TIGER

Journal Articles: 182 results
Frank Westheimer's Early Demonstration of Enzymatic Specificity  Addison Ault
Reviews one of the most significant accomplishments of one of the most respected chemists of the 20th centurya series of stereospecific enzymatic oxidation and reduction experiments that led chemists to recognize enantiotopic and diastereotopic relationships of atoms, or groups of atoms, within molecules.
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1246.
Asymmetric Synthesis |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Catalysis |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers |
Enzymes |
Isotopes |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stereochemistry
The Role of Water Chemistry in Marine Aquarium Design: A Model System for a General Chemistry Class  Jeffrey J. Keaffaber, Ramiro Palma, and Kathryn R. Williams
Water chemistry is central to aquarium design, and it provides many potential applications for discussion in undergraduate chemistry and engineering courses. This article uses a hypothetical tank to house ocean sunfish as a model to show students the calculations and other considerations that are needed when designing a marine aquarium.
Keaffaber, Jeffrey J.; Palma, Ramiro; Williams, Kathryn R. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 225.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry |
Water / Water Chemistry
Using Ozone in Organic Chemistry Lab: The Ozonolysis of Eugenol  Bruce M. Branan, Joshua T. Butcher, and Lawrence R. Olsen
This organic laboratory involves the ozonolysis of eugenol (clove oil) followed by a reductive workup that generates an aldehyde easily identified by its NMR and IR spectra.
Branan, Bruce M.; Butcher, Joshua T.; Olsen, Lawrence R. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1979.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Gases |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Guided-Inquiry Approach to the Sodium Borohydride Reduction and Grignard Reaction of Carbonyl Compounds  Robert E. Rosenberg
Students teams identify unknowns and their reaction products and use their data to deduce that esters are less electrophilic than the other carbonyl compounds present, that Grignard reagents are more nucleophilic than sodium borohydride, and that carboxylic acid derivatives do not undergo the nucleophilic addition reactions that are characteristic of aldehydes and ketones.
Rosenberg, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1474.
Addition Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
Grignard Reagents |
IR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Student-Centered Learning
Mercury Beating Heart: Modifications to the Classical Demonstration  Metodija Najdoski, Valentin Mirceski, Vladimir M. Petruševski, and Sani Demiri
The classic mercury beating heart demonstration is modified with various electrolytes.
Najdoski, Metodija; Mirceski, Valentin; Petruševski, Vladimir M.; Demiri, Sani. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1292.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Surface Science
A Pollutant Transformation Laboratory Exercise for Environmental Chemistry: The Reduction of Nitrobenzenes by Anaerobic Solutions of Humic Acid  Frank M. Dunnivant and Mark-Cody Reynolds
Presents a laboratory for advanced undergraduate- or graduate-level environmental chemistry in which students study the reduction of substituted nitrobenzenes by natural organic matter under anaerobic conditions. The exercise involves solution preparation, pH and EH buffers, organic reaction mechanisms, reaction kinetics, and instrumental analysis.
Dunnivant, Frank M.; Reynolds, Mark-Cody. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 315.
Instrumental Methods |
pH |
Solutions / Solvents |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction
Enantioselective Reduction by Crude Plant Parts: Reduction of Benzofuran-2-yl Methyl Ketone with Carrot (Daucus carota) Bits  Silvana Ravía, Daniela Gamenara, Valeria Schapiro, Ana Bellomo, Jorge Adum, Gustavo Seoane, and David Gonzalez
Presents the enantioselective reduction of a ketone by crude plant parts, using carrot (Daucus carota) as the reducing agent.
Ravía, Silvana; Gamenara, Daniela; Schapiro, Valeria; Bellomo, Ana; Adum, Jorge; Seoane, Gustavo; Gonzalez, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1049.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Biotechnology |
Catalysis |
Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stereochemistry |
Separation Science
Reductive Amination: A Remarkable Experiment for the Organic Laboratory  Kim M. Touchette
The synthesis of N-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)-N-p-tolylacetamide is a fast, simple three-step sequence that serves as a useful example of the reductive amination reaction for the organic chemistry laboratory.
Touchette, Kim M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 929.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Green Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solids
Synthesis of Methyl Diantilis, a Commercially Important Fragrance  William H. Miles and Katelyn B. Connell
Describes the synthesis of a family of fragrances, including the commercially important Methyl Diantilis, and provides an excellent introduction to intellectual property laws.
Miles, William H.; Connell, Katelyn B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 285.
Alcohols |
Food Science |
Catalysis |
Ethers |
Industrial Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis
Environmentally Responsible Redox Chemistry: An Example of Convenient Oxidation Methodology without Chromium Waste  Robyn L. Crumbie
This article describes a simple experiment that uses recyclable Magtrieve as the oxidant in a simple reaction sequence emphasizing the reciprocity of oxidation and reduction processes in organic synthesis.
Crumbie, Robyn L. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 268.
Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis
The Discovery-Oriented Approach to Organic Chemistry. 6. Selective Reduction in Organic Chemistry: Reduction of Aldehydes in the Presence of Esters Using Sodium Borohydride  Ashvin R. Baru and Ram S. Mohan
Describes two discovery oriented lab experiments involving the chemoselective reduction of vanillin acetate and methyl 4-formylbenzoate in the presence of esters using sodium borohydride, followed by product identification using 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy.
Baru, Ashvin R.; Mohan, Ram S. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1674.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Synthesis
Laboratory Experiments on the Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 8. Microscale Simultaneous Photocatalysis  Jorge G. Ibanez, Rodrigo Mena-Brito, and Arturo Fregoso-Infante
In this article we describe a microscale experiment in which the simultaneous oxidation of an organic compound (citric acid) and the reduction of a metal ion (Cu2+) are photocatalytically performed in an aqueous slurry containing TiO2 irradiated with UV light. This produces electrons (capable of reducing the metal ions) and holes (capable of oxidizing the organic molecule) that can be used for environmental clean up. The experiment allows students to have a better comprehension of the different phenomena involved in a typical photocatalytic process.
Ibanez, Jorge G.; Mena-Brito, Rodrigo; Fregoso-Infante, Arturo. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1549.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Photochemistry |
Semiconductors |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
The Entrance and Exit Effects in Small Electrochemical Filter-Press Reactors Used in the Laboratory  Angel Frías-Ferrer, José González-García, Verónica Sáez, Eduardo Expósito, Carlos M. ánchez-Sánchez, Vicente Montiel, Antonio Aldaz, and Frank C. Walsh
An experiment has been designed to aid chemical engineering students in understanding the importance of size in small reactors in order to get suitable data for subsequent extrapolations to larger reactors and, therefore, for the scaleup of small systems. The experimental arrangement and procedures are described, and the theory needed to interpret the experimental results is discussed. Reactor geometry and size and experimental procedure are highlighted as key parameters in the study.
Frías-Ferrer, Angel; González-García, José; Sáez, Verónica; Expósito, Eduardo; ánchez-Sánchez, Carlos M.; Montiel, Vicente; Aldaz, Antonio; Walsh, Frank C. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1395.
Electrochemistry |
Industrial Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Transport Properties
A Microwave-Assisted Reduction of Cyclohexanone Using Solid-State-Supported Sodium Borohydride  Lori L. White and Kevin W. Kittredge
We report a microwave-assisted reduction of cyclohexanone by sodium borohydride that is supported on SiO2. The reaction was completed in less than 3 minutes. Workup and analysis by GCMS, IR, and 1H NMR was possible in a two and half-hour laboratory session. This reduction was used successfully in a second-year organic chemistry laboratory. Students were exposed to a green chemistry reaction using solid-state-supported reactants in the absence of solvent.
White, Lori L.; Kittredge, Kevin W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1055.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solid State Chemistry |
Green Chemistry |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Single-Molecule Electronic Measurements with Metal Electrodes  Stuart Lindsay
The process of transferring electrons from one metal electrode to another via an intervening molecule differs from electrochemically or optically-induced electron transfer in important ways. The simplest process of ballistic electron transport with no charge localization on the molecule (tunneling) should be easy to understand quantitatively, yet experimental reports and theoretical calculations can differ by orders of magnitude. Here, we show how many of the discrepancies are resolved with measurements carefully constructed to provide data on single molecules connected to electrodes in well-defined ways.
