TIGER

Journal Articles: 102 results
Designing and Conducting a Purification Scheme as an Organic Chemistry Laboratory Practical  Kate J. Graham, Brian J. Johnson, T. Nicholas Jones, Edward J. McIntee, and Chris P. Schaller
Describes an open-ended laboratory practical that challenges students to evaluate when different purification techniques are appropriate.
Graham, Kate J.; Johnson, Brian J.; Jones, T. Nicholas; McIntee, Edward J.; Schaller, Chris P. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1644.
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Physical Properties |
Separation Science
Isolation of Three Components from Spearmint Oil: An Exercise in Column and Thin-Layer Chromatography  Don R. Davies and Todd M. Johnson
In this exercise, the three major components of spearmint oil, (+)-limonene, L-(-)-carvone, and (1R,2R,4R)-dihydrocarveol, are separated by silica gel column chromatography. The separation is monitored by thin-layer chromatography, and IR analysis is employed to verify the identity of the separated components.
Davies, Don R.; Johnson, Todd M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 318.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Chromatography |
Natural Products |
Microscale Lab |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
Using a Simulated Industrial Setting for the Development of an Improved Solvent System for the Recrystallization of Benzoic Acid: A Student-Centered Project  Timothy R. Hightower and Jay D. Heeren
Presents a peer-led, problem-solving organic laboratory exercise that provide students with an opportunity to produce a more efficient recrystallization solvent in an industrial environment.
Hightower, Timothy R.; Heeren, Jay D. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1663.
Carboxylic Acids |
Industrial Chemistry |
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents
Analysis of the Thickening Agents in Automotive Greases by GC–MS  David Mayotte, Craig J. Donahue, and Cheryl A. Snyder
Describes a laboratory procedure for the identification of the thickening agents in lubricating greases by GCMS.
Mayotte, David; Donahue, Craig J.; Snyder, Cheryl A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 902.
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Industrial Chemistry |
Mass Spectrometry |
Separation Science |
Fatty Acids
Fractional Distillation of Air and Other Demonstrations with Condensed Gases  Maria Oliver-Hoyo and William L. Switzer, III
This demonstration builds upon the commonly performed liquefaction of air not only to show the presence of nitrogen and oxygen, but also the presence of two other components, carbon dioxide and water. Several extensions are suggested: one to show boiling point elevation in solution and another to show the elevation of both boiling point and sublimation point with pressure. No special apparatus is required permitting presentations to audiences in a variety of settings. These demonstrations give the opportunity to discuss properties of gases, solution chemistry, and phase equilibria.
Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Switzer, William L., III. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 251.
Gases |
Qualitative Analysis |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
A Discovery Approach to Three Organic Laboratory Techniques: Extraction, Recrystallization, and Distillation  Gail Horowitz
In each experiment, one or more parameters, such as solvent volume, time, or boiling point difference, is varied. Students compare the results of all variations and draw conclusions as to the underlying principles. The article concludes with an assessment of the effectiveness of these experiments.
Horowitz, Gail. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1039.
Separation Science
Fractional Distillation and GC Analysis of Hydrocarbon Mixtures  Craig J. Donahue
Separating and identifying the components of a three-hydrocarbon mixture through fractional distillation and gas chromatography.
Donahue, Craig J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 721.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Aromatic Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
A Useful System for Microscale and Semi-microscale Fractional Distillation of Air-Sensitive Substances with High Boiling Points  J. Alfredo Gutiérrez
A procedure to purify air-sensitive liquids with high boiling points using a horizontal distilling apparatus that avoids extreme refluxing and can efficiently separate the fractions of a mixture.
Gutiérrez, J. Alfredo. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 653.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Management
An Analogy between Fractional Distillation and Separating Physically Fit and Physically Less Fit Persons  Doble Mukesh
Separating two liquids in a fractional distillation column on the basis of their difference in boiling points is analogous to separating a group of people on the basis of their physical fitness by making them climb a flight of stairs.
Mukesh, Doble. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 211.
Separation Science |
Learning Theories
Enantiomeric and Diastereoisomeric Relationships: A Practical Approach  V. Durieu, G. Martiat, M. Ch. Vandergeten, F. Pirsoul, F. Toubeau, and Agnès Van Camp
An experiment in organic chemistry in which the students prepare, purify, and characterize optical isomers. The three optical isomers of the bisoxalamides obtained by the reaction of racemic 1-phenylethylamine with diethyloxalate are separable by flash chromatography into the racemic mixture of (R,R) + (S,S) oxalamides and the (R,S) meso compound.
