TIGER

Journal Articles: 289 results
Greener Alternative to Qualitative Analysis for Cations without H2S and Other Sulfur-Containing Compounds  Indu Tucker Sidhwani and Sushmita Chowdhury
The classic technique for the qualitative analysis of inorganic salts and mixtures relies on highly toxic hydrogen sulfide. Increasing environmental awareness has prompted the development of a green scheme for the detection of cations by spot tests that is simple and fast.
Sidhwani, Indu Tucker; Chowdhury, Sushmita. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1099.
Green Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
HPLC Analysis of α- and β-Acids in Hops  Travis M. Danenhower, Leyna A. Force, Kenneth J. Petersen, Thomas A. Betts, and Gary A. Baker
Describes a high-performance liquid chromatography method for the quantitation of the predominant a-acids (humulone, cohumulone, and adhumulone) and -acids (lupulone, colupulone, and adlupulone) present in hops.
Danenhower, Travis M.; Force, Leyna A.; Petersen, Kenneth J.; Betts, Thomas A.; Baker, Gary A. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 954.
Chromatography |
Food Science |
HPLC |
Instrumental Methods |
Plant Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Separation of the Carotenoid Bixin from Annatto Seeds Using Thin-Layer and Column Chromatography  James V. McCullagh and Nicholas Ramos
In this experiment the carotenoid bixin is isolated from annatto seeds using column chromatography and then analyzed by UVvis and IR spectroscopy. The procedure has several advantages over previous pigment separation experiments.
McCullagh, James V.; Ramos, Nicholas. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 948.
Chromatography |
Dyes / Pigments |
Natural Products |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Colorful Column Chromatography: A Classroom Demonstration of a Three-Component Separation  Lars V. Heumann
Describes a classroom demonstration for the separation of a ternary mixture consisting of intensely colored compounds using silica gel column chromatography.
Heumann, Lars V. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 524.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Isolation of Three Components from Spearmint Oil: An Exercise in Column and Thin-Layer Chromatography  Don R. Davies and Todd M. Johnson
In this exercise, the three major components of spearmint oil, (+)-limonene, L-(-)-carvone, and (1R,2R,4R)-dihydrocarveol, are separated by silica gel column chromatography. The separation is monitored by thin-layer chromatography, and IR analysis is employed to verify the identity of the separated components.
Davies, Don R.; Johnson, Todd M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 318.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Chromatography |
Natural Products |
Microscale Lab |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
An Inexpensive Device for Capillary Electrophoresis with Fluorescence Detection  Greg Anderson, Jonathan E. Thompson, and Khriesto Shurrush
Describes an inexpensive device for performing capillary electrophoresis separations with fluorescence detection. As a demonstration of utility, the device is used to determine the mass of riboflavin in a commercially available dietary supplement.
Anderson, Greg; Thompson, Jonathan E.; Shurrush, Khriesto. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1677.
Electrophoresis |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science
Enantioselective Reduction by Crude Plant Parts: Reduction of Benzofuran-2-yl Methyl Ketone with Carrot (Daucus carota) Bits  Silvana Ravía, Daniela Gamenara, Valeria Schapiro, Ana Bellomo, Jorge Adum, Gustavo Seoane, and David Gonzalez
Presents the enantioselective reduction of a ketone by crude plant parts, using carrot (Daucus carota) as the reducing agent.
Ravía, Silvana; Gamenara, Daniela; Schapiro, Valeria; Bellomo, Ana; Adum, Jorge; Seoane, Gustavo; Gonzalez, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1049.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Biotechnology |
Catalysis |
Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stereochemistry |
Separation Science
Analysis of the Thickening Agents in Automotive Greases by GC–MS  David Mayotte, Craig J. Donahue, and Cheryl A. Snyder
Describes a laboratory procedure for the identification of the thickening agents in lubricating greases by GCMS.
Mayotte, David; Donahue, Craig J.; Snyder, Cheryl A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 902.
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Industrial Chemistry |
Mass Spectrometry |
Separation Science |
Fatty Acids
The Chemistry of Highly Fluorinated Compounds  William F. Coleman
Highly fluorinated compounds modeled in this month's Feature include fluorous phenylboronic acid, fluorous alkyl phospine, fluorous acid, fluorous chlorosilane, and fluorous reverse-phase silica gel.
Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 92.
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Separation Science
Fluorous Compounds and Their Role in Separation Chemistry  Maria Angeles Ubeda and Roman Dembinski
Reviews fluorous technology and outlines strategies towards organic synthesis.
Ubeda, Maria Angeles; Dembinski, Roman. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 84.
Amino Acids |
Catalysis |
Esters |
Green Chemistry |
Separation Science |
Synthesis
Ewing's Analytical Instrumentation Handbook, 3rd Edition (Jack Cazes)  Jack K. Steehler
This resource is a figurative and literal heavyweight. Its 31 chapters and more than 1000 large-size pages (filled with small text) provide an enormous amount of information. About a third of the book discusses spectroscopic techniques (11 chapters, all the standard types of spectroscopy); the second third covers various separation methods (10 chapters); and the remaining third hits a cross section of other topics, including four chapters on electrochemistry and three chapters on automation. The core of spectroscopy and separation science is appropriate and well chosen, covering the expected topics. There is even a chapter on Validation of Chromatographic Methods, an important topic for any lab working in a regulated environment. Additional, more unusual chapters include a chapter on Chiroptical Spectroscopy and a long chapter (100 pages) on Microfluidic Lab-on-a-Chip methods, both of current research interest.
Steehler, Jack K. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1315.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Bioanalytical Chemistry |
Chromatography |
Electrochemistry |
Electrophoresis |
EPR / ESR Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
HPLC |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science |
Spectroscopy
Capillary Electrophoresis Analysis of Substituted Benzoic Acids. An Experiment for the Organic Synthesis Laboratory  Nancy S. Mills, John D. Spence, and Michelle M. Bushey
We have introduced an experiment into the organic chemistry sequence, in the synthesis laboratory, that utilizes capillary electrophoresis to evaluate the pKa shift on a series of student-prepared substituted benzoic acids. The pKa shift is examined in reference to the electrophoretic-migration behavior of benzoic acid and is a result of the electron-withdrawing or electron-donating characteristics of the substituent. This strategy allows us to increase the exposure of students to modern methods of separation. We are using repeated exposure to increase students' knowledge of separation strategies and techniques.
Mills, Nancy S.; Spence, John D.; Bushey, Michelle M. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1226.
Synthesis |
Electrophoresis |
Grignard Reagents |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science
Enantiomeric Resolution of (±)-Mandelic Acid by (1R,2S)-(–)-Ephedrine. An Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Illustrating Stereoisomerism  Marsha R. Baar and Andrea L. Cerrone-Szakal
There has been an increasing need, particularly in the pharmaceutical industry, to prepare chiral substances in single-isomer form. A chiral technique that makes an excellent introductory organic chemistry experiment is enantiomeric resolution. The classical resolution of ()-mandelic acid using the chiral amine, (1R,2S)-()-ephedrine, was adapted for use in introductory organic chemistry lab curricula.
Baar, Marsha R.; Cerrone-Szakal, Andrea L. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1040.
Acids / Bases |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Separation Science |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers
Separation and Determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) with Cation-Exchange Chromatography and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. An Experiment for Quantitative Methods of Analysis  Ali Bazzi, Bette Kreuz, James Wuokila, and Ahmed Maqboul
This article reports on the separation and determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) with cation-exchange chromatography and flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. A sample containing the two ions is added to a column containing a cation-exchange resin; the Cr(VI) ions are not retained by the resin and are collected in the effluent. The Cr(III) ions are retained by the resin and eluted with an HCl solution. The separated ions are aspirated into an air/acetylene flame and the absorbance measurements are made at 357.9 nm and 0.2-nm slit width. The experiment has been implemented in a quantitative methods of analysis course.
Bazzi, Ali; Kreuz, Bette; Wuokila, James; Maqboul, Ahmed. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 435.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Ion Exchange |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Chromatography |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Fractional Distillation of Air and Other Demonstrations with Condensed Gases  Maria Oliver-Hoyo and William L. Switzer, III
This demonstration builds upon the commonly performed liquefaction of air not only to show the presence of nitrogen and oxygen, but also the presence of two other components, carbon dioxide and water. Several extensions are suggested: one to show boiling point elevation in solution and another to show the elevation of both boiling point and sublimation point with pressure. No special apparatus is required permitting presentations to audiences in a variety of settings. These demonstrations give the opportunity to discuss properties of gases, solution chemistry, and phase equilibria.
Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Switzer, William L., III. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 251.
Gases |
Qualitative Analysis |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
Checkerboard Chromatography  Charles A. Smith
This hands-on activity allows students to simulate chromatographic simulations using a grid, colored pieces of paper, and a six-sided die. Students observe the separation as it is occurring and perform experiments on flow rate, column length, and mobile phase composition.
Smith, Charles A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 384A.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science
Capillary Electrophoresis Analysis of Cations in Water Samples. An Experiment for the Introductory Laboratory  Christopher J. Pursell, Bert Chandler, and Michelle M. Bushey
This experiment can be done in a lab, as a "dry-lab", or as an in-class exercise. Students explore a number of basic separation topics and work with figures of merit for real and meaningful samples. We have adopted a strategy where students encounter various instruments and methods of analyses multiple times throughout the curriculum. The level of sophistication in the exposures increases with the experience level of the students. Through this repeated exposure students will gain a better and fuller understanding of these methods than they would with a single exposure to the technique in the analytical or instrumental laboratory.
Pursell, Christopher J.; Chandler, Bert; Bushey, Michelle M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1783.
Electrophoresis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Chemometrics |
Water / Water Chemistry
Application of Ion Chromatography to the Investigation of Real-World Samples  Rebecca J. Whelan, Theresa E. Hannon, David J. Rakestraw, and Richard N. Zare
An experiment using ion chromatography in an undergraduate analytical chemistry laboratory is described. The students, working in small groups, are responsible for identifying a real-world system of interest and for developing a strategy to investigate that system. The students gain specific skills and knowledge about chromatography as well as more general analytical skills including sample preparation, system calibration, determination of detection limits, and data analysis. Two specific examples of experiments done by students in the class are presented: the determination of lead in hair dye and the determination of anions in orange juice.
Whelan, Rebecca J.; Hannon, Theresa E.; Rakestraw, David J.; Zare, Richard N. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1299.
Chromatography |
Consumer Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Food Science |
Ion Exchange |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science
A Computer-Based Undergraduate Exercise Using Internet-Accessible Simulation Software for the Study of Retention Behavior and Optimization of Separation Conditions in Ion Chromatography  Paul R. Haddad, Matthew J. Shaw, John E. Madden, and Greg W. Dicinoski
An ion chromatography exercise is described that uses a free Internet-based software package, Virtual Column 2, to simulate retention behavior and to optimize separation conditions. Virtual Column 2 permits the detailed study of retention behavior of inorganic anions on a Dionex AS11 column using isocratic hydroxide eluents and also on a Dionex AS4ASC column using carbonate-bicarbonate eluents. Collection of retention data from Virtual Column 2 allows students to investigate the effects of variation in eluent composition on retention, to examine separation selectivity in ion chromatography, and to evaluate the performance of simple retention models.
Haddad, Paul R.; Shaw, Matthew J.; Madden, John E.; Dicinoski, Greg W. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1293.
Instrumental Methods |
Ion Exchange |
Separation Science |
Water / Water Chemistry
Ion Chromatography: An Account of Its Conception and Early Development  Hamish Small
In the late 1950s, a small group of chemists at the Dow Chemical Company envisioned replacing these classical methods of inorganic analysis with but a single, universal chromatographic technique. They called their project "Inorganic Chromatography". This article describes how they developed this concept into a new technique, ready for commercial development into what we know today as "Ion Chromatography". In particular, the account will describe: how the Dow scientists adapted electrical conductance monitoring to chromatography, the introduction of the suppressor to chromatography, the invention of special stationary phases, and the evolution of strategies and principles that would shape and guide the practice of ion chromatography for many years to come.
Small, Hamish. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1277.
