TIGER

Journal Articles: 539 results
Magnetized Water: Science or Fraud?  L. Lahuerta Zamora, G. M. Antón-Fos, P. A. Alemán López, and R. V. Martin Algarra
Commercial water magnetizers provide a unique opportunity to help university and secondary students develop appropriate skepticism against extraordinary claims and use testing as the basis for their scientific evaluation.
Lahuerta Zamora, L.; Antón-Fos, G. M.; Alemán López, P. A.; Martin Algarra, R. V. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1416.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Magnetic Properties |
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry
Manual Data Processing in Analytical Chemistry: Linear Calibration  Dora Melucci
Most science students are familiar with Excel spreadsheets, but determining which of Excels statistical functions perform a calculation equivalent to a classical equation and calculating errors with Excel are not trivial exercises.
Melucci, Dora. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1346.
Calibration |
Chemometrics |
Quantitative Analysis
Helping Students Assess the Relative Importance of Different Intermolecular Interactions  Paul G. Jasien
A semi-quantitative model has been developed to estimate the relative effects of dispersion, dipoledipole interactions, and H-bonding on the normal boiling points for a series of simple, straight-chain organic compounds. Application of this model may be useful in addressing student misconceptions related to the additivity of intermolecular interactions.
Jasien, Paul G. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1222.
Chemometrics |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Physical Properties
Using Pooled Data and Data Visualization To Introduce Statistical Concepts in the General Chemistry Laboratory   Robert J. Olsen
This article describes how data pooling and visualization can be employed in the first-semester general chemistry laboratory to introduce core statistical concepts such as central tendency and dispersion of a data set.
Olsen, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 544.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
In Partial Defense of Calculating Titration Curves  Stephen J. Hawkes
Calculating a titration curve is an unnecessarily complicated method of explaining how a buffer works, and equilibrium calculations are grossly over-emphasized in chemistry teaching.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 499.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
In Partial Defense of Calculating Titration Curves  Daniel C. Harris
There are more important subjects than calculating titration curves for a student whose only formal exposure to analytical chemistry will be an introductory course and whose primary interest is likely to be outside of chemistry (such as the life sciences).
Harris, Daniel C. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 498.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Discsussion: Should Students Calculate Titration Curves?  Stephen J. Hawkes
Learning to perform equilibrium calculations is an example of the principle that students who can answer numerical questions do not necessarily understand their chemistry.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 498.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Connecting Solubility, Equilibrium, and Periodicity in a Green, Inquiry Experiment for the General Chemistry Laboratory  Kristen L. Cacciatore, Jose Amado, Jason J. Evans, and Hannah Sevian
Presents a novel first-year chemistry experiment that asks students to replicate procedures described in sample lab reports that lack essential information. This structure is designed to promote students' experimental design and data analysis skills as well as their understanding of the importance and essential qualities of written and verbal communication between scientists.
Cacciatore, Kristen L.; Amado, Jose; Evans, Jason J.; Sevian, Hannah. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 251.
Equilibrium |
Green Chemistry |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Solutions / Solvents |
Stoichiometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Reaction Order Ambiguity in Integrated Rate Plots  Joe Lee
This article provides a theoretical and statistical justification for the necessity of monitoring a reaction to a substantial fraction of completion if integrated rate plots plots are to yield unambiguous orders.
Lee, Joe. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 141.
Chemometrics |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
The Penny Experiment Revisited: An Illustration of Significant Figures, Accuracy, Precision, and Data Analysis  Joseph Bularzik
In this general chemistry laboratory the densities of pennies are measured by weighing them and using two different methods to measure their volumes. The average and standard deviation calculated for the resulting densities demonstrate that one measurement method is more accurate while the other is more precise.
Bularzik, Joseph. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1456.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Nonmajor Courses |
Physical Properties
Teaching Mathematics to Chemistry Students with Symbolic Computation  J. F. Ogilvie and M. B. Monagan
The authors explain how the use of mathematical software improves the teaching and understanding of mathematics to and by chemistry students while greatly expanding their abilities to solve realistic chemical problems.
Ogilvie, J. F.; Monagan, M. B. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 889.
Chemometrics |
Computational Chemistry |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Flame Emission Spectrometry in General Chemistry Labs: Solubility Product (Ksp) of Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate  Frazier W. Nyasulu, William Cusworth III, David Lindquist, and John Mackin
In this general chemistry laboratory, flame emission spectrometry is used to determine the potassium ion concentration in saturated solutions of potassium hydrogen phthalate. From these data the solubility products, the Gibbs free energies of solution, the standard enthalpy of solution, and the standard entropy of solution are calculated.
Nyasulu, Frazier W.; Cusworth, William, III; Lindquist, David; Mackin, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 456.
Acids / Bases |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy |
Equilibrium |
Quantitative Analysis |
Thermodynamics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Titration of a Solid Acid Monitored By X-Ray Diffraction  Keenan E. Dungey and Paul Epstein
Presents a solid-state laboratory in which students react fixed amounts of zirconium phosphate with increasing equivalents of NaOH(aq). From X-ray diffraction patterns, students calculate the interplanar spacings before and after the reaction. The spacings increase until the molar equivalence point is reached, indicating incorporation of the sodium ion into the crystal.
Dungey, Keenan E.; Epstein, Paul. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 122.
Acids / Bases |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Materials Science |
Solid State Chemistry |
X-ray Crystallography |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Understanding Isotopic Distributions in Mass Spectrometry  Juris Meija
Offers a simple graphical tool for obtaining complex isotopic distributions.
Meija, Juris. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1761.
Mass Spectrometry |
Isotopes |
Chemometrics
The Importance and Efficacy of Using Statistics in the High School Chemistry Laboratory  Paul S. Matsumoto
This paper describes some statistical concepts and their application to various experiments used in high school chemistry.
Matsumoto, Paul S. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1649.
Chemometrics |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
Complexometric Titration of Aluminum and Magnesium Ions in Commercial Antacids. An Experiment for General and Analytical Chemistry Laboratories  Shui-Ping Yang and Ruei-Ying Tsai
A novel experiment for determining the total and individual aluminum and magnesium ion content in commercial antacids is described. This experiment is developed with three independent protocols based on complexometric direct and back titrations containing the concepts and usages of blocking, masking, buffer controls and metallic indicators.
Yang, Shui-Ping; Tsai, Ruei-Ying. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 906.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Chemometrics |
Consumer Chemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
(Strept)Avidin–Biotin: Two Interrelated Experiments for the Introductory Chemistry Laboratory  David E. Hansen, Dengda Tang, Jon A. Sanborn, and Mark D. Marshall
Describes a two-experiment sequence focusing on the noncovalent complex between the egg white protein avidin (or the similar protein streptavidin, which is expressed by the bacterium Streptomyces avidinii) and the essential cofactor biotin. The equilibrium constant for the binding of HABA to avidin is calculated from the data collected.
Hansen, David E.; Tang, Dengda; Sanborn, Jon A.; Marshall, Mark D. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 777.
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Computational Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Intermolecular and Intramolecular Forces: A General Chemistry Laboratory Comparison of Hydrogen Bonding in Maleic and Fumaric Acids  Frazier W. Nyasulu and John Macklin
This article presents a simple laboratory experiment that is designed to enhance students' understanding of inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonding by demonstrating the comparative effect of these phenomena on some chemical and physical properties.
Nyasulu, Frazier W.; Macklin, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 770.
Acids / Bases |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Thermodynamics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
The Great Wakonse Earthquake of 2003: A Short, Problem-Based Introduction to the Titration Concept  Brian P. Coppola, Amy C. Gottfried, Robyn L. Gdula, Alan L. Kiste, and Nathan W. Ockwig
This activity introduces nonscience adult learners to the concept of titration from real-world instructions about earthquake water safety found in a California phone book.
Coppola, Brian P.; Gottfried, Amy C.; Gdula, Robyn L.; Kiste, Alan L.; Ockwig, Nathan W. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 600.
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry
Chemical Characterization of Activated Carbon Fibers and Activated Carbons  J. M. Valente Nabais and P. J. M. Carrott
The main objective of this laboratory is the chemical characterization of carbon materials, mainly activated carbons and activated carbon fibers, using several methods to obtain the information without using expensive instruments.
Valente Nabais, J. M.; Carrott, P. J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 436.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Materials Science |
Surface Science |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Further Analysis of Boiling Points of Small Molecules, CHwFxClyBrz  Guy Beauchamp
Multiple linear regression analysis has proven useful in selecting predictor variables that could significantly clarify the boiling point variation of the CHwFxClyBrz molecules.
Beauchamp, Guy. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1842.
Chemometrics |
Physical Properties |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Cross-Proportions: A Conceptual Method for Developing Quantitative Problem-Solving Skills  Elzbieta Cook and Robert L. Cook
This paper focuses attention on the cross-proportion (C-P) method of mathematical problem solving, which was once widely used in chemical calculations. We propose that this method regain currency as an alternative to the dimensional analysis (DA) method, particularly in lower-level chemistry courses. In recent years, the DA method has emerged as the only problem solving mechanism offered to high-school and general chemistry students in contemporary textbooks, replacing more conceptual methods, C-P included.
Cook, Elzbieta; Cook, Robert L. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1187.
Learning Theories |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics |
Student-Centered Learning
A Closer Look at AcidBase Olfactory Titrations  Kerry Neppel, Maria T. Oliver-Hoyo, Connie Queen, and Nicole Reed
This laboratory experiment uses the sense of smell to determine end points of acidbase titrations. Olfactory indicators include garlic, onions, and vanillin. Results show that garlic and vanillin gave the most accurate results when calculated NaOH molarities were compared to the standardized values. These olfactory indicators in acidbase titrations gave consistent results when tested by a diverse student population. The preparation times, cost, and safety issues are comparable to traditional titration experiments.
Neppel, Kerry; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.; Queen, Connie; Reed, Nicole. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 607.
Acids / Bases |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
The Reaction Quotient Is Unnecessary To Solve Equilibrium Problems  Paul S. Matsumoto
The traditional method to determine the equilibrium concentration of chemicals in a reaction, given the equilibrium constant and the initial concentration of chemicals in the reaction, involves the determination of the reaction quotient. This article will demonstrate that this step may be eliminated; thereby simplifying the algorithm to solve such problems. Such a reduction in the complexity of the algorithm may result in more students successfully being able to solve such problems.
Matsumoto, Paul S. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 406.
Equilibrium |
Learning Theories |
Chemometrics
A Laser-Pointer-Based Spectrometer for Endpoint Detection of EDTA Titrations  Christopher E. Dahm, James W. Hall, and Brian E. Mattioni
A simple laser-pointer-based spectrometer has been developed for endpoint detection of EDTA titrations of magnesium and calcium. This spectrometer was built to decrease the uncertainty in determining the endpoint of titrations performed with a Calmagite indicator. With a photoresistor as the detector, and with the aid of a voltage-divider circuit, the quantity of light being absorbed can be followed with a simple pHvoltmeter. Students determine the endpoint by graphing the data and applying simple mathematics. BeerLambert studies with the spectrometer also show excellent agreement for a given set of solutions.
Dahm, Christopher E.; Hall, James W.; Mattioni, Brian E. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1787.
Dyes / Pigments |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Capillary Electrophoresis Analysis of Cations in Water Samples. An Experiment for the Introductory Laboratory  Christopher J. Pursell, Bert Chandler, and Michelle M. Bushey
This experiment can be done in a lab, as a "dry-lab", or as an in-class exercise. Students explore a number of basic separation topics and work with figures of merit for real and meaningful samples. We have adopted a strategy where students encounter various instruments and methods of analyses multiple times throughout the curriculum. The level of sophistication in the exposures increases with the experience level of the students. Through this repeated exposure students will gain a better and fuller understanding of these methods than they would with a single exposure to the technique in the analytical or instrumental laboratory.
Pursell, Christopher J.; Chandler, Bert; Bushey, Michelle M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1783.
Electrophoresis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Chemometrics |
Water / Water Chemistry
Gravimetric Titrations: In Support of Weight Titration Techniques  Richard W. Ramette
I write in support of the recommendations of Stephen Hawkes on gravimetric titrations. Weight titration techniques are, in my opinion, by far the best way to bring volumetric analysis into the 20th (let alone 21st) century.