Durieu, V.; Martiat, G.; Vandergeten, M. Ch.; Pirsoul, F.; Toubeau, F.; Van Camp, Agnès. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 752.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Separation Science |
Enantiomers |
Diastereomers |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Synthesis
Isolating trans-Anethole from Anise Seeds and Elucidating Its Structure: A Project Utilizing One- and Two-Dimensional NMR Spectrometry  Joseph W. LeFevre
This three-week project involves isolating and purifying a natural product and determining its structure. trans-Anethole is isolated from anise seeds by steam distillation and liquid-liquid extraction. The crude product is analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and purified by flash chromatography.
LeFevre, Joseph W. . J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 361.
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Separation Science |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Thin Layer Chromatography
A Microscale Vacuum Distillation Apparatus for Simple Separations  Ulf Ellervik and Hans Grundberg
To improve microscale distillation in a basic organic chemistry course, a simple and highly efficient vacuum distillation apparatus was designed.
Ellervik, Ulf; Grundberg, Hans. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 986.
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Basic Laboratory Chemistry  reviewed by Deborah McCool
Basic Laboratory Chemistry is a series of sixteen programs presenting demonstrations of many processes and experimental techniques used in the chemistry laboratory in both macroscale and microscale. Topics included in the programs are assembling macroscale and microscale apparatus, spectroscopy, chromatography, and procedures such as filtration, extraction, distillation, and titration.
McCool, Deborah. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 830.
Microscale Lab |
Spectroscopy |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
An Integrated Extraction/Crystallization/Distillation Experiment  Claude Amsterdamsky
An organic chemistry experiment that involves the extraction, crystallization, and distillation of a 3-component mixture over two 4-hour laboratory periods.
Amsterdamsky, Claude. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 219.
Separation Science
A Microscale Laboratory Heating System  Dwight Kinzer
A multifunctional heating system and a disposable still for use in the microscale laboratory are described. Time required for laboratory procedures is minimized. A novel microscale boiling point determination procedure is included.
Kinzer, Dwight. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1333.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Management
First Day in Organic Lab  Christine K. F. Hermann
This experiment is designed to introduce students to the techniques of reflux, distillation, gas chromatography, and the determination of boiling point and melting point during one lab period.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 852.
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Physical Properties |
Qualitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
The Extraction of Caffeine from Tea: An Old Undergraduate Experiment Revisited  Scott D. Murray and Peter J. Hansen
Procedure eliminating chloroform and dichloromethane from the extraction of caffeine from tea.
Murray, Scott D.; Hansen, Peter J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 851.
Separation Science
Using GC-MS to Determine Relative Reactivity Ratios   R. Daniel Bishop, Jr.
Experiment that demonstrates the use of GC-mass spectrometry in the separation and analysis of mixtures; also uses the GC-mass spectrometer to find the relative reactivity of primary, secondary, and tertiary hydrogens.
Bishop, R. Daniel, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 743.
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography
A Microscale Isolation of Limonene from Orange Peels  Garner, Charles M.; Garibaldi, Chad
A rapid and reliable extractive microscale isolation of limonene.
Garner, Charles M.; Garibaldi, Chad J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A146.
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science |
Natural Products |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Enantiomers
The Distribution of Cyclohexanone between Cyclohexane and Water  Worley, John D.
A microscale experiment that may be used to demonstrate extraction, spectrophotometric analysis, and the determination of a distribution constant.
Worley, John D. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A145.
Microscale Lab |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Separation Science |
Spectroscopy
Microscale Column Chromatographic Isolation of a Red Pigment from Paprika  West, Kevin J.; Rauch, Paul
Modification of a macroscopic procedure to a microscale experiment.
West, Kevin J.; Rauch, Paul J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A59.
Microscale Lab |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments
Direct Collection of Distillation Fractions into Vials: A Method for the Micro/Semi-Micro Scale Laboratory  Jordan, David
An inexpensive and simple system for collection of distillation fractions directly into their storage containers.
Jordan, David J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A5.
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Isolation of piperine from black pepper  Epstein, William W.; Netz, David F.; Seidel, Jimmy L.
A new and interesting natural product for isolation in the organic chemistry lab. This procedure also introduces students to many important instruments and procedures in organic chemistry.
