TIGER

Journal Articles: 167 results
Separation Anxiety: An In-Class Game Designed To Help Students Discover Chromatography  Michael J. Samide
An in-class activity, designed on the basis of plate theory, allows students to physically separate coins on the basis of a provided partition coefficient. Students move coins between stationary and mobile phases to establish equilibrium conditions. The goal is to have students understand equilibration as it relates to separation, which can lead into a discussion of more complex topics.
Samide, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1512.
Chromatography |
Equilibrium
Does the Addition of Inert Gases at Constant Volume and Temperature Affect Chemical Equilibrium?  João C. M. Paiva, Jorge Gonçalves, and Susana Fonseca
This article examines three approaches, leading to different conclusions, for answering the question "Does the addition of inert gases at constant volume and temperature modify the state of equilibrium?"
Paiva, João C. M.; Gonçalves, Jorge; Fonseca, Susana. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1133.
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Thermodynamics
Introducing Undergraduate Students to Electrochemistry: A Two-Week Discovery Chemistry Experiment  Kenneth V. Mills, Richard S. Herrick, Louise W. Guilmette, Lisa P. Nestor, Heather Shafer, and Mauri A. Ditzler,
Within the framework of a laboratory-focused, guided-inquiry pedagogy, students discover the Nernst equation, the spontaneity of galvanic cells, concentration cells, and the use of electrochemical data to calculate equilibrium constants.
Mills, Kenneth V.; Herrick, Richard S.; Guilmette, Louise W.; Nestor, Lisa P.; Shafer, Heather;Ditzler, Mauri A. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1116.
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Equilibrium
EQVAPSIM: A Vapor–Liquid Equilibria of Binary Systems Computer Simulation by LabVIEW  A. Belletti, R. Borromei, and G. Ingletto
Reports the results of a program using LabVIEW software to simulate the construction of a phase diagram representing a liquidvapor equilibrium. The program models work in a real laboratory, including mistakes commonly made in this context.
Belletti, A.; Borromei, R.; Ingletto, G. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 879.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics |
Student-Centered Learning
Determining the Solubility Product of Fe(OH)3: An Equilibrium Study with Environmental Significance  Michelle Meighan, Joseph MacNeil, and Renee Falconer
This study explores the environmental impact of acidic mine drainage by investigating the relationship between pH and the aqueous solubility of heavy metals. Students precipitate Fe(OH)3 from acidic FeCl3 and NaOH and use the concentrations of ferric and hydroxide ionsdetermined through pH and flame spectroscopyto calculate the Ksp of Fe(OH)3.
Meighan, Michelle; MacNeil, Joseph; Falconer, Renee. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 254.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Spectroscopy
A Simplified Model To Predict the Effect of Increasing Atmospheric CO2 on Carbonate Chemistry in the Ocean  Brian J. Bozlee, Maria Janebo, and Ginger Jahn
The chemistry of dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater is reviewed and used to predict the potential effect of rising levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. It is found that calcium carbonate may become unsaturated in cold surface seawater by the year 2100, resulting in the destruction of calcifying organisms such as coral.
Bozlee, Brian J.; Janebo, Maria; Jahn, Ginger. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 213.
Applications of Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Green Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry
An Experimental Approach to Teaching and Learning Elementary Statistical Mechanics  Frank B. Ellis and David C. Ellis
This article details demonstrations that show how equilibrium changes with temperature, energy, and entropy and involve exothermic and endothermic reactions, the dynamic nature of equilibrium, and Le Châtelier's principle.
Ellis, Frank B.; Ellis, David C. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 78.
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Statistical Mechanics |
Thermodynamics
Using the Science Writing Heuristic To Improve Students' Understanding of General Equilibrium  James A. Rudd, II, Thomas J. Greenbowe, and Brian M. Hand
This study examines the performance of students using the Science Writing Heuristic approach, which facilitates scientific inquiry by structuring the laboratory notebook in a format that guides students to answer directed questions, on lecture exams and a laboratory practical exam on chemical equilibrium.
Rudd, James A., II; Greenbowe, Thomas J.; Hand, Brian M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 2007.
Equilibrium |
Learning Theories |
TA Training / Orientation |
Student-Centered Learning
The Use of Limits in an Advanced Placement Chemistry Course  Paul S. Matsumoto, Jonathan Ring, and Jia Li (Lily) Zhu
This article describes the use of limits in topics usually covered in advanced placement or first-year college chemistry. This approach supplements the interpretation of the graph of an equation since it is usually easier to evaluate the limit of a function than to generate its graph.
Matsumoto, Paul S.; Ring, Jonathan; Zhu, Jia Li (Lily). J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1655.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Thermodynamics
Equilibrium: A Teaching/Learning Activity  Douglas A. Vander Griend
Suggests a modification to an earlier published classroom activity for the study of chemical equilibrium.
Vander Griend, Douglas A. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1428.
Equilibrium
Exception to the Le Châtelier Principle  David S. Corti and Mark J. Uline
Disagreement regarding an apparent exception to the Le Chtelier principle involving the effects of nonideality on the direction in which the ammonia synthesis reaction shifts upon addition of infinitesimal and finite quantities of nitrogen at constant pressure and temperature.
Corti, David S.; Uline, Mark J. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1427.
Equilibrium
Exception to the Le Châtelier Principle  Thomas R. Herrinton
Disagreement regarding an apparent exception to the Le Chatelier principle involving the effects of nonideality on the direction in which the ammonia synthesis reaction shifts upon addition of infinitesimal and finite quantities of nitrogen at constant pressure and temperature.
Herrinton, Thomas R. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1427.
Equilibrium |
Gases
The Physical Meaning of the Mathematical Formalism Present in Limiting Chemical Equations; Or, How Dilute Is Dilute?  C. Contreras-Ortega, N. Bustamante, J. L. Guevara, C. Portillo, and V. Kesternich
Proposes general mathematical formulations to offer students a better understanding of the real scope of scientific expressions dealing with limiting physical conditions, such as those concerning dilute and concentrated solutions and low and high temperatures and pressures.
Contreras-Ortega, C.; Bustamante, N.; Guevara, J. L.; Portillo, C.; Kesternich, V. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 788.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents
Flame Emission Spectrometry in General Chemistry Labs: Solubility Product (Ksp) of Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate  Frazier W. Nyasulu, William Cusworth III, David Lindquist, and John Mackin
In this general chemistry laboratory, flame emission spectrometry is used to determine the potassium ion concentration in saturated solutions of potassium hydrogen phthalate. From these data the solubility products, the Gibbs free energies of solution, the standard enthalpy of solution, and the standard entropy of solution are calculated.
Nyasulu, Frazier W.; Cusworth, William, III; Lindquist, David; Mackin, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 456.
Acids / Bases |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy |
Equilibrium |
Quantitative Analysis |
Thermodynamics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Teaching Physical Chemistry Experiments with a Computer Simulation by LabVIEW  A. Belletti, R. Borromei, and G. Ingletto
This article reports on a computer simulation developed with the software LabVIEW of the physical chemistry experiment regarding the vapor pressure measurements of a pure liquid as a function of temperature, as well as a system of data collecting that emphasizes the similarities between the virtual and real experiment.