Chromatography |
Industrial Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Ion Exchange |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Water / Water Chemistry
An Improved Method for the Extraction and Thin-Layer Chromatography of Chlorophyll a and b from Spinach  Hao T. Quach, Robert L. Steeper, and G. William Griffin
A direct method of extracting plant pigments from spinach leaves into a dry organic solvent is presented. This method avoids liquidliquid extractions and subsequent drying as is found in previously reported methods.
Quach, Hao T.; Steeper, Robert L.; Griffin, G. William. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 385.
Chromatography |
Natural Products |
Plant Chemistry |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Novel Strategies for the Removal of Toxic Metals from Soils and Waters  D. Max Roundhill
This article surveys the toxicities of mercury, cadmium, lead, copper, cadmium, and the actinides. Strategies for the removal of these metals include surfactants, aqueous biphasic systems, and liquid membranes. For soils, both in situ stabilization and detection are discussed.
Roundhill, D. Max. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 275.
Green Chemistry |
Separation Science |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Metals |
Toxicology
Magnetic Particle Technology. A Simple Preparation of Magnetic Composites for the Adsorption of Water Contaminants  Luiz C. A. Oliveira, Rachel V. R. A. Rios, José D. Fabris, Rochel M. Lago, and Karim Sapag
In this article a simple undergraduate laboratory experiment to produce magnetic adsorbents is described. These magnetic materials efficiently adsorb contaminants from water and can be easily removed from the medium by a simple magnetic separation process.
Oliveira, Luiz C.A.; Rios, Rachel V.R.A.; Fabris, José D.; Lago, Rochel M.; Sapag, Karim. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 248.
Green Chemistry |
Magnetic Properties |
Materials Science |
Separation Science |
Water / Water Chemistry
The Separation and Identification of Two Unknown Solid Organic Compounds: An Experiment for the Sophomore Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Patty L. Feist
Students are given a mixture of a solid ketone and a solid alcohol and asked to separate and identify the two components. First the students use TLC to determine the optimum solvent system to separate the two compounds, then they separate the unknowns on a microscale flash chromatography column. The students acquire the melting point, and if possible, the IR and 1H NMR spectra for each separated compound and identify them by matching the observed data with that of known compounds.
Feist, Patty L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 109.
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
Manual Microscale Column Chromatography Pressurization Apparatus  Bruce W. Baldwin
Pressurization of a Pasteur pipet for microscale chromatography is simplified by connecting a 20- or 30-mL syringe to the pipet using a length of Tygon tubing. This simple system allows the student to easily dry-pack a column using common chromatography packing materials.
Baldwin, Bruce W. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1182.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Microscale Lab
A Discovery Approach to Three Organic Laboratory Techniques: Extraction, Recrystallization, and Distillation  Gail Horowitz
In each experiment, one or more parameters, such as solvent volume, time, or boiling point difference, is varied. Students compare the results of all variations and draw conclusions as to the underlying principles. The article concludes with an assessment of the effectiveness of these experiments.
Horowitz, Gail. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1039.
Separation Science
Simulating Chromatographic Separations in the Classroom  Charles A. Smith and F. Warren Villaescusa
Using this classroom simulation, students develop a set of rules used to investigate the effect of flow rate, column dimension, particle size, and mobile/stationary phase affinity on chromatographic separations. While performing the simulation, the concepts of longitudinal and eddy diffusion are dramatically illustrated.
Smith, Charles A.; Villaescusa, F. Warren. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1023.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science
Like Dissolves Like: A Guided Inquiry Experiment for Organic Chemistry  Ingrid Montes, Chunqiu Lai, and David Sanabria
A guided-inquiry experience designed to illustrate factors that influence the solubility of organic compounds.
Montes, Ingrid; Lai, Chunqiu; Sanabria, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 447.
Learning Theories |
Solutions / Solvents |
Separation Science
Separation of Acids, Bases, and Neutral Compounds  Megumi Fujita, Helen M. Mah, Paulo W. M. Sgarbi, Manjinder S. Lall, Tai Wei Ly, and Lois M. Browne
Software to help students understand the theoretical basis and actual procedures for separating organic compounds from a mixture using liquid-liquid extraction; found on the Advanced Chemistry Collection CD-ROM, 3rd Edition.
Fujita, Megumi; Mah, Helen M.; Sgarbi, Paulo W. M.; Lall, Manjinder S.; Ly, Tai Wei; Browne, Lois M. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 107.
Acids / Bases |
Separation Science
Micelle-Mediated Extraction of Heavy Metals from Environmental Samples: An Environmental Green Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  Dimosthenis L. Giokas, Evangelos K. Paleologos, and Miltiades I. Karayannis
A laboratory focussing on the determination of metallic elements in drinking water through cloud-point extraction.
Giokas, Dimosthenis L.; Paleologos, Evangelos K.; Karayannis, Miltiades I. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 61.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Metals |
Micelles |
Separation Science |
Green Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Fractional Distillation and GC Analysis of Hydrocarbon Mixtures  Craig J. Donahue
Separating and identifying the components of a three-hydrocarbon mixture through fractional distillation and gas chromatography.
Donahue, Craig J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 721.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Aromatic Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
Integrating HPLC and Electrochemistry: A LabVIEW-Based Pulsed Amperometric Detection System  Mark B. Jensen
Using the voltametry of glucose to develop a method for the pulsed amperometric detection of carbohydrates (glucose, fructose, and sucrose) following their separation by liquid chromatography.
Jensen, Mark B. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 345.
Chromatography |
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
HPLC |
Carbohydrates |
Separation Science |
Oxidation / Reduction
Using Capillary Electrophoresis to Determine the Purity of Acetylsalicylic Acid Synthesized in the Undergraduate Laboratory  Frank Welder and Christa L. Colyer
Determination of the concentration of synthesized acetylsalicylic acid and unreacted salicylic acid using capillary electrophoresis.
Welder, Frank; Colyer, Christa L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1525.
Electrophoresis |
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis
The Combined Effects of pH and Percent Methanol on the HPLC Separation of Benzoic Acid and Phenol  Seema M. Joseph and John A. Palasota
Investigating the combined effects of pH and percent methanol on the HPLC separation of benzoic acid and phenol.
Joseph, Seema M.; Palasota, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1381.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science |
Carboxylic Acids |
Aromatic Compounds |
Phenols
Thin-Layer Electrophoresis  Tom Lyons Fisher, Tara Leslie Fitzsimmons, and I. David Reingold
Thin-layer electrophoresis apparatus.
Fisher, Tom Lyons; Fitzsimmons, Tara Leslie; Reingold, I. David. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1241.
Amino Acids |
Electrophoresis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Investigation of Secondary Metabolites in Plants. A General Protocol for Undergraduate Research in Natural Products  Jonathan Cannon, Du Li, Steven G. Wood, Noel L. Owen, Alexandra Gromova, and Vladislav Lutsky
Typical experimental procedures to extract and isolate individual chemical constituents from a plant, suggestions for some simple procedures to test for selected bioactivity, and explain how the molecular structures of natural products may be determined using spectroscopic techniques.
Cannon, Jonathan; Li, Du; Wood, Steven G.; Owen, Noel L.; Gromova, Alexandra; Lutsky, Vladislav. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1234.
Chromatography |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Separation Science |
Plant Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Separation Science
Simulating How a Virus Spreads through a Population: An Introduction to Acid-Base Chemistry in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Ronald M. Jarret
The traditional lab exercise that achieves separation of a mixture of 4-aminoacetophenone and benzoic acid by chemically active extraction has been expanded to include an exercise that uses materials from the extraction experiment to simulate how a virus spreads through a population.
Jarret, Ronald M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 525.
Acids / Bases |
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids
Safe and Efficient Flash Chromatography Equipment for the Research/Teaching Lab  Fritiof Pontén and Ulf Ellervik
A new method for performing flash chromatography is presented in which the solvent reservoir is at the side of the column, in a separate bottle, connected with a Teflon tube to an adapter for standard flash chromatography columns.
Pontén, Fritiof; Ellervik, Ulf. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 363.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
An Analogy between Fractional Distillation and Separating Physically Fit and Physically Less Fit Persons  Doble Mukesh
Separating two liquids in a fractional distillation column on the basis of their difference in boiling points is analogous to separating a group of people on the basis of their physical fitness by making them climb a flight of stairs.
Mukesh, Doble. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 211.
Separation Science |
Learning Theories
The Escalator--An Analogy for Explaining Electroosmotic Flow  Andrew J. Vetter and Garrett J. McGowan
An analogy of people on an escalator for teaching the concept of electroosmotic flow. The moving escalator is analogous to the overall bulk flow of solution through the capillary (electroosmotic flow) and partly responsible for the separation of species using capillary electrophoresis (CE).
Vetter, Andrew J.; McGowan, Garrett J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 209.
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science |
Electrophoresis |
Transport Properties |
Electrochemistry
Fast Ionic Migration of Copper Chromate  Adolf Cortel
Among the many demonstrations of ionic migration in an electric field, the ones showing the migration of colored Cu+2 and CrO4-2 ions are popular. The demonstration described here introduces some modifications to allow a fast displacement of these ions.
Cortel, Adolf. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 207.
Covalent Bonding |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science
Practical Capillary Electrophoresis, 2nd Edition by Robert Weinberger  Luanne Tilstra
Overview of how capillary electrophoresis (CE) is unique, a history of technique development, a list of commercially available instruments, the basic concepts that one must understand to design and understand a CE experiment, and other reference information of significance to CE.
Tilstra, Luanne. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 35.
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science
Analysis of Common Household Cleaner-Disinfectants by Capillary Electrophoresis  William P. Gardner and James E. Girard
Capillary electrophoresis analysis for benzalkonium compounds in common household cleaners and disinfectants.
Gardner, William P.; Girard, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1335.
Electrophoresis |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Aromatic Compounds |
Consumer Chemistry
Candies to Dye for: Cooperative, Open-Ended Student Activities to Promote Understanding of Electrophoretic Fractionation  Randall Emry, Robert D. Curtright, Jonathan Wright, and John Markwell
A three-part series of laboratory activities is presented that allows students to learn why electrophoretic separations work and to manipulate the factors that influence the separation process.
Emry, Randall; Curtright, Robert D.; Wright, Jonathan; Markwell, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1323.
Dyes / Pigments |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science
Analysis of Diet Tonic Water Using Capillary Electrophoresis. An Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Experiment  Harvey B. Herman, John R. Jezorek, and Zhe Tang
An experiment for instrumental analysis is described in which components of diet tonic water are determined using capillary electrophoresis. Separation of quinine, saccharin, and benzoate in pH 7 phosphate buffer, with phenol as internal standard, is accomplished in about 12 minutes.
Herman, Harvey B.; Jezorek, John R.; Tang, Zhe. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 743.
Instrumental Methods |
Consumer Chemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis
Separation and Quantification of Preservatives Using Ion Pair HPLC and CZE: An Extended Investigation of Separation Mechanisms  Mary Boyce and Evadne Spickett
This paper describes the separation of preservatives in food and cosmetic creams by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), ion pair HPLC, and capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). The experiments described here are designed to promote understanding of the separation mechanisms involved and give students an opportunity to compare and evaluate the different techniques.
Boyce, Mary; Spickett, Evadne. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 740.
Chromatography |
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science |
HPLC |
Electrophoresis
Isolating trans-Anethole from Anise Seeds and Elucidating Its Structure: A Project Utilizing One- and Two-Dimensional NMR Spectrometry  Joseph W. LeFevre
This three-week project involves isolating and purifying a natural product and determining its structure. trans-Anethole is isolated from anise seeds by steam distillation and liquid-liquid extraction. The crude product is analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and purified by flash chromatography.
LeFevre, Joseph W. . J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 361.
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Separation Science |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Introducing Chiroscience into the Organic Laboratory Curriculum  Kenny B. Lipkowitz, Tim Naylor, and Keith S. Anliker
"Chiroscience" is a young but robust industry linking science and technology with chemistry and biology; includes description of an asymmetric reduction of a ketone followed by an assessment of the enantiomeric excess by GC using a chiral stationary phase.