Lindsay, Stuart. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 727.
Electrochemistry |
Nanotechnology |
Oxidation / Reduction
Volatile Organic Sulfur Compounds of Environmental Interest: Dimethyl Sulfide and Methanethiol. An Introductory Overview  Thomas G. Chasteen and Ronald Bentley
Volatile organic sulfur compounds and their degradation products play important environmental roles in global warming, acid precipitation, and cloud formation. Two important members of this group, dimethyl sulfide, DMS, and methanethiol, MT, are formed by living organisms as well as by abiotic processes. The chemical reactions responsible for the biosynthesis of DMS and MT are emphasized here, as well as means for their degradation. Since sulfur compounds are often ignored in normal course work, this article provides a basic foundation for an understanding of these interesting and environmentally significant compounds.
Chasteen, Thomas G.; Bentley, Ronald. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1524.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Gases |
Oxidation / Reduction
Studying Current–Potential Curves Using Bipotentiometric Iodometric Back-Titration for the Determination of Ascorbic Acid in Fruits and Vegetables  Roxana A. Verdini and Claudia M. Lagier
A method for the determination of the ascorbic acid content in fruits and vegetables was used to introduce the principles of voltammetry. The procedure combines an iodometric back-titration with voltammetric (bipotentiometric) end point detection, which minimizes the risk of ascorbic acid oxidation, allowing for a rapid and efficient quantification of vitamin C in fruits and vegetables. A better understanding of the titration curve is achieved by analyzing the schematic currentpotential curves of the anodic and cathodic half-cell reactions during the titration.
Verdini, Roxana A.; Lagier, Claudia M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1482.
Constitutional Isomers |
Electrochemistry |
Food Science |
Instrumental Methods |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Vitamins |
Consumer Chemistry
Catalytic Hydrogenation of Organic Compounds without H2 Supply: An Electrochemical System  Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz Navarro and Marcelo Navarro
A system for hydrogenation of organic compounds without a hydrogen gas supply is described. The process involves an electrochemical apparatus for the generation of hydrogen in situ. The simplicity of the experiment allows students to carry out easy experiments in the laboratory and the instructors to introduce the following concepts: electrochemical principles and catalytic and hydrogenation reactions. A sacrificial anode of nickel is used in the electrochemical system with a double function: to permit the use of an undivided cell and activate the cathode surface.
Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Navarro, Marcelo. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1350.
Catalysis |
Chromatography |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Reliable Homemade Electrode Based on Glassy Polymeric Carbon  André L. Santos, Regina M. Takeuchi, Herenilton P. Oliveira, Marcello G. Rodrigues, and Robert L. Zimmerman
The production of glassy polymeric carbon (GPC) through the thermal treatment of a phenolic resin is described.
Santos, André L.; Takeuchi, Regina M.; Oliveira, Herenilton P.; Rodrigues, Marcello G.; Zimmerman, Robert L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 842.
Electrochemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Oxidation / Reduction
Chlor–Alkali Industry: A Laboratory Scale Approach  C. M. Sánchez-Sánchez, E. Expósito, A. Frías-Ferrer, J. González-García, V. Montiel, and A. Aldaz
An experiment is described that approximates the industrial chloralkali process using a membrane cell.
Sánchez-Sánchez, C. M.; Expósito, E.; Frías-Ferrer, A.; González-García, J.; Montiel, V.; Aldaz, A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 698.
Electrochemistry |
Industrial Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Developing Investigation Skills in an Introductory Multistep Synthesis Using Fluorene Oxidation and Reduction  Mark G. Stocksdale, Steven E. S. Fletcher, Ian Henry, Paul J. Ogren, Michael A. G. Berg, Roy D. Pointer, and Barrett W. Benson
A two-step reaction sequence in the beginning organic laboratory provides a useful introduction to the importance of multistep synthesis. In addition to introducing several common synthetic methods and techniques, a two-step preparation can quickly establish the importance of testing alternative reactions in order to optimize intermediate yields.
Stocksdale, Mark G.; Fletcher, Steven E. S.; Henry, Ian; Ogren, Paul J.; Berg, Michael A. G.; Pointer, Roy D.; Benson, Barrett W. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 388.
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction
Laboratory Experiments on the Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 6: Microscale Production of Ferrate  Jorge G. Ibanez, Monica Tellez-Giron, Diana Alvarez, and Elizabeth Garcia-Pintor
Ferrate, a powerful oxidizing and disinfecting agent, is synthesized chemically and electrochemically in the undergraduate laboratory with simple equipment and under very mild conditions. Tests are given to characterize it and to observe its action in simulated environmental applications.
Ibanez, Jorge G.; Tellez-Giron, Monica; Alvarez, Diana; Garcia-Pintor, Elizabeth. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 251.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Green Chemistry |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction
Well Wishes. A Case on Septic Systems and Well Water Requiring In-Depth Analysis and Including Optional Laboratory Experiments  Mary M. Walczak and Juliette M. Lantz
This paper describes the use of a case study to teach introductory chemistry students the chemical principles of solution concentration (especially ppm) and dilution, aqueous redox reactions, and stoichiometric conversions between different solution species.
Walczak, Mary M.; Lantz, Juliette M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 218.
Consumer Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry
A Spectrophotometric Study of the Permanganate–Oxalate Reaction: An Analytical Laboratory Experiment  Gene E. Kalbus, Van T. Lieu, and Lee H. Kalbus
The experiment is divided into two parts. Part I involves the determination of an unknown oxalate. Part II of the experiment involves examination of the effect of sulfuric acid concentration and the effect of manganous ion concentration on the rate of and outcome of the permanganateoxalate reaction.
Kalbus, Gene E.; Lieu, Van T.; Kalbus, Lee H. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 100.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Photogalvanic Cells for Classroom Investigations: A Contribution for Ongoing Curriculum Modernization  Claudia Bohrmann-Linde and Michael W. Tausch
Laboratory experiments examining the fundamental processes in the conversion of light into electrical energy using photogalvanic cells have been developed. These simple cells are suitable for classroom investigations examining the operating principles of photogalvanic cells and the influence of different parameters on their efficiency.
Bohrmann-Linde, Claudia; Tausch, Michael W. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1471.
Electrochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production by Direct Sunlight: A Laboratory Experiment  Atif Koca and Musa Sahin
The experiment can be used to introduce students to the concept of a renewable and sustainable hydrogen energy system of the future, as well as its production techniques, and to demonstrate the use of a CdS/ZnS photocatalyst system for photocatalytic hydrogen production from direct sunlight.
Koca, Atif; Sahin, Musa. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1314.
Catalysis |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Reproportionation of Copper(I)  Jan Malyszko and Maria Kaczor
Cu(I) is an example of an intermediate oxidation state that can undergo disproportionation or reproportionation reactions depending on the solvent and background electrolyte. A simple experiment to demonstrate the reproportionation of copper(I) from the reaction between copper metal and copper(II) in acidic aqueous solution containing an excess of chlorides is presented.
Malyszko, Jan; Kaczor, Maria. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1048.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Environmental Redox Potential and Redox Capacity Concepts Using a Simple Polarographic Experiment  Alejandro Pidello
Laboratory designed to enable students to distinguish clearly between redox potential and redox capacity concepts through results obtained in a complex natural system (soil).
Pidello, Alejandro. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 68.
Agricultural Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Potentiometry
CLIP: Acetic Anhydride  Jay A. Young
Boric acid is a mild oxidizing agent.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1202.
Oxidation / Reduction
CLIP: Acetic Anhydride  Charlie A. Crutchfield
Boric acid is not an oxidizing agent.
Crutchfield, Charlie A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1202.
Oxidation / Reduction
CLIP: Acetic Anhydride  Charlie A. Crutchfield
Boric acid is not an oxidizing agent.
Crutchfield, Charlie A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1202.
Oxidation / Reduction
Determining Oxidation–Reduction on a Simple Number Line  Amy L. Cox and James R. Cox
Using a simple number line to analyze oxidation-reduction reactions encountered in introductory/general chemistry, organic chemistry, and biochemistry.