Belletti, A.; Borromei, R.; Ingletto, G. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1353.
Equilibrium |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Liquids |
Thermodynamics |
Gases |
Student-Centered Learning
Achieving Chemical Equilibrium: The Role of Imposed Conditions in the Ammonia Formation Reaction  Joel Tellinghuisen
The conditions under which chemical reactions occur determine which thermodynamic functions are minimized or maximized. This point is illustrated for the formation of ammonia in the ideal gas approximation using a numerical exercise.
Tellinghuisen, Joel. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1090.
Gases |
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
Give Them Money: The Boltzmann Game, a Classroom or Laboratory Activity Modeling Entropy Changes and the Distribution of Energy in Chemical Systems  Robert M. Hanson and Bridget Michalek
Described here is a short, simple activity that can be used in any high school or college chemistry classroom or lab to explore the way energy is distributed in real chemical systems and as an entry into discussions of the probabilistic nature of entropy.
Hanson, Robert M.; Michalek, Bridget. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 581.
Equilibrium |
Statistical Mechanics |
Thermodynamics
Using Computer Simulations To Teach Salt Solubility. The Role of Entropy in Solubility Equilibrium  Victor M. S. Gil and João C. M. Paiva
Pairs of salts are discussed to illustrate the interpretation of their different behavior in water in terms of the fundamental concept of entropy. The ability of computer simulations to help improve students' understanding of these chemistry concepts is also examined.
Gil, Victor M. S.; Paiva, João C. M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 170.
Computational Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility
Equilibria That Shift Left upon Addition of More Reactant  Jeffrey E. Lacy
Most textbook presentations of Le Chtelier's principle in general and physical chemistry do not include a discussion of constant pressure conditions for which addition of a reactant can shift the equilibrium to the left. We propose presentations of isothermal, open systems at constant pressure for both levels of study by using concepts and skills that the respective students already possess. In addition, we derive novel criteria based on the stoichiometry of the reaction that can be used to identify those equilibria that will shift left upon addition of more reactant.
Lacy, Jeffrey E. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1192.
Equilibrium |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Thermodynamics
Microscopic Description of Le Châtelier's Principle  Igor Novak
The analysis based on microscopic descriptors (energy levels and their populations) is given that provides visualization of free energies and conceptual rationalization of Le Châtelier's principle. The misconception "nature favors equilibrium" is highlighted.
Novak, Igor. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1190.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
The Reaction Quotient Is Unnecessary To Solve Equilibrium Problems  Paul S. Matsumoto
While my paper states that the reaction quotient (Q) is not needed to solve equilibrium problems, it does not imply that Q is not valuable. In fact, when I teach this topic to my AP chemistry class, I initially use Q to solve the problem, then mention the alternative method described in the paper.
Matsumoto, Paul S. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1150.
Equilibrium |
Learning Theories |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
The Reaction Quotient Is Unnecessary To Solve Equilibrium Problems: No Problems with Q  Robert Lederer
Mr. Matsumotos students are to be congratulated for discerning an interesting mathematical procedure. Exclusively utilizing this algorithm, however, short-cuts the understanding of the chemistry involved. Students of chemistry should be challenged to understand why something occurs, and not to be satisfied with how to perform the often mundane calculations.
Lederer, Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1149.
Equilibrium |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
The Reaction Quotient Is Unnecessary To Solve Equilibrium Problems: The Reaction Quotient (Q) IS Useful After All  Todd P. Silverstein
Paul Matsumoto was absolutely correct in writing The Reaction Quotient Is Unnecessary To Solve Equilibrium Problems.
Silverstein, Todd P. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1149.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
The Reaction Quotient Is Unnecessary To Solve Equilibrium Problems: The Reaction Quotient (Q) IS Useful After All  Todd P. Silverstein
Paul Matsumoto was absolutely correct in writing The Reaction Quotient Is Unnecessary To Solve Equilibrium Problems.
Silverstein, Todd P. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1149.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
JavaScript Programs To Calculate Thermodynamic Properties Using Cubic Equations of State  
Cubic equations of state are widely used by chemists and chemical engineers to predict the thermodynamic properties of both pure substances and mixtures. In particular, these equations enable predictions concerning the temperature and pressure at which vaporliquid equilibrium occurs. These two educational JavaScript programs perform calculations using cubic equations of state and, equally importantly, explain how the calculations are performed.
J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 960.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
JavaScript Programs To Calculate Thermodynamic Properties Using Cubic Equations of State  Patrick J. Barrie
In this article, two JavaScript programs are described. The first program gives students the choice of five different cubic equations of state and performs calculations for pure substances. The second program predicts vaporliquid equilibrium for binary mixtures using a choice of three modern equations of state and the van der Waals mixing rules.
Barrie, Patrick J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 958.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium
Putting A Human Face on Equilibrium  Neil Glickstein
A short biography of chemist Fritz Haber is used to personalize the abstract concepts of equilibrium chemistry for high school students in an introductory course. In addition to giving the HaberBosch process an historic, an economic, and a scientific background the reading and subsequent discussion allows students for whom the human perspective is of paramount importance a chance to investigate the irony of balance or equilibrium in Haber's life story.
Glickstein, Neil. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 391.
Equilibrium
Playing-Card Equilibrium  Robert M. Hanson
A simple hands-on simulation suitable for either classroom use or laboratory investigation involves using a standard deck of playing cards to explore the statistical aspects of equilibrium. Concepts that can be easily demonstrated include fluctuation around a most probable distribution, Le Chtelier's principle, the equilibrium constant, prediction of the equilibrium constant based on probability, and the effect of sample size on equilibrium fluctuations.
Hanson, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1271.
Equilibrium |
Statistical Mechanics |
Thermodynamics
Applying the Reaction Table Method for Chemical Reaction Problems (Stoichiometry and Equilibrium)  Steven F. Watkins
A systematic approach to chemical reaction calculations (stoichiometry calculations) - the "Reaction Table Method" (similar to the equilibrium table method).
Watkins, Steven F. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 658.
Equilibrium |
Stoichiometry |
Reactions |
Kinetics
Equilibrium  Matthew Sandberg and Michael K. Bellamy
Software (applet) to help students visualize what actually happens in an equilibrium system.
Sandberg, Matthew ; Bellamy, Michael K. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 456.
Equilibrium |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics
Le Chat: Simulation in Chemical Equilibrium  João C. M. Paiva, Victor M. S. Gil, and António Ferrer Correia
Software that illustrates Le Chatelier's principle; found on the Advanced Chemistry Collection CD-ROM, 3rd Edition.
Paiva, João C. M.; Gil, Victor M. S.; Correia, António Ferrer. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 111.
Equilibrium
Rubber Bands, Free Energy, and Le Châtelier's Principle  Warren Hirsch
Using a rubber band to illustrate Gibbs free energy, entropy, and enthalpy.