Lipkowitz, Kenny B.; Naylor, Tim; Anliker, Keith S. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 305.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Chromatography |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis |
Separation Science |
Stereochemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Undergraduate Separations Utilizing Flash Chromatography  Gail Horowitz
This article describes the procedures used to carry out four flash chromatography experiments: the isolation of the carotenes, chlorophylls and xanthophylls from a spinach extract; the separation of -carotene from tetraphenyl cyclopentadienone; the isolation of (+) and (-) carvone from caraway and spearmint oil; and the purification of benzil from benzoin.
Horowitz, Gail. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 263.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Chromatographic Separations Using Solid-Phase Extraction Cartridges: Separation of Wine Phenolics  Charles A. Brenneman and Susan E. Ebeler
We describe a simple laboratory experiment that demonstrates the principles of chromatographic separation using solid-phase extraction columns and red wine. By adjusting pH and mobile phase composition, the wine is separated into three fractions of differing polarity. The content of each fraction can be monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy.
Brenneman, Charles A.; Ebeler, Susan E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1710.
Chromatography |
Natural Products |
Separation Science |
Industrial Chemistry
Separation of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons Using 2-Dimensional Thin-Layer Chromatography. An Environmental Chemistry Experiment  Geoffrey T. Crisp and Natalie M. Williamson
Students are given a soil sample from which they extract two (previously added) polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using a Soxhlet apparatus. They determine the identity of the unknown PAHs by comparing the 2-dimensional thin-layer chromatograms of the soil sample extract and a standard solution, both of which they must run themselves.
Crisp, Geoffrey T.; Williamson, Natalie M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1691.
Aromatic Compounds |
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
Demonstrating Chemical and Analytical Concepts in the Undergraduate Laboratory Using Capillary Electrophoresis and Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography  Christopher P. Palmer
Alkyl parabens (4-hydroxy alkyl benzoates), which are common ingredients in cosmetic formulations, are separated by capillary electrophoresis. The electrophoretic mobilities of the parabens can be explained on the basis of their relative size. 3-Hydroxy ethylbenzoate is also separated to demonstrate the effect of substituent position on the acid dissociation constant and the effect this has on electrophoretic mobility.
Palmer, Christopher P. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1542.
Colloids |
Chromatography |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science
Separation and Quantification of Simple Ions by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis  Mary Boyce
A wide range of samples can be rapidly separated and quantified by CE, requiring only small amounts of sample and solvent. The experiments described here give a suitable introduction to capillary electrophoresis and effectively illustrate the mechanism of separation.
Boyce, Mary. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 815.
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science |
Electrophoresis |
Chromatography |
Quantitative Analysis
Chemistry of the Heaviest Elements-One Atom at a Time  Darleane C. Hoffman and Diana M. Lee
A 75-year perspective of the chemistry of the heaviest elements, including a 50-year retrospective view of past developments, a summary of current research achievements and applications, and some predictions about exciting, new developments that might be envisioned within the next 25 years.
Hoffman, Darleane C.; Lee, Diana M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 331.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Isotopes |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Separation Science |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Student Understanding of Chromatography: A Hands-On Approach  Robert D. Curtright, Randy Emry, and John Markwell*
This exercise sets up a collaborative activity that challenges students to develop a chromatographic solvent with the appropriate polarity to separate leaf chlorophyll and anthocyanin pigments by TLC. The suggested activity has been tested with both high-school advanced-chemistry students and with undergraduate students in an introductory biochemistry class.
Curtright, Robert D.; Emry, Randy; Markwell, John. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 249.
Chromatography |
Natural Products |
Separation Science |
Undergraduate Research |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Synthesis and Separation of a Diastereomeric Sulfonium Ion by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis  Francisco A. Valenzuela, Thomas K. Green, and Darwin B. Dahl
An undergraduate laboratory exercise utilizing capillary zone electrophoresis in the analysis of the student-synthesized sulfonium ion sec-butylmethyl-p-tolylsulfonium tetrafluoroborate is presented. The sulfonium ion contains two stereogenic centers and thereby yields four optical isomers.
Valenzuela, Francisco A.; Green, Thomas K.; Dahl, Darwin B. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1590.
Electrophoresis |
Stereochemistry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Diastereomers |
Separation Science |
Synthesis
A Simplified Method for the Microscale Extraction of Pigments from Spinach  Kimberley R. Cousins and Kathleen M. Pierson
A method is presented for microscale sample preparation for the thin-layer chromatographic analysis of the pigments in spinach. A commercial vegetable juicer is used for the initial extraction from spinach. This is followed by filtration, liquid/liquid extraction, centrifugation, and evaporation.
Cousins, Kimberley R.; Pierson, Kathleen M. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1268.
Chromatography |
Microscale Lab |
Plant Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
Chromatographic Separation Techniques for Undergraduates  Darwin B. Dahl, John T. Riley, and Thomas K. Green
Over the past several years the Chemistry Department at Western Kentucky University (WKU) has sought to strengthen its undergraduate program departmental through acquisition of FT-NMR, fluorescence, electrochemical, thermal analysis, laser Raman, microscale organic, and polymer laboratory instrumentation; this has enabled the department to build a successful undergraduate program.
Dahl, Darwin B.; Riley, John T.; Green, Thomas K. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1209.
Separation Science |
Chromatography |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Raman Spectroscopy |
Electrochemistry |
Photochemistry |
Thermal Analysis |
Microscale Lab
An Inexpensive Detector for Gas Chromatography  Allan L. Smith, Edward J. Thorne, and Wolfgang Nadler
We have developed a low-cost (parts cost approximately $70) detector that can be used in a freshman level class to demonstrate the fundamental principles of gas chromatography (GC). The detector box can be used in a modification of experiments available in the literature which do not enable a quantitative method of analysis. We have used it with success in a freshman class of approximately 450 students in an experiment to separate chlorinated hydrocarbons via GC.
Smith, Allan L.; Thorne, Edward J.; Nadler, Wolfgang. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1129.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
Capillary Electrophoresis in the Analytical and Physical Chemistry Laboratories  Kathryn R. Williams
Availability of capillary electrophoresis (CE) instrumentation allows students to have hands-on experience with this modern separation tool. They gain more than operational knowledge, however. Inherent in the instructional process is an emphasis on the relation of the chemistry of the sample to the fundamental mechanism of electrophoresis and the demonstration of how CE complements other methods for similar measurements.
Williams, Kathryn R. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1079.
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Quantitative HPLC Analysis of an Analgesic/Caffeine Formulation: Determination of Caffeine  Glenda K. Ferguson
The experiment detailed herein involves the determination of caffeine in Goody's Extra Strength Headache Powders, a commercially available medication which contains acetaminophen, aspirin, and caffeine as active ingredients.
Glenda K. Ferguson. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 467.
Chromatography |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Quantitative Analysis |
HPLC |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Separation Science
An Integrated Extraction/Crystallization/Distillation Experiment  Claude Amsterdamsky
An organic chemistry experiment that involves the extraction, crystallization, and distillation of a 3-component mixture over two 4-hour laboratory periods.
Amsterdamsky, Claude. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 219.
Separation Science
A Microscale Laboratory Heating System  Dwight Kinzer
A multifunctional heating system and a disposable still for use in the microscale laboratory are described. Time required for laboratory procedures is minimized. A novel microscale boiling point determination procedure is included.
Kinzer, Dwight. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1333.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Management
Separation of Enantiomeric Barbiturates by Capillary Electrophoresis Using a Cyclodextrin Containing Run Buffer  S. Contradi, Carla Vogt, and E. Rohde
This article is intended to demonstrate the potential of CE for the determination of enantiomers. The separation is based on the addition of a suitable chiral selector to the buffer. Cyclodextrins perform as excellent selectors forming diastereomeric complexes of different stability with the enantiomeric forms of the analyte.
Contradi, S.; Vogt, Carla; Rohde E. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1122.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers |
Medicinal Chemistry
Simultaneous Determination of Aspirin, Salicylamide, and Caffeine in Pain Relievers by Target Factor Analysis  Huggins Z. Msimanga, Melissa J. Charles, and Nea W. Martin
A factor analysis-based experiment for the undergraduate instrumental analysis labs is reported. Target factor analysis (TFA) is investigated as an option to the use of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the analysis of a pain reliever sample containing aspirin, caffeine, and salicylamide.
Msimanga, Huggins Z.; Charles, Melissa J.; Martin, Nea W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1114.
Separation Science |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
HPLC |
Medicinal Chemistry
Integration of GC/MS Instrumentation into the Undergraduate Laboratory: Separation and Identification of Fatty Acids in Commercial Fats and Oils  Judith F. Rubinson and Jennifer Neyer-Hilvert

Rubinson, Judith F.; Neyer-Hilvert, Jennifer. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1106.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Food Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Fatty Acids
Extraction, Isolation, and Characterization of Fullerene C60: A Safe and Reliable Separation Experiment  Jamey L. Anderson, Michele A. West, Christopher S. Foote
Appropriate for an advanced high school or introductory college chemistry laboratory, the experiment described here allows students to safely perform organic chemistry techniques in the absence of a fume hood.
Anderson, Jamey L.; West, Michele A.; Foote, Christopher S. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 311.
Separation Science |
Chromatography
HPLC for Undergraduate Introductory Laboratories  Scott A. Van Arman and Marcus W. Thomsen
A set of simple HPLC separations as part of an introductory set of projects that serve as an introduction to chromatography early in the organic course; quantitative analysis has been introduced to the common separation of analgesics so that students may identify the composition of an unknown commercial tablet.
Van Arman, Scott A. and Thomsen, Marcus W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 49.
Chromatography |
Quantitative Analysis |
HPLC |
Separation Science
HPLC: EARLY AND RECENT PERSPECTIVES  Barry L. Karger
Personal reflections on the early days of HPLC and recent developments. HPLC has emerged from a technique that could only be imagined in the early 1960's to sales over $1.4 billion in 1994. Key to the advances has been the translation of theory to practice, in the ability to pack small particle diameter matrices of 5 mm to yield high efficiency columns.
Karger, Barry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 45.
Chromatography |
HPLC |
Separation Science
Modern Practice of Liquid Chromatography: Before and after 1971  Lloyd R. Snyder
A selective history (1941 through 1990) is reported of the development of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) from the perspective of the author. Emphasis is given to how a practical understanding of the technique emerged.
Snyder, Lloyd, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 37.
Chromatography |
HPLC |
Separation Science
Chromatographic Separation of Phosphoric Acid from Cola Beverages  Diego Lozano-Calero, Pilar Martìn-Palomeque, Silvia Madueño-Lorguillo
The color of cola beverages interferes in the colorimetric determination of phosphoric acid. This interference is not significant if the sample is diluted sufficiently. However, a previous step where phosphoric acid is separated from the rest of the sample would be desirable. Therefore, we carried out the chromatographic separation of phosphoric acid by using an anionic exchange resin.
Lozano-Calero, Diego; Martìn-Palomeque, Pilar; Madueño-Lorguillo, Silvia. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1172.
Chromatography |
Consumer Chemistry |
Separation Science |
Ion Exchange
Oxygenates in Gasoline: A Versatile Experiment Using Gas Chromatography  Linda C. Brazdil
An experiment for introductory chemistry in which oxygenates are extracted from gasoline and analyzed by gas chromatography is described. The extraction of oxygenates from gasoline with water prior to analysis by gas chromatography allows for their easy identification and quantification since only the oxygenates dissolve in water. Both qualitative and quantitative versions of the experiment are described.
Brazdil, Linda C. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1056.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
Organic Qualitative Analysis at the Microscale Level  Craig, Rhoda E. R.; Kaufman, Kurt K.
Project requiring students to identify pure unknowns and the components of mixtures using a variety of chromatography and spectrometry techniques.
Craig, Rhoda E. R.; Kaufman, Kurt K. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A102.
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases
Phosphatidylcholine from "Healthful" Egg Yolk Varieties: An Organic Laboratory Experience  Linda C. Hodges
Using chromatography to isolate and analyze phosphatidylcholine from chickens raised on different diets.