Cox, Amy L.; Cox, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 965.
Oxidation / Reduction
Chiral Compounds and Green Chemistry in Undergraduate Organic Laboratories: Reduction of a Ketone by Sodium Borohydride and Baker's Yeast  Nicola Pohl, Allen Clague, and Kimberly Schwarz
Students compare biological and chemical means of introducing chirality into a molecule by investigating the reduction of a ketoester with two different reducing agents.
Pohl, Nicola; Clague, Allen; Schwarz, Kimberly. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 727.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis |
Green Chemistry
A New Approach to Understanding Oxidation-Reduction of Compounds in Organic Chemistry  Abdullah Menzek
Teaching oxidation-reduction in introductory organic chemistry.
Menzek, Abdullah. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 700.
Aromatic Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Redox Redux: Recommendations for Improving Textbook and IUPAC Definitions  Ed Vitz
Defining oxidation / reduction reactions as those in which oxidation states of the reactant(s) change.
Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 397.
Electrochemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
A Simple Student Experiment for Teaching Surface Electrochemistry: Adsorption of Polyoxometalate on Graphite Electrodes  David Martel, Neso Sojic, and Alexander Kuhn
Experiment that illustrates the electrochemical behavior of a surface-adsorbed redox species through cyclic voltametry.
Martel, David; Sojic, Neso; Kuhn, Alexander. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 349.
Catalysis |
Electrochemistry |
Surface Science |
Oxidation / Reduction
Integrating HPLC and Electrochemistry: A LabVIEW-Based Pulsed Amperometric Detection System  Mark B. Jensen
Using the voltametry of glucose to develop a method for the pulsed amperometric detection of carbohydrates (glucose, fructose, and sucrose) following their separation by liquid chromatography.
Jensen, Mark B. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 345.
Chromatography |
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
HPLC |
Carbohydrates |
Separation Science |
Oxidation / Reduction
An Efficient Composition for Bengal Lights  M. Comet, L. Schreyeck, and H. Fuzellier
Producing bengal lights (colored flames) using different mixtures of colorants to introduce the solid-phase redox theory in inorganic chemistry.
Comet, M.; Schreyeck, L.; Fuzellier, H. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 70.
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Solid State Chemistry
Determination of Free Lime in Clinker and Cement by Iodometry. An Undergraduate Experiment in Redox Titrimetry  Oi-Wah Lau, Shiu-Fai Luk, Nina L. N. Cheng, and Hoi-Yin Woo
Experiment to determine the free lime in cement and clinker through iodometry.
Lau, Oi-Wah; Luk, Shiu-Fai; Cheng, Nina L. N.; Woo, Hoi-Yin. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1671.
Acids / Bases |
Industrial Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Separation Science
The Joy of Color in Ceramic Glazes with the Help of Redox Chemistry  Allen A. Denio
The chemistry of pottery, ceramic glazes, and the firing process.
Denio, Allen A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1298.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Geochemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Metals
Ethanol Metabolism and the Transition from Organic Chemistry to Biochemistry  Richard D. Feinman
Introducing alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase reactions in organic chemistry to ease transition to biochemistry.
Feinman, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1215.
Metabolism |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Alcohols |
Carbohydrates
Laboratory Experiments on Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 5: Indirect H2S Remediation  J. G. Ibanez
Experiment to introduce students in general chemistry, environmental chemistry, or electrochemistry to the concept of indirect electrolysis, its application in environmental remediation schemes, the role of a mediator, and the application of redox chemistry concepts.
Ibanez, J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 778.
Electrochemistry |
Gases |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry
The Household Chemistry of Cleaning Pennies  Laurence D. Rosenhein
Although it is well known that solutions of vinegar and table salt are effective in removing tarnish from pennies, chemical explanations of this behavior are not included in sources of this "household chemistry" and erroneous explanations have crept into popular literature on this subject; this article provides some relevant empirical information on the system.
Rosenhein, Laurence D. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 513.
Consumer Chemistry |
Coordination Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction
Organic-Solvent-Free Phase-Transfer Oxidation of Alcohols Using Hydrogen Peroxide  Martin Hulce and David W. Marks
Six representative alcohols are oxidized to the corresponding aldehyde or ketone, integrating the various techniques of extraction, drying, filtration, column chromatography, gas chromatography, NMR and IR spectroscopy, and reaction kinetics.
Hulce, Martin; Marks, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 66.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Phenols
Kinetic Isotope Effect in the Chromic Acid Oxidation of Secondary Alcohols  Charles E. Harding, Christopher W. Mitchell, and Jozsef Devenyi
The kinetic isotope effect is an invaluable tool in studying certain organic reaction mechanisms. Two activities involving the technique that are suitable for introductory organic laboratory students are described. A simple competition experiment utilizing the benzhydrol?benzhydrol-d1 system and chromic acid oxidation is used to demonstrate qualitatively that there is a kinetic isotope effect involved in this process.
Harding, Charles E.; Mitchell, Christopher W.; Devenyi, Jozsef. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1042.
Isotopes |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Alcohols |
Oxidation / Reduction
The Thermodynamics and Kinetics of "HeaterMeals": An Exercise in Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry  William B. Jensen
The author traces his steps in unraveling the chemistry behind an innovative new commercial product called HeaterMeals, which makes use of an "inorganic oven" composed of magnesium metal, iron metal, and salt water as a way of heating prepackaged meals. The thermodynamic, kinetic, and structural roles played by each component are analyzed and correlated with various topics taught in a typical introductory inorganic course.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 713.
Electrochemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Applications of Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Comparative Study of Microscale and Standard Burets  Mono M. Singh, Cynthia B. McGowan, Zvi Szafran, and R. M. Pike
This paper describes a comparative study of the performance of microscale titrations using 2-mL microscale burets with those using Beral pipets and normal 50- and 10-mL burets. The usefulness of a microburet in general and analytical chemistry is demonstrated by presenting results from acid-base, oxidation-reduction, precipitation, complexometric, and pH titrations.
Singh, Mono M.; McGowan, Cynthia B.; Szafran, Zvi; Pike, Ronald M. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 625.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH |
Precipitation / Solubility
Chemistry Comes Alive! Vol. 3: Abstract of Special Issue 23 on CD-ROM  Jerrold J. Jacobsen and John W. Moore
Volume 3 contains several related topics generally included in an introductory chemistry course. The general areas are Enthalpy and Thermodynamics, Oxidation-Reduction, and Electrochemistry.
Jacobsen, Jerrold J.; Moore, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1311.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Lemon Cells Revisited  Radhakrishnamurty, P.
Analysis of the reactions and nature of the electrodes in the lemon cell.
Radhakrishnamurty, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1190.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Oxidation / Reduction
In Search of a Deep Understanding of Cu2+/0 and Zn2+/0 E° Values  Steven H. Strauss
This paper presents an example of an interesting way to introduce periodic trends in undergraduate inorganic chemistry courses. The student, guided by the instructor, "investigates" the significantly different M2+/0 E values for two adjacent period 4 elements, copper and zinc, as though the investigation were a research project.
Strauss, Steven H. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1095.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Transition Elements |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Spectrophotometric Method for Quantitative Determination of Bromine Using Tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine  Joan Han, Troy Story, and Grace Han
A simple spectrophotometric method for quantitative determination of bromine is described.
Han, Joan; Story, Troy; Han, Grace. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 976.
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
A Further Demonstration of Sulfite-Induced Redox Cycling of Metal Ions Initiated by Shaking  Horacio D. Moya, Eduardo Almeida Neves, and Nina Coichev
Details of a fascinating laboratory demonstration of the sulfite-induced redox cycling of Ni(II)/Ni(III), which is initiated by shaking the solution in the presence of air, are reported. The balance between the sulfite and oxygen concentration controls the direction of the overall reaction.
Moya, Horacio D.; Neves, Eduardo Almeida; Coichev, Nina. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 930.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Catalysis
An Analysis of College Chemistry Textbooks As Sources of Misconceptions and Errors in Electrochemistry  Michael J. Sanger and Thomas J. Greenbowe
The oxidation-reduction and electrochemistry chapters of 10 introductory college chemistry textbooks were reviewed for misleading or erroneous statements, using a list of student misconceptions. As a result of this analysis, we provide suggestions for chemistry instructors and textbook authors.