Hirsch, Warren. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 200A.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium
Understanding of Elementary Concepts in Heat and Temperature among College Students and K–12 Teachers  Paul G. Jasien and Graham E. Oberem
Report on a study of the understanding of elementary concepts related to heat and temperature (thermal equilibrium and energy transfer in the form of heat) in undergraduate and post-baccalaurate students as a function of their number of semesters of college-level physical science training.
Jasien, Paul G.; Oberem, Graham E. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 889.
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium
Conceptual Difficulties Experienced by Prospective Teachers in Electrochemistry: Half-Cell Potential, Cell Potential, and Chemical and Electrochemical Equilibrium in Galvanic Cells  Ali Riza Özkaya
Study of prospective teachers' conceptual understanding of topics in electrochemistry.
Özkaya, Ali Riza. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 735.
Electrochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Tick Tock, a Vitamin C Clock  Stephen W. Wright
Uses supermarket chemicals to perform a clock reaction; students vary the concentration of reactants and observe the effect on the time required for the reaction to reach its endpoint.
Wright, Stephen W. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 40A.
Consumer Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Vitamins |
Equilibrium |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Assessing Students' Conceptual Understanding of Solubility Equilibrium  Andrés Raviolo
A problem about solubility equilibrium is presented as a resource for the evaluation of students; it involves macroscopic, microscopic, and symbolic levels of representation, and allows one to assess whether students have acquired an adequate conceptual understanding of the phenomenon.
Raviolo, Andrés. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 629.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility
Are Fizzing Drinks Boiling? A Chemical Insight from Chemical Education Research  Alan Goodwin
The suggestion that fizzing drinks are examples of liquids boiling at room temperature has proved to be controversial among both chemists and chemical educators. This paper presents a case for believing this everyday system to be a good example of a boiling solution and the consequent separation of carbon dioxide from the solution to exemplify fractional distillation.
Goodwin, Alan. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 385.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
The State of Division of Solids and Chemical Equilibria  João C. M. Paiva and Victor M. S. Gil
An experiment and a computer simulation are presented to address a counterintuitive situation often encountered when teaching chemical equilibria. This is prompted by the question "How can the subdivision of a solid reactant affect the reaction rate and not the composition of the equilibrium state?"
Paiva, João C. M.; Gil, Victor M. S. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 222.
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
From Chicken Breath to the Killers Lake of Cameroon: Uniting Seven Interesting Phenomena with a Single Chemical Underpinning  Ron DeLorenzo
By using a single equation prototype, seven interesting mysteries and phenomena can be seen as sharing a common chemical underpinning. The applications discussed are the Killer Lakes of Cameroon, chicken breath, the Permian Ocean, the snow line, boiler scale, the Fizz Keeper, and stalactites and stalagmites.
DeLorenzo, Ronald. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 191.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Equilibrium
SolEq: Solution Equilibria, Principles and Applications, Release 1
by SolEq Project Team: L. D. Pettit, K. J. Powell, and R. W. Ramette

  Marina C. Koether
29 tutorials with simulation, calculations, and graphs, on solution equilibria.
Koether, Marina C. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1414.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis

Are We Taking Symbolic Language for Granted?   Paul Marais and Faan Jordaan
This study formed part of a broader investigation into the role of language in teaching and learning chemical equilibrium. Students were tested for their understanding of 25 words and five symbols commonly used in connection with chemical equilibrium. This test showed that most of the students had an inadequate grasp of the meaning of all five symbols. It also showed that, on the average, their understanding of symbols was more problematic than their understanding of words.
Marais, Paul; Jordaan, Faan. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1355.
Equilibrium |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Graphing Calculator Strategies for Solving Chemical Equilibrium Problems (re J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 632-634) Author Reply  Henry Donato Jr.
Reinforces appropriateness of application of graphing calculator for solving chemical equilibrium problems.
Donato, Henry, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1120.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium
Graphing Calculator Strategies for Solving Chemical Equilibrium Problems (re J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 632-634)  Todd P. Silverstein
Questions appropriateness of application of graphing calculator for solving chemical equilibrium problems.
Silverstein, Todd P. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1120.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium
Every Year Begins a Millennium  Jerry A. Bell
This article outlines a series of demonstrations and their contexts, leading to recommendations about what we teach and how we teach.
Bell, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1098.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Learning Theories
Determination of Ksp, ΔG0, ΔH0, and ΔS0 for the Dissolution of Calcium Hydroxide in Water: A General Chemistry Experiment  William B. Euler, Louis J. Kirschenbaum, and Ben Ruekberg
This exercise utilizes low-cost, relatively nonhazardous materials presenting few disposal problems. It reinforces the students' understanding of the interrelationship of solubility, Ksp, ΔG0, ΔH0, and ΔS0.
Euler, William B.; Kirschenbaum, Louis J.; Ruekberg, Ben. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1039.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Simulating Dynamic Equilibria: A Class Experiment  John A. Harrison and Paul D. Buckley
A first-order reversible reaction is simulated on an overhead projector using small coins or discs. Results illustrate how dynamic equilibria are established and allow the introduction of the concept of an equilibrium constant. Le Chtelier's principle is illustrated by further simulations.
Harrison, John A.; Buckley, Paul D. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1013.
Equilibrium |
Rate Law |
Reactions
Simulations for Teaching Chemical Equilibrium  Penelope A. Huddle, Margaret Dawn White, and Fiona Rogers
This paper outlines a systematic approach to teaching chemical equilibrium using simulation experiments that address most known alternate conceptions in the topic. Graphs drawn using the data from the simulations are identical to those obtained using real experimental data for reactions that go to equilibrium. This allows easy mapping of the analogy to the target.
Huddle, Penelope Ann; White, Margaret Dawn; Rogers, Fiona. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 920.
Equilibrium |
Learning Theories
A Closer Look at Phase Diagrams for the General Chemistry Course  Stephen A. Gramsch
The information provided by the high-pressure phase diagrams of some simple systems (carbon dioxide, water, hydrogen, and iron) can provide a useful extension to the traditional discussion of phase diagrams in the general chemistry course. At the same time, it can prepare students for a more illuminating presentation of the concept of equilibrium than is possible through the discussion of gas phase, acid-base, and solubility product equilibria alone.
Gramsch, Stephen A. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 718.
Equilibrium |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Geochemistry
LeChâtelier's Principle in the Sciences  Volker B. E. Thomsen
The concept of homeostasis in biology and the economic law of supply and demand are both equilibrium-like principles, but involve systems in the steady state. However, all these principles involve the stability of the system under consideration and the analogies presented may be useful in the teaching of LeChtelier's principle.
Thomsen, Volker B. E. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 173.
Equilibrium |
Learning Theories
Equilibrium: A Teaching/Learning Activity (author's reply)  Wilson, Audrey
Thanks for clarification and suggestions.
Wilson, Audrey J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 900.
Equilibrium |
Rate Law
Equilibrium: A Teaching/Learning Activity  Sadavoy, Lyle; Paiva, Joao C. M.; Gil, Victor M. S.
Clarification and suggestions for improvement.
Sadavoy, Lyle; Paiva, Joao C. M.; Gil, Victor M. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 900.