Epstein, William W.; Netz, David F.; Seidel, Jimmy L. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 598.
Natural Products |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Microscale distillation-Calculations and comparisons   Schwartz, Marietta H.
In this distillation experiment students perform both a simple and a fractional distillation using the microscale version of traditional glassware.
Schwartz, Marietta H. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A127.
Separation Science |
Microscale Lab
Constructing a complete temperature-composition diagram for a binary mixture: A new experiment that uses quantitative gas chromatography.  Cheng, Ru-Jen; Hsu, Chih-Li; Tsai, Yu-Fang.
Experiment to help students appreciate fractional distillation and a fundamental application of gas chromatography.
Cheng, Ru-Jen; Hsu, Chih-Li; Tsai, Yu-Fang. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 581.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
Using spin-spin decoupling NMR for structure elucidation in the extraction of cinnamaldehyde.  Ganjian, I.; Baumgarten, R. L.; Valenzuela, R. J.
Interesting extraction in which students learn to interpret spectra and see the power of second-order spectral analysis in NMR work.
Ganjian, I.; Baumgarten, R. L.; Valenzuela, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 511.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Separation Science |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The use and utility of phase science  Laughlin, Robert G.
Phase diagrams describe the phase behavior, for a particular system of mixtures spanning a particular range of system variables. One must know how to read and interpret phase diagrams in order to extract and use the information they contain.
Laughlin, Robert G. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 26.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Applications of Chemistry |
Separation Science
A simple method for producing efficient concentric tube distillation columns  Smith, Sherrel
The typically used columns packed with glass beads have several disadvantages. This paper offers a solution that proves to be a better teaching aid.
Smith, Sherrel J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 616.
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science
Recovering solvent from iodine solutions  Arnaiz, Francisco J.; Casares, Juan A.
Other articles may give the impression that iodine extraction is difficult, but that is not the case.
Arnaiz, Francisco J.; Casares, Juan A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 516.
Separation Science
Monoterpenes: An easily accessible but neglected class of natural products  Glidewell, Christopher
The class of products is structurally and spectroscopically straightforward and many in this group are key components of familiar flavors and odors. I.e., extraction of orange peel.
Glidewell, Christopher J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 267.
Natural Products |
Separation Science
A convenient method for comparison of efficiency of fractionating columns  Higgins, Robert H.
Demonstrating the ability of various fractionating columns (both packed and unpacked) to resolve a mixture into individual components and to correlate the resolving powers of column packings to their "hold-up" volumes.
Higgins, Robert H. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 810.
Separation Science
A safety device for unattended distillation  Chan, Kwan-dick; Ng, Wing-yan; Yeung, Chi-hung
A safety device to monitor the flow rate of cooling water for a distillation using a liquid flow sensor.
Chan, Kwan-dick; Ng, Wing-yan; Yeung, Chi-hung J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 718.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
A convenient method to recover the solvent from halogen-CCl4 mixtures  Sabol, Joseph E.; Kurtz, David W.
An alternative to disposal and distillation which is easy to perform, allowing the solvent to be recovered and stored within one hour after the completion of the experiment is presented here.
Sabol, Joseph E.; Kurtz, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 532.
Solutions / Solvents |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Management
An automatic water trap for steam distillation  Ruekberg, Ben
The unpleasant aspects of the water trap can be avoided with a simple, inexpensive device that renders the water trap automatically selfdraining.
Ruekberg, Ben J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 66.
Separation Science |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Drying ethanol by azeotropic distillation  Mattson, Guy; Hertel, George R.
The commercial process for producing absolute ethanol can be used as a basis for an unusual homework or take-home exam problem.
Mattson, Guy; Hertel, George R. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 46.
Separation Science |
Alcohols
An introduction to supercritical fluid chromatography: Part 2. Applications and future trends   Palmieri, Margo D.
Part I of this article dealt with the basic theory and instrumentation of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). In part 2 selected applications and future trends in SFC will be discussed.
Palmieri, Margo D. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A141.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Separation of a five-component mixture in the microscale laboratory  O'Hara-Mays, Ellen P.; Yuen, George U.
The separation and purification of a five-component mixture consisting of a strong organic acid (bezoic acid), a weak organic acid (2-naphthol), an organic base (pyridine), and two neutral compounds (1-chlorobutane and toluene).
O'Hara-Mays, Ellen P.; Yuen, George U. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 961.