Sanger, Michael J.; Greenbowe, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 853.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Learning Theories
Redox Buffer Strength  Robert de Levie
The proper functioning of enzymes in bodily fluids requires that the pH be maintained within rather narrow limits. The first line of defense against large pH fluctuations in such fluids is the passive control provided by the presence of pH buffers. It is equally important for many enzymes that the redox potential is kept within a narrow range. In that case, stability of the potential is most readily achieved with a redox buffer. In this communication the redox buffer strength is defined by analogy with acid-base buffer strength.
de Levie, Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 574.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases |
Enzymes
Laboratory Experiments on Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 4: Color Removal of Simulated Wastewater by Electrocoagulation-Electroflotation  Jorge G. Ibanez, M. M. Singh, and Z. Szafran
Due to the large production of aqueous waste streams from textile mills and dye production plants, several processes have been under intense study. Electrochemical processes offer some distinctive advantages, including effects due to: 1) the production of electrolysis gases, and 2) the production of polyvalent cations from the oxidation of corrodible anodes (like Fe and Al).
Ibanez, Jorge G.; Singh, Mono M.; Szafran, Zvi. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1040.
Microscale Lab |
Electrochemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Microscale Lab
Balancing Organic Reactions  Woolf, A.A.
Assigning oxidation numbers to atoms that change in the redox process.
Woolf, A.A. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 938.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction
The Clemmensen Reduction  Palacios, Juan C.; Cintas, Pedro
Clemmensen reduction does not involve the formation of alcohols.
Palacios, Juan C.; Cintas, Pedro J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 938.
Oxidation / Reduction
Letters  
Clemmensen reduction does not involve the formation of alcohols.
J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 938.
Oxidation / Reduction
Slide Projector Corrosion Cell  Silvia Tejada, Estela Guevara, and Esperanza Olivares
The process of corrosion can be demonstrated in a slide projector, since the cell is in the shape of a slide, or on the stage of an overhead projector by setting up a simple galvanic cell. Corrosion occurs as the result of a galvanic cell reaction, in which the corroding metal acts as the anode. Several simple demonstrations relating to corrosion are described here.
Tejada, Silvia; Guevara, Estela; Olivares, Esperanza. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 747.
Electrochemistry |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Applications of Chemistry
Laboratory Experiments on Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 2: Microscale Indirect Electrolytic Destruction of Organic Wastes  Jorge G. Ibanez, M. M. Singh, R. M. Pike, and Z. Szafran
The objective of this experiment is to destroy, at the microscale level, a sample of surrogate organic waste by generating a powerful oxidizer at the anode of an electrochemical cell. This generated species oxidizes the waste to harmless products. The oxidizer can then be regenerated and recycled.
Ibanez, Jorge G.; Singh M. M.; Pike, R. M.; Szafran, Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1449.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Microscale Lab |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Applications of Chemistry
Using Mathematica and Maple To Obtain Chemical Equations  William R. Smith and Ronald W. Missen
A straightforward stepwise procedure is described for each of Mathematica and Maple, applicable to systems of any complexity. The procedures are illustrated by two examples, one for a "difficult" redox system, and the other for a multi-equation inorganic system.
Smith, William R.; Missen, Ronald W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1369.
Stoichiometry |
Learning Theories |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
Redox Balancing without Puzzling  Marten J. ten Hoor
Once it has been established by experiment that the given reactants can indeed be converted into the given products, chemistry has done its job. Balancing the equation of the reaction is a matter of mathematics only.
ten Hoor, Marten J. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1367.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Letter to the Editor about Letter to the Editor "Redox Challenges" from David M. Hart and Response from Roland Stout (J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A226-7)  Andrzej Sobkowiak
Examples of a variety of redox equations.
Sobkowiak, Andrzej. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1256.
Stoichiometry |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Free Radical Reactions in Aqueous Solutions: Examples from Advanced Oxidation Processes for Wastewater from the Chemistry in Airborne Water Droplets  N. Colin Baird
A common free radical reaction in aqueous solution is electron transfer, especially to the hydroxyl radical and to ozone. Hydrogen peroxide and free radicals related to it act as weak acids, so both their neutral and deprotonated forms must be considered in reactions. Free radical reactions also play an important role in the chemistry of water droplets suspended in air in clouds and fogs.
Baird, N. Colin. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 817.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Free Radicals |
Reactive Intermediates |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction
An Analysis of the Algebraic Method for Balancing Chemical Reactions  John A. Olson
A new aspect of this treatment is the mathematical formulation of a third condition involving a balance between oxidation and reduction. The treatment begins with the three general conditions that a balanced chemical reaction must satisfy. These conditions are then expressed in mathematical form that enables the stoichiometric coefficients to be determined.
Olson, John A. . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 538.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry
Valency  Peter G. Nelson
The concept of valency is refined and developed. Three types of valency are distinguished : primary or classical, coordinate, and nonclassical. The first relates to simple compounds and to the components of multiple ones, the second to coordination compounds, and the third to transition-metal carbonyls and similar species. Each type is defined, evaluated, and applied to the prediction of the atomic composition of compounds.
Nelson, Peter G. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 465.
Valence Bond Theory |
Coordination Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction
Microburger Biochemistry: Extraction and Spectral Characterization of Myoglyobin from Hamburger  Sheri A. Bylkas and Laura A. Andersson
The protocol combines protein extraction, oxidation and reduction, and simple spectroscopic analysis, as well as gel filtration chromatography and generation/analysis of spectral scans. Mammalian myoglobin (Mb) is easily extracted from steak, to illustrate and address why fresh meat is red and aged meat is brown; the protein has unique spectral properties that are diagnostic for characterization of sample identity.
Bylkas, Sheri A.; Andersson, Laura A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 426.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Proteins / Peptides |
Oxidation / Reduction |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Chromatography
Reduction of Carboxylic Acids with Sodium Borohydride and an Electrophile  Jan William Simek, Thad Tuck, and Kelly Courter Bush
Integration of new reduction conditions into a procedure applicable to the first-year organic chemistry laboratory, where reduction of the carboxylic acid group has remained an obstacle, notwithstanding the use of borane or LiAlH4 (2) on the microscale. The NaBH4 method with either electrophile can be modified to any scale; in our hands, the use of I2 as the electrophile performed better at the semimicro scale than the H2SO4 method.
Simek, Jan William; Tuck, Thad; Bush, Kelly Courter . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 107.
Carboxylic Acids |
Aromatic Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction
Understanding Oxidation - Reduction in Organic Chemistry  Jean-Pierre Anselme
Explanation of oxidation and reduction as applied to organic chemistry.
Anselme, Jean-Pierre. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 69.
Oxidation / Reduction
A Student-Designed Potentiometric Titration: Quantitative Determination of Iron(II) by Caro's Acid Titration  Joyce R. Powell, Sheryl A. Tucker, William E. Acree Jr., Jennifer A. Sees, Lindsey H. Hall
A laboratory experiment involving the feasibility of using Caro's acid, H2SO5, as a titrant in the potentiometric determination of iron(II) is presented.
Powell, Joyce R.; Tucker, Sheryl A.; Acree Jr., William E.; Sees, Jennifer A.; Hall, Lindsey H. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 984.
Potentiometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis
Redox Challenges: Good Times for Puzzle Fanatics  Roland Stout
Three difficult to balance redox equations.
Stout, Roland. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1125.
Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Baker's Yeast Reduction of alpha-Diketones: A Four-Hour Experiment for Undergraduate Students  Besse, Pascale; Bolte, Jean; Veschambre, Henri
Procedure for quickly and efficiently reducing alpha-diketones using bakers' yeast.
Besse, Pascale; Bolte, Jean; Veschambre, Henri J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 277.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones
A More Affordable Undergraduate Experiment on the Reduction of Acetophenone by Yeast  Lee, Moses; Huntington, Martha
Preparation of Mosher's esters through the reduction of acetophenone with baker's yeast.