Equilibrium |
Rate Law
The Arrhenius Equation Revisited (author's reply)  Carroll, Harvey F.
Misleading remarks regarding the Arrhenius equation in some general chemistry texts.
Carroll, Harvey F. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 899.
Equilibrium |
Rate Law
The Arrhenius Equation Revisited  Logan, S. R.
Addition citation on the implications of the Arrhenius equation.
Logan, S. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 899.
Equilibrium |
Rate Law
Why Not Replace pH and pOH by Just One Real Acidity Grade, AG?  Henk van Lubeck
The disadvantages of pH and pOH disappear after replacing them with AG, the acidity grade: AG = log [H+]/[OH-]. AG of neutral solutions equals 0 at all temperatures, whereas AG of acidic solutions is positive and of alkaline solutions, negative. AG offers some other minor advantages as well.
van Lubeck, Henk. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 892.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium
Discovering a Change in Equilibrium Constant with Change in Ionic Strength: An Empirical Laboratory Experiment for General Chemistry  Richard J. Stolzberg
Spectrophotometric measurements of absorbance of a solution of Fe3+(aq) and SCN-(aq) treated with different amounts of KNO3 are made to determine Kc for the formation of FeSCN2+(aq). Students observe a regular decrease in the value of Kc as the concentration of added KNO3 is increased.
Stolzberg, Richard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 640.
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Graphing Calculator Strategies for Solving Chemical Equilibrium Problems  Henry Donato Jr.
A general method for finding the roots of polynomial equations using the ubiquitous and inexpensive graphing calculator is presented. It is suggested that important reactions, which are not discussed in introductory chemistry courses because of computational considerations, may now be discussed.
Donato, Henry, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 632.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Learning Theories |
Equilibrium
Introducing Dynamic Equilibrium as an Explanatory Model  Jan H. Van Driel, Wobbe de Vos, and Nico Verloop
This article describes an educational design for the introduction of chemical equilibrium, in which students' authentic experiences with chemical phenomena play a central role. The students' most effective type of reasoning appeared to be based on the idea that, in a state of equilibrium, all conditions for both the forward and the backward reaction to take place are satisfied.
Van Driel, Jan H.; de Vos, Wobbe; Verloop, Nico. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 559.
Equilibrium |
Learning Theories
The Complexity of Teaching and Learning Chemical Equilibrium  Louise Tyson, David F. Treagust, and Robert B. Bucat
This paper discusses three key issues relevant to secondary school chemistry teaching. They arise from a study of students' understanding of chemical equilibrium using qualitative and quantitative research methods.
Tyson, Louise; Treagust, David F.; Bucat, Robert B. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 554.
Equilibrium |
Learning Theories
The Nernst Equation: Determination of Equilibrium Constants for Complex Ions of Silver  Martin L. Thompson and Laura J. Kateley
The experiment requires a voltmeter capable of recording millivolts (or a good pH meter) and inexpensive chemicals. It allows students to check the validity of the Nernst equation and compare their experimental Kform values to reported ones.
Thompson, Martin L.; Kateley, Laura J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 95.
Equilibrium |
Coordination Compounds |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
The Effects of Salts and Nonelectrolytes on the Solubility of Potassium Bitartrate: An Introductory Chemistry Discovery Experiment  Charles J. Marzzacco
An introductory chemistry discovery experiment on the effect of the presence of various solutes on the solubility of potassium bitartrate (KHT) is presented. Aqueous solutions of KCl, NaCl, MgSO4 and glucose with concentrations ranging from 0.0 to 0.10 M are saturated with KHT. The solubility of the KHT in these various solutions is determined by titration with standardized NaOH solution.
Marzzacco, Charles J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1628.
Solutions / Solvents |
Equilibrium |
Quantitative Analysis
The Ksp-Solubility Conundrum  Roy W. Clark and Judith M. Bonicamp
The authors sought to find those cases of partly soluble substances for which simple calculations such as Ksp=S2, and Ksp=4S3 can realistically be used for computing solubility from Ksp and the reverse calculation. Empirical solubility data are compared with solubilities calculated from reliable Ksp values that have been adjusted for activity coefficients. A table of 18 substances is suggested for textbook use.
Clark, Roy W.; Bonicamp, Judith M. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1182.
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility
What Should We Teach Beginners about Solubility and Solubility Products?  Stephen J. Hawkes
Solubility equilibria are best taught qualitatively in introductory chemistry, leaving the calculations to higher level courses.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1179.
Solutions / Solvents |
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility
Equilibrium: A Teaching/Learning Activity  Audrey H. Wilson
This article describes hands-on activities for high-school or undergraduate students designed to clarify important concepts involved in early studies of equilibrium. Concepts included are that at equilibrium, rate of forward reaction = rate of backward reaction; concentrations of both reactants and products remain constant; the equilibrium constant is constant at the same temperature but changes as the temperature changes; and equilibrium may be approached from different starting points.
Wilson, Audrey H. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1176.
Equilibrium
"Conceptual Questions" on LeChatelier's Principle  Benjamin P. Huddle
Three "conceptual questions" presented are designed to assess the student's ability to conceptualize chemical equilibrium and to predict the effect of changes made to a system at equilibrium, using LeChatelier's principle, without doing any equilibrium constant calculations.
Huddle, Benjamin P. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1175.
Equilibrium
Acid Rain Demonstration: The Formation of Nitrogen Oxides as a By-Product of High-Temperature Flames in Connection with Internal Combustion Engines  Jerry A. Driscoll
This demonstration illustrates the formation of nitrogen oxides resulting from a high temperature flame.
Driscoll, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1424.
Equilibrium |
Learning Theories |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Formation and Dimerization of NO2 A General Chemistry Experiment  April D. Hennis, C. Scott Highberger, and Serge Schreiner*
A general chemistry experiment which illustrates Gay-Lussac's law of combining volumes. Students are able to determine the partial pressures and equilibrium constant for the formation and dimerization of NO2. The experiment readily provides students with data that can be manipulated with a common spreadsheet.
Hennis, April D.; Highberger, C. Scott; Schreiner, Serge. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1340.
Gases |
Equilibrium |
Quantitative Analysis |
Stoichiometry
The Coupling of Related Demonstrations to Illustrate Principles in Chemical Kinetics and Equilibrium  Richard A. Pacer
Two very simple lecture demonstrations, both involving the reaction of magnesium with one or more dilute acids, are linked together to illustrate principles in chemical kinetics and equilibrium.
Pacer, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 543.
Learning Theories |
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Reactions
Thermodynamics and Spontaneity  Raymond S. Ochs
Despite the importance of thermodynamics as the foundation of chemistry, most students emerge from introductory courses with only a dim understanding of this subject.
Ochs, Raymond S. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 952.
Thermodynamics |
Learning Theories |
Equilibrium
A Simple Experiment for Demostration of Phase Diagram of Carbon Dioxide   Van T. Lieu
The experiment involves the compression of small pieces of dry ice and carbon dioxide gas mixture in a 1-mL tuberculin syringe with the needle end of the syringe sealed.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 837.