Separation Science |
Microscale Lab |
Acids / Bases
A pressure regulator for vacuum distillation  Sommer, Toby J.
The authors have modified the basic Newman manostat.
Sommer, Toby J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 181.
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Laboratory steam distillation using electrically generated superheated steam  Lane, R. K.; Provence, P. D.; Adkins, M. W.; Eisenbraun, E. J.
Design and use of a superheated steam generator.
Lane, R. K.; Provence, P. D.; Adkins, M. W.; Eisenbraun, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 373.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Construction of a temperature-composition diagram of a binary mixture: An organic chemistry laboratory experiment  Thorstenson, Patricia C.
The procedure described in this article offers a simple means of generating the liquid curve of a temperature-composition diagram for a binary mixture of volatile liquids.
Thorstenson, Patricia C. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 170.
Separation Science |
Liquids
An efficient and inexpensive temperature-controlled chromatography column  Henderson, Bambi L.; McLoughlin, Daniel J.
Inexpensive temperature-controlled chromatography columns can be constructed from old distillation columns.
Henderson, Bambi L.; McLoughlin, Daniel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 430.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
An inexpensive experiment for the introduction of high performance liquid chromatography  Bidlingmeyer, Brian A.; Warren, F. Vincent, Jr.
Separates the food dyes found in grape-flavored Kool-Aid using isocratic and gradient solution methods. [Debut]
Bidlingmeyer, Brian A.; Warren, F. Vincent, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 716.
Chromatography |
HPLC |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments
Qualitative analysis by gas chromatography: GC versus the nose in formulating artificial fruit flavors  Rasmussen, P. W.
Using GC retention indexes for the identification of the volatile compounds responsible for the odor of the banana.
Rasmussen, P. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 62.
Qualitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
Ethanol from corn: one route to gasohol  Maslowsky, Edward, Jr.
The experiment in this article illustrates the preparation of ethanol through the action of enzymes and yeast in whole kernel corn. The purpose is to illustrate as closely as practical the method used either industrially or on the farm to convert corn into ethanol, while a second is to illustrate distillation.
Maslowsky, Edward, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 752.
Applications of Chemistry |
Green Chemistry |
Alcohols |
Separation Science
Separation and analysis of citral isomers: an undergraduate organic laboratory experiment  Sacks, Jeff; Greenley, Erin; Leo, Greg; Willey, Paul; Gallis, David; Mangravite, John A.
In this laboratory, the authors have introduced students to HPLC, mass spectrometric analysis, and the separation of thermally sensitive materials by vacuum distillation.
Sacks, Jeff; Greenley, Erin; Leo, Greg; Willey, Paul; Gallis, David; Mangravite, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 434.
Mass Spectrometry |
HPLC |
Separation Science
Production of aromatic hydrocarbons according to extractive distillation process  Molinier, J.; Malmary, G.; Constrasti, J.
A theme that deals with the study of the recovery of benzene from petroleum hydrocarbon mixture by means of an extractive distillation processes emerges from a pilot project that has been proposed to the graduating students.
Molinier, J.; Malmary, G.; Constrasti, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 148.
Separation Science |
Aromatic Compounds
Structure elucidation of a natural product  Letcher, Roy M.
This experiment is an attempt to simulate a real-life structure elucidation problem through the isolation, characterization, and chemical transformation of an unknown naturally occurring monoterpene, with extensive use being made of spectroscopy and aided by biogenetic considerations.
Letcher, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 79.
Natural Products |
Separation Science |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Reactions
Separation and determination of hydroxyacetophenones: An experiment in preparative TLC and UV spectroscopy  Bick, I. R. C.; Blackman, A. J.; Browne, E. J.
A mixture of o-, m-, and p-hydroxyacetophenones is separated through thin-layer chromatography, and the constituents are identified by UV spectroscopy.
Bick, I. R. C.; Blackman, A. J.; Browne, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 618.
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Separation and IR analysis of a mixture of organic compounds  Thompson, Evan M.; Almy, John
Introduces students to fractional distillation and analysis of each fraction by gas-liquid chromatography.
Thompson, Evan M.; Almy, John J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 617.
Separation Science |
IR Spectroscopy |
Chromatography |
Gases |
Liquids
A simple semimicro distillation apparatus  Henin, F.; Hericher, M.; Muzart, J.
A small distillation unit for fractional distillation of small amounts of material under vacuum.
Henin, F.; Hericher, M.; Muzart, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 164.