Hodges, Linda C. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1140.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Lipids
An Undergraduate Thin-Layer Chromatography Experiment: Olfactory Delights  Mary Anne Lynch, Wendy Gloffke, and Richard A. Rauner
Procedure for separating flavors and fragrances using thin-layer chromatography.
Lynch, Mary Anne; Gloffke, Wendy; Rauner, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1137.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Food Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography to Determine the C60:C70 Ratio in Fullerene Soot: An Undergraduate Chemistry Lab  Michael C. Zumwalt and M. Bonner Denton
Apparatus for producing fullerene soot and procedure for determining its C60-C70 ratio.
Zumwalt, Michael C.; Denton, M. Bonner. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 939.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Main-Group Elements |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Alkenes |
HPLC |
Quantitative Analysis
Using GC-MS to Determine Relative Reactivity Ratios   R. Daniel Bishop, Jr.
Experiment that demonstrates the use of GC-mass spectrometry in the separation and analysis of mixtures; also uses the GC-mass spectrometer to find the relative reactivity of primary, secondary, and tertiary hydrogens.
Bishop, R. Daniel, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 743.
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography
Bromination of Disubstituted Arenes: Kinetics and Mechanism: GC/MS Experiments for the Instrumental Analysis and Organic Chemistry Labs  Annis, D. Allen; Collard, David M.; Bottomley, Lawrence A.
Experimental procedure using gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy to trace the progression of a reaction over time and determine the several possible steps of its mechanism; sample data and analysis included.
Annis, D. Allen; Collard, David M.; Bottomley, Lawrence A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 460.
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics |
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Aromatic Compounds
Flash Chromatographic Separation and Electronic Absorption Spectra of Carotenoids: A Project for a Problem-Oriented Laboratory Course  Silveira, Augustine, Jr.; Evans, Jeffrey M.
Procedure for separating beta-carotene and lycopene from carrots and tomatoes to illustrate the operation and versatility of flash chromatography.
Silveira, Augustine, Jr.; Evans, Jeffrey M. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 374.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Liquid-Liquid Extraction: Are n Extractions with V/n mL of Solvent Really More Effective Than One Extraction with V mL?  Palleros, Daniel R.
Demonstration that if the partition coefficient between two solvents is very large or very small, dividing up the total amount of solvent into small portions and carrying out several small extractions does not improve the efficiency over a single extraction.
Palleros, Daniel R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 319.
Separation Science |
Liquids |
Solutions / Solvents
Liquid Chromatographic Determination of UV Absorbers in Sunscreens  Davis, Mary R.; Quigley, Michael N.
Using liquid chromatography with UV absorbence to determine the concentration of compounds that block UV radiation in commercial sunscreens; includes sample data.
Davis, Mary R.; Quigley, Michael N. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 279.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Consumer Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis
Enantiomeric Separation of Beta-Blockers by High Performance Liquid Chromatography: An Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry Experiment  Tran, Chieu D.; Dotlich, Michael
Experimental procedure to familiarize students with the principle and application of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to separate isomers of a common pharmaceutical; includes data and analysis.
Tran, Chieu D.; Dotlich, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 71.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Chromatography |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Separation Science |
HPLC
A Microscale Purification and Qualitative Spectroscopic Examination of C60 (Buckminsterfullerene): An Experiment Suitable for Undergraduate Organic Laboratory Courses  Marecek, James F.; Kuduk, Scott D.
A simple and inexpensive purification procedure for isolating C60.
Marecek, James F.; Kuduk, Scott D. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A141.
Microscale Lab |
Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Microscale Column Chromatographic Isolation of a Red Pigment from Paprika  West, Kevin J.; Rauch, Paul
Modification of a macroscopic procedure to a microscale experiment.
West, Kevin J.; Rauch, Paul J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A59.
Microscale Lab |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments
The ABC's of Chromatography: A Colorful Demonstration.  Reynolds, Robert C.; Comber, Robert N.
This demonstration involves the separation of combinations of seven highly colored dyes by thin layer chromatography to help explain separation science while capturing the attention of the audience by spelling words with these dyes.
Reynolds, Robert C.; Comber, Robert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1075.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Dyes / Pigments |
Separation Science
Using Computers To Replace Some HPLC Laboratory Work  Bowater, Ian C.; McWilliam, Ian G.
164. Three exercises where students learn about HPLC through computer simulations.
Bowater, Ian C.; McWilliam, Ian G. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 674.
HPLC |
Separation Science
Extraction of Organic Compounds from Aqueous Solutions  Love, Brian
Demonstration to separate an orange solution into its yellow and red components.
Love, Brian J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 517.
Separation Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
A simple, colorful demonstration of solubility and acid/base extraction using a separatory funnel   Kelly, T. Ross
A simple, colorful demonstration of solubility and acid/base extraction using a separatory funnel.
Kelly, T. Ross J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 848.
Separation Science |
Acids / Bases
Size-exclusion chromatography: Separating large molecules from small  McLoughlin, Daniel J.
Description, theory, demonstration, and experimental procedure regarding size-exclusion chromatography.
McLoughlin, Daniel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 993.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Separation of aspirin from acetaminophen and caffeine in an over-the-counter analgesic tablet.  Williams, John P.; West, Kevin J.; Erickson, Karen L.
An procedure that uses smaller volumes of "safer" solvents in performing the extraction and allows the use of simultaneous spectrophotometric analysis in the determination.
Williams, John P.; West, Kevin J.; Erickson, Karen L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 669.
Separation Science |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Consumer Chemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Principle of extraction of solute by solvent  Guha, Prabir Kr.; Guha, Ratna
Among the applications of Nernst's distribution law, the most important and interesting one is the extraction of a substance dissolved in one solvent by another solvent, the two solvents being partially miscible or immiscible.
Guha, Prabir Kr.; Guha, Ratna J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 73.
Solutions / Solvents |
Separation Science
The use and utility of phase science  Laughlin, Robert G.
Phase diagrams describe the phase behavior, for a particular system of mixtures spanning a particular range of system variables. One must know how to read and interpret phase diagrams in order to extract and use the information they contain.
Laughlin, Robert G. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 26.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Applications of Chemistry |
Separation Science
A simple method for producing efficient concentric tube distillation columns  Smith, Sherrel
The typically used columns packed with glass beads have several disadvantages. This paper offers a solution that proves to be a better teaching aid.
Smith, Sherrel J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 616.
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science
Column chromatography: Isolation of caffeine  Taber, Douglass F.; Hoerrner, R. Scott
An undergraduate laboratory procedure for isolating caffeine via column chromatography.
Taber, Douglass F.; Hoerrner, R. Scott J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 73.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Natural Products |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Food Science
A convenient method for comparison of efficiency of fractionating columns  Higgins, Robert H.
Demonstrating the ability of various fractionating columns (both packed and unpacked) to resolve a mixture into individual components and to correlate the resolving powers of column packings to their "hold-up" volumes.
Higgins, Robert H. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 810.
Separation Science
A convenient method to recover the solvent from halogen-CCl4 mixtures  Sabol, Joseph E.; Kurtz, David W.
An alternative to disposal and distillation which is easy to perform, allowing the solvent to be recovered and stored within one hour after the completion of the experiment is presented here.
Sabol, Joseph E.; Kurtz, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 532.
Solutions / Solvents |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Management
A useful method for obtaining crystals from viscous oils  Qian, Chengyi
The method of slowly evaporating solvents was tried in the present study with oily reaction residues, which did not crystallize on standing for some time.
Qian, Chengyi J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 355.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solutions / Solvents |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
A modular apparatus for demonstrating gas chromatography using serial coupling of a thermal conductivity and flame ionizaton detector  Wiederholt, Erwin; Fahrney, Volker; Behrens, Dorothea
The authors constructed a simple gas chromatograph for demonstrating the separation of gas mixtures at room temperature; therefore, heating or thermostating of the column is unnecessary.
Wiederholt, Erwin; Fahrney, Volker; Behrens, Dorothea J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 181.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple apparatus to demonstrate differing gas diffusion rates (Graham's law)  Keller, Philip C.
The apparatus described in this note dramatically demonstrates relative diffusion rate effects for common gases like methane and carbon dioxide.
Keller, Philip C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 160.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
An automatic water trap for steam distillation  Ruekberg, Ben
The unpleasant aspects of the water trap can be avoided with a simple, inexpensive device that renders the water trap automatically selfdraining.
Ruekberg, Ben J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 66.
Separation Science |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The most useful actinide isotope: Americium-241  Navratil, James D.; Schulz, Wallace W.; Seaborg, Glenn T.
This paper briefly reviews Americium's discovery, nuclear and chemical properties, and its uses with an emphasis on its production and separations chemistry.
Navratil, James D.; Schulz, Wallace W.; Seaborg, Glenn T. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 15.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Separation Science |
Applications of Chemistry
An introduction to supercritical fluid chromatography: Part 2. Applications and future trends   Palmieri, Margo D.
Part I of this article dealt with the basic theory and instrumentation of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). In part 2 selected applications and future trends in SFC will be discussed.
Palmieri, Margo D. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A141.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Separation of a five-component mixture in the microscale laboratory  O'Hara-Mays, Ellen P.; Yuen, George U.
The separation and purification of a five-component mixture consisting of a strong organic acid (bezoic acid), a weak organic acid (2-naphthol), an organic base (pyridine), and two neutral compounds (1-chlorobutane and toluene).
O'Hara-Mays, Ellen P.; Yuen, George U. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 961.
Separation Science |
Microscale Lab |
Acids / Bases
Modification of an ultraviolet spectrophotometric determination of the active ingredients in APC tablets  Yarnelle, Michael K.; West, Kevin J.
Ultraviolet spectrophotometric procedure used to determine the aspirin, phenacetin, and caffeine in an APC tablet.
Yarnelle, Michael K.; West, Kevin J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 601.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Separation Science
Laboratory simulations - Gel filtration  Griffith, Thomas W.
102. Bits and pieces, 40. This report describes the successful use of an IBM PC program that simulates the separation and analysis of unknowns by gel filtration.
Griffith, Thomas W. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 407.
Separation Science
The separation of cobalt from nickel by anion exchange chromatography   Kauffman, George B.; Adams, Matthew L.
The authors have modified other experiments, using "macro" amounts of ions, and have determined the optimum conditions to produce a visually observable demonstration that illustrates several fundamental principles of the general chemistry course.
Kauffman, George B.; Adams, Matthew L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 166.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Ion Exchange
Visible spectrophotometric determination of the partition coefficient of methyl violet: A microscale extraction experiment  Sonnenberger, David C.; Ferroni, Edward L.
This experiment is designed to demonstrate the principles of separation by solvent extraction, partition coefficient, and the construction and use of a Beer-Lambert standard curve.
Sonnenberger, David C.; Ferroni, Edward L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 91.
Separation Science |
Chemometrics
cis and trans-Stilbenes: Chromatographic separation and photochemical isomerization  Levine, Samuel G.; Barhoriak, Kathleen Doubek; Cho, Ho S.
An organic chemistry laboratory that has historic significance.
Levine, Samuel G.; Barhoriak, Kathleen Doubek; Cho, Ho S. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 79.
Separation Science |
Photochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Chromatography
Analysis of aspartame and its hydrolysis products by thin-layer chromatography  Conklin, Alfred R.
Separating and identifying the amino acids found in aspartame.
Conklin, Alfred R. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1065.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Amino Acids |
Food Science |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
Quantitative application of thin-layer chromatography in the analysis of organic compounds: Determining the molecular weights of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones and dicarboxylic acids  Giuliano, Vincenzo; Rieck, John Paul
This simple, easy, and inexpensive method provides a good illustration of the importance of polarity on solubility and a unique demonstration of the effectiveness of TLC as a quantitative tool.
Giuliano, Vincenzo; Rieck, John Paul J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 625.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Physical Properties |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis
Separation and identification of cinnamic acids by TLC  Bobbio, Florinda O.; Bobbio, Paulo A.; Souza, Sandra C. de
Chromatographic characteristics of cinnamic acid and its derivatives.
Bobbio, Florinda O.; Bobbio, Paulo A.; Souza, Sandra C. de J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 182.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
Normal-phase open column versus reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography: Separation of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b from their diastereomers  Schaber, Peter M.