Equilibrium |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Preparing "Chameleon Balls" from Natural Plants: Simple Handmade pH Indicator and Teaching Material for Chemical Equilibrium  Naoki Kanda, Takayuki Asano, Toshiyuki Itoh, and Makoto Onoda
Description of preparation and use of polysaccharide beads containing anthocyanins to teach students about chemical equilibrium under different pH conditions.
Kanda, Naoki; Asano, Takayuki; Itoh, Toshiyuki; Onoda, Makota. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1131.
Acids / Bases |
Plant Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Dyes / Pigments |
pH
Teaching Chemical Equilibrium and Thermodynamics in Undergraduate General Chemistry Classes  Anil C. Banerjee
Discussion of the conceptual difficulties experienced by undergraduates when dealing with equilibrium and thermodynamics, along with teaching strategies for dealing with these difficulties.
Banerjee, Anil C. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 879.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
Chemical Equilibrium in the General Chemistry Course  Fainzilberg, Vladimir E.; Karp, Stewart
The first chapters on chemical equilibrium in first-year college chemistry texts make an "error" in the solution of certain types of equilibria problems.
Fainzilberg, Vladimir E.; Karp, Stewart J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 769.
Equilibrium |
Kinetics
Teaching the Truth about pH  Hawkes, Stephen J.
-log[H+] is only an approximation to pH; how to teach pH to avoid misleading students.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 747.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium
Computers and Practical Chemistry  Gipps, John
164. Particularly appropriate examples for the computer interfacing of laboratory experiments.
Gipps, John J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 671.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Reactions
Experiments for Modern Introductory Chemistry: Intermolecular Forces and Raoult's Law  Berka, Ladislav H.; Kildahl, Nicholas
Procedure that illustrates the liquid-vapor phase equilibrium of ideal and nonideal solutions.
Berka, Ladislav H.; Kildahl, Nicholas J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 613.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Gas Chromatography |
Gases |
Liquids |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents
Using the electrician's multimeter in the chemistry teaching laboratory: Part 1. Colorimetry and thermometry experiments  Andres, Roberto T.; Sevilla, Fortunato, III
The multimeter could be a very useful instrument for the chemistry laboratory bench. In this paper, the versatility of the multimeter in the chemistry teaching laboratory is demonstrated.
Andres, Roberto T.; Sevilla, Fortunato, III J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 514.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Equilibrium |
Stoichiometry |
Kinetics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Demonstration of the Common Ion Effect  Koubek, E.
KCl and HCl are used in this demonstration to describe the common ion effect and to show the difference between values Q and K.
Koubek, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 155.
Solutions / Solvents |
Equilibrium
The CoCl2 Thermosiphon   Brown, Justina L.; Battino, Rubin
A novel way to present the temperature dependence of the equilibrium shift using cobalt complexes.
Brown, Justina L.; Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 153.
Equilibrium |
Coordination Compounds
The Effect of Pressure on the Equilibrium of the N2O4-NO2 system, and its Classroom Demonstration  Yang, Zhiming
To demonstrate the effects of pressure on equilibrium, the classic use of N2O4-NO2 should be complimented with a congruent demonstration using Br2 gas.
Yang, Zhiming J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 94.
Equilibrium
Monitoring self-association of a hydrophobic peptide with high performance liquid chromatography: An undergraduate kinetic experiment using the antibiotic gramicidin A  Braco, Lorenzo; Ba, M. Carmen; Abad, Concepcin
The authors propose a kinetic experiment that uses high performance liquid chromatography to determine the rate and equilibrium constants in a very simple manner, and separate the molecular species under study.
Braco, Lorenzo; Ba, M. Carmen; Abad, Concepcin J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A113.
HPLC |
Kinetics |
Proteins / Peptides |
Rate Law |
Equilibrium
Simple soda bottle solubility and equilibria  Snyder, Cheryl A.; Snyder, Dudley C.
Using a bottle of selzter water and bromocresol green to demonstrate gas-liquid solubility (carbon dioxide in water).
Snyder, Cheryl A.; Snyder, Dudley C. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 573.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Liquids |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry
Determination of the solubility product of copper(II) tartrate  Thomsen, Marcus W.
The spectrophotometric determination of the solubility product of cupric tartrate is an appropriate experiment for the introductory chemistry course.
Thomsen, Marcus W. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 328.
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Spectroscopy
The use of equilibrium notation in listings of standard potentials.  Donkersloot, Maarten C. A.
The difficulty in equilibrium notation of standard electrode potentials is due to the convention that half-reactions must be written as reductions if the given potential is to be called a (standard) electrode potential.
Donkersloot, Maarten C. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 256.
Equilibrium |
Electrochemistry
Use of liquid oxygen to support combustion   Sullivan, Dan M.
Production, procedure, and safety of demonstrations involving liquid nitrogen in order to demonstrate: Charles' Law, production and properties of liquid oxygen, effects of concentration on reactions and reaction rates, liquefaction and boiling of oxygen kindling temperature, reactions between substances in two different states of matter, and comparison of partial and complete combustion.
Sullivan, Dan M. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1036.
Physical Properties |
Gases |
Reactions |
Equilibrium
Chemical equilibrium: I. The thermodynamic equilibrium constant  Gordus, Adon A.
This is the first article in a series of eight that investigates the various assumptions that result in the simplified equilibrium equations found in most introductory texts. In this first article, the author considers the general nature of the constant K, Le Chatelier's principle, and the effect of the temperature on K.
Gordus, Adon A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 138.
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium
Measurements of equilibrium constants of acid-base indicators with a blocktronic colorimeter  Walters, David; Birk, James P.
A computer-interfaced measurement of equilibrium constants of acid-base indicators (methyl orange, methyl red, and phenolphthalein).
Walters, David; Birk, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A252.
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments |
Spectroscopy |
Equilibrium |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Student ideas regarding chemical equilibrium: What written test answers do not reveal  Bergquist, Wilbur; Heikkinen, Henry
Examples, evidence, and implications of student misconceptions regarding chemical equilibrium.
Bergquist, Wilbur; Heikkinen, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1000.
Equilibrium |
Constructivism
Calculation of equilibrium constant in esterification reactions  Sarlo, Edward; Svoronos, Paris; Kulas, Patricia
Procedure for measuring the equilibrium constant in esterification reactions.
Sarlo, Edward; Svoronos, Paris; Kulas, Patricia J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 796.
Esters |
Alcohols |
Carboxylic Acids |
Equilibrium
Teaching freezing point lowering  Ball, Jenelle; Cooke, Ron C.; Willis, Grover
Using Le Chatelier's principle, the van't Hoff equation, and the empirical equation to explain the lowering of the freezing point caused by dissolving antifreeze in water.
Ball, Jenelle; Cooke, Ron C.; Willis, Grover J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 676.
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A visual demonstration of Raoult's law  Wilson, Archie S.
Reducing the vapor pressure of bromine by adding chloroform.
Wilson, Archie S. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 598.