Separation Science |
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A practical introduction to separation and purification techniques for the beginning organic chemistry laboratory  Leonard, Jack E.
Separation techniques have always been important for a successful chemical career. This author addresses some important considerations for training students.
Leonard, Jack E. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 1022.
Separation Science
Conversion of (+)-Limonene to (-)-Carvone: An organic laboratory sequence of local interest  Rothenberger, Otis S.; Krasnoff, Stuart B.; Rollins, Ronald B.
Orange oil is converted to one of the components of spearmint oil; the detectable odor difference is due to stereochemical factors.
Rothenberger, Otis S.; Krasnoff, Stuart B.; Rollins, Ronald B. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 741.
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Synthesis |
Separation Science |
Industrial Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Enantiomers
An inexpensive Kugelrohr still  Guida, Wayne C.; Gawley, Robert E.
Plan for a simple unit that is superior to some commercial devices.
Guida, Wayne C.; Gawley, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 554.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
An economical and efficient reflux/distillation apparatus  Marabella, Charles P.
A modified standard distillation head and vacuum takeoff adapter.
Marabella, Charles P. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 221.
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Steam distillation of essential oils - Anethole from anise followed by permanganate oxidation to anisic acid  Garin, David L.
Provides the procedure for the oxidation step to this experiment.
Garin, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 138.
Separation Science |
Oxidation / Reduction
An improved microbulb vacuum distillation apparatus  Saplay, Kishore M.
Improved version of an earlier modified Kugelrohr.
Saplay, Kishore M. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 124.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
High performance liquid chromatography of essential oils  McKone, Harold T.
Separating essential oils from a variety of common spices using HPLC.
McKone, Harold T. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 698.
HPLC |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Phase transfer catalysis: An interim project  Reeves, W. Preston
The authors have found that experiments in phase transfer catalysis provide students with a very profitable interim project.
Reeves, W. Preston J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 433.
Catalysis |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Separation Science
Synthetic lemon grass oil  Schimelpfenig, C. W.
Instructions for a synthetic lemon grass extraction.
Schimelpfenig, C. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 306.
Synthesis |
Separation Science
A simple and inexpensive steam generator for essential oils extraction  Craveiro, Afranio A.; Matos, F. J. A.; de Alencar, J. W.
This apparatus aids in essential oil extraction.
Craveiro, Afranio A.; Matos, F. J. A.; de Alencar, J. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 652.
Natural Products |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Isolation of oil of clove and separation of eugenol and acetyl eugenol. An instructive experiment for beginning chemistry undergraduates  Ntamila, M. S.; Hassanali, A.
The study in this article is simple to perform, requires small quantities of readily available material and may be completed within a normal laboratory period.
Ntamila, M. S.; Hassanali, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 263.
Natural Products |
Separation Science
Steam distillation of essential oils - Carvone from caraway  Garin, David L.
An economical way to perform popular essential oil extraction experiments.
Garin, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 105.
Natural Products |
Separation Science
A laboratory exercise for organic chemistry  Sands, Richard D.
Students analyze a mixture of two unknown liquids, which as the semester progresses they are to separate, analyze, and identify.
Sands, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 732.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
IR Spectroscopy
An industrial steam distillation: Separation of rosin and turpentine from pine gum  Potter, Frederick S.; Schuerch, Conrad
Procedure for converting a tacky intractable mass - pine gum - into two recognizable and useful materials - a fragrant water-white liquid (turpentine) and a hard amber-colored resin (rosin).
Potter, Frederick S.; Schuerch, Conrad J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 672.
Separation Science |
Natural Products
Isolation of benzoic and boric acids from Listerine. An introductory organic chemistry experiment  Weichman, Roger L.
The experiment described here is a separation scheme which introduces the student to fractional distillation, extraction, decolorization with activated carbon, hot gravity filtration, vacuum, filtration, crystallization, recrystallization, melting point, mixed melting point, refractive index, gas chromatography, and infrared spectroscopy.
Weichman, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 589.
Separation Science
Coffee, Tea, or Cocoa. A trio of experiments including the isolation of theobromine from cocoa  Pavia, Donald L.
Isolating caffeine from tea and coffee and theobromine from cocoa.
Pavia, Donald L. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 791.
Separation Science |
Consumer Chemistry |
Natural Products |
Plant Chemistry
The odor of optical isomers. An experiment in organic chemistry  Murov, Steven L.; Pickering, Miles
The experiment described involves the separation and characterization of l-carvone from spearmint oil and d-carvone from caraway seed oil.