Separation and isolation of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b from spinach leaves.
Schaber, Peter M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1110.
HPLC |
Separation Science |
Plant Chemistry
Countercurrent extraction of ink: A demonstration of the chromatographic mechanism  Bricker, Clark E.; Sloop, Gregory T.
A simple system that can demonstrate the significance of discontinuous countercurrent extraction.
Bricker, Clark E.; Sloop, Gregory T. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1109.
Separation Science |
Chromatography
An undergraduate organic experiment using thin-layer chromatography  Jones, Taylor B.; Jones, Tappey H.
Separation of derivatives of aliphatic compounds, 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones.
Jones, Taylor B.; Jones, Tappey H. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 813.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
Separation of lithium from magnesium sodium, and potassium  Werner, Wolfgang
Method for separating and detecting lithium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium
Werner, Wolfgang J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 808.
Separation Science |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Microscale group test for carbonyl compounds  Horak, V.; Klein, R. F. X.
Rf values for separating various carbonyl compounds using thin layer chromatography.
Horak, V.; Klein, R. F. X. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 806.
Qualitative Analysis |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science
Reverse-phase separation of FD & C dyes using a solvent gradient  Ondrus, Martin G.
An impressive separation of FD&C dyes in aqueous solution can be demonstrated with a C18 Sep Pak and a 10-mL disposable syringe.
Ondrus, Martin G. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 798.
Dyes / Pigments |
Separation Science |
Chromatography
Determination of aspartame, caffeine, saccharin, and benzoic acid in beverages by high performance liquid chromatography: An undergraduate analytical chemistry experiment  Delaney, Michael F.; Pasko, Kathleen M.; Mauro, David M.; Gsell, Diane S.; Korologos, Philip C.; Morawski, John; Krolikowski, Linda J.; Warren, F. Vincent, Jr.
Separations can be applied to the analysis of soft drinks, artificial sweeteners, fruit juices, and coffee.
Delaney, Michael F.; Pasko, Kathleen M.; Mauro, David M.; Gsell, Diane S.; Korologos, Philip C.; Morawski, John; Krolikowski, Linda J.; Warren, F. Vincent, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 618.
HPLC |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis |
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science
Improvements in the separation of beta-carotene and lycopene by column chromtography  Ronman, Peter
Modification of an existing laboratory procedure involving the separation of beta-carotene and lycopene by column chromtography.
Ronman, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 540.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
An inexpensive and quick method for demonstrating column chromatography of plant pigments of spinach extract  Mewaldt, William; Rodolph, Dawn; Sady, Michael
Constructing a simple column chromatograph from a disposable pipet.
Mewaldt, William; Rodolph, Dawn; Sady, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 530.
Chromatography |
Dyes / Pigments |
Separation Science
Ion exchange chromatography and spectrophotometry: An introductory undergraduate laboratory experiment  Foster, N.; Pestel, B.; Mease, B.
Experiment designed for an introductory course in chemical equilibria in aqueous media in which students have already experienced the quantitative use of spectrophotometry in calculating equilibrium constants for the formation of colored complexes in solution.
Foster, N.; Pestel, B.; Mease, B. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 170.
Ion Exchange |
Separation Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium
Separation and identification of commonly used drugs: A thin-layer chromatography experiment for freshman chemistry  Bonicamp, Judith M.
Using a simplified and accelerated TLC kit for drug detection.
Bonicamp, Judith M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 160.
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
Gel filtration chromatography: A laboratory experiment  Hurlbut, Jeffrey A.; Schonbeck, Niels D.
A rapid, visual demonstration of protein separation by gel filtration chromatography.
Hurlbut, Jeffrey A.; Schonbeck, Niels D. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1021.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Proteins / Peptides
An undergraduate column chromatography experiment  Danot, M.; Nahmias, S.; Zoller, U.
Introduces undergraduates to the theoretical and technical aspects of column chromatography.
Danot, M.; Nahmias, S.; Zoller, U. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1019.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
High performance thin layer chromatography  Costanzo, Samuel J.
Considers the various ways in which high performance has been achieved in thin layer chromatography, including the new TLC plates, sample application, plate development, and instrumental techniques.
Costanzo, Samuel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1015.
HPLC |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Instrumental Methods
Chromatography: Use of a microcomputer to introduce laboratory techniques  Holdsworth, David K.
54. Bits and pieces, 21. Program to introduce paper, thin-layer, column, and gas-liquid chromatography.
Holdsworth, David K. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 790.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
A practical experiment for determining a pervasive, persistent pollutant  Anderson, C. P.; Saner, W. A.
Spectral identification by means of infrareds spectroscopy of the PCBs recovered from a TLC plate is enhanced due to the concentrating effect of a commercial sample-recovery system.
Anderson, C. P.; Saner, W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 738.
IR Spectroscopy |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
An inexpensive experiment for the introduction of high performance liquid chromatography  Bidlingmeyer, Brian A.; Warren, F. Vincent, Jr.
Separates the food dyes found in grape-flavored Kool-Aid using isocratic and gradient solution methods. [Debut]
Bidlingmeyer, Brian A.; Warren, F. Vincent, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 716.
Chromatography |
HPLC |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments
Use of pseudophase TLC in teaching laboratories  Armstrong, Daniel W.; Bui, Khanh H.; Barry, Regina M.
Thin-layer chromatography using micellar and alpha-cyclodextrin mobile phases.
Armstrong, Daniel W.; Bui, Khanh H.; Barry, Regina M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 457.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Micelles
Chlorophyll separation and spectral identification  Diehl-Jones, Susan M.
Extracting chlorophyl a and b from spinach and separating them using thin-layer and column chromatography.
Diehl-Jones, Susan M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 454.
Separation Science |
Spectroscopy |
Plant Chemistry |
Photosynthesis |
Dyes / Pigments |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography
HPLC analysis of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and beta-carotene in collard greens  Silveira, Augustine, Jr.; Koehler, Jerry A.; Beadel, Edward F., Jr.; Monroe, Pearle A.
Expands the traditional experiment using column or thin layer chromatography to demonstrate the versatility of HPLC as an analytical technique.
Silveira, Augustine, Jr.; Koehler, Jerry A.; Beadel, Edward F., Jr.; Monroe, Pearle A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 264.
HPLC |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis
Qualitative analysis by gas chromatography: GC versus the nose in formulating artificial fruit flavors  Rasmussen, P. W.
Using GC retention indexes for the identification of the volatile compounds responsible for the odor of the banana.
Rasmussen, P. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 62.
Qualitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
Separation and analysis of citral isomers: an undergraduate organic laboratory experiment  Sacks, Jeff; Greenley, Erin; Leo, Greg; Willey, Paul; Gallis, David; Mangravite, John A.
In this laboratory, the authors have introduced students to HPLC, mass spectrometric analysis, and the separation of thermally sensitive materials by vacuum distillation.
Sacks, Jeff; Greenley, Erin; Leo, Greg; Willey, Paul; Gallis, David; Mangravite, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 434.
Mass Spectrometry |
HPLC |
Separation Science
Production of aromatic hydrocarbons according to extractive distillation process  Molinier, J.; Malmary, G.; Constrasti, J.
A theme that deals with the study of the recovery of benzene from petroleum hydrocarbon mixture by means of an extractive distillation processes emerges from a pilot project that has been proposed to the graduating students.
Molinier, J.; Malmary, G.; Constrasti, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 148.
Separation Science |
Aromatic Compounds
Activity coefficients of acetone-chloroform solutions: an undergraduate experiment  Ozog, J. Z.; Morrison, J. A.
The simple experiment described in this article gives unsurprisingly good results for the acetone-chloroform system.
Ozog, J. Z.; Morrison, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 72.
Liquids |
Solutions / Solvents |
Separation Science
Lecture experiment in gas-liquid chromatography with a simple gas chromatograph at room temperature  Wollrah, Adalbert
Apparatus and method for separating mixtures of pentane / hexane and methyl chloride / carbon tetrachloride.
Wollrah, Adalbert J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 1042.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Classroom chromatography  Bauer, Christopher F.
A classroom demonstration in which students are used to illustrate the operation of a chromatographic column.
Bauer, Christopher F. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 846.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Separation and determination of hydroxyacetophenones: An experiment in preparative TLC and UV spectroscopy  Bick, I. R. C.; Blackman, A. J.; Browne, E. J.
A mixture of o-, m-, and p-hydroxyacetophenones is separated through thin-layer chromatography, and the constituents are identified by UV spectroscopy.
Bick, I. R. C.; Blackman, A. J.; Browne, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 618.
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Separation and IR analysis of a mixture of organic compounds  Thompson, Evan M.; Almy, John
Introduces students to fractional distillation and analysis of each fraction by gas-liquid chromatography.
Thompson, Evan M.; Almy, John J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 617.
Separation Science |
IR Spectroscopy |
Chromatography |
Gases |
Liquids
A colorful extraction experiment  Hobbs, Gregory D.; Woodyard, James D.
Separating differently colored organic compounds (azobenzene, benzoic acid, and m-nitroaniline).
Hobbs, Gregory D.; Woodyard, James D. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 386.
Acids / Bases |
Separation Science
The separation and identification of straight chain hydrocarbons: An experiment using gas-liquid chromatography  Benson, G. A.
Gas liquid chromatography used to separate and identify a mixture of C5 to C10 straight chain hydrocarbons.
Benson, G. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 344.
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Chromatography
Isolation, separation and identification of synthetic food colors  Dixon, E. A.; Renyk, G.
A simple, inexpensive experiment for the extraction of synthetic dyes permitted in foodstuffs, and their separation and identification using thin-layer chromatography and ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy.
Dixon, E. A.; Renyk, G. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 67.
Separation Science |
Food Science |
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Consumer Chemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
Separating copper and cadmium in qualitative analysis  Hayden, Don W.; Hunt, Richard L.
A different method for the separation of copper and cadmium in qualitative analysis based on the reductive potential precipitation of copper(II) as copper(I) thiocyanate.
Hayden, Don W.; Hunt, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 59.
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
A practical introduction to separation and purification techniques for the beginning organic chemistry laboratory  Leonard, Jack E.
Separation techniques have always been important for a successful chemical career. This author addresses some important considerations for training students.
Leonard, Jack E. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 1022.
Separation Science
A laboratory introduction to quantitative column chromatography  Johnson, Judith Faye; Rubinson, Kenneth A.
Involves a Beer's Law plot calibration, a elutropic series, and microvolumetric techniques.
Johnson, Judith Faye; Rubinson, Kenneth A. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 909.
Chromatography |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science
An inorganic laboratory experiment involving photochemistry, liquid chromatography, and infrared spectroscopy  Post, Elroy W.
An experiment involving photochemical ligand displacement on a metal carbonyl, separation of the product by mixture by chromatography, and identification of the components using IR spectroscopy and group theory.
Post, Elroy W. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 819.
Photochemistry |
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Separation Science
An introduction to high performance liquid chromatography: Separation of some FD&C dyes  McKone, Harold T.; Ivie, Kert
Separation of five common FD&C dyes: Red 40, Yellow 5, Yellow 6, Blue 2, and Red 2, and some common "food" items in which they are found.
McKone, Harold T.; Ivie, Kert J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 321.
HPLC |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments |
Food Science |
Consumer Chemistry
Ion exchange separation of the oxidation states of vanadium  Cornelius, Richard
An experiment designed to emphasize the discrete nature of the different oxidation states of vanadium by giving students an opportunity to separate the four species by ion exchange chromatography.
Cornelius, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 316.
Ion Exchange |
Separation Science |
Oxidation State |
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Oxidation / Reduction
Thin layer chromatographic separation of common analgesics-a comment  Roswell, D. F.; Zaczek, N. M.
The authors were unable to resolve phenacetin and salicylamide using a three component solvent system.
Roswell, D. F.; Zaczek, N. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 834.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
High performance liquid chromatography of essential oils  McKone, Harold T.
Separating essential oils from a variety of common spices using HPLC.
McKone, Harold T. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 698.