Gases |
Equilibrium
Another look at a mechanical model of chemical equilibrium  Laurita, William
Colored water is transferred back and forth through glass tubing between two graduated cylinders.
Laurita, William J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 598.
Equilibrium
A small scale equilibrium experiment   Flash, Patrick
An alternative method for the experiment in which the equilibrium constant for the iron-thiocyanate complex is determined.
Flash, Patrick J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 341.
Equilibrium |
Reactions
Solving equilibrium constant expressions using spreadsheets  Metz, Clyde; Donato, Henry, Jr.
Description and application of solving equilibrium constant expressions using spreadsheets.
Metz, Clyde; Donato, Henry, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A241.
Equilibrium
Chemical principles for the introductory laboratory, CHM 384 (Johnson, James F.)  Wegner, Carol
A comprehensive review of the title program which overviews basic techniques and concepts presented in introductory laboratory courses. Topics include: titration, equilibrium, Ksp, solubility, Beer's law, coordination complexes and first-order rates of reaction.
Wegner, Carol J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A47.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Coordination Compounds |
Kinetics
A "semimicro" spectrophotometric determination of the Ksp of silver acetate at various temperatures  Liebermann, John, Jr.; Yun, Ki J.
An experiment appropriate for Advanced Placement high school chemistry courses.
Liebermann, John, Jr.; Yun, Ki J. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 728.
Equilibrium |
Spectroscopy
Tools of the trade   Bruno, Michael J.
High school teachers can never have too many visual aids when teaching chemistry. This author shares some demonstrations in equilibrium that often produce "oohs" and "aaaahs" from his students.
Bruno, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 698.
Equilibrium |
pH
Some analogies for teaching rates/equilibrium   Olney, David J.
This article presents several analogies for teaching rates and equilibrium developed by the author over his many years in the chemistry classroom that seem to be effective.
Olney, David J. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 696.
Kinetics |
Equilibrium
Will that pop bottle really go pop? An equilibrium question  Deamer, David W.; Selinger, Benjamin K.
These authors challenge a claim that appeared in the journal *New Scientist* regarding carbon dioxide in carbonated beverages and equilibrium.
Deamer, David W.; Selinger, Benjamin K. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 518.
Applications of Chemistry |
Gases |
Equilibrium
An overhead demonstration of some descriptive chemistry of the halogens and LeChtelier's principle  Hansen, Robert C.
Colorful demonstrations that illustrate Le Chtelier's principle, solubility rules, and periodic trends.
Hansen, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 264.
Equilibrium |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Computer-Assisted Blackboard (Soltzberg, L. J.)  Kruger, J. D.
8-disk set of programs (Apple II) designed to help a lecturer illustrate gas laws, the Rutherford atomic model, quantization in a Bohr atom, wave-functions and orbitals, heat and changes in state, kinetics and simple reaction mechanisms, equilibrium, acid-base reactions, and titrations.
Kruger, J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A135.
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Thermodynamics of the rhodamine B lactone zwitterion equilibrium: An undergraduate laboratory experiment  Hinckley, Daniel A.; Seybold, Paul G.
An experiment to derive thermodynamic values from a thermochromic equilibrium that uses a commercially available dye, attains equilibrium rapidly, and employs a simple, single-beam spectrophotometer.
Hinckley, Daniel A.; Seybold, Paul G. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 362.
Thermodynamics |
Dyes / Pigments |
Spectroscopy |
Equilibrium
Further observations on the cobalt(II)-chloride equilibrium: Effect of changing the chloride ion concentration  Martins, Luis J. A.; da Costa, J. Barbosa
In this article, the authors supplement previous experiments on equilibrium by confirming the effect of changes in chloride ion concentration.
Martins, Luis J. A.; da Costa, J. Barbosa J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 989.
Equilibrium |
Coordination Compounds |
Acids / Bases
Le Châtelier's Principle  Knox, Kerro
Question involving effect of increasing the pressure on the N2 + 3H2 <=> 2NH3 system.
Knox, Kerro J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 863.
Equilibrium |
Gases
Le Châtelier's principle, temperature effects, and entropy  Campbell, J. Arthur
A useful extension of Le Chatelier's Principle to predict concentration, pressure, and temperature effects solely from the equation for the net reaction.
Campbell, J. Arthur J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 231.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
Thermodynamic changes, kinetics, equilibrium, and LeChatelier's principle  Hansen, Robert C.
A series of demonstrations in which water in beakers and the flow of water between beakers is used to represent the components of an exothermic chemical reaction and the flow and quantity of thermal energy involved in chemical changes.
Hansen, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 804.
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Thermodynamics
The goals of teaching solution equilibrium  Ruda, Paul T.
Using and making relevant the concepts of solution equilibrium.
Ruda, Paul T. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 784.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents
Why teach solution equilibrium?  Butler, James N.
What are the most important aspects of solution equilibrium to teach at the elementary level?
Butler, James N. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 784.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases |
pH
The solubility of NiSO46H2O  Pacer, Richard A.
Approaches the position of equilibrium from both unsaturated and supersaturated solutions.
Pacer, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 467.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Equilibrium |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Cooking with chemistry  Grosser, Arthur E.
Two demonstrations involving cooking eggs and suggestions for many more examples of cooking that illustrate important principles of chemistry. From the "State-of-the-Art Symposium for Chemical Educators: Chemistry of the Food Cycle".
Grosser, Arthur E. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 362.
Food Science |
Gases |
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics
NH4HC03: a stimulant for learning  Richards, R. Ronald
Students, professors, and the literature have all been confused by the unusual dissociation equilibrium of NH4HCO3.
Richards, R. Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 555.
Equilibrium |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Gases
Le Châtelier's principle: the effect of temperature on the solubility of solids in liquids  Brice, L. K.
The purpose of this article is to provide a rigorous but straightforward thermodynamic treatment of the temperature dependence of solubility of solids in liquids that is suitable for presentation at the undergraduate level. The present discussion may suggest how to approach the qualitative aspects of the subject for freshman.
Brice, L. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 387.
Thermodynamics |
Liquids |
Solids |
Chemometrics |
Equilibrium
Chemical equilibrium  Mickey, Charles D.
The law of mass action, the equilibrium constant, and the effect of temperature, concentration, and pressure on equilibrium.
Mickey, Charles D. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 801.
Equilibrium |
Catalysis
Le Châtelier's principle: A reexamination and method of graphic illustration  Treptow, Richard S.
Le Châtelier's development of the principle that bears his name, and a rephrasing of that principle to make it technically and historically accurate.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 417.
Equilibrium
A chemistry lesson at Three Mile Island  Mammano, Nicholas J.
Teaching principles of general chemistry through references made to the nuclear incident at Three Mile Island.
Mammano, Nicholas J. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 286.
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Stoichiometry |
Nonmajor Courses |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
On the misuse of Le Châtelier's principle for the prediction of the temperature dependence of the solubility of salts  Bodner, George M.
Explores why Le Châtelier's principle often fails to predict the temperature dependence of the solubility of salts.
Bodner, George M. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 117.
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The temperature dependence of the equilibrium constant  Burness, James H.
