications of Chemistry
Vapor pressure apparatus for general chemistry  Long, Joseph W.
A simple apparatus for collecting vapor pressure data; relies on a mercury manometer.
Long, Joseph W. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 933.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases
A simple experiment for determining vapor pressure and enthalpy of vaporization of water  Levinson, Gerald S.
It is possible to determine the vapor pressure of water using only a tall beaker, a graduated cylinder, and a thermometer.
Levinson, Gerald S. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 337.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Pressure and the exploding beverage container   Perkins, Robert R.
The question in this article is an extension of exploding pop bottles to illustrate the balancing of a chemical equation, enthalpy, stoichiometry, and vapor pressure calculations, and the use of the Ideal Gas Equation. The question is aimed at the first-year level student.
Perkins, Robert R. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 363.
Stoichiometry |
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Chemometrics
Measuring the heat of vaporization using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation  Driscoll, Jerry A.
Uses toluene, methylcyclohexane, or piperidine to measure the heat of vaporization using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation.
Driscoll, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 667.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Toys in the chemistry classroom  Ziegler, Gene R.
Using toys to teach chemical principles; lists common toys and their potential applications.
Ziegler, Gene R. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 629.
Applications of Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Le Chtelier's principle: A laboratory exercise  Friedman, Frederica
Le Chtelier's principle can be demonstrated by showing that water can boil at temperatures below 100C due to reduced vapor pressure.
Friedman, Frederica J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 236.
Equilibrium |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases |
Water / Water Chemistry
Physical chemistry of the drinking duck  Plumb, Robert C.; Wagner, Robert E.
The operation of the drinking bird is easily understood in terms of a few elementary physical chemistry principles.
Plumb, Robert C.; Wagner, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 213.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Equilibrium
Enthalpy and entropy of evaporation from measured vapor pressure using a programmable desk calculator  McEachern, Douglas M.
A program for a calculator that calculates the heat of evaporation of a solid or a liquid and the corresponding entropy change.
McEachern, Douglas M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 190.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Chemometrics
Evaporation rate: A beginning chemistry experiment  Feinstein, H. I.; Walters, C.
A simple procedure for determining the evaporation rate of volatile solvents.
Feinstein, H. I.; Walters, C. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 135.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Miscellanea No. 6  Eberhardt, W. H.
A collection of clarified, underemphasized, and misunderstood topics, including cell electromotive force and disproportionate reactions; partially miscible liquids and upper consolute temperatures; enthalpy and free energy of formation; and magnetic moment.
Eberhardt, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 829.
Electrochemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics |
Magnetic Properties
Sealed tube experiments  Campbell, J. A.
Lists and briefly describes a large set of "sealed tube experiments," each of which requires less than five minutes to set-up and clean-up, requires less than five minutes to run, provides dramatic results observable by a large class, and illustrates important chemical concepts.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 273.
Thermodynamics |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Liquids |
Gases |
Rate Law |
Equilibrium
Cloud Caps on High Mountains  Stevenson, Philip E.
The formation of cloud caps on high mountains illustrates cooling in an adiabatic expansion and the change in vapor pressure of a liquid with temperature.
Stevenson, Philip E. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 272.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics
The Methanol Lighter  Bailar, John C., Jr.
The methanol lighter illustrates the roles that thermodynamics, kinetics, and catalysis play in determining if a reaction will take place.
Bailar, John C., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 272.
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics |
Catalysis |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Chemical queries. Especially for introductory chemistry teachers  Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G.
(1) Is there such a thing as a negative pH value? Or one above 14? (2) What is entropy, in terms a beginner may understand? (3) On calculating the molecular weight of a solute from concentration and freezing point depression.
Young, J. A.; Malik, J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 36.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
pH |
Thermodynamics |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Capillary tube experiments for introductory chemistry laboratory  Gesser, H. D.; Lithown, Caroline; Brattston, D.; Thompson, Ian
Describes the use of a capillary tube to determine how vapor changes with temperature.
Gesser, H. D.; Lithown, Caroline; Brattston, D.; Thompson, Ian J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 387.
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Lectures on Matter and Equilibrium (Hill, Terrell L.)  Rosenburg, Robert

Rosenburg, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A1086.
Thermodynamics |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Hard sphere simulation of statistical mechanical behavior of molecules  Plumb, Robert C.
Describes the design and use of a demonstration device to illustrate the kinetic behavior of gases, liquids, and solids.
Plumb, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 648.
Statistical Mechanics |
Gases |
Liquids |
Solids |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Equilibrium |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Temperature dependence of equilibrium: A first experiment in general chemistry  Mahan, Bruce H.
This experiment uses cooling curves to derive the expression for the temperature dependence of the equilibrium constant.
Mahan, Bruce H. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 293.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
Determination of vapor pressure: A general chemistry laboratory experiment  Wolthuis, Enno; Brummel, Roger; Bout, Paul Vanden
Provides a method for obtaining good vapor pressure measurements using simple equipment.
Wolthuis, Enno; Brummel, Roger; Bout, Paul Vanden J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 494.
Gases |
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Textbook errors: Guest column. XVI: The vapor pressure of hydrated cupric sulfate  Logan, Thomas S.
Examines variability in the values of pressures of water vapor in equilibrium with pairs of cupric sulfate in hydrates quoted in the literature and texts.
Logan, Thomas S. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 148.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Equilibrium