Lee, Moses; Huntington, Martha J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A62.
Microscale Lab |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stereochemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Esters |
Synthesis
A Simple and Safe Catalytic Hydrogenation of 4-Vinylbenzoic Acid  De, Shantanu; Gambhir, Geetu; Krishnamurty, H. G.
An alternative procedure to catalytic hydrogenation is catalytic transfer hydrogenation. In this technique, the reduction of an organic compound is achieved with the aid of a donor substance in the presence of a catalyst.
De, Shantanu; Gambhir, Geetu; Krishnamurty, H. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 992.
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes
A Fascinating Demonstration of Sulfite Induced Redox Cycling of Metal Ions Initiated by Shaking  Coichev, Nina; van Eldik, Rudi
A complete redox cycle with the net oxidation of sulfite and reduction of oxygen.
Coichev, Nina; van Eldik, Rudi J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 767.
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction
Vanadium Ions as Visible Electron Carriers in a Redox System  Bare, William D.; Resto, Wilfredo
Demonstration using a column to display the four, differently colored, oxidation states of vanadium simultaneously.
Bare, William D.; Resto, Wilfredo J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 692.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Oxidation State
A Warning for Frost Diagrams Users  Martinez de llarduya, Jesus M.; Villafane, Fernando
How the use of the correct diagram prevents wrong conclusions, and how some predictions depend on the use of each type of basic-solution diagram.
Martinez de llarduya, Jesus M.; Villafane, Fernando J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 480.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Pyrotechnic Reactions Without Oxygen  Wright, Stephen W.
Reaction of K3FeF6 with Al and poly(tetrafluoroethylene) with Mg.
Wright, Stephen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 251.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Conversion Reactions in Inorganic Chemistry  Habashi, Fathi.
Liberation of metals from their sulfides through reaction with oxygen.
Habashi, Fathi. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 130.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Climbing a potential ladder to understanding concepts in electrochemistry  Runo, James R.; Peters, Dennis G.
An introduction of a unified approach that makes use of a potential latter in order to assist students in overcoming and clarifying the problems encountered when learning electrochemistry.
Runo, James R.; Peters, Dennis G. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 708.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Is This Reaction a Substitution, Oxidation-Reduction, or Transfer?  Imyanitov, Naum S.
Author argues that separation of chemical reaction types based on convention do not always follow objective and consistent rules. This leads to confusion among students and artificial borders within the various sub-disciplines in chemistry.
Imyanitov, Naum S. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 14.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Synthesis of a heteropolytungstate and its use in outer-sphere redox kinetics  Walmsley, Frank
An inorganic chemistry experiment has been developed combining two topics usually included in inorganic chemistry: heteropoly ions and mechanisms of oxidation-reduction reactions of transition metal ions.
Walmsley, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 936.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Kinetics |
Synthesis |
Coordination Compounds
A more environmentally acceptable determination of iron in an ore  Byars, Jeffrey; McCreary, Terry W.
The method for titrimetric determination of iron in which zinc is used as the reactant in situ rather that as a Jones reductor, has several advantages over conventional determination of iron.
Byars, Jeffrey; McCreary, Terry W. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 935.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis
Frost diagrams: A tool for predicting redox reactions.  Birk, James P.; Hocker, Heidi.
A HyperCard stack that provides an easily used format for making redox reaction predictions for one or two elements by comparing slopes of the lines connecting two oxidation states.
Birk, James P.; Hocker, Heidi. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 509.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
The chemical logic of life and the earth's biosphere: A simple, one-diagram outline  Ochiai, Ei-Ichiro
This diagram is intended to give a compact overall picture of the chemical logic of life and of the earth's biosphere.
Ochiai, Ei-Ichiro J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 356.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction
Algorithm for plotting titration curves (author response).  Rodrigues de Moura, Daniel.
Our model, contrary to Jackman's statement, can be applied to redox systems that are pH-dependant.
Rodrigues de Moura, Daniel. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 257.
pH |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Algorithm for plotting titration curves.  Jackman, Donald C.
de Moura's algorithm for plotting redox titration curves seems to be good for systems that are not dependent on pH or product concentration, but is not applicable to those situations that is student is more likely to encounter.
Jackman, Donald C. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 257.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH
Electrochemistry of proton-coupled redox reactions: Role of the electrode surface.  Thorp, H. Holden.
In this article examples of the effects of the surface properties on a working electrode are explored.
Thorp, H. Holden. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 250.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
pH
Hydroboration-oxidation of (1R)-(+)-alpha-pinene to isopinocampheol: A microscale experiment that displays regio- and stereochemistry using NMR spectroscopy and molecular mechanics calculations  Blankespoor, Ronald L.; Piers, Kenneth
The hydroboration-oxidation of alkenes is an important route to alcohols and therefore receives considerable treatment in standard organic textbooks. These authors present their findings of an example (an alkene that undergoes the hydroboration oxidation process) that displays both regiochemistry and stereochemistry.
Blankespoor, Ronald L.; Piers, Kenneth J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 693.
Alkenes |
Oxidation / Reduction |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols
Recovery of silver from and some uses for waste silver chloride  Murphy, J. A.; Ackerman, A. H.; Heeren, J. K.
Procedures for conversion to silver nitrate, using waste AgCl as an oxidizing agent, and electrodepositon experiments.
Murphy, J. A.; Ackerman, A. H.; Heeren, J. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 602.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Redox demonstrations and descriptive chemistry: Part 3. Copper (I)-copper(II) equilibria   Ophardt, Charles E.
The unusual redox properties of copper (I) and copper (II) ions explained and illustrated.
Ophardt, Charles E. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 248.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction
Superoxide dismutase and the Briggs-Rauscher reaction  Franz, David A.
Oxygen-derived species provide chemistry teachers with excellent examples for discussion of molecular-orbital theory, bond order and reactivity, redox potentials, radical reactivity, disproportionation, and enzyme activity.
Franz, David A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 57.
Enzymes |
Biophysical Chemistry |
MO Theory |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Covalent Bonding
Design of corrosion inhibitors: Use of the hard and soft acid-base (HSAB) theory  Walters, Frederick H.
Using hard and soft acid-base theory to understand corrosion.
Walters, Frederick H. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 29.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Electrochemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
A bromate clock reaction: The formation of purple tris(diphosphato)manganate(III)  Rich, Ronald L.; Noyes, Richard M.
Bromate is used to oxidize nearly colorless Mn(II) to a deep purple complex of Mn(III).
Rich, Ronald L.; Noyes, Richard M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 606.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Kinetics
A syllabus for a two-semester chemistry course for health professions (author response)  Daly, John M.; Sarquis, Jerry L.
While oxidation-reduction is not given a major heading, it is included in several different places in the syllabus.
Daly, John M.; Sarquis, Jerry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 540.
Nonmajor Courses |
Oxidation / Reduction
A syllabus for a two-semester chemistry course for health professions   Bosch, E.; Prat, M. D.
The author believes that the main criticism of the proposed program is the lack of a redox section.
Bosch, E.; Prat, M. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 539.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Nonmajor Courses
Chemical Reactions, Reactions in Aqueous Solution, and Oxidation Reduction Reactions, Review II (Weyh, J. A.; Crook, J. R.; Hauge, L. N.)  Coleman, William F.
Programs intended to provide students with drill and practice in equation writing (including formula writing), equation balancing, and reaction predicting.
Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A172.
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Chemical Reactions, Reactions in Aqueous Solution, and Oxidation Reduction Reactions, Review I (Weyh, J. A.; Crook, J. R.; Hauge, L. N.)  Balahura, Robert J.
Programs intended to provide students with drill and practice in equation writing (including formula writing), equation balancing, and reaction predicting.
Balahura, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A172.
Reactions |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Selective reductions in the teaching laboratory  Jones, Alan G.
Reductions of nitrophenylethanone, aminophenylethanone, and nitrophenylethanol.
Jones, Alan G. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 611.
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
IR Spectroscopy
A laboratory procedure for the reduction of chromium(VI) to chromium(III)  Lunn, George; Sansone, Eric B.
The authors describe work aimed at reducing the hazards associated with the disposal of Cr(VI) compounds.