This exam question tests a student's ability to derive the temperature dependence of an equilibrium constant not by qualitatively applying Le Chatelier's principle, but by understanding the relationship between the kinetics of the equation and the value of Keq.
Burness, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 395.
Equilibrium |
Kinetics
An apparent contradiction in the application of the principle of Le Chtelier  Mellon, E. K.
Unless some care is exercised, the application of free energy concepts in situations where marked temperature changes occur can lead to apparent contradictions like the one described in this paper.
Mellon, E. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 380.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
Minimizing the free energy: a computer method for teaching chemical equilibrium concepts  Heald, Emerson F.
This paper presents an alternative method to the standard treatment of equilibrium which uses material balance conditions and the minimization of the free energy. Both concepts are often omitted or glossed over in introductory treatments of equilibrium.
Heald, Emerson F. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 641.
Equilibrium
Temperature dependence of Kw   Steffel, M. J.
The question presented in this note requires the resolution of a conflict between a common sense notion and an isolated fact.
Steffel, M. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 243.
Equilibrium
Le Chtelier's principle demonstrated with a rubber band  Smith, Douglas D.
Heating a rubber band causes it to contract and stretching it causes it to become warmer.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 701.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
Chemical equilibrium: Analogies that separate the mathematics from the chemistry  DeLorenzo, Ronald A.
Demonstrates that the mathematics of chemical equilibria are not difficult, particularly when put in a non-chemical context.
DeLorenzo, Ronald A. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 676.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
An aid to teaching weak acids and bases  Kennedy, David E. B.
A visual aid in helping students understand equilibrium concepts related to weak acids and bases.
Kennedy, David E. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 550.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium
Le Chtelier's principle: A laboratory exercise  Friedman, Frederica
Le Chtelier's principle can be demonstrated by showing that water can boil at temperatures below 100C due to reduced vapor pressure.
Friedman, Frederica J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 236.
Equilibrium |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases |
Water / Water Chemistry
On mole fractions in equilibrium constants  Delaney, C. M.; Nash, Leonard K.
Proposes a hybrid equilibrium constant for use in introductory chemistry courses.
Delaney, C. M.; Nash, Leonard K. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 151.
Equilibrium |
Stoichiometry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
A dynamic lecture demonstration of dynamic equilibrium - The BG system  Battino, Rubin
This demonstration uses students as atoms and molecules.
Battino, Rubin J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 55.
Equilibrium
Lecture experiment: A quantitative illustration of LeChatelier's principle  Nelson, D. L.; Ginns, E. I.; Richtol, H. H.; Reeves, R. R.
A short experiment involving the popular gaseous nitrogen dioxide system has been developed into a lecture demonstration which quantitatively illustrates the behavior of a homogeneous gas-phase equilibrium under conditions of varying temperature and pressure.
Nelson, D. L.; Ginns, E. I.; Richtol, H. H.; Reeves, R. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 721.
Equilibrium |
Gases
Cooking Succulent Roasts  Plumb, Robert C.; Davis, Adelle
Allowing a roast to gradually warm to the desired internal temperature produces superior results.
Plumb, Robert C.; Davis, Adelle J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 425.
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
Kinetics |
Equilibrium |
Rate Law |
Applications of Chemistry
Cooking Succulent Roasts  Plumb, Robert C.; Davis, Adelle
Allowing a roast to gradually warm to the desired internal temperature produces superior results.
Plumb, Robert C.; Davis, Adelle J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 425.
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
Kinetics |
Equilibrium |
Rate Law |
Applications of Chemistry
Physical chemistry of the drinking duck  Plumb, Robert C.; Wagner, Robert E.
The operation of the drinking bird is easily understood in terms of a few elementary physical chemistry principles.
Plumb, Robert C.; Wagner, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 213.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Equilibrium
Auto windows - Strong but self-destructing  Stookey, S. D.
Auto windowglass illustrates the principles of metastable equilibrium.
Stookey, S. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 131.
Applications of Chemistry |
Solids |
Equilibrium
Passage of fruit flies through a hole. A model for a reversible chemical reaction  Runquist, Elizabeth A.; Runquist, Olaf
The passage of fruit flies through a single orifice provides an excellent model for illustrating the principles of equilibrium and chemical dynamics; the results are found to be temperature dependent and reproducible.
Runquist, Elizabeth A.; Runquist, Olaf J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 534.
Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
The design and use of an equilibrium machine  Alden, Robert T.; Schmuckler, Joseph S.
An operating model that can be used to determine quantitatively equilibrium shifts when demonstrating Le Chatelier's Principle and relates to molecular level considerations and the probabilistic nature of equilibrium.
Alden, Robert T.; Schmuckler, Joseph S. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 509.
Equilibrium
Squeak, skid and glide - The unusual properties of snow and ice  Plumb, Robert C.; Fletcher, N. H.
The Clapeyron equation controls the behavior of ice under varying conditions of temperature and pressure.
Plumb, Robert C.; Fletcher, N. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 179.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Equilibrium
Squeak, skid and glide - The unusual properties of snow and ice  Plumb, Robert C.; Fletcher, N. H.
The Clapeyron equation controls the behavior of ice under varying conditions of temperature and pressure.
Plumb, Robert C.; Fletcher, N. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 179.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Equilibrium
Miscellaneous  Alyea, Hubert N.
These twelve overhead projection demonstrations include rates of reactions, clock reactions, the effect of temperature and the presence of a catalyst on the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, the relationship between viscosity and temperature, equilibria, solubility product, and the common ion effect.
Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A437.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Reactions |
Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility
The use of specific ion electrodes for equilibrium measurements  Williams, T. R.; Boettner, Wayne; Wakeham, Stuart
The purpose of this investigation is to suggest the variety of information that can be obtained using specific ion electrodes.
Williams, T. R.; Boettner, Wayne; Wakeham, Stuart J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 464.
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Equilibrium
Sealed tube experiments  Campbell, J. A.
Lists and briefly describes a large set of "sealed tube experiments," each of which requires less than five minutes to set-up and clean-up, requires less than five minutes to run, provides dramatic results observable by a large class, and illustrates important chemical concepts.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 273.
Thermodynamics |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Solids |
Liquids |
Gases |
Rate Law |
Equilibrium
Sunglasses that respond to brightness  Stookey, S. D.
Illustrating principles of chemical equilibrium
Stookey, S. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 176.
Equilibrium
Chemical principles exemplified  Plumb, Robert C.
Introduction to a new series, containing "exempla" (brief anecdotes about materials and phenomena which exemplify chemical principles). [Debut]
Plumb, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 175.
Gases |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium |
Photochemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
The law of mass action  Berline, Steven; Bricker, Clark
It is the purpose of this paper to present a derivation of the Law of Mass Action that should have meaning and could be used at an elementary level.
Berline, Steven; Bricker, Clark J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 499.
Equilibrium |
Rate Law |
Kinetics
A computer program for the analysis of the N2O4 dissociation equilibrium  Erickson, Luther E.
Describes a Fortran IV program for the analysis of empirical data collected for the N2O4 dissociation equilibrium.