HPLC |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
The rapid isolation of carotenoids from foods  McKone, Harold T.
Isolating carotene and lycopene from carrots and tomato paste without heating the organic solvents, and eliminating grinding with sand for the isolation of carotenoids from citrus fruit skins.
McKone, Harold T. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 676.
Separation Science |
Chromatography
Mixed stationary liquid phases for gas-liquid chromatography  Koury, Albert M.; Parcher, Jon F.
Using window diagrams to quantitate the selectivity of a column of liquid phase.
Koury, Albert M.; Parcher, Jon F. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 623.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Instrumental Methods
Isoenzymes  Daugherty, N. A.
The separation, identification, and measurement of isoenzymes is an appropriate topic for a special lecture in general chemistry.
Daugherty, N. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 442.
Enzymes |
Proteins / Peptides |
pH |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Electrochemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
The electrophoresis of indicators: An analogy to isoenzyme separation  Daugherty, N. A.; Lavallee, D. K.
A lecture demonstration that illustrates the principles involved in the separation of isoenzymes but avoids the problems inherent in isoenzyme separations.
Daugherty, N. A.; Lavallee, D. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 353.
Electrochemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Dyes / Pigments |
Enzymes |
Separation Science
The separation of chymotrypsin and chymotrypsinogen: An affinity chromatography experiment for biological chemistry students  Branchini, Bruce; Ziolkowski, Rodney
An experiment that can be used as either a demonstration or a laboratory illustrating the principles of affinity chromatography to purify an enzyme.
Branchini, Bruce; Ziolkowski, Rodney J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 281.
Separation Science |
Chromatography |
Proteins / Peptides
p-Carboxystyrene. A Wittig procedure in aqueous medium  Broos, Rene; Tavernier, Dirk; Anteunis, Marc
In this paper, the authors present a student preparation of p-carboxyl group, as it makes the reaction product soluble in alkaline and insoluble in acid medium, provides for an easy way of separation.
Broos, Rene; Tavernier, Dirk; Anteunis, Marc J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 813.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Carboxylic Acids |
Separation Science
Phase transfer catalysis: An interim project  Reeves, W. Preston
The authors have found that experiments in phase transfer catalysis provide students with a very profitable interim project.
Reeves, W. Preston J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 433.
Catalysis |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Separation Science
Synthetic lemon grass oil  Schimelpfenig, C. W.
Instructions for a synthetic lemon grass extraction.
Schimelpfenig, C. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 306.
Synthesis |
Separation Science
High performance liquid chromatography of urinary compounds. An undergraduate experiment  Bastian, Douglas W.; Miller, Rochelle L.; Halline, Allan G.; Senftleber, Fred C.; Veening, Hans
An instrumental analysis experiment in which a mixture of five clinically important urinary compounds can be separated and determined by reversed-phase liquid chromatography.
Bastian, Douglas W.; Miller, Rochelle L.; Halline, Allan G.; Senftleber, Fred C.; Veening, Hans J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 766.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
HPLC
Dye unknowns for use in column chromatography  Freese, J. M.; Oleson, B.; Pinnick, H. R., Jr.; Uneted, J. T.
A list of dyes whose mixtures are readily separated on adsorption alumina.
Freese, J. M.; Oleson, B.; Pinnick, H. R., Jr.; Uneted, J. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 684.
Dyes / Pigments |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Procedures to expedite column chromatographic separations  Dorko, Ernest A.; Baker, William W.
Adding a small amount of the column packing material to the mixture to be separated before evaporating its solvent and using an inflated inner tube to pressurize the column is found to expedite column chromatographic separations.
Dorko, Ernest A.; Baker, William W. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 564.
Separation Science |
Chromatography
Isolation of dyes for analysis  Levinson, Alfred S.
The use of ion exchange resin for the isolation of dyes from beverages, gelatin desserts, and other foods.
Levinson, Alfred S. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 460.
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments |
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Food Science |
Consumer Chemistry |
Ion Exchange
Pre-filter for removing suspended solids from HPLC samples  Bailey, Leonard C.
A pre-filter attached to the inlet of an HPLC injector.
Bailey, Leonard C. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 428.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
HPLC |
Chromatography
Versatile, automatic chromatographic column packing device  Barry, Eugene F.; Goulet, Susan; Blood, William N.
Design for a versatile, automatic chromatographic column packing device.
Barry, Eugene F.; Goulet, Susan; Blood, William N. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 194.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Separation of waste plastics. An experiment in solvent fractionation  Seymour, Raymond B.; Stahl, G. Allan
The authors share their design for a scheme for separation of specific plastics from a mixture. This activity engages students and relates to recycling.
Seymour, Raymond B.; Stahl, G. Allan J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 653.
Green Chemistry |
Separation Science |
Applications of Chemistry
Isolation of oil of clove and separation of eugenol and acetyl eugenol. An instructive experiment for beginning chemistry undergraduates  Ntamila, M. S.; Hassanali, A.
The study in this article is simple to perform, requires small quantities of readily available material and may be completed within a normal laboratory period.
Ntamila, M. S.; Hassanali, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 263.
Natural Products |
Separation Science
Gas chromatographic analysis of gasoline. A laboratory experiment  Cassidy, Robert F., Jr.; Schuerch, Conrad
In this experiment the authors take advantage of the high resolving power and rapidity of gas chromatography to separate some commercial gasolines into individual compounds and simple mixtures of compounds of similar volatility.
Cassidy, Robert F., Jr.; Schuerch, Conrad J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 51.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
A laboratory exercise for organic chemistry  Sands, Richard D.
Students analyze a mixture of two unknown liquids, which as the semester progresses they are to separate, analyze, and identify.
Sands, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 732.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
IR Spectroscopy
An industrial steam distillation: Separation of rosin and turpentine from pine gum  Potter, Frederick S.; Schuerch, Conrad
Procedure for converting a tacky intractable mass - pine gum - into two recognizable and useful materials - a fragrant water-white liquid (turpentine) and a hard amber-colored resin (rosin).
Potter, Frederick S.; Schuerch, Conrad J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 672.
Separation Science |
Natural Products
Small scale organic techniques: Filtration and crystallization  Horak, V.; Crist, DeLanson R.
Steps in the filter stick method for hot filtration and crystallization.
Horak, V.; Crist, DeLanson R. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 664.
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Management |
Crystals / Crystallography
An experiment illustrating countercurrent chromatography with simple apparatus  Godinho, Oswaldo E. S.; Braga, Gilberto L.
Illustrates countercurrent chromatography with a simple apparatus and an experiment involving the separation of the indicators Phenol Red and Bromcresol Purple.
Godinho, Oswaldo E. S.; Braga, Gilberto L. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 258.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Dyes / Pigments |
Separation Science
Thiocyanato chromium(III) complexes. Separation by paper electrophoresis and estimate of stability constants  Larsen, Erik; Eriksen, J.
Differently charged species of thiocyanato chromium(III) complexes are separated by paper electrophoresis.
Larsen, Erik; Eriksen, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 122.
Separation Science |
Coordination Compounds |
Electrophoresis
Isolation of benzoic and boric acids from Listerine. An introductory organic chemistry experiment  Weichman, Roger L.
The experiment described here is a separation scheme which introduces the student to fractional distillation, extraction, decolorization with activated carbon, hot gravity filtration, vacuum, filtration, crystallization, recrystallization, melting point, mixed melting point, refractive index, gas chromatography, and infrared spectroscopy.
Weichman, Roger L. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 589.
Separation Science
Recent developments in instrumentation for liquid chromatography  Veening, Hans
Considers various accessories for gradient elution systems.
Veening, Hans J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, A429.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Thin-layer chromatogram visualization. A student experiment  Madsen, Brooks C.
This thin layer chromatography experiment separates mixtures of common over the counter analgesics and antipyretic preparations and related compounds, and has several advantages that many student oriented tlc experiments lack.
Madsen, Brooks C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 852.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Hydrolysis of a chromium(III) complex. Using atomic absorption and ion exchange  Davies, Michael B.; Lethbridge, J. W.
This experiment emphasizes three major advantages of atomic absorption spectroscopy and provides a valuable exercise in the use of ion exchange chromatography.
Davies, Michael B.; Lethbridge, J. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 793.
Ion Exchange |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Separation and identification of the ions in the hydrochloric acid group  Antikainen, P. J.
This procedure applies paper- and ion-exchange chromatography to the separation and identification of the ions in the hydrochloric acid group.
Antikainen, P. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 595.
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Chromatography
Lyophilization apparatus  Lunelli, Bruno
A method based on an easily constructed apparatus that allows laboratory-scale lyophilizations to be carried out.
Lunelli, Bruno J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 577.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Laboratory Management
"Dry-column" chromatography. A new technique for the undergraduate laboratory  Bohen, J. M.; Joullie, M. M.; Kaplan, F. A.; Loev, B.
In this experiment, thin-layer chromatography is used to determine the number of compounds in a prepared dye mixture and "dry-column" chromatography is used to separate the mixture into its components.
Bohen, J. M.; Joullie, M. M.; Kaplan, F. A.; Loev, B. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 367.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Dyes / Pigments
Geometry in chromatography  Campbell, Bruce Henry
This paper reports investigations into conical chromatography and the advantages and disadvantages of such a geometry.
Campbell, Bruce Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 133.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
The odor of optical isomers. An experiment in organic chemistry  Murov, Steven L.; Pickering, Miles
The experiment described involves the separation and characterization of l-carvone from spearmint oil and d-carvone from caraway seed oil.
Murov, Steven L.; Pickering, Miles J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 74.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers |
Stereochemistry |
Separation Science
Laboratory directions for analytical separations and determinations: A manual for quantitative analysis (Kenner, C. T.)  Krivis, Alan F.

Krivis, Alan F. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A38.
Separation Science
The thin-layer chromatography of drugs. A laboratory experiment  Neman, R. L.
Students are introduced to thin layer chromatography, are provided samples known to contain alkaloids and barbiturates, separate the mixtures using tlc, determine the components of their unknowns, and calculate Rf values for the components.
Neman, R. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 834.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
Quick paper chromatography of amino acids  Heimer, E. P.
Applies acetonitrile-buffer systems for the relatively rapid separation of amino acids.
Heimer, E. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 547.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Amino Acids
Small-scale thin-layer chromatography. Experiments for teaching purposes  Brinkman, U. A. Th.; De Vries, G.
Describes a number of rapid thin-layer chromatography separations that can be conveniently used to introduce chromatography in the teaching laboratory.
Brinkman, U. A. Th.; De Vries, G. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 545.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science
Circular chromatography of inks  Wan, Alfred S. C.
Circular chromatography provides a very convenient and rapid method for demonstrating the principles of paper chromatography.
Wan, Alfred S. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 335.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments
A multi-purpose separatory funnel  Kim, Young S.; Zeitlin, Harry
Design of a multi-purpose separatory funnel equipped with a Teflon stopcock in which a number of operations can be carried out conveniently.
Kim, Young S.; Zeitlin, Harry J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 296.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
The separation of a sodium-rubidium mixture on an ion-exchanger. A laboratory experiment  Coetzee, C. J.
This experiment demonstrates the separation of sodium and rubidium from each other on an AMP-asbestos ion exchange column.
Coetzee, C. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 33.
Separation Science |
Ion Exchange
"Show 'N' tell". An organic chemical presentation for the layman  Harrison, Aline M.
The author presents a separation technique from organic chemistry.
Harrison, Aline M. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 612.
Separation Science
Pigments from some marine specimens. The isolation and spectral characterization of spinochromes  Chang, C. W. J.; Moore, J. C.
This experiment allows students to examine some common pigments extracted from marine animals.
Chang, C. W. J.; Moore, J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 408.
Dyes / Pigments |
Natural Products |
Separation Science
The preparation and isomerization of allyl thiocyanate. An organic chemistry experiment  Emergon, David W.
The present experiment has been devised to focus attention on two displacement reactions, one at carbon and one at sulfur and the facile allylic rearrangement of allyl thiocyanate (III) to allyl isothiocyanate (IV) which occurs during the distillation. Equations are shown in the article.
Emergon, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 81.