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1715.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Gravimetric Titrations: Save Time, Expense, and Error by Using Weight Burets  Stephen J. Hawkes
Two papers have shown the superiority of a cheap plastic squeeze bottle used as a weight buret over an expensive volumetric buret. These papers were published at a time, now past, when precise weighing was inconvenient.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1715.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Statistical Comparison of Data in the Analytical Laboratory  Michael J. Samide
In this article, an experiment designed to provide students with an experience involving statistical treatment of data is described. This experiment allows students to compare 11 different techniques for measuring specific volumes of water. Replicate measurements are taken for each technique and comparisons are made both within a data set and between different data sets. Through calculation of t-values, students are able to draw conclusions about the precision and accuracy of these various techniques.
Samide, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1641.
Chemometrics
Quantitative Determination of Citric and Ascorbic Acid in Powdered Drink Mixes: A High School or General Chemistry Experiment  Samuella B. Sigmann and Dale E. Wheeler
This article provides a method to quantitatively determine the amount of both citric and ascorbic acid in a given sample of a powdered drink mix. The total moles of acid in the sample are determined by titration with sodium hydroxide. Moles of ascorbic acid are determined by titration with potassium iodate. Moles of citric acid are determined by difference.
Sigmann, Samuella B.; Wheeler, Dale E. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1479.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Unified Approximations: A New Approach for Monoprotic Weak Acid–Base Equilibria  Harry L. Pardue, Ihab N. Odeh, and Teweldemedhin M. Tesfai
This article describes a new approach to approximate calculations for monoprotic acidbase equilibria in otherwise pure water. The new approach, identified herein as unified approximations, uses a simple decision criterion to select between situations that should be treated as deprotonation and protonation reactions. The remaining treatment takes account of changes in concentrations of conjugate acidbase pairs for all situations and ignores autoprotolysis only for situations for which the analytical concentration of either the conjugate acid or conjugate base will always be larger than zero.
Pardue, Harry L.; Odeh, Ihab N.; Tesfai, Teweldemedhin M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1367.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Reaction to Why Do We Teach Equilibrium Calculations?  Stephen J. Hawkes
"Rigor" in introductory chemistry is often equated with quantitation. Consequently the understanding of chemical reactions and properties is obscured. This was illustrated by Stumpo who asked students to calculate ?E of a reaction, and then on another question on the same test asked a question aimed at its meaning. 77% of the students calculated correctly, but only 24% showed understanding of its meaning. The ability to calculate a number does not measure understanding of the number.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1265.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Reaction to Why Do We Teach Equilibrium Calculations?   Don L. Lewis
A recently published correspondence by Stephen J. Hawkes on teaching equilibrium calculations troubles me. Hawkes dismisses equilibrium calculations as mere algorithms, best deferred until the student can use computer programs. I find it difficult to believe that a computer program enhances understanding. From a chemists point of view, the equilibrium condition is a limit, a limit that (because of stochastic considerations) does not exist. It might be better to make the reaction quotient statement using < or > but the use of those relations is delayed until quantum mechanics.
Lewis, Don L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1265.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Using a Graphing Calculator To Determine a First-Order Rate Constant: Author Reply  José E. Cortés-Figueroa
When technology is used to help with mathematical calculations, the emphasis must be on the concepts being learned rather than simply the procedures. In our approach we are attempting to help students learn more about the concept and also to attain data analysis skills they will need in the future.
Cortés-Figueroa, José E. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 485.
Kinetics |
Chemometrics
Using a Graphing Calculator To Determine a First-Order Rate Constant  Todd P. Silverstein
The authors use the graphing calculator to estimate the infinity reading from linearized kinetics data, and then they use linearized semi-log data to determine the first-order rate constant.
Silverstein, Todd P. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 485.
Kinetics |
Chemometrics
Effects of an Active Learning Environment: Teaching Innovations at a Research I Institution  Maria T. Oliver-Hoyo, DeeDee Allen, William F. Hunt, Joy Hutson, and Angela Pitts
This paper describes a new approach for teaching general chemistry that combines lecture and laboratory into one seamless session and incorporates instructional methods supported by research-based findings. The results of a study that compared two instructional formats, conventional passive lecture and the student-centered, highly collaborative format known as cAcL2 (concept Advancement through chemistry LabLecture), are also presented.
Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.; Allen, DeeDee; Hunt, William F.; Hutson, Joy; Pitts, Angela. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 441.
Chemometrics |
Student-Centered Learning
Choice of Citrus Fruit  E. J. Behrman and C. F. Behrman
Sowa and Kondo have published an experiment in which students are asked to imagine that each is an 18th century sea captain about to take a long voyage. Which citrus fruit would the student take? The experiment is designed to measure the vitamin C concentrations in lemons, limes, oranges, and grapefruit. But there is another dimension to the sea captains problem, which suggests a very practical extension of the experiment. Which fruit keeps best over a long period?
Behrman, E. J.; Behrman, C. F. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 196.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Don't Be Tricked by Your Integrated Rate Plot  Edward Urbansky
Reply to comments on original article.
Urbansky, Edward. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 32.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Chemometrics
Don't Be Tricked by Your Integrated Rate Plot: Reaction order Ambiguity  Sue Le Vent
Integrated rate equations (for constant reaction volume) may be given in terms of relative reactant concentration, C (= concentration/initial concentration) and relative time, T (= time/half-life); in these forms, the equations are independent of rate constants and initial concentrations.
Le Vent, Sue. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 32.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Chemometrics
Don't Be Tricked by Your Integrated Rate Plot: Pitfalls of Using Integrated Rate Plots  Gabor Lente
Problems with linearizing the integrated rate law.
Lente, Gabor. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 32.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Chemometrics
Don't Be Tricked by Your Integrated Rate Plot: Pitfalls of Using Integrated Rate Plots  Gabor Lente
Problems with linearizing the integrated rate law.
Lente, Gabor. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 32.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Chemometrics
Canadian Tire Money: An Analogy for Use When Discussing Weak Acid–Strong Base Titrations  Arthur M. Last
In this article, use is made of the practice of one well-known Canadian retail chain in returning to its customers a small percentage of an item's purchase price in the form of imitation bank notes that can subsequently be spent in the chain's stores. An analogy is drawn between this practice and the determination of the pKa of a weak acid by titrating it with a strong base, taking into account the hydrolysis of the anion produced.
Last, Arthur M. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1403.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Comparing the Titrations of Mixed-Acid Solutions Using Dropwise and Constant-Flow Techniques   Paul Charlesworth, Matthew J. Seguin, and David J. Chesney
Real-time titration techniques are found to result in significantly decreased analysis times while maintaining a low experimental error.
Charlesworth, Paul; Seguin, Matthew J.; Chesney, David J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1311.
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
SpecScan: A Utility Program for Generating Numerical Data from Printed Forms of Spectra or Other Signals  Constantinos E. Efstathiou
SpecSpan is a utility program for Microsoft Windows that generates numerical data from printed spectra or other plots found as figures in text, chart recordings, or freehand drawings. SpecScan can process bitmap (.BMP) images of such figures and drawings. After a brief interaction with the user, it generates and exports numerical data as Excel (.XLS) or text (.TXT) files.
Efstathiou, Constantinos E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1093.
Chemometrics |
Spectroscopy
From Our Peer-Reviewed Collection  William F. Coleman and Edward W. Fedosky
The JCE WebWare collection continues to evolve and grow. This month we add another program, SpecScan: A Utility Program for Generating Numerical Data from Printed Forms of Spectra or Other Signals, to our collection of peer-reviewed WebWare.
Coleman, William F.; Fedosky, Edward W. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1093.
Chemometrics |
Spectroscopy
SpecScan: A Utility Program for Generating Numerical Data from Printed Forms of Spectra or Other Signals  Constantinos E. Efstathiou
The JCE WebWare collection continues to evolve and grow. This month we add another program, SpecScan: A Utility Program for Generating Numerical Data from Printed Forms of Spectra or Other Signals, to our collection of peer-reviewed WebWare.
Efstathiou, Constantinos E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1093.
Chemometrics |
Spectroscopy
Two Linear Correlation Coefficients  Robert de Levie
In fitting data to a straight line, many calculators and computer programs display a linear correlation coefficient. Two types of linear correlation coefficients are discussed, one often useful in chemical calculations, the other usually not.
de Levie, Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1030.
Chemometrics
Titrimetric Determination of Carbon Dioxide in a Heterogeneous Sample ("Pop Rocks")  Craig M. Davis and Matthew C. Mauck
Procedure for determining the carbon dioxide content of Pop Rocks candy through titrimetry.
Davis, Craig M.; Mauck, Matthew C. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 552.
Acids / Bases |
Quantitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Applications of Chemistry
Sailing on the "C": A Vitamin Titration with a Twist  S. Sowa and A. E. Kondo
Guided inquiry experiment where students determine what measurements they need, design and carry out their own procedures, develop their own data and analyses, and make conclusions based on their results.
Sowa, S.; Kondo, A. E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 550.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Applications of Chemistry
Classification of Vegetable Oils by Principal Component Analysis of FTIR Spectra  David A. Rusak, Leah M. Brown, and Scott D. Martin
Comparing unknown samples of vegetable oils to known samples using FTIR and principal component analysis (PCA) and nearest means classification (NMC).
Rusak, David A.; Brown, Leah M.; Martin, Scott D. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 541.
IR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Food Science |
Lipids |
Chemometrics |
Qualitative Analysis |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Teaching Chemistry Using From the Earth to the Moon  James G. Goll and Stacie L. Mundinger
Teaching chemistry using From the Earth to the Moon (an HBO original movie series).
Goll, James G.; Mundinger, Stacie L. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 292.
Electrochemistry |
Chemometrics |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Applications of Chemistry
The Analysis of Seawater: A Laboratory-Centered Learning Project in General Chemistry  Jodye I. Selco, Julian L. Roberts, Jr., and Daniel B. Wacks
Experiment designed to introduce students to qualitative and quantitative analysis methods (gravimetric analysis, potentiometric titration, ion-selective electrodes, and atomic absorption and atomic emission spectroscopy) in the context of an overall analysis of an environmental sample.
Selco, Jodye I.; Roberts, Julian L., Jr.; Wacks, Daniel B. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 54.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Potentiometry
Principal Species and pH in Acid–Base Solutions  Robert M. Hanson
Web page that allows one to determine the concentrations of principal species in a variety of solutions or mixtures of solutions; also allows a virtual titration.
Hanson, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1486.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Chemistry Comes Alive!, Volume 6
Abstract of Special Issue 30, a CD-ROM of Laboratory Techniques
  Jerrold J. Jacobsen, John W. Moore, John F. Zimmerman, and Lois M. Browne
Summary of Chemistry Comes Alive! Volume 6 focussing on laboratory techniques; includes manipulating and transferring samples, measuring, separating and purifying, safety, and quantitative techniques in volumetric analysis.
Jacobsen, Jerrold J.; Moore, John W.; Zimmerman, John F.; Browne, Lois M. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1381.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis
An Interactive Graphical Approach to Temperature Conversions  Jonathan Mitschele
Activity to demonstrate the relationship between the Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature scales by graphing measurements of English- and metric-unit thermometers.
Mitschele, Jonathan. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1235.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
LIMSport: Optimizing a Windows-Based Computer Data Acquisition and Reduction System for the General Chemistry Laboratory  Ed Vitz and Brenda P. Egolf
Project to develop a Windows/Excel data acquisition system for LIMSport (a mechanism for automatically acquiring data from a variety of sensors into a spreadsheet so that teachers and students only need spreadsheet skills to acquire and analyze data) and evaluate its effectiveness in promoting student learning.
Vitz, Ed; Egolf, Brenda P. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1060.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Learning Theories |
Chemometrics
Precision in Microscale Titration  Mono M. Singh, Cynthia B. McGowan, and Zvi Szafran
Comparing the precision of a 2-mL graduated pipet and 50-mL graduated buret in performing a microscale titration.
Singh, Mono M.; McGowan, Cynthia B.; Szafran, Zvi. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 941.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chemometrics |
Microscale Lab |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Precision in Microscale Titration  Julian L. Roberts Jr.
Comparing the precision of a 2-mL graduated pipet and 50-mL graduated buret in performing a microscale titration.
Roberts, Julian L., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 941.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chemometrics |
Microscale Lab |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Precision in Microscale Titration  Julian L. Roberts Jr.
Comparing the precision of a 2-mL graduated pipet and 50-mL graduated buret in performing a microscale titration.
Roberts, Julian L., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 941.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chemometrics |
Microscale Lab |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Experimental Design and Multiplexed Modeling Using Titrimetry and Spreadsheets  Peter de B. Harrington, Erin Kolbrich, and Jennifer Cline
Determining the acidity of three vinegar samples using multiplexed titrations and an MS Excel spreadsheet.