Lunn, George; Sansone, Eric B. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 443.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Laboratory Management
Reduction of Indigo: Sodium Hydrosulfite as a Reducing Agent  Williamson, Kenneth L.
The confusion between sodium hydrogen sulfite, sodium bisulfite, and sodium hydrosulfite is a common one.
Williamson, Kenneth L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 359.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Laboratory Management
Chemically induced pulsations of interfaces: The mercury beating heart  Avnir, David
When an iron needle just touches a mercury drop submerged in a pool of an acidic solution of an oxidizer, it pulsates rapidly in a mode that resembles a beating heart.
Avnir, David J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 211.
Oxidation / Reduction
Ion association, solubilities, and reduction potentials in aqueous solution  Russo, Steven O.; Hanania, George I. H.
It is the author's belief that a combined approach to ionic activity and ion association presents to the student a realistic and more quantitative view of electrolyte solutions than is otherwise possible.
Russo, Steven O.; Hanania, George I. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 148.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Ionic Bonding |
Oxidation / Reduction
Preparation of lead compounds: An exercise in applied chemistry  Laing, Michael; Williams-Wynn, David; Suhramoney, Saroj
Uses and synthesis of Pb(NO3)2, PbO2, PbCrO4, PbS, PbO, lead carbonate, lead acetate, and lead metal itself.
Laing, Michael; Williams-Wynn, David; Suhramoney, Saroj J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 811.
Synthesis |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State |
Reactions |
Descriptive Chemistry
Redox demonstrations and descriptive chemistry: Part 2. Halogens  Ophardt, Charles E.
Oxidation states of bromine and iodine.
Ophardt, Charles E. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 807.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Oxidation State
The stepwise reduction of permanganate in alkaline conditions: A lecture demonstration  Ruoff, Peter
Demonstrates the +VII, +VI, +V, and +IV oxidation states of manganese and their characteristic colors.
Ruoff, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 624.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Passivation of copper in acid medium  Alonso, C.; Ocon, P.
Determining and explaining the polarization curve of copper in a 70% solution of phosphoric acid.
Alonso, C.; Ocon, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 459.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Thioxanthone sulfone radical anion: A relatively stable ketyl  Castrillon, Jose
Thioxanthone sulfone is induced to produce a deep blue color upon standing that disappears on shaking.
Castrillon, Jose J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 352.
Free Radicals |
Oxidation / Reduction
Introduction to overhead projector demonstrations  Kolb, Doris
General suggestions for using the overhead projector and 21 demonstrations. [Debut]
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 348.
Rate Law |
Reactions |
Catalysis |
Equilibrium |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Acids / Bases
A cyclic voltammetry experiment using a mercury electrode  Brillas, Enrique; Garrido, Jose A.; Rodriquez, Rosa M.; Domenech, Javier
An easy and inexpensive experiment designed to illustrate cyclic voltammetry in the study of a simple reversible reaction.
Brillas, Enrique; Garrido, Jose A.; Rodriquez, Rosa M.; Domenech, Javier J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 189.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Electrochemical cell conventions in general chemistry   West, Allen C.
This author argues that conventions make electrochemistry harder for students to learn and much harder to remember. For this reason, instructors must connect our presentation of galvanic cells more closely with the physical world of galvanic cells than "conventional" electrochemistry does.
West, Allen C. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 609.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Oxidation / Reduction
Determination of reaction stoichiometries by flow injection analysis: A laboratory exercise  Rios, Angel; Castro, Dolores Luqne de; Valcarcel, Miguel
These authors took advantage of the features of Flow Injection Analysis and developed an easy and simple photometric method intended for calculation of complex-formation and redox reaction stoichiometries.
Rios, Angel; Castro, Dolores Luqne de; Valcarcel, Miguel J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 552.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Instrumental Methods |
Photochemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Coordination Compounds
Number of oxidations relative to methylene: A convenient method of recognizing and quantifying organic oxidation-reduction  Kjonaas, Richard A.
This paper describes the use of a type of molecular oxidation number called "Number of oxidations relative to methylene".
Kjonaas, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 311.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Qualitative Analysis |
Alkenes
Molten salt techniques for students: Attacking hematite with pyrosulfate  Atkinson, George F.
This experiment teaches students molten salt techniques.
Atkinson, George F. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 88.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
New stoichiometry for copper dissolution in nitric acid  El-Cheikh, F. M.; Khalil, S. A.; El-Manguch, M. A.; Omar, Hadi A.
NO2 does not appear to be a primary product in the oxidation of copper metal by nitric acid.
El-Cheikh, F. M.; Khalil, S. A.; El-Manguch, M. A.; Omar, Hadi A. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 761.
Reactions |
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction
The design of laboratory experiments in the 1980's: A case study on the oxidation of alcohols with household bleach  Mohrig, Jerry R.; Nienhuis, David M.; Linck, Catherine F.; Van Zoeren, Carol; Fox, Brian G.; Mahaffy, Peter G.
Improved safety by replacing chromium(VI) with bleach in the oxidation of an alcohol.
Mohrig, Jerry R.; Nienhuis, David M.; Linck, Catherine F.; Van Zoeren, Carol; Fox, Brian G.; Mahaffy, Peter G. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 519.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alcohols |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Estimating the one electron reduction potential for vanadium (V) by chemical techniques: An experiment for general chemistry  Wentworth, R. A. D.
Procedure requires no electrochemical equipment because the method depends solely upon observations of the spontaneity of the reactions of V(V) with a series of potential reducing agents and V(IV) with a series of potential oxidizing agents.
Wentworth, R. A. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 440.
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Drug stabilization against oxidative degradation  Akers, Michael J.
Describes the process of oxidation and ways in which pharmaceutical preparations can be protected from oxidative degredation.
Akers, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 325.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Nonmajor Courses
Methemoglobinemia: An illness caused by the ferric state  Senozan, N. M.
Hemoglobin's ability to carry oxygen depends on the iron being in the +2 state; methemoglobinemia involves the oxidation of hemoglobin iron to the +3 state.
Senozan, N. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 181.
Proteins / Peptides |
Enzymes |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
The Fe(II)-Cr(VI) reaction without using mercury  Klett, Lee D.; Black, Arthur H.; Parker, Gordon A.
Procedure that employs titanium rather than mercury in the oxidation-reduction titration of iron(II) with chromium(VI).
Klett, Lee D.; Black, Arthur H.; Parker, Gordon A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1020.
Reactions |
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals
How to get the most from the dichromate volcano demonstration: Aluminothermy  Trogler, William C.
Reducing the green ash produced by the dichromate volcano (Cr2O3) with aluminum in a thermite-like display.
Trogler, William C. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 908.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
The extraction of gold and its simulation with copper  Bradley, J. D.; Brand, M.; Louli, J. A. M.
The simulation of the extraction of gold by the use of its analog, copper, makes it possible to capitalize on the glamor of gold without sacrificing any chemical principles.
Bradley, J. D.; Brand, M.; Louli, J. A. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 634.
Separation Science |
Metallurgy |
Industrial Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals
Electrochemistry of the Hall-Heroult process for aluminum smelting  Haupin, W. E.
A discussion of aluminum holds great pedagogical value on many fronts: discussion of the Bayer process, electrolysis of alumina, electrolyte chemistry, dissolution of alumina, electrode reactions, current efficiency, cell voltage, and other topics for advanced graduate study. From State-of-the-Art Symposium: Electrochemistry, ACS meeting, Kansas City, 1982.
Haupin, W. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 279.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Applications of Chemistry |
Industrial Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Reduction potentials and hydrogen overvoltage: An overhead projector demonstration  Ramette, Richard W.
Relates the scale of standard reduction potentials to the observed behavior of metals in their reactions with hydrogen ion to produce hydrogen gas.
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 866.
Electrochemistry |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction
How students reconcile discordant data: A study of lab report discussions  Pickering, Miles; Monts, David L.
A study conducted to determine how students deal with experimental results that seem to violate chemical laws.
Pickering, Miles; Monts, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 794.
Chemometrics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry
Some tungsten oxidation-reduction chemistry: A paint pot titration  Pickering, Miles; Monts, David L.