Separation Science
Liquid chromatography detectors - Part one  Veening, Hans
Surveys photometric liquid chromatography detectors.
Veening, Hans J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A549.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Instrumental Methods
Current trends in gel permeation chromatography. Part two: Methodology  Cazes, Jack
Examines the subjects of calibration, estimation of molecular weight distribution, fractionation of low molecular weight substances, and recycling chromatography.
Cazes, Jack J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A505.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Calibration
Current trends in gel permeation chromatography. Part one: Theory and equipment  Cazes, Jack
This report is presented as a supplement to an earlier pair of papers on gel permeation chromatography and considers the mechanism of separation, resolution, equipment, and column substrates
Cazes, Jack J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A461.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Chemical separation methods (Dean, John A.)  Culp, Robert A.

Culp, Robert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A396.
Separation Science |
Chromatography
Chromatography (Browning, D. R.)  Karger, Barry L.

Karger, Barry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A306.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Separation of leucine and isoleucine by thin-layer chromatography  Gatto, Karen L.; Borders, C. L., Jr.
This experiment involves the separation of leucine and isoleucine through continuous ascending thin layer chromatography.
Gatto, Karen L.; Borders, C. L., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 840.
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Amino Acids |
Constitutional Isomers
Experiments in paper chromatography  Stiles, D. A.; Ramaswamy, K. K.
Briefly summarizes a series of paper chromatography experiments that demonstrate basic physical and inorganic principles, as well as providing an introduction to a useful separation technique.
Stiles, D. A.; Ramaswamy, K. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 688.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
The effect of pH on the extraction of copper oxinate into chloroform  Dilts, Robert V.
To illustrate the theoretical aspects of metal chelate extractions, an experiment to determine the percent extraction-pH curve for copper 8-hydroxyquinolate is presented.
Dilts, Robert V. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 661.
pH |
Separation Science |
Metals
Vacuum distillation experiment  Schoffstall, Allen M.; Specht, James D.
The primary purpose of this experiment is to provide the student with a feeling similar to that of a researcher who is attempting to separate by distillation a mixture containing a product of unknown structure for identification.
Schoffstall, Allen M.; Specht, James D. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 539.
Separation Science
A simple streaker for preparative layer chromatography  Altman, L. J.; Trudell, James R.
Presents a simple streaker for preparative layer chromatography and explains its use.
Altman, L. J.; Trudell, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 404.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A short, intensive experiment in paper chromatography  McCullough, Thomas; Lechtenberg, Andre
A paper chromatographic system capable of separating a challenging mixture of components (amino acids) in less than three hours.
McCullough, Thomas; Lechtenberg, Andre J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 141.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Amino Acids
A simple laboratory experiment on PVP column chromatography  Lerner, Joseph
This experiment deals with the separation of three colored biochemicals, two of which are vitamins, the other a protein.
Lerner, Joseph J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 32.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Vitamins
A versatile and compact chromatographic chamber  Lehrfeld, J.
This simple and inexpensive glass chamber facilitates thin-layer chromatography separations of a large number of samples within 5 minutes.
Lehrfeld, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 848.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
An introduction to chromatography  Gaucher, G. M.
The object of this presentation is to serve as a preliminary practical introduction and guide to chromatography.
Gaucher, G. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 729.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Ion Exchange
Counter-current distribution as a student laboratory experiment  Lindblad, Bengt; Lindstedt, Goran; Tiselius, Hans-Goran
This experiment demonstrates the principles of extraction and counter-current distribution as well as spectrophotometric analysis.
Lindblad, Bengt; Lindstedt, Goran; Tiselius, Hans-Goran J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 525.
Separation Science |
Spectroscopy
Modifications of solution chromatography illustrated with chloroplast pigments  Strain, Harold H.; Sherma, Joseph
Using plant pigments to demonstrate various chromatographic techniques, including column adsorption, paper adsorption, paper partition, column partition, and thin layer chromatography.
Strain, Harold H.; Sherma, Joseph J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 476.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Plant Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Natural Products |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Column chromatography spectrometry for separating two cobalt complexes: A laboratory experiment  Schmitt, Donald L.; Jonassen, Hans B.
This paper presents the details of the separation of [Co(NH3)6]Cl3 from [Co(NH3)5]Cl2 using molecular sieves.
Schmitt, Donald L.; Jonassen, Hans B. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 47.
Chromatography |
Spectroscopy |
Separation Science |
Coordination Compounds
Cylindrical thin-layer chromatography  Jordan, David
This short note describes the use and advantages of cylindrical thin-layer chromatography.
Jordan, David J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 510.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments
A simplified slotted lid for preparative thin-layer chromatography jars  Borka, Laszlo
Design for an all-glass lid for preparative thin-layer chromatography jars.
Borka, Laszlo J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 401.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography
Analytical chemistry  Rogers, L. B.
Many of the guiding principles for optimizing chromatographic separations are appropriate for inclusion in an undergraduate analytical course.
Rogers, L. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 7.
Separation Science |
Chromatography
Qualitative analysis with paper chromatography  Poonia, N. S.
A spot of an unknown mixture is subjected to radial development, and the circular chromatogram is divided into a number of segments used for the detection of different cations or groups of cations.
Poonia, N. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 477.
Qualitative Analysis |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Methods of separation: The sophomore analytical course  Dilts, Robert V.
Describes the development of a course in separation methods.
Dilts, Robert V. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 313.
Separation Science
Test tube and glass rod tlc  Ikan, Raphael; Rapaport, Eliezer
Describes the use of test tubes and glass rods coated on their outer surfaces for thin layer chromatography.
Ikan, Raphael; Rapaport, Eliezer J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 297.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
The use of talc as a tlc adsorbent  Walsh, Brother Joseph M.
Describes the use of talc as a thin layer chromatography adsorbent, particularly with respect to the separation of flavonoids, sugars, and proteins.
Walsh, Brother Joseph M. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 294.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Proteins / Peptides |
Carbohydrates
Liquid-liquid extraction  Joseph-Nathan, P.
Describes how liquid-liquid extraction can be done using commercially available substances and an apparatus of small dimensions that still allows an experiment to be followed visually.
Joseph-Nathan, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 176.
Separation Science |
Liquids |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Unattended laboratory operations. Part 1. The safe operation of laboratory distillations over night  Conlon, D. R.
Examines issues related to the safe operation of laboratory distillations over night.
Conlon, D. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A589.
Laboratory Management |
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Enamine reactions for the undergraduate organic laboratory: A student water separator  Darling, S. D.
This note describes the design and efficiency of a device that facilitates the removal of water in reactions such as enamine preparation or esterfications.
Darling, S. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 665.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Esters |
Synthesis |
Separation Science
Microapparatus for demonstrating electrophoresis and ion migration  Stock, John T.; DeThomas, A. V.
Ferric hydroxide and arsenious sulfide are separated using a 9-volt battery.
Stock, John T.; DeThomas, A. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 436.
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Microscale Lab |
Colloids
Paper chromatography and spot tests: A useful combination of techniques  Poonia, N. S.
Reports on the specificity of identification afforded by spot test reagents and provides Rf values for 36 inorganic ions.
Poonia, N. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 423.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Metals
Acetylation of ferrocene: A chromatography experiment for elementary organic laboratory  Bozak, Richard E.
The acetylation of ferrocene with acetic anhydride and phosphoric acid produces a mixture of unchanged ferrocene and acetylferrocene that is readily separated in a regular chromatography column.
Bozak, Richard E. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 73.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Resolution in linear elution chromatography  Karger, Barry L.
Examines fundamentals of resolution that are common to all chromatographic methods.
Karger, Barry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 47.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Use of the unopette in thin-layer chromatography  Clitheroe, H. J.; Gerarde, H. W.
Describes the use of the Unopette capillary in applying samples to chromatographic plates.
Clitheroe, H. J.; Gerarde, H. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 613.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Experiments in inorganic paper chromatography  Walton, Harold F.
Experiments typical of those done in geochemical work involve the detection and estimation of uranium, copper, cobalt, and nickel.
Walton, Harold F. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 477.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Geochemistry |
Metals
A simple high frequency transistor recorder for chromatography  Jackson, A.
Describes the design and operation of a simple high frequency transistor recorder for chromatography.
Jackson, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 447.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
The diisopropyl ether extraction of iron(III) chloride  Guenther, William B.
The diisopropyl ether extraction of iron(III) from 8 M HCl solution is a simple method of separating iron from the other components of stainless steel alloys.
Guenther, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 277.
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis
Experimental gas chromatography (Miller, James M.)  Sawyer, Donald T.

Sawyer, Donald T. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A214.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
Crystalline molecular sieves  Breck, D. W.
This article introduces zeolites - crystalline aluminosilicates that function as molecular sieves.
Breck, D. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 678.
Separation Science |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Ion Exchange |
Catalysis
Electrophoresis using thin layer materials  Criddle, W. J.; Moody, G. J.; Thomas, J. D. R.
Thin layer materials prepared for chromatography are used for electrophoresis.
Criddle, W. J.; Moody, G. J.; Thomas, J. D. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 609.
Electrochemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Separation and identification of copper and cadmium  Poonia, N. S.; Gupta, H. K. L.
Describes three semimicro procedures for the separation and identification of copper and cadmium.
Poonia, N. S.; Gupta, H. K. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 439.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Fractionating column efficiency: Quantitative experiment in elementary organic chemistry laboratory  Ault, Addison
This experiment estimates the efficiency of a fractionating column by slowly distilling a three-to-one mixture of toluene and benzene.
Ault, Addison J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 432.
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography
Dual column gas chromatography: A teaching tool  Miller, James M.
Presents advantages to and several experiments involving dual column gas chromatography.
Miller, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 413.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
An anion exchange radiochemical experiment: Separation of manganese, zinc, and iron  Morie, Gerald P.; Sweet, Thomas R.; Pitstick, Gerald F.
The separation of manganese, zinc, and iron is based on distribution coefficients reported for tartrate complexes.
Morie, Gerald P.; Sweet, Thomas R.; Pitstick, Gerald F. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 389.
Ion Exchange |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Separation Science
A demonstration device for gas chromatography  Herbener, R. E.
This paper describes the construction and use of a simple gas chromatograph with removable covers for class demonstrations.
Herbener, R. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 162.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography
Chromatographic glossary  Lewin, S. Z.
Presents thin layer and gas chromatography terms in English, German, French, and Spanish.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A167.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography
Clathrates: Compounds in cages  Hagan, Mary Martinette, B. V. M.
Introduces clathrate compounds and examines some of their uses and applications.
Hagan, Mary Martinette, B. V. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 643.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Applications of Chemistry |
Separation Science
A gas chromatography demonstration apparatus  McLean, John; Pauson, Peter L.
Describes an apparatus for the separation of volatile organic compounds by gas chromatography using oxygen or air as the carrier gas.
McLean, John; Pauson, Peter L. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 539.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Gases |
Qualitative Analysis
Electrophoretic study of synthetic food dyes  Anwar, M. H.; Norman, S.; Anwar, B.; Laplaca, P.
Describes an experiment in which mixtures of synthetic food dyes are separated through electrophoresis.
Anwar, M. H.; Norman, S.; Anwar, B.; Laplaca, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 537.
Electrochemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Dyes / Pigments |
Separation Science
TLC separation of ink pigments  Druding, Leonard F.
The separation of inks into their component pigments was chosen for its simplicity in illustrating techniques and choice of solvent for thin layer chromatography; it also affords the student the opportunity to visually observe the course of the separation.
Druding, Leonard F. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 536.
Dyes / Pigments |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
TLC on microscope slides: An organic chemistry experiment  Naff, M. Benton; Naff, Anna S.
This experiment consists of three sections: separation of known and unknown dye mixtures; separation of known and unknown mixtures of phenols; separation of dyes and impurities.
Naff, M. Benton; Naff, Anna S. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 534.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments |
Phenols
TLCVersatile tool  Malins, Donald C.; Wekell, John C.
Examines apparatus and techniques, lecture demonstrations, laboratory experiments and general applications associated with thin layer chromatography.