Harrington, Peter de B.; Kolbrich, Erin; Cline, Jennifer. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 863.
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Microscale pH Titrations Using an Automatic Pipet  Edward B. Flint, Carrie L. Kortz, and Max A. Taylor
A technique for microscale pH titrations using 1-5 mL of analyte and titrant.
Flint, Edward B.; Kortz, Carrie L.; Taylor, Max A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 705.
Acids / Bases |
Instrumental Methods |
Microscale Lab |
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Nonlinear Fits of Standard Curves: A Simple Route to Uncertainties in Unknowns   Carl Salter and Robert de Levie
The problem of covariance in using calibration curves and a nonlinear least-squares procedure that permits a direct estimation of uncertainty without the need for covariance.
Salter, Carl; de Levie, Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 268.
Chemometrics
Some Unusual Applications of the "Error-Bar" Feature in Excel Spreadsheets  Kieran F. Lim
Paper demonstrating how the "error-bar" feature in Excel can be sued to produce high-quality graphs for university teaching, learning, and research.
Lim, Kieran F. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 135.
Chemometrics
Visualizing the Photochemical Steady State with UV-Sensitive Beads (re J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 77, 648A-648B)  Jerry A. Bell
Analysis of the temperature dependence of the color intensity of UV-sensitive beads.
Bell, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1594.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Kinetics |
Photochemistry |
Chemometrics
On Concepts of Partial Volume and Law of Partial Volume (re J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 238-240)  Myung-Hoon Kim
Supplementing the law of partial pressures with a law of partial volumes.
Kim, Myung-Hoon. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1594.
Gases |
Chemometrics |
Physical Properties
On Concepts of Partial Volume and Law of Partial Volume (re J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 238-240)  David W. Miller
Supplementing the law of partial pressures with a law of partial volumes.
Miller, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1594.
Gases |
Chemometrics |
Physical Properties
Acid-Base Indicators: A New Look at an Old Topic  Ara S. Kooser, Judith L. Jenkins, and Lawrence E. Welch
An acid-base titration in which students choose the best indicator from a set of possibilities using a conductivity probe to help them make an informed choice.
Kooser, Ara S.; Jenkins, Judith L.; Welch, Lawrence E. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1504.
Acids / Bases |
Conductivity |
Dyes / Pigments |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Analysis of Success in General Chemistry Based on Diagnostic Testing Using Logistic Regression  Margaret J. Legg, Jason C. Legg, and Thomas J. Greenbowe
Estimating the probability of succeeding in general chemistry based on diagnostic or placement exam scores.
Legg, Margaret J.; Legg, Jason C.; Greenbowe, Thomas J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1117.
Chemometrics |
Learning Theories |
Student / Career Counseling
A Microscale Spectrophotometric Determination of Water Hardness  James S. Gordon
Measuring water hardness using EDTA as a titrant, calmagite as an indicator, a colorimeter, and a graphing calculator.
Gordon, James S. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1089.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Don't Be Tricked by Your Integrated Rate Plot!  Edward T. Urbansky
Using integrated rate plots to determine reaction order.
Urbansky, Edward T. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 921.
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Learning Theories |
Chemometrics |
Rate Law
A Simple Method for Illustrating Uncertainty Analysis  Paul C. Yates
A fast and simple method for generating data for uncertainty analysis; includes statistical analysis and calculation of maximum probable error for a sample set of data.
Yates, Paul C. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 770.
Chemometrics |
Quantitative Analysis
Analysis of an Oxygen Bleach: A Redox Titration Lab  Christine L. Copper and Edward Koubek
Students balance the reaction of H2O2 and MnO4 in two different ways (one assuming that H2O2 is the oxygen source and a second assuming that MnO4 is the oxygen source), determine which of these balanced equations has the correct stoichiometry by titrating a standard H2O2 solution with KMnO4, and use the correct balanced equation to determine the mass percent of H2O2 in a commercially available bleach solution.
Copper, Christine L.; Koubek, Edward. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 652.
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Consumer Chemistry
Chemistry Report. MAA-CUPM Curriculum Foundations Workshop in Biology and Chemistry, Macalester College, November 2-5, 2000  Norman C. Craig
Chemists list specific knowledge and skills in mathematics needed by chemistry students and indicate whether mathematicians or chemists should deliver the instruction; the course level of the instruction and the use of technological aids are also designated.
Craig, Norman C. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 582.
Chemometrics |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Learning Theories
What's Been Happening to Undergraduate Mathematics  David M. Bressoud
An overview of some of the changes that have been occurring in undergraduate mathematics education; based on a workshop held by the Mathematical Association of America to determine what chemists expect their students to learn from undergraduate mathematics courses in terms of understanding, content, and use of technology.
Bressoud, David M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 578.
Learning Theories |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Chemometrics
Understanding Solubility through Excel Spreadsheets  Pamela Brown
This article describes assignments related to the solubility of inorganic salts that can be given in an introductory general chemistry course. These assignments address the need for math, graphing, and computer skills in the chemical technology program by developing skill in the use of Microsoft Excel to prepare spreadsheets and graphs and to perform linear and nonlinear curve-fitting.
Brown, Pamela. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 268.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Chemometrics |
Precipitation / Solubility
A Simple Laboratory Experiment for the Determination of Absolute Zero  Myung-Hoon Kim, Michelle Song Kim, and Suw-Young Ly
A novel method that employs a remarkably simple and inexpensive apparatus and is based on the extrapolation of the volume of a given amount of dry air to zero volume after a volume of air trapped inside a 10-mL graduated cylinder is measured at various temperatures.
Kim, Myung-Hoon; Kim, Michelle Song; Ly, Suw-Young. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 238.
Gases |
Physical Properties |
Chemometrics
How Can an Instructor Best Introduce the Topic of Significant Figures to Students Unfamiliar with the Concept?  Richard A. Pacer
The focus of this paper is how best to introduce the concept of significant figures so that students find it meaningful before a stage is reached at which they become turned off. The approach described begins with measurements students are already familiar with from their life experiences and involves the students as active learners.
Pacer, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1435.
Learning Theories |
Nonmajor Courses |
Chemometrics
SolEq: Solution Equilibria, Principles and Applications, Release 1
by SolEq Project Team: L. D. Pettit, K. J. Powell, and R. W. Ramette

  Marina C. Koether
29 tutorials with simulation, calculations, and graphs, on solution equilibria.
Koether, Marina C. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1414.
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis

Comparisons and Demonstrations of Scientific Calculators  Myung-Hoon Kim, Suw-Young Ly, and Tae-Kee Hong
Scientific calculators are compared in terms of their capacities, featuring many advantages of the graphic calculator over simple nongraphic calculators. Applications in this paper include a simulation of acid-base titration curves, and graphic display of a time course of concentrations of reactants and products for a chemical reaction with first-order kinetics.
Kim, Myung-Hoon; Ly, Suw-Young; Hong, Tae-Kee. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1367.
Acids / Bases |
Kinetics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Determining the EDTA Content in a Consumer Shower Cleaner. An Introductory Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  Willis A. Weigand
This article describes the experiment to determine the EDTA content in a shower-cleaning product. The classic EDTA/calcium complexometric titration can be used to determine the EDTA content of the cleaner.
Weigand, Willis A. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1334.
Consumer Chemistry |
Nonmajor Courses |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Pixel Conversion: A Simple Way to Extract Coordinates of Points from a Printed Graph  Christian Aymard and Randall B. Shirts
A very simple method is described for extracting the coordinates of points from printed graphs, student reports, or publications. One only needs a flatbed scanner and a desktop computer. This is a convenient and inexpensive alternative to the tedious traditional method using a ruler or to the more costly programs available commercially. A Windows program has been made available to perform the required operations.
Aymard, Christian; Shirts, Randall B. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1230.
Chemometrics
Encouraging Meaningful Quantitative Problem Solving  Jeff Cohen, Meghan Kennedy-Justice, Sunny Pai, Carmen Torres, Rick Toomey, Ed DePierro, and Fred Garafalo
This paper describes the efforts of a group of teachers to help college freshman chemistry students and high school science students to improve their problem-solving skills. The presentation includes several sets of questions intended to elucidate ideas and to involve the reader in the process of reflecting upon his or her own problem-solving strategies.
Cohen, Jeff; Kennedy-Justice, Meghan; Pai, Sunny; Torres, Carmen; Toomey, Rick; DePierro, Ed; Garafalo, Fred. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1166.
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Chemometrics
Determination of Ksp, ΔG0, ΔH0, and ΔS0 for the Dissolution of Calcium Hydroxide in Water: A General Chemistry Experiment  William B. Euler, Louis J. Kirschenbaum, and Ben Ruekberg
This exercise utilizes low-cost, relatively nonhazardous materials presenting few disposal problems. It reinforces the students' understanding of the interrelationship of solubility, Ksp, ΔG0, ΔH0, and ΔS0.
Euler, William B.; Kirschenbaum, Louis J.; Ruekberg, Ben. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1039.
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
A Classroom Exercise in Sampling Technique  Michael R. Ross
A classroom hands-on demonstration has been developed that looks at the two important sampling considerations, sample size and non-homogeneous sample materials. This classroom activity makes use of readily available M&M candies for the sample size and NERDS for the non-homogeneous sample exercises.
Ross, Michael R. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1015.
Quantitative Analysis |
Chemometrics
A Comparative Study of Microscale and Standard Burets  Mono M. Singh, Cynthia B. McGowan, Zvi Szafran, and R. M. Pike
This paper describes a comparative study of the performance of microscale titrations using 2-mL microscale burets with those using Beral pipets and normal 50- and 10-mL burets. The usefulness of a microburet in general and analytical chemistry is demonstrated by presenting results from acid-base, oxidation-reduction, precipitation, complexometric, and pH titrations.
Singh, Mono M.; McGowan, Cynthia B.; Szafran, Zvi; Pike, Ronald M. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 625.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH |
Precipitation / Solubility
Spreadsheet Calculation of the Propagation of Experimental Imprecision  Robert de Levie
A spreadsheet is used to compute the propagation of imprecision, and a macro is described that will do this automatically.
de Levie, Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 534.
Chemometrics |
Quantitative Analysis |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
A Simple Laboratory-Constructed Automatic Titrator  Kurt L. Headrick, Terry K. Davies, and Aaron N. Haegele
The construction of a simple automatic titrator is described. The buret is replaced with a metering pump to provide a constant flow of titrant. The output from the pH meter is sent to a recorder via a laboratory- constructed differentiator, allowing the results to be plotted as potential versus time, first or second derivative
Headrick, Kurt L.; Davies, Terry K.; Haegele, Aaron N. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 389.
Instrumental Methods |
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Ascorbic Acid as a Standard for Iodometric Titrations: An Analytical Experiment for General Chemistry  Cesar R. Silva, Jose A. Simoni, Carol H. Collins, and Pedro L. O. Volpe
Ascorbic acid is suggested as the weighable compound for the standardization of iodine solutions in an analytical experiment in general chemistry. The experiment involves an iodometric titration in which iodine reacts with ascorbic acid, oxidizing it to dehydroascorbic acid.
Silva, Cesar R.; Simoni, Jose A.; Collins, Carol H.; Volpe, Pedro L. O. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1421.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases
The Softening of Hard Water and Complexometric Titrations: An Undergraduate Experiment  Helena Ceretti, Enrique A. Hughes, and Anita Zalts
An experiment in which (i) water hardness is explained and demonstrated; (ii) ion-exchange resin properties are visually demonstrated and then used for softening water; (iii) complexometric titrations are used for evaluating water hardness before and after softening; and (iv) acid-base titration can be used to show that the Ca/Mg ions removed by the ion exchanger are replaced by H ions.
Ceretti, Helena; Hughes, Enrique A.; Zalts, Anita. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1420.
Ion Exchange |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Predicting Acid-Base Titration Curves without Calculations  Dennis W. Barnum
In this paper a qualitative and systematic method for sketching titration curves is presented. Even the more complex cases such as salts or polyprotic acids and bases are treated just as easily as simple monoprotic acids. Having students predict the shape of titration curves from known equilibrium constants helps to focus attention on the general principles without distraction by the mathematics.
Barnum, Dennis W. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 938.
Acids / Bases |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Learning Theories |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics
Do pH in Your Head  Addison Ault
Every aqueous solution has a pH. Two factors determine this pH: the acidic or basic strength of the solute, and its concentration. When you use pKa values to express acidic and basic strength you can easily estimate the approximate pH of many aqueous solutions of acids, bases, and their salts and their buffers.
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 936.