Erickson, Luther E. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 383.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
Le Chtelier's principle  Melott, Adrian L.
Adding a strong base to aqueous ammonia causes gaseous ammonia to be released.
Melott, Adrian L. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A519.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Rapid graphical method for determining formation constants  Christian, Sherril D.
This paper presents a rapid graphical method for determining formation constants and absorptivities of 1:1 complexes in dilute solution.
Christian, Sherril D. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 713.
Equilibrium
Calcium carbonate equilibria in lakes  Morton, Stephen D.; Lee, G. Fred
Discusses some of the problems encountered in studying the chemistry of lakes and oceans, focussing on the solubility of calcium carbonate in fresh water lakes.
Morton, Stephen D.; Lee, G. Fred J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 511.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Equilibrium
From stoichiometry and rate law to mechanism  Edwards, John O.; Greene, Edward F.; Ross, John
Examines the rules used by chemists as guidelines in developing mechanisms from stoichiometric and rate law observations.
Edwards, John O.; Greene, Edward F.; Ross, John J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 381.
Stoichiometry |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Reactive Intermediates
Reaction rates and equilibria. D. Redox  Klug, Evangeline B.
Sugar + chlorate + acid produces an exothermic reaction using a violent oxidizing agent.
Klug, Evangeline B. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A545.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Equilibrium
Reaction rates and equilibria. C. Equilibrium   Slabaugh, W. H.; Jackman, Kenneth V.
Demonstrations of the effect of temperature on equilibrium include shifting equilibrium by heating and cooling phosphorous pentabromide and cobalt complexes.
Slabaugh, W. H.; Jackman, Kenneth V. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A545.
Equilibrium
A simple analogy of the relationship of ?G to the position of equilibrium  Marks, D. J.
This short note describes a simple demonstration to serve as an analogy of the relationship of ?G to the position of equilibrium.
Marks, D. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 402.
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium
Hard sphere simulation of statistical mechanical behavior of molecules  Plumb, Robert C.
Describes the design and use of a demonstration device to illustrate the kinetic behavior of gases, liquids, and solids.
Plumb, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 648.
Statistical Mechanics |
Gases |
Liquids |
Solids |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Equilibrium |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Principles of chemical equilibrium (Morris, Kelso B.)  Eblin, Lawrence P.

Eblin, Lawrence P. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 110.
Equilibrium |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Solvent effect on the keto-enol equilibrium of acetoacetic ester  Lockwood, Karl L.
The purpose of the investigation is to introduce students to some of the factors that influence an equilibrium constant.
Lockwood, Karl L. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 481.
Solutions / Solvents |
Equilibrium
Is the solubility product constant? Introductory experiment in solubility equilibrium  Goodman, Robert C.; Petrucci, Ralph H.
This article describes an experiment that employs the titration of lead nitrate solutions with potassium iodide solutions as a vivid and straightforward method of determining solubility product.
Goodman, Robert C.; Petrucci, Ralph H. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 104.
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Concerning equilibrium, free energy changes, Le Châtelier's principle II  Eberhardt, William H.
This demonstration involves a reversible, temperature-based transformation from blue tetrahedrally coordinated Co2+ to pink sixfold coordinated Co2+.
Eberhardt, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A591.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Coordination Compounds
Effect of chloride ion on precipitation of cadmium sulfide  O'Donnell, T. A.
Adding NaCl or KCl to suspended CdS causes the suspension to disappear.
O'Donnell, T. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A313.
Precipitation / Solubility |
pH |
Equilibrium
KineticsEarly and often  Campbell, J. A.
Describes an approach to investigating kinetics and its application to the "blue bottle" experiment.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 578.
Kinetics |
Equilibrium |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Heterogeneous equilibria in general chemistry  Grotz, Leonard C.
Presents suggestions for approaching the subject of heterogeneous equilibria in general chemistry.
Grotz, Leonard C. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 479.
Equilibrium |
Kinetics
Temperature dependence of equilibrium: A first experiment in general chemistry  Mahan, Bruce H.
This experiment uses cooling curves to derive the expression for the temperature dependence of the equilibrium constant.
Mahan, Bruce H. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 293.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics
An experimental program on chemical equilibrium  Reusch, R. N.; Carnell, P. H.
Describes the development and evaluation of a program on chemical equilibrium
Reusch, R. N.; Carnell, P. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 27.
Equilibrium
Hypodermic syringes in quantitative elementary chemistry experiments. Part 2. General chemistry experiments  Davenport, Derek A.; Saba, Afif N.
Presents a variety of experiments that make use of hypodermic syringes in quantitative elementary chemistry.
Davenport, Derek A.; Saba, Afif N. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 617.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gases |
Liquids |
Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Stoichiometry
A model for demonstrating dynamic equilibria  Weigang, O. E., Jr.
Presents an apparatus for demonstrating dynamic equilibrium.
Weigang, O. E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 146.
Equilibrium
Chemical equilibrium: The hydrogenation of benzene  Kokes, R. J.; Dorfman, M. K.; Mathia, T.
This procedure examines the reversible reaction between benzene and hydrogen, forming cyclohexane, in the presence of a metal catalyst.
Kokes, R. J.; Dorfman, M. K.; Mathia, T. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 91.
Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds |
Equilibrium |
Catalysis
Potentiometric measurements of equilibria: In general chemistry laboratory  Chesick, J. P.; Patterson, Andrew, Jr.
The authors describe an experiment in which the solubility product of silver chloride, the ionization constant of the silver-ammonia complex, and the ionization constant of acetic acid can be determined with one afternoon of work.
Chesick, J. P.; Patterson, Andrew, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 496.
Electrochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Textbook errors: Guest column. The solubility product constants of the metallic sulfides  Waggoner, William H.
This report reviews direct and indirect methods for investigating the solubility of substances, including conductance, potentiometric, optical, equilibrium, and thermodynamic procedures.
Waggoner, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 339.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Equilibrium |
Metals |
Conductivity
Textbook errors: Guest column. XVI: The vapor pressure of hydrated cupric sulfate  Logan, Thomas S.
Examines variability in the values of pressures of water vapor in equilibrium with pairs of cupric sulfate in hydrates quoted in the literature and texts.
Logan, Thomas S. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 148.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Equilibrium
Le Châtelier's principle and the equilibrium constant  Miller, Arild J.
Many students of chemistry have difficulty in understanding how the position of equilibrium in a gaseous reaction can change when the pressure is altered, in accordance with Le Châtelier's principle, without causing a corresponding variation in the equilibrium constant.
Miller, Arild J. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 455.
Equilibrium |
Reactions |
Gases
A temperature-equilibrium demonstration  Brown, John A.
This demonstration makes use of the colored cobaltous complexes in a mixed solvent to show the dependence of some equilibria on temperature.
Brown, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 640.
Equilibrium |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Coordination Compounds
Some lecture demonstrations in general chemistry  Klemm, L. H.
Describes three demonstrations involving the atomistic nature of matter, the controlled experiment, and the solubility product.
Klemm, L. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 587.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Equilibrium