Malins, Donald C.; Wekell, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 531.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
Physical and chemical methods of separation (Berg, Eugene W.)  Rogers, Lockhart B.

Rogers, Lockhart B. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 501.
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Chromatography
The lighter lanthanides: A laboratory experiment in rare earth chemistry  Kauffman, George B.; Takahashi, Lloyd T.; Vickery, R. C.
Presents a laboratory experiment designed to illustrate the separation and properties of the rare earths.
Kauffman, George B.; Takahashi, Lloyd T.; Vickery, R. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 433.
Transition Elements |
Separation Science
A simple separation of the group II-A sulfides  O'Donnell, T. A.
Presents a group separation scheme for the separation of lead from bismuth and copper from cadmium.
O'Donnell, T. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 415.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Separation and identification of copper in the presence of cadmium  Abrao, Alcidio
Suggests techniques for the separation and identification of copper in the presence of cadmium without relying on HCN.
Abrao, Alcidio J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 413.
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals |
Separation Science |
Ion Exchange
A quantitative experiment with paper chromatography  Frierson, W. Joe; Marable, Nina; Bruce, Becky
A procedure developed for the separation and determination of cobalt, copper, nickel, and zinc has been combined with more recent methods for the spectrophotometric determination of cobalt and nickel and adapted to student use.
Frierson, W. Joe; Marable, Nina; Bruce, Becky J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 408.
Quantitative Analysis |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Metals |
Spectroscopy
Demonstration of radioautography and paper chromatography using a Polaroid camera  Towne, Jack C.; Gatti, Bonnie M.
Presents a simple combined demonstration of paper chromatography and radioautography illustrating the separation of two C-14 labeled amino acids.
Towne, Jack C.; Gatti, Bonnie M. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 243.
Chromatography |
Isotopes |
Separation Science |
Amino Acids
Letters to the editor (the author replies)  Racusen, David
Answers criticisms leveled at an earlier published paper.
Racusen, David J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 229.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Letters to the editor  Sherma, Joseph
Questions the conclusion regarding the utility of paper chromatography reached by an earlier published paper.
Sherma, Joseph J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 229.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Separation of plant pigments by thin layer chromatography  Anwar, M. H.
Describes a lab activity to separate chloroplast pigments over a thin layer of silicic acid.
Anwar, M. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 29.
Separation Science |
Plant Chemistry |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography
Ion-exchange papers  Sherma, Joseph A., Jr.
Demonstrates the separation of cobalt(II) and iron(III) using ion-exchange paper.
Sherma, Joseph A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A839.
Ion Exchange |
Separation Science
Gas Chromatographs (continued)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the nature of the packing in a gas chromatograph and its effects on the performance of the instrument.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A5.
Gases |
Gas Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Instrumental Methods
Letters  Dence, Joseph B.
The author provides some suggestions regarding the distillation of benzyl alcohol following the Cannizzaro reaction.
Dence, Joseph B. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 320.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
The investigation of unknowns by paper chromatography  Racusen, David
Presents a scheme for the systematic study of an unknown through paper chromatography.
Racusen, David J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 484.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Countercurrent distribution: Apparatus for a simple experiment  Verzele, M.; Schamp, N.
Presents an apparatus and its application to perform a countercurrent distribution.
Verzele, M.; Schamp, N. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 97.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Liquids
Chromatographic equipment (concluded)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines high voltage pherographs, column electrophoresis, thin-layer chromatographs, photometric effluent sensing systems, and refractometric effluent sensors.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, A789.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Chromatographic equipment (continued)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the following topics: design considerations for stabilized medium pherographs, specialized types of pherographs, continuous flow electrochromatographs, the continuous flow chromatograph, and fraction collectors.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, A713.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science
Qualitative Analysis and Analytical Chemical Separations (West, Philip W.; Vick, Maurice M.)  Frank, Richard E.

Frank, Richard E. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, A642.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Chromatographic Equipment (continued)  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines ascending, descending, and horizontal paper chromatographs; and centrifugally-, thermally-, and electrilytically-accelerated chromatographs.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, A567.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Chomatographic Equipment  Lewin, S. Z.
Examines the following topics: selectivity in the distribution of components between two phases, chromatographic development, types of chromatographic systems, the production of counter-current flow, the scale of chromatographic separations, the components of chromatographs, the two-phase system, and containers.
Lewin, S. Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, A515.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Preparative separations replace typical qualitative analysis  Mahr, Carl
Discusses the use of preparative separations in qualitative analysis.
Mahr, Carl J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 407.
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
Ion exchange paper chromatography  Thomas, Alan T.; Phillips, J. P.
Describes an experiment/demonstration in ion exchange paper chromatography separating amino acids.
Thomas, Alan T.; Phillips, J. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 406.
Qualitative Analysis |
Ion Exchange |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Amino Acids
Hydrocarbons in petroleum  Rossini, Frederick D.
Examines research and industrial processes involving the separation of petroleum into its constituent components.
Rossini, Frederick D. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 554.
Industrial Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Separation Science |
Natural Products
A non-cyanide separation of copper from cadmium  Waggoner, William H.
A procedure has been developed for the separation of copper from cadmium that is based on the observation that thiocyanate ion will precipitate copper but not cadmium from an acidic solution.
Waggoner, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 411.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Letters  Broadbank, R. W. C.; Dhabanandana, S.
The authors present a method for extracting protactinium-234 from uranyl nitrate solution.
Broadbank, R. W. C.; Dhabanandana, S. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 161.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Isotopes |
Separation Science
A separation and identification experiment for elementary organic chemistry laboratory  Laughton, Paul M.
The student selects a test tube containing two unknowns and is told only that they have been selected from two of three possible groups: a primary or tertiary amine, an aldehyde or ketone, and an acid or phenol. The components are to be separated, their physical properties determined, their categories assigned, and one specific derivative prepared for each.
Laughton, Paul M. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 133.
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Acids / Bases |
Phenols |
Physical Properties |
Synthesis
The separation of arsenic in qualitative analysis  Boyd, Clifford C.; Easley, William K.
A separation of arsenic as As(III) has been developed based upon the observation that As(III) is extracted selectively from hydrochloric acid solution of the common cations encountered in the usual qualitative analysis scheme.
Boyd, Clifford C.; Easley, William K. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 384.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Separation of copper(II) from cadmium (II) in qualitative analysis  Boyd, Clifford C.; Easley, William K.
This procedure is based on the observation that copper(II) ion is extracted selectively from solutions containing copper(II) and cadmium(II) by a solution of 8-hydroxyquinoline in chloroform.
Boyd, Clifford C.; Easley, William K. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 406.
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A chromatographic chamber for the student laboratory  Wiggans, Donald S.
The construction of an effective chromatographic tank can be accomplished by means of two beakers.
Wiggans, Donald S. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 536.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Qualitative analysis and analytical chemical separations without the use of sulfides  Vick, Maurice M.; West, Philip W.
The authors argue for the need of qualitative analysis, examine systems of qualitative analysis, and present a qualitative scheme that eliminates the need for sulfides.
Vick, Maurice M.; West, Philip W. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 393.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Use of ion exchange resins with nonaqueous and mixed solvents  Bonner, O. D.
This review examines some of the recent developments in the use of synthetic ion exchangers for three types of separations: the separation of ionic substances in nonaqueous or mixed solvents, the separation of nonionic substances in nonaqueous or mixed solutions, and the separation of ionic from nonionic materials in solution.
Bonner, O. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 174.
Ion Exchange |
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents
Gas-phase chromatography  Lotz, John R.; Willingham, Charles B.
Introduces gas chromatography and describes its associated apparatus and operation.
Lotz, John R.; Willingham, Charles B. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 485.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
The nature of chromatography  Cassidy, Harold G.
Provides a definition of chromatography and a description of gas chromatography.
Cassidy, Harold G. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 482.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography
Principles of the systematic separation of cations  Weisz, Herbert
Lays out approaches to be used in the systematic separation of cations.
Weisz, Herbert J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 334.
Separation Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals
Partition chromatography: A demonstration  Tracy, Sister Mary Joanna; Sueltenfuss, Sister Elizabeth Anne
This paper describes a method for the preparation of a cellulose column to demonstrate the formation of zones from a cake-dye mixture by development with a butanol-acetic acid-distilled water mixture.
Tracy, Sister Mary Joanna; Sueltenfuss, Sister Elizabeth Anne J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 281.
Chromatography |
Dyes / Pigments |
Separation Science
The qualitative separation and detection of zinc  Wilkinson, Joseph R.; Sheleck, Edward G.; Sheline, Raymond K.
This paper investigates stages in the inorganic scheme of analysis where the zinc ion could be adsorbed on or coprecipitated with precipitates of other ions.
Wilkinson, Joseph R.; Sheleck, Edward G.; Sheline, Raymond K. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 613.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Precipitation / Solubility
Separation and detection of the aluminum ion in qualitative analysis  Smith, Sterling B.; Shute, John M.
Describes a study that seeks to eliminate the interference of iron and chromium in the detection of aluminum when using the "aluminon" test.
Smith, Sterling B.; Shute, John M. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 380.
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A chromatographic demonstration  Forss, David A.
Describes a chromatographic demonstration that does not really on flammable and odorous organic solvents.
Forss, David A. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 306.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Circular-paper chromatography in qualitative analysis  Surak, John G.; Martinovich, Robert J.
Describes procedures for and examples of circular-paper chromatography.
Surak, John G.; Martinovich, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 95.
Separation Science |
Chromatography |
Qualitative Analysis
Recent advances in petroleum refining  Shoemaker, B. H.; d'Ouville, E. L.; Marschner, Robert F.
Examines various means of separating, converting, and finishing the many compounds found in petroleum.
Shoemaker, B. H.; d'Ouville, E. L.; Marschner, Robert F. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 30.
Industrial Chemistry |
Separation Science
A sublimation apparatus for rapid separations  Pino, Lewis N.; Zehrung, Winfield S., III
Presents the design of a macrosublimation apparatus constructed to allow accurate temperature control and ease recovery of the residue.
Pino, Lewis N.; Zehrung, Winfield S., III J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 476.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
Paper chromatography for students  Blackwell, R. Quentin
Describes a simple method whereby various mixtures can be separated using paper chromatography under a variety of conditions.
Blackwell, R. Quentin J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 614.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
The separation of calcium and strontium in semimicro qualitative analysis  Hahn, Richard B.
Suggests a method for the separation of calcium and strontium in semimicro qualitative analysis that relies on 72% rather than 100% nitric acid.
Hahn, Richard B. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 349.
Metals |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
Inorganic paper chromatography. II. Separation of groups III, IV, and V  Surak, John G.; Leffler, Norman; Martinovich, Robert
This paper concerns itself with the separation and identification of the cations of Groups IIIa, IIIb, IV, and V.
Surak, John G.; Leffler, Norman; Martinovich, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 20.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
A lecture demonstration of ion exchange  Smith, James Boyd
This paper presents specific procedures for three experiments that may be employed for lecture demonstrations of ion exchange.
Smith, James Boyd J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 292.
Ion Exchange |
Separation Science
A continuous ether-extraction apparatus  Holliman, F. G.
The apparatus presented has been constructed to provide both speed of assembly and versatility in respect of volume of solution being extracted.
Holliman, F. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 96.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Ethers |
Separation Science
The separation of anions by paper partition chromatography  DeLoach, Will S.; Drinkard, Charles
Describes a procedure for the separation of phosphate, arsenate, sulfide, ferricyanide, ferrocyanide, and iodide ions by paper partition chromatography.
DeLoach, Will S.; Drinkard, Charles J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 461.
Separation Science |
Chromatography
A simplified construction for vacuum distilling apparatus  Wendland, Ray
Describes a simplified construction for vacuum distilling apparatus and its use with a fractionating column.
Wendland, Ray J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 332.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
A chromatographic separation of some dyestuffs  Shott, John, III; Heine, Harold W.
Separations considered include water-soluble fluorescein and methylene blue, methyl orange and methylene blue, and methyl orange and Victoria Blue B.
Shott, John, III; Heine, Harold W. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 39.
Dyes / Pigments |
Chromatography |
Separation Science