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Learning Theories |
Chemometrics |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Precision and Accuracy in Measurements (the author replies)  Treptow, Richard S.
Relation between instrument resolution and skill.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 471.
Chemometrics |
Instrumental Methods
Precision and Accuracy in Measurements  Thomsen, Volker
The difference between instrument resolution and precision.
Thomsen, Volker J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 471.
Chemometrics |
Instrumental Methods
An Easy and Effective Classroom Demonstration of Population Distributions  Marjorie A. Jones
Using a simple experimental design and easily obtained materials, a classroom experiment was conducted to demonstrate normal-distribution behavior for a population. We used popcorn and a hot-air popper. Popped kernels were collected with time and data were plotted as popped kernels per time interval versus time. The data clearly showed a normal (Gaussian) distribution.
Jones, Marjorie A. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 384.
Chemometrics
A Unified Titration Formula  P. Glaister
In a number of standard titrations, a volume of a monoprotic base MOH at a specific concentration is added to a volume of a monoprotic acid HA at a specific concentrations. Four different types of titration are possible, depending on whether the acid and base are strong or weak. A single unifying formula covering all four cases has been determined.
Glaister, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 132.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Effect of Sample Size on Sampling Error: An Experiment for Introductory Analytical Chemistry  Joseph E. Vitt and Royce C. Engstrom
Students acquire samples of various size from a binary population, calculate the relative standard deviations for each sample size, and compare these results with those predicted by the binomial distribution. This experiment gives excellent agreement for the pooled student data, and the results show the expected decrease in sampling error as the sample size increases.
Vitt, Joseph E.; Engstrom, Royce C. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 99.
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Chemometrics
Student Construction of a Gel-Filled Ag/AgCl Reference Electrode for Use in a Potentiometric Titration  James M. Thomas
Instructions for the preparation of a Ag/AgCl "reference"-type electrode that uses a gel-type matrix are given. In addition, construction steps are provided for a very sturdy Pt-nichrome "inert" electrode, which can be used many times. Together, these two electrodes, along with a multivoltmeter, have been used successfully to determine the percent of iron in Fe(NH4)2(SO4)2 and in Fe2O2 unknowns purchased commercially.
Thomas, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 97.
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
CHEMiCALC (4000161) and CHEMiCALC Personal Tutor (4001108), Version 4.0 (by O. Bertrand Ramsay)  Scott White and George Bodner
CHEMiCALC is a thoughtfully designed software package developed for use by high school and general chemistry students, who will benefit from the personal tutor mode that helps to guide them through unit conversion, empirical formula, molecular weight, reaction stoichiometry, and solution stoichiometry calculations.
White, Scott; Bodner, George M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 34.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
Temperature Scale Conversion as a Linear Equation: True Unit Conversion vs Zero-Offset Correction  Reuben Rudman
The equation used for the interconversion between the Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature scales is in reality the general case of the straight-line equation (y = ax + b). This equation is the paradigm for many of the calculations taught in introductory chemistry.
Rudman, Reuben. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1646.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Modeling Nuclear Decay: A Point of Integration between Chemistry and Mathematics  Kent J. Crippen and Robert D. Curtright
A four-part activity utilizing a graphing calculator to investigate nuclear stability is described. Knowledge acquired through the activity provides background for answering the societal question of using nuclear materials for energy production.
Crippen, Kent J.; Curtright, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1434.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Chemometrics
Automatic Titrators in the Analytical and Physical Chemistry Laboratories  Kathryn R. Williams
In 1995 the University of Florida received an NSF-ILI grant to purchase six automatic titrators, which have now been successfully integrated into the analytical and physical chemistry teaching laboratories. After they have mastered fundamental techniques, students in the introductory analytical laboratory gain experience with automated analyses in three experiments: the iodimetric analysis of ascorbic acid, the determination of polymer molecular weight, and the analysis of chloride by ion selective electrode.
Williams, Kathryn R. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1133.
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
There Seems To Be Uncertainty about the Use of Significant Figures in Reporting Uncertainties of Results  Julio F. Caballero and Delphia F. Harris
A cursory review of two journals indicates that uncertainties in experimental results are not consistently reported in the literature with the correct number of significant figures. The problem seems more frequent in computer generated results in both chemical education and research articles. Examples of published values with uncertainty inappropriately reported are included along with the appropriate rounding.
Caballero, Julio F.; Harris, Delphia F. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 996.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Learning Theories |
Chemometrics
Precision and Accuracy in Measurements: A Tale of Four Graduated Cylinders  Richard S. Treptow
The concepts of precision and accuracy help students understand that uncertainty accompanies even our best scientific measurements. A model experiment can be used to distinguish the two terms. The experiment uses four graduated cylinders which give measurements of different accuracy and precision. Such terms as mean, range, standard deviation, error, and true value are defined through an illustration.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 992.
Quantitative Analysis |
Chemometrics
Precision and Accuracy (the authors reply, 2)  Midden, W. Robert
Rounding-off rules and significant figures.
Midden, W. Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 971.
Chemometrics
Precision and Accuracy (the authors reply, 1)  Guare, Charles J.
Rounding-off rules and significant figures.
Guare, Charles J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 971.
Chemometrics
Precision and Accuracy (3)  Rustad, Douglas
Rounding-off rules and significant figures.
Rustad, Douglas J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 970.
Chemometrics
Precision and Accuracy (1)  Sykes, Robert M.
Standard procedures for determining and maintaining significant figures in calculations.
Sykes, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 970.
Chemometrics
Percent Composition and Empirical Formula - A New View  George L. Gilbert
A new method of obtaining the empirical formula for a compound from its percent composition is proposed. The method involves the determination of a minimum molar mass for the compound based on the percentage of each element, obtaining the lowest common molar mass and using this data to calculate the integer values used in writing the empirical formula.
Gilbert, George L. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 851.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Basic Laboratory Chemistry  reviewed by Deborah McCool
Basic Laboratory Chemistry is a series of sixteen programs presenting demonstrations of many processes and experimental techniques used in the chemistry laboratory in both macroscale and microscale. Topics included in the programs are assembling macroscale and microscale apparatus, spectroscopy, chromatography, and procedures such as filtration, extraction, distillation, and titration.
McCool, Deborah. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 830.
Microscale Lab |
Spectroscopy |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
A Guided Inquiry Approach to NMR Spectroscopy  Laura E. Parmentier, George C. Lisensky, and Brock Spencer
The authors present a novel way to introduce NMR spectroscopy into the general chemistry curriculum as part of a week-long aspirin project in their one-semester introductory course. Purity is determined by titration and IR and NMR spectroscopy.
Laura E. Parmentier, George C. Lisensky, and Brock Spencer. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 470.
Learning Theories |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
A Modified Microburet for Microscale Titration  Mono M. Singh, Cynthia McGowan, Zvi Szafran, and Ronald M. Pike
A modified microburet can be constructed inexpensively from readily available laboratory materials. These materials include a 2 mL graduated pipet, a 5 or 10 mL plastic syringe body, a small piece of latex tubing, and a small size automatic delivery pipet tip. The modified microburet is easy to use, and gives accurate results.
Singh, Mono M.; McGowan, Cynthia; Szafran, Zvi; Pike, Ronald M. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 371.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Production of Numerical Chemical Problems Using a Spreadsheet  Peter G. Hall
The use of spreadsheets for "personalized" assignments. These assignments take the form of printed chemical problems such that every student has different numerical data. The problem sets make a challenging student introduction to word processing and spreadsheet use.
Hall, Peter G. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 243.
Chemometrics
Complexometric Titrations: Competition of Complexing Agents in the Determination of Water Hardness with EDTA  M. Cecilia Yappert and Donald B. DuPre
The competition of complexing agents for the same metal ion and the formation of colored metal-ion complexes is demonstrated with the use of an overhead projector. This demonstration can be used to emphasize both the relevance of the relative values of formation constants in the complexation of metal cations and the applicability of complexometric titrations in quantitative chemical analysis.
Yappert, M. Cecilia; DuPre, Donald B. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1422.
Equilibrium |
Coordination Compounds |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Metals
The Chemistry Maths Book (by Erich Steiner)   C. Michael McCallum
The Chemistry Maths Book contains all the mathematical methods that 99% of chemists would need. Designed as a text for an actual Maths for Chemists course, it is laid out in a logical progression from simple (decimals, algebra, and functions) to the more complicated but no less important (matrix algebra, differential equations, and matrix eigenvalue problems). It seems well suited both for its stated purpose and as a "brush-up" book for undergraduates, graduate students, and others.
McCallum, C. Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1400.
Chemometrics |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
A Note on Covariance in Propagation of Uncertainty  Edwin F. Meyer
It is pointed out that whenever both the slope and the intercept are used in calculating a physical quantity from a linear regression, propagation of error must include the covariance as well as the variances. The point is illustrated with a calculation of the boiling point of water from the parameters of the lnP vs 1/T fit. If the covariance is omitted from the propagation of error, the estimate of uncertainty is unreasonably large.
Meyer, Edwin F. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1339.
Chemometrics
Spreadsheet Applications in Chemistry Using Microsoft Excel by Dermot Diamond and Venita C. A. Hanratty  Jeffery A. Greathouse
Provides chemistry instructors with an introduction to Excel and its applications in chemistry.
Greathouse, Jeffery A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1279.
Chemometrics
MathBrowser: Web-Enabled Mathematical Software with Application to the Chemistry Curriculum, v 1.0  Jack G. Goldsmith
MathBrowser, a freeware web-enabled derivative of the MathCad mathematical software (MathSoft Inc., Cambridge, MA), is designed to reconcile the problem of how to distribute mathematically rich information over the WWW and to maintain interactivity for the end user.
Goldsmith, Jack G. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1164.
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Chemometrics
Graham's Law and Perpetuation of Error  Stephen J. Hawkes
Grahams Laws of effusion and diffusion are used in recent articles for traditional experiments to which they do not in fact apply and for which they give the wrong answer.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1069.
Gases |
Chemometrics |
Transport Properties
Rounding Numbers: Why the "New System" Doesn't Work  W. Robert Midden
This paper explains a correction to the rounding rule previously published in this Journal. The earlier article reported that the best way to round numbers is to always round up when the first digit dropped is 5. However, this will lead to accumulation of error when errors are averaged.
Midden, W. Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 405.
Chemometrics
Sensitivity to Experimental Parameters via Spreadsheets  B. R. Sundheim
In spreadsheet computations wherever the functional dependence of calculated results on experimental quantities is obscure, sensitivities may be obtained by testing the effects of variations in relevant inputs. An example is given where Hess' law is explored calorimetrically.
Sundhein, B. R. . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 328.
Chemometrics
The Gelation of Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) with Na2B4O7 · 10H2O: Killing Slime  K. W. McLaughlin, N. K. Wyffels, A. B. Jentz, and M. V. Keenan
The titration of slime with sulfuric acid allows students to examine the relationship between cross-linking, viscosity, and the onset of gelation. This modification to a popular chemistry demonstration produces an interesting chemistry laboratory experiment designed to introduce students to the relationship between molecular structure and the bulk properties of macromolecules.
McLaughlin, K. W.; Wyffels, N. K.; Jentz, A. B.; and Keenan, M. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 97.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Quantitative Techniques in Volumetric Analysis  John Zimmerman and Jerrold J. Jacobsen
Quantitative Techniques in Volumetric Analysis is a visual library of techniques used in making volumetric measurements. This 40-minute VHS videotape is designed as a resource for introducing students to proper volumetric methods and procedures.
Zimmerman, John; Jacobsen, Jerrold J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1117.
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
A Student-Designed Potentiometric Titration: Quantitative Determination of Iron(II) by Caro's Acid Titration  Joyce R. Powell, Sheryl A. Tucker, William E. Acree Jr., Jennifer A. Sees, Lindsey H. Hall
A laboratory experiment involving the feasibility of using Caro's acid, H2SO5, as a titrant in the potentiometric determination of iron(II) is presented.
Powell, Joyce R.; Tucker, Sheryl A.; Acree Jr., William E.; Sees, Jennifer A.; Hall, Lindsey H. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 984.
Potentiometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis
Interactive Computer Visualization in the Introductory Chemistry Curriculum  Victoria M. Bragin
This project explores the use of technological innovations to facilitate learning in introductory chemistry courses by those with a poor academic background, while also challenging those prepared to master the curriculum.
Bragin, Victoria M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 747.
Gases |
Rate Law |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Electrochemistry
Constant-Current Coulometric Titration of Hydrochloric Acid  James Swim, Edward Earps, Laura M. Reed, and David Paul
In this experiment we have combined the titration of a strong acid with a strong base and the electrolysis of water into one complete laboratory experience.