Mild reducing agents reduce WO3 to a nonstoichiometric blue oxide, "mineral blue," whose approximate formula is WO2.2-3.0.
Pickering, Miles; Monts, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 693.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry
Demonstration of electrochemical cell properties by a simple, colorful oxidation-reduction experiment  Hendricks, Lloyd J.; Williams, John T.
The color of a solution close to an electrode is changed from that of the bulk solution to either of two contrasting colors, depending on whether the electrode reaction is a reduction or oxidation.
Hendricks, Lloyd J.; Williams, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 586.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
The direct electrochemical synthesis of [(C6H5)3Ph]2[CoCl4]: An example of the use of anodic oxidation in the preparation of metal ion complexes  Oldham, Colin; Tuck, Dennis G.
Uses a 6 V lantern battery and a simple voltmeter / ammeter.
Oldham, Colin; Tuck, Dennis G. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 420.
Electrochemistry |
Synthesis |
Coordination Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction
Conjugate and nonconjugate reduction with LiAlH4 and NaBH4  Meyer, G. Richard
Most organic textbooks present a limited consideration of the action of lithium aluminum hydride and sodium borohydride. This paper explores the topic in greater depth.
Meyer, G. Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 628.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Stoichiometry of redox reactions  Parker, Gordon A.
A question involving an amplification reaction sequence and the balancing of oxidation-reduction reactions.
Parker, Gordon A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 721.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Ion exchange separation of the oxidation states of vanadium  Cornelius, Richard
An experiment designed to emphasize the discrete nature of the different oxidation states of vanadium by giving students an opportunity to separate the four species by ion exchange chromatography.
Cornelius, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 316.
Ion Exchange |
Separation Science |
Oxidation State |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction
Oxidation-reduction: An example of chemical sophistry  Sisler, Harry H.; VanderWerf, Calvin A.
Examines the common definition for oxidation - reduction found in most introductory textbooks and specific examples of oxidation - reduction reactions.
Sisler, Harry H.; VanderWerf, Calvin A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 42.
Oxidation / Reduction
Acid-base half-reactions - A useful formalism for review lessons  Atkinson, G. F.
An effective way to draw analogies between acid-base and redox effects while reviewing both.
Atkinson, G. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 238.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Phase transfer catalysis. Part II: Synthetic applications  Gokel, George W.; Weber, William P.
In this month's continuation of an article, the authors have catalogued a number of illustrative examples so that the range of applicability of phase transfer catalysis will be.
Gokel, George W.; Weber, William P. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 429.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Catalysis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Organometallics |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Synthesis |
Esters |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Alkylation
Stoichiometric calculations   Parker, Gordon A.
The question presented here is designed for a sophomore or junior level quantitative analysis course, illustrates, calculations based upon oxidation-reduction reactions as applied to a common environmental problem and requires cognitive skill at the application level.
Parker, Gordon A. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 102.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis
White to rose and return: A multipurpose demonstration  Olson, Edwin S.
This demonstration is useful for illustrations of reversible redox reactions and for relative reduction potentials.
Olson, Edwin S. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 366.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Dyes / Pigments
Lecture demonstration of the various oxidation states of manganese  Arora, C. L.
Showing the colors associated with seven different oxidation states of magnesium and methods for preparing each.
Arora, C. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 302.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State |
Transition Elements |
Metals
Conversion of black and white prints to color in daylight. A demonstration lecture for general and organic courses  Wheeler, Thomas N.
A black and white print is converted to a full color print with the lights on; includes a detailed discussion of the chemical processes involved in the demonstration.
Wheeler, Thomas N. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 607.
Photochemistry |
Reactions |
Consumer Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Oxidation / Reduction
A new chemistry program for nursing and allied health students  Stanitski, Conrad L.; Sears, Curtis T., Jr.
Outlines and discusses the topics considered in a chemistry program for nursing and allied health students.
Stanitski, Conrad L.; Sears, Curtis T., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 226.
Nonmajor Courses |
Applications of Chemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Catalysis |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Metabolism |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
Some reactions of tungsten: A lecture demonstration  Nelson, D. L.; Reeves, R. R.; Richtol, H. H.
Several demonstrations involving reactions of tungsten.
Nelson, D. L.; Reeves, R. R.; Richtol, H. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 810.
Metals |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Analysis of commercial vitamin C tablets by iodometric and coulometric titrimetry  Marsh, Daniel G.; Jacobs, Deborah L.; Veening, Hans
The ascorbic acid content of vitamin C tablets is determined iodometrically using a back titration with standard thiosulfate; ascorbic acid is then titrated coullometrically by direct oxidation to dehydroascorbic acid using electrolytically generated bromine.
Marsh, Daniel G.; Jacobs, Deborah L.; Veening, Hans J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 626.
Vitamins |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Use of a new chemical reducing agent in the undergraduate organic laboratory  Kushner, Arthur S.; Vaccariello, Terry
Using sodium bis(2-methoxy-ethoxy)aluminum hydride as a reducing agent in the undergraduate organic laboratory.
Kushner, Arthur S.; Vaccariello, Terry J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 154.
Laboratory Management |
Oxidation / Reduction
The difference in oxidizing strength of dilute and concentrated nitric acid  Glasoe, Paul K.
H2S gas is bubbled through dilute and concentrated HNO3.
Glasoe, Paul K. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A644.
Acids / Bases |
Oxidation / Reduction
The bombardier beetle  Plumb, Robert C.; Erickson, Karen L.
The chemistry behind the bombardier beetle's chemical defenses illustrates the principles of reaction rates, catalysis, and laboratory safety.
Plumb, Robert C.; Erickson, Karen L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 705.
Applications of Chemistry |
Natural Products |
Rate Law |
Catalysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aromatic Compounds
The presentation of electrode potentials using an energy level diagram  Pinfold, T. A.
The tabular form in which standard electrode potentials are usually presented often leads to confusion that can be diminished by representing the electrochemical series on an energy diagram like that provided.
Pinfold, T. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 506.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Oxymercuration-demercuration. An organic experiment involving the Markovnikov hydration of olefins  Gibbs, R.; Weber, William P.
While acid catalyzed hydration of olefins to yield alcohol's is important in organic chemistry, it is seldom performed by students for practical reasons. The authors contribute a laboratory that can be particularly performed by organic chemistry students.
Gibbs, R.; Weber, William P. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 477.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Lipids
Preparation of 6-aminosaccharin  Rose, Norman C.; Rome, Sanford
This synthesis involves the substitution of a chlorosulfonyl group onto an aromatic ring at a position predictable on the basis of the directing ability of the groups already present, the oxidation of a methyl group, a cyclization that is an example of the ease with which five-membered rings are formed, and the reduction of a nitro group.
Rose, Norman C.; Rome, Sanford J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 649.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction
Controlled potential electrolysis: An experiment for elementary quantitative analysis  Kennedy, John H; Adams, Frank
Iron(II), iodide, and arsenic(III) are oxidized and data recorded using the E-cell Data-Stor Unit, a small silver coulometer.
Kennedy, John H; Adams, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 461.
Quantitative Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
The equivalent weight of the iodate ion in oxidimetric titrations  Pantani, Francesco
Titrations with potassium iodate can not only solve many analytical problems but are also of educational importance, since iodate ions are involved in numerous redox systems; this paper explains the analysis of these types of titrations and the determination of equivalent weight.
Pantani, Francesco J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 309.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
The Hantzsch pyridine synthesis: A factorial design experiment for the introductory organic laboratory  Norcross, B. E.; Clement, G.; Weinstein, M.
Students carry out the two-step Hantzsch pyridine synthesis; students are required to select the oxidizing agent and conditions for the second reaction step.
Norcross, B. E.; Clement, G.; Weinstein, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 694.
Synthesis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Heterocycles |
Mechanisms of Reactions
A simple method for the analysis of cobalt in Co(III) complexes  Hughes, R. Graham; Endicott, John F.; Hoffman, Morton Z.; House, D. A.
Presents two direct chemical methods for effecting the Co(III) to Co2+ reduction.