Murov, Steven L.; Pickering, Miles J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 74.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers |
Stereochemistry |
Separation Science
"Show 'N' tell". An organic chemical presentation for the layman  Harrison, Aline M.
The author presents a separation technique from organic chemistry.
Harrison, Aline M. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 612.
Separation Science
The preparation and isomerization of allyl thiocyanate. An organic chemistry experiment  Emergon, David W.
The present experiment has been devised to focus attention on two displacement reactions, one at carbon and one at sulfur and the facile allylic rearrangement of allyl thiocyanate (III) to allyl isothiocyanate (IV) which occurs during the distillation. Equations are shown in the article.
Emergon, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 81.
Separation Science
Current trends in gel permeation chromatography. Part two: Methodology  Cazes, Jack
Examines the subjects of calibration, estimation of molecular weight distribution, fractionation of low molecular weight substances, and recycling chromatography.
Cazes, Jack J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A505.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Calibration
Vacuum distillation experiment  Schoffstall, Allen M.; Specht, James D.
The primary purpose of this experiment is to provide the student with a feeling similar to that of a researcher who is attempting to separate by distillation a mixture containing a product of unknown structure for identification.
Schoffstall, Allen M.; Specht, James D. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 539.
Separation Science
The essential oils: A series of laboratory experiments  Runquist, Olaf
Describes a variety of "research type" laboratory problems for the second term introductory organic chemistry course involving essential oils.
Runquist, Olaf J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 846.
Lipids |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
An introduction to chromatography  Gaucher, G. M.
The object of this presentation is to serve as a preliminary practical introduction and guide to chromatography.
Gaucher, G. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 729.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Ion Exchange
Modifications of solution chromatography illustrated with chloroplast pigments  Strain, Harold H.; Sherma, Joseph
Using plant pigments to demonstrate various chromatographic techniques, including column adsorption, paper adsorption, paper partition, column partition, and thin layer chromatography.
Strain, Harold H.; Sherma, Joseph J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 476.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Plant Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Natural Products |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Natural products isolation - orange oil: An undergraduate organic experiment  Greenberg, F. H.
This procedure involves the isolation of orange oil from orange peel an the identification of a major component - limonene.
Greenberg, F. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 537.
Separation Science |
Natural Products
Techniques for internal distillation-condensation  Johnson, B. L.
Presents modifications and apparatus for the semi-micro collection of pure substances and macro extraction.
Johnson, B. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 465.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science
Liquid-liquid extraction  Joseph-Nathan, P.
Describes how liquid-liquid extraction can be done using commercially available substances and an apparatus of small dimensions that still allows an experiment to be followed visually.
Joseph-Nathan, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 176.
Separation Science |
Liquids |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Unattended laboratory operations. Part 1. The safe operation of laboratory distillations over night  Conlon, D. R.
Examines issues related to the safe operation of laboratory distillations over night.
Conlon, D. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A589.
Laboratory Management |
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Enamine reactions for the undergraduate organic laboratory: A student water separator  Darling, S. D.
This note describes the design and efficiency of a device that facilitates the removal of water in reactions such as enamine preparation or esterfications.
Darling, S. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 665.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Esters |
Synthesis |
Separation Science
Natural product chemistry: Laboratory research approach for elementary organic courses  O'Connor, Rod
Describes a program designed to introduce macro, semi-micro, and micro techniques of organic chemistry of the types commonly employed in research in natural product chemistry or in biologically-related fields.
O'Connor, Rod J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 492.
Natural Products |
Undergraduate Research |
Separation Science |
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Synthesis
Apparatus for steam distillation  Mallory, Frank B.
This apparatus for steam distillation eliminates the time required to bore corks with a more traditional apparatus.
Mallory, Frank B. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 108.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
Crystalline molecular sieves  Breck, D. W.
This article introduces zeolites - crystalline aluminosilicates that function as molecular sieves.
Breck, D. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 678.
Separation Science |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Ion Exchange |
Catalysis
A novel distillation flask  Henderson, R. W.; Kamphausen, H. A.
Presents a design for a distillation flask that relies on boiling the liquid in an inverted conical flask heated by a Nichrome wire element.
Henderson, R. W.; Kamphausen, H. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 572.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Fractionating column efficiency: Quantitative experiment in elementary organic chemistry laboratory  Ault, Addison
This experiment estimates the efficiency of a fractionating column by slowly distilling a three-to-one mixture of toluene and benzene.