James Swim, Edward Earps, Laura M. Reed, and David Paul. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 679.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
A Simpler Approach to "Apparent" pKa's  Kildahl, Nicholas
Addition to a recent article on pH, indicating an approach which emphasizes the chemistry behind the titration of a weak acid.
Kildahl, Nicholas J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 598.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Olfactory Titration  John T. Wood and Roberta M. Eddy
The purpose of this experiment is to use unique acid-base indicator--the odor of raw onion--to indicate the end point of the titration of sodium hydroxide with hydrochloric acid. The use of this novel indicator allows the student to detect the completion of the neutralization reaction by olfaction rather than by sight.
Wood, John T.; Eddy, Roberta M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 257.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Curve Fitting: An Alternative Approach to Analyzing Kinetic Data in Introductory Chemistry  Coleman, William F.
183. The availability of high quality software for performing nonlinear curve fitting on microcomputers allows students to take an alternative approach to data analysis, one that concentrates on functional forms that may be more natural than some of the algebraic machinations necessary to render relationships into linear forms. An example of the application of such an approach to the analysis of kinetic data is presented in this paper.
Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 243.
Chemometrics |
Kinetics
Significant Figures in Graph Interpretation  Donald M. Graham
A means is derived for calculating the number of significant figures in the slope and intercept of an experimental linear graph. The method is based on the actual scatter in the points rather than on the nominal precision in the original data, and it can be used even by students who are mathematically fairly unsophisticated.
Graham, Donald M. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 211.
Chemometrics
Management of First-Year Chemistry Laboratories Using Spreadsheets  Collins, Frank E.; Williams, Charles W.
Use of spreadsheets to record, analyze, and assess experimental data.
Collins, Frank E.; Williams, Charles W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A182.
Chemometrics
Experimental Methods: An Introduction to the Analysis of Data (Kirkup, Les)  
Title of interest.
J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A72.
Chemometrics
Improving a Microscale Vitamin C Laboratory  Helser, Terry L.
Procedure for increasing the stability of vitamin C samples and titrating dye for titrations.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A10.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Vitamins |
Laboratory Management |
Microscale Lab
From Christmas Ornament to Glass Electrode  Rogério T. da Rocha, Ivano G. R. Gutz, and Claudimir L. do Lago
Instructions and use of a homemade glass electrode for pH measurements/titrations.
Da Rocha, Rogerio T.; Gutz, Ivano G. R.; do Lago, Claudimir L. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1135.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Electrochemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Laboratory Management |
pH
Dimensional Analysis: An Analogy to Help Students Relate the Concept to Problem Solving  James R. McClure
Using dominoes to help students understand the conversion factor method of dimensional analysis.
McClure, James R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1093.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Celsius to Fahrenheit--Quick and Dirty  Colin Hester
Simple algorithm for converting Celsius temperature to Fahrenheit temperature.
Hester, Colin. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1026.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
A Dating Analogy for Acid-Base Titration Problems  Ronald DeLorenzo
Analogy to help students understand the consequences of concentrating or diluting unknowns before titrating them.
DeLorenzo, Ronald. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1011.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases
The Effectiveness of Computer-Assissted Learning in the Teaching of Quantitative Volumetric Analysis Skills in a First-Year University Course  Carmel McNaught, Heather Grant, Paul Fritze, Janet Barton, Peter McTigue, and Robert Prosser
Study of the effectiveness of a computerized tutorial involving titration-related laboratory procedures at improving the laboratory skills of first-year students with a weak chemistry background.
McNaught, Carmel; Grant, Heather; Fritze, Paul; Barton, Janet; McTigue, Peter; Prosser, Robert. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1003.
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Synthesis and Characterization of Potassium Tris(oxalato)ferrate(III) Trihydrate: A Spectrophotometric Method of Iron Analysis  Richard F. Dallinger
A general chemistry experiment that combines titrimetric, gravimetric, and spectrophotometric analysis in two, three-hour lab periods.
Dallinger, Richard F. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 936.
Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Gravimetric Analysis
Those Baffling Subscripts  Arthur W. Friedel and David P. Maloney
Study of the difficulties students have in interpreting subscripts correctly and distinguishing atoms from molecules when answering questions and solving problems.
Friedel, Arthur W.; Maloney, David P. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 899.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
How to Determine the Best Straight Line  S. R. Logan
Consideration of situations in which the use of a least-squares regression is inappropriate.
Logan, S. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 896.
Chemometrics
The Relationship between the Number of Elements and the Number of Independent Equations of Elemental Balance in Inorganic Chemical Equations  R. Subramanian, N.K. Goh, and L. S. Chia
The criterion for determining whether a chemical equation can be balanced fully by the algebraic technique and its application.
Subramaniam, R.; Goh, N. K.; Chia, L. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 894.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
From Titration Data to Buffer Capacities: A Computer Experiment for the Chemistry Lab or Lecture  Roy W. Clark, Gary D. White, Judith M. Bonicamp, and Exum D. Watts
Provides titration curve data that students can plot and analyze using spreadsheets to develop student understanding of pH, derivatives, buffer capacity, and the behavior of dilute buffers; includes sample graphs and analysis.
Clark, Roy W.; White, Gary D.; Bonicamp, Judith M.; Watts, Exum D. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 746.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics
Statistical Analysis Experiment for the Freshman Chemistry Lab   John C. Salzsieder
Procedure that provides sufficient data for statistical analysis by a freshman chemistry class.
Salzsieder, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 623.
Chemometrics
Titration Techniques  Jerrold J. Jacobsen, Kelly Houston Jetzer, and Néha Patani, John Zimmerman, and Gerald Zweerink
Laser disk that contains 20 lessons and demonstrations of lab techniques related to titrations.
Jacobsen, J. J.; Jetzer, K. H.; Patani, N.; Zimmerman, J.; Zweerink,G. . J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 612.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Buoyancy Programs; Viscosity of Polymer Solutions; Precision of Calculated Values  Bertrand, Gary L.
Software to simulate the determination of the density of solids; the preparation of polymer solutions and their time to flow through a viscometer; and a program to calculate the uncertainties of results given the input values.
Bertrand, Gary L. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 492.
Physical Properties |
Chemometrics
Rapid Calculation for Preparing Solutions  Calero, Diego Lozano
Streamlined method for dilution calculations.
Calero, Diego Lozano J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 424.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics
The MATCH Program: A Combined Mathematics and Chemistry Curriculum  Wink, Donald J.
A curriculum that integrates introductory chemistry with intermediate algebra.
Wink, Donald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 411.
Chemometrics
Spreadsheet-Controlled Potentiometric Analyses  Mullin, Jerome; Marquardt, Michael
173. Bits and pieces, 53. Discussion of collecting experimental data on spreadsheets directly from laboratory instruments.
Mullin, Jerome; Marquardt, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 400.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Chemometrics |
Potentiometry
REACT: Exploring Practical Thermodynamic and Equilibrium Calculations  Ramette, Richard W.
Description of REACT software to balance complicated equations; determine thermodynamic data for all reactants and products; calculate changes in free energy, enthalpy, and entropy for a reaction; and find equilibrium conditions for the a reaction.
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 240.
Stoichiometry |
Equilibrium |
Thermodynamics |
Chemometrics
Measuring with a Purpose: Involving Students in the Learning Process  Metz, Patricia A.; Pribyl, Jeffrey R.
Constructivist learning activities for helping students to understand measurement, significant figures, uncertainty, scientific notation, and unit conversions.
Metz, Patricia A.; Pribyl, Jeffrey R. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 130.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics |
Constructivism
Introducing Spreadsheet Data Analysis in the First-Semester Laboratory  Bushey, Michelle M.
Massing a collection of pennies in order to introduce statistical concepts about small and large data sets as well as introduce students to the use of spreadsheets.
Bushey, Michelle M. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A90.
Chemometrics
Spreadsheet Statistics  Simpson, John M.
Using computer spreadsheets to do statistical analysis on data.
Simpson, John M. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A88.
Chemometrics
Spreadsheets in General Chemistry: Their Introduction and Application to Complex Titrations  Chesick, John P.
167. Time in any course program must be made for instruction in the use of the spreadsheet, and the methodology for doing this continues to be a topic of discussion.
Chesick, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 934.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Simulations and Interactive Resources  Martin, John S.
12 Simulations and Interactive Resources (SIRs) including Periodic Table Displays, Electron Orbits and Orbitals, Electron Configurations, Barometers and Manometers, Vapor Pressure, Ideal Gas Behavior, Heat Capacity and Heat of Reaction, Approach to Equilibrium, The Law of Chemical Equilibrium, Titration Curves, Electrochemical Cells, and Rate of Reaction.
Martin, John S. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 667.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Gases |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Rate Law
Symbolic Algebra and Stoichiometry  DeToma, Robert P.
Applying symbolic algebra (instead of the factor-label method) to stoichiometry calculations.
DeToma, Robert P. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 568.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A Simple Laboratory Experiment Using Popcorn To Illustrate Measurement Errors  Kimbrough, Doris R.; Meglen, Robert R.
This experiment focuses on the difference between accuracy and precision and demonstrates the necessity for multiple measurements of an experimental variable.
Kimbrough, Doris R.; Meglen, Robert R. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 519.
Chemometrics
A Joke Based on Significant Figures  Ruekberg, Ben
Joke to introduce significant figures.
Ruekberg, Ben J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 306.
Chemometrics
TITRATE: A Learning Tool for Acid-Base Titrations  Ramette, Richard W.
Software that calculates and simulates the plot of a titration curve for any base or acid (up to hexaprotic) or any mixture (up to five substances).
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 238.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Solving equilibria problems with a graphing calculator: A robust method, free of algebra and calculus   Ruch, David K.; Chasteen, T. G.
The method of successive approximations is frequently introduced in freshman chemistry as a means for solving equilibrium equations. However, this often requires an understanding of calculus that is problematic for introductory chemistry students. An alternative method to solving such equations is to use graphic calculators to solve problems graphically.
Ruch, David K.; Chasteen, T. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A184.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
A low-cost constant-rate buret  Hannum, Steven E.
A simple constant-rate delivery system used as a demonstration in general chemistry lab.
Hannum, Steven E. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 1037.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Shell thickness of the copper-clad cent   Vanselow, Clarence H.; Forrester, Sherri R.
An exercise in determining the thickness of the copper layer of modern pennies presents the opportunities to combine good chemistry, instrumentation, simple curve fitting, and geometry to solve a simply stated problem.
Vanselow, Clarence H.; Forrester, Sherri R. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 1023.
Metals |
Quantitative Analysis |
Chemometrics
How thick/thin is your mirror?  McCullough, Thomas; Bell, Lisa
When a student reported that his/her water film was 6 cm thick, these authors felt a review of significant figures and dimensional analysis may be in order.
McCullough, Thomas; Bell, Lisa J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 851.
Chemometrics
Measurement scales: Changing Celsius to Kelvin is not just a unit conversion   Nordstrom, Brian H.
The key to understanding the difference between Celsius and Kelvin lies in the different types of measurement scales. Students may have an easier time manipulating equations (such as gas laws) if they knew the difference between these scales.
Nordstrom, Brian H. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 827.
Chemometrics |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases
Statistical analysis of errors: A practical approach for an undergraduate chemistry lab: Part 1. The concepts  Guedens, W. J.; Yperman, J.; Mullens, J.; Van Poucke, L. C.; Pauwels, E. J.
A concise and practice-oriented introduction to the analysis and interpretation of measurement and errors.
Guedens, W. J.; Yperman, J.; Mullens, J.; Van Poucke, L. C.; Pauwels, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 776.
Chemometrics
Introducing probabilistic concepts in chemistry: The preparation of 10-24 M solution as a limiting case  de Vicente, M. Sastre
A straightforward dilution experiment that can be used as the starting point for establishing a link between chemistry and concepts of probability theory.
de Vicente, M. Sastre J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 674.
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics
The electrician's multimeter in the chemistry teaching laboratory: Part 2: Potentiometry and conductimetry  Sevilla, Fortunato, III; Alfonso, Rafael L.; Andres, Roberto T.
Further applications of the multimeter in chemistry laboratories are discussed in this paper: potentiometry, reduction potentials and cell EMF, the Nerst equations, pH measurements, titration, conductimetry, and conduction of solutions.
Sevilla, Fortunato, III; Alfonso, Rafael L.; Andres, Roberto T. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 580.