Hughes, R. Graham; Endicott, John F.; Hoffman, Morton Z.; House, D. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 440.
Coordination Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Laboratory Management
The kinetics of oxidation-reduction reactions: An alternate derivation of Marcus' cross relation  Newton, T. W.
The purpose of this article is to show how Marcus' cross relation can be derived from a simple, essentially mechanical model.
Newton, T. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 571.
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions
Effect of complexing agents on oxidation potentials  Helsen, Jef
A short note on a simple experiment to demonstrate the effect of complexing agents on the oxidation-reduction properties of redox couples such as Fe3+/Fe2+.
Helsen, Jef J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 518.
Coordination Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry
Mechanisms of oxidation-reduction reactions  Taube, Henry
Examines the mechanisms of oxidation-reduction reactions.
Taube, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 452.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Oxidation State |
Coordination Compounds
Biological oxidations and energy conservation  Kirschbaum, Joel
Examines the oxidative steps leading to the synthesis of ATP in living organisms and their metabolic control.
Kirschbaum, Joel J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 28.
Bioenergetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Thermodynamics |
Metabolism
Metallurgy C. Reducton of Ore  Rogers, Crosby U.
Demonstrations include the reduction of Cu2O with charcoal, heating zinc carbonate, and zinc sulfide heated in air.
Rogers, Crosby U. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A717.
Metallurgy |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction
The stoichiometry of an oxidation-reduction reaction  Latimer, George W., Jr.
A short note on the titration of hydrazine sulfate with standard bromate in the presence of sodium molybdate that requires students to identify the products through the use of some elementary qualitative analysis.
Latimer, George W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 537.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis
Stereochemical correlations in the camphor series  Markgraf, J. Hodge
This paper presents a series of experiments that require the student to interpret the effect of structure on the steric course of an oxidation and a reduction in a bicyclic system.
Markgraf, J. Hodge J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 36.
Stereochemistry |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A simple potentiostat for controlled potential electrolysis  Tackett, Stanford L.; Knowles, John A.
Present a circuit diagram and describes typical applications of a simple potentiostat for controlled potential electrolysis.
Tackett, Stanford L.; Knowles, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 428.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Instrumental Methods
Use of KMnO4, to oxidize interfering organic anions in qualitative analysis  Poonia, N. S.; Bhagwat, W. V.
A simple procedure is presented here that is based upon the oxidation of organic material by permanganate ion in acidified medium.
Poonia, N. S.; Bhagwat, W. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 424.
Qualitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Selective reduction of dinitro compounds  Weiss, Hilton M.
The selective reduction of aromatic dinitro compounds by ammonium sulfide is an opportunity to consider an open-ended question.
Weiss, Hilton M. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 384.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aromatic Compounds |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The use of oxidation potentials in inorganic chemistry  Jolly, William L.
This paper attempts to show, using a minimum of thermodynamics, how oxidation potentials can be used to predict the products and driving forces of oxidation-reduction reactions.
Jolly, William L. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 198.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Thermodynamics
Signs of tensions in electrochemistry  Van Rysselberghe, Pierre
Discusses conventions and definitions for electrochemical terms and relationships.
Van Rysselberghe, Pierre J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 486.
Electrochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Oxidation / Reduction
The stereochemistry of (-) menthol: An organic laboratory experiment  Dunathan, H. C.
This experiment determines the relative configuration of (-) menthol in which students measure optical rotations, follows the rate of a mutarotation, evaluates rate constants, and carries out a reaction involving asymmetric induction.
Dunathan, H. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 205.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Oxidation / Reduction
Inorganic reaction mechanisms by volumetric analysis: Oxidation of iodide ion  Moody, G. J.; Thomas, J. D. R.
Uses the Andrews' method of titration as a simple means of exposing the two-step oxidation of the iodide ion to iodine in concentrated hydrochloric acid with a variety of oxidizing agents.
Moody, G. J.; Thomas, J. D. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 151.
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
Oxidation-reduction mechanisms  Duke, F. R.
Summarizes various types of oxidation-reduction mechanisms.
Duke, F. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 161.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Oxidation of hydrogen sulfide in inorganic qualitative analysis  Stock, John T.; Shinozuka, Fujiko
Presents the results of an investigation into the sulfate-forming tendencies of various oxidizing agents.
Stock, John T.; Shinozuka, Fujiko J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 385.
Qualitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction
EDTA and complex formation  Johnston, M. B.; Bernard, A. J., Jr.; Flaschka, H. A.
It is the purpose of this paper to fill the void in chemistry texts regarding EDTA and its application to titrations in analytical chemistry, and to present some integrated experiments designed to serve as a general introduction to water-soluble chelates.
Johnston, M. B.; Bernard, A. J., Jr.; Flaschka, H. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 601.
Coordination Compounds |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Precipitation / Solubility
Systematic detection of anions through their parent elements  Caldas, Alcides; Gentil, Vicente
Presents an analysis scheme that aims at the detection of the parent elements of the anions, no matter what their state of combination.
Caldas, Alcides; Gentil, Vicente J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 545.
Qualitative Analysis |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The reduction of carbon dioxide  Hollander, Jerome; Spialter, Leonard
Examines the reduction of carbon through a variety of processes, including catalytic hydrogenation, reduction by metals and complex metal hydrides, electrochemical reduction, and reduction under the influence of radiation.
Hollander, Jerome; Spialter, Leonard J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 446.
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Catalysis |
Metals |
Electrochemistry |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
Reduction with complex metal hydrides  Gaylord, Norman G.
Focusses on the use of lithium aluminum hydride, aluminum hydride, magnesium aluminum hydride, sodium aluminum hydride, sodium borohydride, potassium borohydride, lithium borohydride, and lithium gallium hydride as analytical reducing reagents.
Gaylord, Norman G. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 367.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Reactions
Textbook errors: V. The reaction of the Leclanche dry cell  Mysels, Karol J.
Most textbooks do not completely and accurately describe the chemistry of the Leclanche dry cell.
Mysels, Karol J. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 638.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
Letters to the editor  Hendricks, B. Clifford
Questions what happens to the cryolite needed in the reduction of aluminum from its ore.
Hendricks, B. Clifford J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 52.
Industrial Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
A sequence of synthesis in the general organic laboratory class  Lange, Erwin F.; Teranishi, Roy; Christensen, Bert E.
This synthesis involves the oxidation of p-xylene, nitration and esterfication of terephthalic acid, reduction of nitroterephthalic acid, and the preparation of 4-quinazolone-7-carboxylic acid.
Lange, Erwin F.; Teranishi, Roy; Christensen, Bert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 40.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction
A cell for the preparation of small quantities of alkali metals  Baker, Philip S.; Wells, G. F.; Rathkamp, W. R.
The work described here deals with the development of a miniature cell designed for the preparation of alkali metals (particularly lithium) from small amounts of their salts.
Baker, Philip S.; Wells, G. F.; Rathkamp, W. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 515.
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
An oxidation-reduction diagram  Tarsey, Alexandre R.
Describes the construction and properties of a chart capable of providing a visual approach to correlating the various concepts pertaining to oxidation and reduction potentials.
Tarsey, Alexandre R. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 375.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
Letters  Swinehart, D. F.
The author responds to questions raised regarding his earlier article on oxidation states.
Swinehart, D. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 265.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
The algebra of simultaneous equilibria  Davidson, David; Geller, Kenneth
Presents a series of rules for dealing with simultaneous equilibria using simple algebra.
Davidson, David; Geller, Kenneth J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 238.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Redox diagrams  Sillen, Lars Gunnar
Develops redox diagrams that portray redox equilibria for a variety of species.
Sillen, Lars Gunnar J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 600.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State |
Metals
Letters  Hackney, J. C.
The author elaborates on the source of a fallacy in the calculation of an overall redox potential by combination of two half-cell potentials.
Hackney, J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 472.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Letters  Angus, L. H.
Briefly describes the use of ferroxyl gels to demonstrate the oxidation of iron.
Angus, L. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 556.
Oxidation / Reduction
Letters  Hackney, J. C.
Discusses pitfalls in the construction of "objective" examinations.
Hackney, J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 556.
Oxidation / Reduction