Ault, Addison J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 432.
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography
Dual column gas chromatography: A teaching tool  Miller, James M.
Presents advantages to and several experiments involving dual column gas chromatography.
Miller, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 413.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
Physical and chemical methods of separation (Berg, Eugene W.)  Rogers, Lockhart B.

Rogers, Lockhart B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 501.
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Chromatography
Apparatus for molecular distillation and vacuum sublimation  Loev, Bernard; Snader, Kenneth M.; Kormendy, Minerva F.
A simple, inexpensive yet highly effective apparatus for laboratory scale purifications by molecular distillation or vacuum sublimation has been designed.
Loev, Bernard; Snader, Kenneth M.; Kormendy, Minerva F. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 426.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
Letters  Dence, Joseph B.
The author provides some suggestions regarding the distillation of benzyl alcohol following the Cannizzaro reaction.
Dence, Joseph B. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 320.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
Simple method for determining number of theoretical plates  Williamson, A. G.
Describes a method for obtaining the number of theoretical plates in a distillation column from measurements of the equilibrium temperatures at the top and bottom of the column.
Williamson, A. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 579.
Separation Science
Chomatographic Equipment  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the following topics: selectivity in the distribution of components between two phases, chromatographic development, types of chromatographic systems, the production of counter-current flow, the scale of chromatographic separations, the components of chromatographs, the two-phase system, and containers.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, A515.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Hydrocarbons in petroleum  Rossini, Frederick D.
Examines research and industrial processes involving the separation of petroleum into its constituent components.
Rossini, Frederick D. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 554.
Industrial Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Separation Science |
Natural Products
Apparatus for the triple distillation of mercury  Joncich, M. J.; Alley, C. A.; Kowaka, M.
The rising cost of mercury coupled with the extensive use of this element in a variety of laboratory applications emphasizes the need for an efficient apparatus for purification.
Joncich, M. J.; Alley, C. A.; Kowaka, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 607.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Gas-phase chromatography  Lotz, John R.; Willingham, Charles B.
Introduces gas chromatography and describes its associated apparatus and operation.
Lotz, John R.; Willingham, Charles B. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 485.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
The nature of chromatography  Cassidy, Harold G.
Provides a definition of chromatography and a description of gas chromatography.
Cassidy, Harold G. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 482.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography
Principles of the systematic separation of cations  Weisz, Herbert
Lays out approaches to be used in the systematic separation of cations.
Weisz, Herbert J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 334.
Separation Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals
Automatic safety trap for laboratory steam distillations  Hubbard, Edward M.
Describes an automatic safety trap for laboratory steam distillations that avoids a key difficulty in the earlier Nickels trap.
Hubbard, Edward M. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 376.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
Recent advances in petroleum refining  Shoemaker, B. H.; d'Ouville, E. L.; Marschner, Robert F.
Examines various means of separating, converting, and finishing the many compounds found in petroleum.
Shoemaker, B. H.; d'Ouville, E. L.; Marschner, Robert F. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 30.
Industrial Chemistry |
Separation Science
A sublimation apparatus for rapid separations  Pino, Lewis N.; Zehrung, Winfield S., III
Presents the design of a macrosublimation apparatus constructed to allow accurate temperature control and ease recovery of the residue.
Pino, Lewis N.; Zehrung, Winfield S., III J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 476.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
A visual demonstration of fractional distillation  Osburn, James O.
Describes the design of a glass bubble-cap column, a glass-packed column, and an equilibrium diagram for an engineering department open-house.
Osburn, James O. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 412.
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A convenient apparatus for the distillation of solids  Barkley, Lloyd B.; Sneed, James K.; McGrath, Thomas F.; Levine, Robert
This apparatus is designed to overcome common difficulties in the distillation of solids or mixtures of solids.
Barkley, Lloyd B.; Sneed, James K.; McGrath, Thomas F.; Levine, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 115.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
A continuous ether-extraction apparatus  Holliman, F. G.
The apparatus presented has been constructed to provide both speed of assembly and versatility in respect of volume of solution being extracted.
Holliman, F. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 96.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Ethers |
Separation Science
A simplified construction for vacuum distilling apparatus  Wendland, Ray
Describes a simplified construction for vacuum distilling apparatus and its use with a fractionating column.
Wendland, Ray J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 332.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science