Acids / Bases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Potentiometry
AnswerSheets  Cornelius, Richard
Review of a spreadsheet-based program that has modules on significant figures, VSEPR structures, stoichiometry, and unit conversions.
Cornelius, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 460.
VSEPR Theory |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
A mole of M&M's   Merlo, Carmela; Turner, Kathleen E.
Engaging students by asking the question: How thick would the layer of M&M candies be if we covered the continental United States with a mole of these candies? Compare this to a mole of water.
Merlo, Carmela; Turner, Kathleen E. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 453.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
AnswerSheets  Cornelius, Richard
Review of a spreadsheet-like program that includes modules on significant figures, conversions, stoichiometry, and VSEPR structures.
Cornelius, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 387.
VSEPR Theory |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Empirical formulas from atom ratios: A simple method to obtain the integer factors of a rational number  Weltin, E.
Most textbooks advise students to use a method tantamount to trial and error when they encounter a ratio in empirical formula calculations where it is not immediately apparent what the coefficients should be. The author describes a simple procedure that is an effective way to find the integer factors.
Weltin, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 280.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Measuring Avogadro's number on the overhead projector   Solomon, Sally; Hur, Chinhyu
A Petri dish filled with water and stearic acid dissolved in petroleum ether upon an overhead projector can be used to introduce the topic of Avogadro's number.
Solomon, Sally; Hur, Chinhyu J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 252.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
Using monetary analogies to teach average atomic mass   Last, Arthur M.; Webb, Michael J.
Some strategies to overcome the frequent problem novice students have with calculating average atomic mass.
Last, Arthur M.; Webb, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 234.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
Relative atomic mass and the mole: A concrete analogy to help students understand these abstract concepts   de Sanabia, Josefina Arce
Suggestions on how to improve student understandings of the mathematical idea of "ratio" to enhance conceptual understanding of this fundamental chemistry concept.
de Sanabia, Josefina Arce J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 233.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
Concept learning versus problem solving: There is a difference   Nakhleh, Mary B.; Mitchell, Richard C.
Previous studies indicate that there is little connection between algorithmic problem solving skills and conceptual understanding. The authors provide some ways to evaluate students along a continuum of low-high algorithmic and conceptual problem solving skills. The study shows that current lecture method teaches students to solve algorithms rather than teaching chemistry concepts.
Nakhleh, Mary B.; Mitchell, Richard C. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 190.
Chemometrics |
Learning Theories |
Student-Centered Learning
An Investigative Density Experiment   Samsa, Richard A.
A laboratory exercise about density that is engaging and allows students to use higher-level thinking skills and develop a plan to solve a problem.
Samsa, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 149.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Chemometrics |
Physical Properties
More on the Question of Significant Figures  Clase, Howard J.
Because so many students have a hard time understanding what significant figures are all about, this author developed a method using "?" to substitute for insignificant zeros. This helps many students finally grasp this convention.
Clase, Howard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 133.
Chemometrics
Equilibrium Calculator  Allendoerfer, Robert
The equilibrium calculator can calculate the equilibrium concentrations of all reagents in an arbitrary chemical reaction with as many as five reactants and products.
Allendoerfer, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 126.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Ideas of Equality and Ratio: Mathematical Basics for Chemistry and the Fallacy of Unitary Conversion   Ochiai, El-Ichiro.
The author argues against dimensional analysis (referred to as the "unitary conversion method" in this article) and champions the more elegant "ratio" or "equality" paradigms as a way to help students make sense of chemical equations and "de-algorithmize" chemical calculations at the introductory level.
Ochiai, El-Ichiro. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 44.
Chemometrics
Is Dimensional Analysis the Best We Have to Offer?  Canagaratna, Sebastian G.
Dimensional analysis is a unit based approach while the alternative, "method of equations" is a relations-based approach to solving mathematical problems. The author argues that quantitative chemistry involves relationships between quantities and not units, making the later method more pedagogically sound.
Canagaratna, Sebastian G. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 40.
Chemometrics
Applying a simple linear least-squares algorithm to data with uncertainties in both variables  Ogren, Paul J.; Norton, J. Russell
There are cases in which it is desirable to find an optimum linear least-squares fit to data with significant uncertainties in both the x and y variables.
Ogren, Paul J.; Norton, J. Russell J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A130.
Chemometrics
The acid-base package  Ramette, Richard W.; Holmes, Jon L.
Software that will calculate theoretical titration curve data and the pH for any mixture of acids and/or bases.
Ramette, Richard W.; Holmes, Jon L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 1010.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
An hydrogen sulfide free analytical technique for cation analysis: The statistical approach  Gaggero, Fernando Labandera; Luaces, Victor Martinez
In this analysis the study of each cation was carried out independently without taking into account the other cations present in the solutions.
Gaggero, Fernando Labandera; Luaces, Victor Martinez J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 934.
Chemometrics |
Qualitative Analysis |
Precipitation / Solubility
Classroom experience: Using estimated answers in solving chemistry problems  Green, Michael E.; Garland, Denise A.
A textbook is described in which students solve all problems by estimation.
Green, Michael E.; Garland, Denise A. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 898.
Chemometrics |
Learning Theories
On the chemically impossible "other" roots in equilibrium calculations, II  Ludwig, Oliver G.
In a previous paper the author described, using mathematics accessible to students, how an equilibrium calculation leading to a quadratic equation may be shown to have but one "chemical" root. The present work extends this demonstration to some reactions leading to cubic equations.
Ludwig, Oliver G. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 884.
Chemometrics |
Equilibrium
New source for starch solutions: Biodegradable pellets  de Moura, John M.
Convenient way to prepare starch indicator for use in iodine titrations or in "clock" reactions.
de Moura, John M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 860.
Carbohydrates |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Microscale experiments: Dissolved oxygen and chloride determination in water  Crosson, Mary; Gibb, Reen
Determining the dissolved oxygen and chloride content of water samples through titrations.
Crosson, Mary; Gibb, Reen J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 830.
Microscale Lab |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
The metric system  Mason, Lynn M.
Metric conversions commonly encountered in chemistry and biology, with tests over each lesson.
Mason, Lynn M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 818.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Chemometrics
A demonstration of the molar volume of nitrogen gas  Hughes, Elvin, Jr.
A graphic illustration and a calculation of the approximate molar volume of nitrogen gas.
Hughes, Elvin, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 763.
Gases |
Chemometrics
Storing solar energy in calcium chloride  Wilkins, Curtis C.; Hunter, Norman W.; Pearson, Earl F.
Using common chemistry concepts to determine the feasibility of storing solar energy in calcium chloride hexahydrate.
Wilkins, Curtis C.; Hunter, Norman W.; Pearson, Earl F. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 753.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
A graphing activity to freshen up the laboratory  Pribyl, Jeffrey R.
A laboratory activity designed to address students' difficulties in interpreting data from graphs and tables.
Pribyl, Jeffrey R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 752.
Chemometrics
First-year chemistry laboratory calculations on a spreadsheet  Edwards, Paul A.; McKay, J. Brian; Sink, Charles W.
140. A laboratory exercise to introduce students to the use of computers and spreadsheets.
Edwards, Paul A.; McKay, J. Brian; Sink, Charles W. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 648.
Chemometrics
Estimation of carbonate content of base by Gran's method: A semimicroscale experiment.  Vesala, Antti.
Carbonate content of a base is determined by titration with HCl using small scale samples and additions.
Vesala, Antti. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 577.
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
The pH range of the Mohr titration for chloride ion can be usefully extended to 4-10.5  Finlayson, A. C.
The pH ranges found in textbooks for this titration are misleading because of inadequate explanations for their basis.
Finlayson, A. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 559.
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
A mole of salt crystals-Or how big is the Avogadro number?  Hoyt, William.
Calculations designed to help students put the size of Avogadro's number into perspective.
Hoyt, William. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 496.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
An MS-DOS microcomputer controlled titration system  Stangeland, Leiv Jonn; Anjo, Dennis M.
136. In this experiment the computer is employed to control the addition rate of titrant based on the change in pH of the analyte system.
Stangeland, Leiv Jonn; Anjo, Dennis M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 296.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
A simple but effective demonstration for illustrating significant figure rules when making measurements and doing calculations  Zipp, Arden P.
Students can be surprised and confused when different arithmetical operations are performed on experimental data, because the rules change when changing from addition to subtraction to multiplication or division. The following is a simple way to illustrate several aspects of these rules.
Zipp, Arden P. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 291.
Chemometrics
Algorithm for plotting titration curves (author response).  Rodrigues de Moura, Daniel.
Our model, contrary to Jackman's statement, can be applied to redox systems that are pH-dependant.
Rodrigues de Moura, Daniel. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 257.
pH |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Algorithm for plotting titration curves.  Jackman, Donald C.
de Moura's algorithm for plotting redox titration curves seems to be good for systems that are not dependent on pH or product concentration, but is not applicable to those situations that is student is more likely to encounter.
Jackman, Donald C. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 257.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH
Cyclic indicator color change by titrant electrogeneration.  Stock, John T.
A simple but striking demonstration of coulometric titration.
Stock, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 253.
Electrochemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Spreadsheet titration of diprotic acids and bases  Breneman, G. L.; Parker, O. J.
133. Bits and pieces, 47. A spreadsheet and chart, set up using Excel, for showing titration curves of any diprotic acid or base is described.
Breneman, G. L.; Parker, O. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 46.
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Having fun with the metric system  Campbell, Mark L.
A puzzle adds some fun to the mundane treatment of the metric system.
Campbell, Mark L. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1043.
Chemometrics
Some conundrums of chemical nomenclature  Quigley, Michael N.
When talking about chemistry, we use some awfully confusing terms that warrant scrutiny.
Quigley, Michael N. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1009.
Chemometrics
The development of statistical concepts in a design-oriented laboratory course in scientific measuring  Goedhart, Martin J.; Verdonk, Adri H.
This article offers a contribution to the development of curriculum that includes design and evaluation of measurements.
Goedhart, Martin J.; Verdonk, Adri H. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1005.
Chemometrics
Chemical equations are actually matrix equations  Alberty, Robert A.
Chemists tend to think that chemical equations are unique to chemistry and they are not used to thinking of chemical equations as the mathematical equations they in fact are. The objective of this paper is to illustrate the mathematical significance of chemical equations.
Alberty, Robert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 984.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
KC? Discoverer: Exploring the properties of the chemical elements  Liebel, Michael
This software program allows users to explore a large number of properties of the elements. The program can find all elements associated with a certain property, graph numeric properties against other numeric properties, list elements, sort elements, and use the periodic table to select elements.
Liebel, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 956.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Physical Properties |
Chemometrics |
Descriptive Chemistry
A carbonate project introducing students to the chemistry lab  Dudek, Emily
A description of a first semester general chemistry laboratory that helps acquaint students with a large variety of chemistry laboratory procedures.
Dudek, Emily J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 948.
Chemometrics |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Separation Science
Advanced titration plots using spreadsheet scripting  Currie, James O., Jr.; Whiteley, Richard V., Jr.
131. A spreadsheet aids in student understanding of acid/base titration calculations.
Currie, James O., Jr.; Whiteley, Richard V., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 923.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Equilibrium
The use of "marathon" problems as effective vehicles for the presentation of general chemistry lectures  Burness, James H.
A marathon problem is a long, comprehensive, and difficult problem that ties together many of the topics in a chapter and that is solved together by the instructor and students. Sample problems are included and advantages and disadvantages of this approach are discussed.
Burness, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 919.
Chemometrics
An SI mnemonic  Quigley, M. N.
A mnemonic to help remember the physical quantities associated with the nine base SI units.
Quigley, M. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 815.
Chemometrics
Developmental instruction: Part II. Application of the Perry model to general chemistry  Finster, David C.
The Perry scheme offers a framework in which teachers can understand how students make meaning of their world, and specific examples on how instructors need to teach these students so that the students can advance as learners.
Finster, David C. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 752.
Learning Theories |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Chemometrics |
Descriptive Chemistry
Grafit  Lisensky, George C.
A data manipulation tool and plotting program useful at all levels of chemistry.
Lisensky, George C. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 587.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Chemometrics
Space-filling P-V-T models  Hilton, Don B.
Space-filling models help beginning students visualize the numerical aspects of the empirical gas laws.
Hilton, Don B. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 496.
Gases |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Chemometrics
When figures signify nothing  Ahmad, Jamil
Significant figures in the "real world" set poor standards and confusing examples for chemistry students.
Ahmad, Jamil J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 469.
Chemometrics
Solving quadratic equations to the correct number of significant figures  Thomas, Rudolf
Presenting an application of the successive approximations method for solving quadratic or higher order expressions.
Thomas, Rudolf J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 409.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Is 8C equal to 50F?  Thompson, H. Bradford
A play, commentary, modest proposal, and a "less modest" proposal regarding calculations and significant figures.
Thompson, H. Bradford J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 400.
Chemometrics
Chloride in natural waters: An environmental application of a potentiometric titration  Lisensky, George; Reynolds, Kelly.
An environmental application of a potentiometric titration to determine chloride found in fresh water.
Lisensky, George; Reynolds, Kelly. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 334.
Potentiometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Green Chemistry |
Geochemistry |
Quantitative Analysis
The effect of context on the translation of sentences into algebraic equations  Niaz, Mansoor; Herron, J. Dudley; Phelps, Amy J.
Assessing students in a one-semester preparatory chemistry course to see how well students understand proportional relationships.
Niaz, Mansoor; Herron, J. Dudley; Phelps, Amy J. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 306.
Chemometrics
Chemical equilibrium: III. A few math tricks   Gordus, Adon A.
The third article in a series on chemical equilibrium that considers a few math "tricks" useful in equilibrium calculations and approximations.
Gordus, Adon A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 291.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Chemical equilibrium: II. Deriving an exact equilibrium equation   Gordus, Adon A.
In this article appearing in a series on chemical equilibrium, authors consider how to derive a completely general equation for any chemical mixture.
Gordus, Adon A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 215.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
A simple first-order consecutive rate reaction: A different method for its solution   Hughes, Elvin, Jr.
Power series methods should be used whenever possible in chemistry courses.
Hughes, Elvin, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 180.
Chemometrics |
Equilibrium
A simple first-order consecutive rate reaction: A different method for its solution   Castillo S., Carlos; Micolta S., Germania
A different way to present an equilibrium equation that appeared previously in this Journal.
Castillo S., Carlos; Micolta S., Germania J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 179.
Chemometrics |
Equilibrium
A titrimetric determination using laser-beam scattering for endpoint determination   Brooks, David W.; Lyons, Edward J.
Data from one of four repeated trials of a lecture experiment that determines the stability constant of a silver amine complex.
Brooks, David W.; Lyons, Edward J. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 155.
Coordination Compounds |
Colloids |
Lasers |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Finding largest common factors and simplest integer ratios   Macomber, Roger S.
General chemistry students can ease some of their math-phobia with an exam question that deals with a familiar topic prior to putting these same mathematical principles into the context of chemistry.
Macomber, Roger S. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 42.
Chemometrics
SEQS 3.0 Student Version Simultaneous Equation Solver (Tucker, Edwin E.)  Dierenfeldt, K.E.
SEQS 3.0 is a program of considerable versatility for solving sets of nonlinear simultaneous equations.
Dierenfeldt, K.E. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A149.
Chemometrics
A pH-monitoring and control system for teaching laboratories  Ibez, Jorge G.; Tavera, Luis; Rodriguez, Alberto; Gomez del Campo, Enrique
The authors describe a simple microcomputer apparatus that can be used to monitor the pH change that occurs during the course of a chemical reaction, to maintain a constant pH in a chemical reactor, and to perform an automated titration.
Ibez, Jorge G.; Tavera, Luis; Rodriguez, Alberto; Gomez del Campo, Enrique J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A74.
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Titrations of monoprotic acids with sodium hydroxide contaminated by sodium carbonate (the author replies)   Michalowski, Tadeusz
A basic assumption made in the original article does not reflect the most common practical situation; therefore, some of the conclusions can be misleading if taken as general rules.
Michalowski, Tadeusz J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1072.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Titrations of monoprotic acids with sodium hydroxide contaminated by sodium carbonate  Bombi, G. Giorgio; Macca, Carlo; Michalowski, Tadeusz
A basic assumption made in the original article does not reflect the most common practical situation; therefore, some of the conclusions can be misleading if taken as general rules.
Bombi, G. Giorgio; Macca, Carlo; Michalowski, Tadeusz J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1072.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
A classroom experiment using the Pythagorean theorem in a discussion of the scientific method  Sauls, Frederic, C.
Experiment to verify the Pythagorean theorem as a means of introducing the importance of accurate measurements, accuracy and error.
Sauls, Frederic, C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 958.
Nonmajor Courses |
Chemometrics
Accuracy of measurements and the U.S. Census  Gorin, George
Some aspects of taking the Census can help students to understand the problem of measurement error and the use of significant figures.
Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 936.
Chemometrics
Lessons learned from Lord Rayleigh on the importance of data analysis  Larsen, Russell D.
Analysis of the data collected by Lord Rayleigh in association with his discovery of argon presented as a model for scientific inquiry.
Larsen, Russell D. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 925.
Chemometrics |
Atmospheric Chemistry
An olfactory indicator for acid-base titrations: A laboratory technique for the visually impaired  Flair, Mark N.; Setzer, William N.
Analysis of eugenol, thymol, vanillin, and thiophenol as aromatic indicators for acid-base titrations.
Flair, Mark N.; Setzer, William N. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 795.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Minorities in Chemistry |
Aromatic Compounds
ChemCalc: A scientific calculator  Allendoerfer, Robert D.
A scientific calculator program that can be used as a stand-alone or incorporated into other software written in BASIC.
Allendoerfer, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 770.
Chemometrics
A straightforward derivation of stoichiometric mass relationships  Gorin, George
An alternative to the factor label method for solving stoichiometric mass relationship problems.
Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 762.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
A significant example: How many days in a century?  Lisensky, George
Calculating the number of days in a century can help clarify the subject of significant figures.
Lisensky, George J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 562.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Analysis of organic acids: A freshman laboratory experiment  Griswold, John R.; Rauner, Richard A.
In this experiment students select unknown carboxylic acids, determine their melting points, and investigate their solubility behavior in water and ethanol.
Griswold, John R.; Rauner, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 516.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Stoichiometry |
Precipitation / Solubility
The pH of any mixture of monoprotic acids and bases  Herman, D. P.; Booth, K. K.; Parker, O. J.; Breneman, G. L.
115. Bits and pieces, 44. The pH of any mixture of monoprotic weak and strong acids and bases can be calculated. A curve can also be plotted for the titration of the mixture by any monoportic weak or strong acid or base.
Herman, D. P.; Booth, K. K.; Parker, O. J.; Breneman, G. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 501.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH
Dynamic data storage in FORTRAN  Chung-Phillips, Alice
115. Bits and pieces, 44. The purpose of this article is to promote the use of dynamic storage allocation in FORTRAN to chemistry instructors and students in the present computing environment.
Chung-Phillips, Alice J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 500.
Chemometrics
Wet labs, computers, and spreadsheets  Durham, Bill
The following is a description of some commonly encountered experiments that have been modified for computerized data acquisition.
Durham, Bill J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 416.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Kinetics |
Electrochemistry
Solving quadratic equations  Brown, R. J. C.
A better technique than the quadratic equation for chemical equilibria is offered here.
Brown, R. J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 409.
Chemometrics |
Equilibrium
Squaric acid: A workshop for high school chemistry teachers  Gesser, H. D.; Baldwin, W. G.; Hickling, G. G.
The authors feel that the greatest value from a workshop is obtained when the workshop has a practical focus, with participating teachers experiencing both an experimental challenge, such as they often put to their pupils, and an opportunity to upgrade their knowledge of modern laboratory procedures.
Gesser, H. D.; Baldwin, W. G.; Hickling, G. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 388.
Professional Development |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
On how to simulate potentiometric titration curves without making any approximation  de Moura, Daniel Rodrigues
The paper describes how to simulate the titration curve without making any approximation and also without solving the polynomial expression and even without necessarily using a computer.
de Moura, Daniel Rodrigues J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 226.
Potentiometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Introduction to experiment design for chemists  Strange, Ronald S.
One purpose of this paper is to review basic concepts and terminology of experimental design, analysis of data, and optimization.
Strange, Ronald S. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 113.
Chemometrics
Exception to solving chem problems without the factor-label approach (the author replies)  Cardulla, Frank
There are other ways to teach problem solving, and they can produce competent, successful, and enthusiastic students.
Cardulla, Frank J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1066.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Exception to solving chem problems without the factor-label approach  Gillette, Marcia L.
The classroom analogy Cardulla uses could be made much more meaningful if it were used to demonstrate the relation between what is obvious and what is not.
Gillette, Marcia L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1065.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
The acid-base package: A collection of useful programs for proton-transfer systems  Hawkes, Stephen J.
Four programs that deal with the types of acid-base calculations normally encountered in introductory and analytical chemistry courses.
Hawkes, Stephen J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 830.
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics
Atlantic-Pacific sig figs  Stone, Helen M.
Examples of applications of significant figures in calculations.
Stone, Helen M. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 829.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
How to visualize Avogadro's number  van Lubeck, Henk
Three examples to help students visualize the size of a mole.
van Lubeck, Henk J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 762.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Enhancement of visual titration endpoints  Williams, Howard P.; Howell, J. Emory; Russell, Joseph L.
Using white styrofoam cups as a titration vessel.
Williams, Howard P.; Howell, J. Emory; Russell, Joseph L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 680.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases
Substitution of volumetric for gravimetric methods and other improvements in a new molar volume-molar mass experiment  Bedenbaugh, John H.; Bedenbaugh, Angela O.; Heard, Thomas S.
Improvements on an earlier procedure for the quantitative decomposition of 3% hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water.
Bedenbaugh, John H.; Bedenbaugh, Angela O.; Heard, Thomas S. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 679.
Gravimetric Analysis |
Enzymes |
Stoichiometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Significant figure rules for general arithmetic functions  Graham, D. M.
Rules for determining what happens to the number of significant figures as various types of mathematical operations are performed upon certain quantities.
Graham, D. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 573.
Chemometrics
A stoichiometric journey  Molle, Brian
A story to help students overcome some of the difficulties they encounter in stoichiometry calculations.
Molle, Brian J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 561.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Simple removal of buret bubbles  Austin, David J.
Suggestion for removing bubbles from below the buret's stopcock.
Austin, David J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 514.
Laboratory Management |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Being a participant in the future  Parker, O. Jerry
Integrating computer technology into undergraduate chemistry courses.
Parker, O. Jerry J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 500.
Administrative Issues |
Chemometrics
The relationship between M-demand, algorithms, and problem solving: A neo-Piagetian analysis  Niaz, Mansoor
One of the most important implements developed by the neo-Piagetian theory is task analysis, that is, the evaluation of the M-demand of a problem. M-demand can be defined as: maximum number of steps that the subject must mobilize simultaneously in in the course of executing a task.
Niaz, Mansoor J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 422.
Learning Theories |
Chemometrics
Significant Figures and Error Propagation  West, Allen C.
Schwartz is wrong to say that 125 mL +/- 5% means a systematic error of +/-5%.
West, Allen C. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 272.
Chemometrics
Accurate equations of state in computational chemistry projects  Allbee, David; Jones, Edward
101. This article presents one method that allows students to become familiar with the use of modern equations of state and also enhances their understanding of how computers can be used in the study and application of chemistry. [Includes "Editor's note: Changes in the computer series", by Lagowski, J. J., p. 226]
Allbee, David; Jones, Edward J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 226.
Applications of Chemistry |
Chemometrics
Visible spectrophotometric determination of the partition coefficient of methyl violet: A microscale extraction experiment  Sonnenberger, David C.; Ferroni, Edward L.
This experiment is designed to demonstrate the principles of separation by solvent extraction, partition coefficient, and the construction and use of a Beer-Lambert standard curve.
Sonnenberger, David C.; Ferroni, Edward L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 91.
Separation Science |
Chemometrics
Graphical analysis III (Vernier, David L.)  Carpenter, Jeanette; Bowers, Caroline H.
Two reviews of a complete graphing tool suitable for high school and college applications with a wide range of operations varying in complexity.
Carpenter, Jeanette; Bowers, Caroline H. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A269.
Chemometrics
Chemistry according to ROF (Fee, Richard)  Radcliffe, George; Mackenzie, Norma N.
Two reviews on a software package that consists of 68 programs on 17 disks plus an administrative disk geared toward acquainting students with fundamental chemistry content. For instance, acids and bases, significant figures, electron configuration, chemical structures, bonding, phases, and more.
Radcliffe, George; Mackenzie, Norma N. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A239.
Chemometrics |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Equilibrium |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Stoichiometry |
Physical Properties |
Acids / Bases |
Covalent Bonding
Analysis of kinetic data with a spreadsheet program  Henderson, John
An article about spreadsheet templates that accept concentration versus time data for several runs of an experiment, determination of least-squares lines through data points for each run, and will allow the user to exclude points from the least-squares calculation.
Henderson, John J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A150.
Chemometrics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Enzymes
Chemical principles for the introductory laboratory, CHM 384 (Johnson, James F.)  Wegner, Carol
A comprehensive review of the title program which overviews basic techniques and concepts presented in introductory laboratory courses. Topics include: titration, equilibrium, Ksp, solubility, Beer's law, coordination complexes and first-order rates of reaction.
Wegner, Carol J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A47.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Coordination Compounds |
Kinetics
E.M.E. Titration lab (Shelton, Roger)  Ogata, Philip H.
A review of an interactive software program that executes a lab simulation allowing students to master the titration process while helping students understand symbols and empirical formulas and sharpening students' data collection skills.
Ogata, Philip H. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A23.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Teaching students to use algorithms for solving generic and harder problems in general chemistry  Kean, Elizabeth; Middlecamp, Catherine Hurt; Scott, D. L.
This paper describes teaching strategies that help students improve their problem-solving skills.
Kean, Elizabeth; Middlecamp, Catherine Hurt; Scott, D. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 987.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Determination of the effect of various modes of cooking on the vitamin C content of a common food, green pepper: An introductory biochemistry experiment  Johnson, Eric R.
A great laboratory experiment that examines the effects of baking, boiling, steaming, and microwaving a green pepper on the pepper's nutritional level.
Johnson, Eric R. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 926.
Nutrition |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Vitamins |
Food Science |
Applications of Chemistry
Nuclear waste glass, and the Fe2+/Fe3+ ratio  Fanning, James C.; Hunter, R. Todd
These authors present a chemical problem of current interest that can be used for pedagogical purposes.
Fanning, James C.; Hunter, R. Todd J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 888.
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation State |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Green Chemistry |
Chromatography |
Spectroscopy
Let's separate theories from calculations   Freilich, Mark B.
This author writes in a 'provocative opinion' article challenging the readers to think about heavily emphasizing 'thought problems' in chemistry and allowing students to master those before throwing calculations into the mix.
Freilich, Mark B. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 442.
Chemometrics
An alternative to using the PV = nRT equation   Desmarais, George
This author shares his application of the factor-label method to solving gas problems which involves using the ideal gas constant as the starting point in the relationship.
Desmarais, George J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 392.
Gases |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Avogadro's number: A perverse view  Lehman, Thomas A.
A way to think of Avogadro's number: take anything and double it 79 times.
Lehman, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 282.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
Rating antacids in Consumer Reports  Martin, Geoffrey
This article presents a Consumer Reports study on antacid effectiveness via titration.
Martin, Geoffrey J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 214.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Consumer Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Food Science
Potentiometric titration of acidic and basic compounds in household cleaners  Lieu, Van T.; Kalbus, Gene E.
The potentiometric titration of commercial household cleaners can be used in student laboratories in freshman, analytical, and physical chemistry courses. It can be used for analysis of household cleaners with either one or two component systems, or it can be used for the determination of the dissociation constant.
Lieu, Van T.; Kalbus, Gene E. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 184.
Acids / Bases |
Potentiometry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Equilibrium |
Quantitative Analysis
Iron analysis by redox titration: A general chemistry experiment  Kaufman, Samuel; Devoe, Howard
The authors have devised a simplified redox method for total iron analysis suitable for execution in a three-hour laboratory period by general chemistry students.
Kaufman, Samuel; Devoe, Howard J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 183.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
The titration project   Kilner, Cary
Titration labs are able to capture student interest and thus deserve more than the usual cursory introduction in beginning chemistry courses. This author develops a long, more in-depth titration project to take advantage of student interest in this lab technique.
Kilner, Cary J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 80.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Remember E = hv is correct only half of the time  Leo, Howard, R.
Reminder that the title equation (Planck) is not algebraically correct.
Leo, Howard, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 11.
Chemometrics |
Photochemistry
Computer-Assisted Blackboard (Soltzberg, L. J.)  Kruger, J. D.
8-disk set of programs (Apple II) designed to help a lecturer illustrate gas laws, the Rutherford atomic model, quantization in a Bohr atom, wave-functions and orbitals, heat and changes in state, kinetics and simple reaction mechanisms, equilibrium, acid-base reactions, and titrations.
Kruger, J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A135.
Acids / Bases |
Gases |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Equilibrium |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Chem Lab Simulations 1: Titrations and Chem Lab Simulations 2: Ideal Gas Law (Gelder, John)  Zemke, Warren T.
Computer programs intended to serve as introductions for students before actual experimentation in the laboratory.
Zemke, Warren T. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, A57.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Gases |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Good numerical technique in chemistry: The quadratic equation  Thompson, H. Bradford
Texts commonly avoid examples with bad round-off problems or handle them by approximation; none of this is necessary, for simple techniques are available to handle quadratic equations easily and precisely.
Thompson, H. Bradford J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1009.
Chemometrics
Reaction stoichiometry and suitable "coordinate systems"  Tykodi, R. J.
Methods for dealing with problems involving reactions stoichiometry: unitize and scale up, factor-label procedure, de Donder ratios, and titration relations.
Tykodi, R. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 958.
Stoichiometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics
Hard ways and easy ways  Schwartz, Lowell M.
Two examples of common general chemistry calculations and different approaches ("hard" and "easy") to solving them.
Schwartz, Lowell M. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 698.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Computer programming in general chemistry  Breneman, G. L.; Parker, O. J.
84. Programming computers to solve problems as an integral part of the general chemistry course.
Breneman, G. L.; Parker, O. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 584.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Equilibrium
Solving limiting reagent problems (the author replies)  Kalantar, A. H.
Thanks for clarification and suggestion.
Kalantar, A. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 472.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Solving limiting reagent problems  Skovlin, Dean O.
Uncertainty in the meaning of the term X.
Skovlin, Dean O. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 472.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Statistical evaluation of class data for two buret readings  Gordus, Adon A.
Data that serve to illustrate both random and systematic errors in measurements characteristic of titrations.
Gordus, Adon A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 376.
Chemometrics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Mole fraction revisited  Mancott, A.
This problem requires the use of algebraic reasoning to derive and solve a fraction linear equation based on the concept of moles and conservation of moles.
Mancott, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 320.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Hands-on versus computer simulation methods in chemistry  Bourque, Donald R.; Carlson, Gaylen R.
Procedure, results, conclusions, and implications of a study that compares the effectiveness of a hands-on approach versus computer simulations in the same chemistry topics.
Bourque, Donald R.; Carlson, Gaylen R. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 232.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Stoichiometry
Slopes of straight lines when neither axis is error free  Kalantar, A. H.
The iterative effective variance method is not reliable and its use is pedagogically unwise.
Kalantar, A. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 28.
Chemometrics
The length of a pestle: A class exercise in measurement and statistical analysis  O'Reilly, James E.
Too many students get through chemistry without acquiring a basic understanding and appreciation of the concepts of measurement science. The purpose of this report is to outline an extremely simple class exercise as a concrete paradigm of the entire process of making chemical measurements and treating data.
O'Reilly, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 894.
Chemometrics
Calculation of Madelung constants in the first year chemistry course  Elert, Mark; Koubek, Edward
76. Bits and pieces, 31. A computer program aids in understanding the nature of the Madelung constants.
Elert, Mark; Koubek, Edward J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 840.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Chemometrics
Teaching significant figures using a learning cycle  Guymon, E. Park; James, Helen J.; Saeger, Spencer L.
Can we teach significant figures in a way that will be better retained by our students? These authors propose a solution.
Guymon, E. Park; James, Helen J.; Saeger, Spencer L. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 786.
Learning Theories |
Chemometrics
Spectrophotometric titration of a mixture of calcium and magnesium  Fulton, Robert; Ross, Michael; Schroeder, Karl
Because the conditions chosen for the titration are not well suited to visual endpoints, students become aware of the unique advantage of spectrophotometric titrations.
Fulton, Robert; Ross, Michael; Schroeder, Karl J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 721.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Coordination Compounds |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
A flowchart for dimensional analysis  Graham, D. M.
A flowchart to help students organize their thoughts when solving conversion problems.
Graham, D. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 527.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry
Where did that number come from?   DeLorenzo, Ronald
With more careful labeling and handling of numbers, instructors can reduce the confusion students sometimes feel when watching problems being solved by the instructor on the board.
DeLorenzo, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 514.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
An introductory laboratory exercise for acids and bases  Miller, Richard; Silberman, Robert
The authors have used this exercise as an introduction to acid-base chemistry before they do any acid-base titrations in the laboratory.
Miller, Richard; Silberman, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 447.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases
Factor-label: Another view   Maloy, Joseph T.
It is of interest to our students' academic development that we teach them the mathematical theory behind factor label approaches to problems solving.
Maloy, Joseph T. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 186.
Chemometrics
Unit basis a neglected problem-solving technique   Beichl, George J.
A technique that will prevent students from using ineffective problem-solving techniques such as dimensional analysis.
Beichl, George J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 146.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
On writing equations  Campbell, J.A.
The author presents a very direct approach to writing complicated equations without using a matrix approach.
Campbell, J.A. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 63.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
TRS-80 Chemistry Lab, Volume 1, Review II (Hallgren, Richard C.)  Beck, James D.
Programs covering the kinetic theory, Charles' law, Boyle' law, titration, and solubility.
Beck, James D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, A106.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Precipitation / Solubility
TRS-80 Chemistry Lab, Volume 1, Review I (Hallgren, Richard C.)  Rowe, Frederick J.
Programs covering the kinetic theory, Charles' law, Boyle' law, titration, and solubility.
Rowe, Frederick J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, A105.
Kinetic-Molecular Theory |
Gases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Precipitation / Solubility
An interactive, screen-oriented, general linear regression program  Joshi, Bhairav D.
65. Bits and pieces, 26. Description of GSLINE, a program runs linear regressions.
Joshi, Bhairav D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1027.
Chemometrics
Mathematics in the chemistry classroom. Part 2. Elementary entities play their part  Dierks, Werner; Weninger, Johann; Herron, J. Dudley
One of the problems that learners have to overcome when doing stoichiometry calculations is to learn how statements about elementary entities given by formulas and equations are related to statements about portions of substances as measured in the macroscopic world.
Dierks, Werner; Weninger, Johann; Herron, J. Dudley J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1021.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
Pandemonium pesticide: A simple demonstration illustrating some fundamental chemical concepts  Kauffman, George B.; Chooljian, Steven H.; Ebner, Ronald D.
Demonstration that uses large, visible particles to simulate calculations of atomic / molecular mass, percentage composition, and molecular formula.
Kauffman, George B.; Chooljian, Steven H.; Ebner, Ronald D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 870.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Mathematics in the chemistry classroom. Part 1. The special nature of quantity equations  Dierks, Werner; Weninger, Johann; Herron, J. Dudley
Differences between operation on quantities and operation on numbers and how chemical quantities should be described mathematically.
Dierks, Werner; Weninger, Johann; Herron, J. Dudley J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 839.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Determination of molecular dimensions using monolayers: Another approach  McNaught, Ian J.; Peckham, Gavin D.
A preliminary activity to help students understand the concept and calculations of the determination of molecular dimensions using monolayers.
McNaught, Ian J.; Peckham, Gavin D. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 795.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chemometrics
Propagation of significant figures  Schwartz, Lowell M.
The rules of thumb for propagating significant figures through arithmetic calculations frequently yield misleading results.
Schwartz, Lowell M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 693.
Chemometrics
A different look at the solubility-product principle  Hugus, Z Z., Jr.; Hentz, F. C., Jr.
The progressive addition of Cl- to Ag+ yields an ion-product equal to Ksp at two different points.
Hugus, Z Z., Jr.; Hentz, F. C., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 645.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics
Laboratory simulations by computer-driven laser videodiscs  Brooks, David W.; Tipton, Thomas J.; Lyons, Edwards J.
Simulating a titration on a videodisc.
Brooks, David W.; Tipton, Thomas J.; Lyons, Edwards J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 514.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
A different view of using titrimetric data  Castillo S., Carlos
Using titration data to obtain the dissociation constant of the acid under consideration.
Castillo S., Carlos J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 443.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Working backwards is a forward step in the solution of problems by dimensional analysis  Drake, Robert F.
Solving chemistry calculations by determining the units of the desired answer and then working backwards using dimensional analysis.
Drake, Robert F. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 414.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
"Chemistry" problems without chemical terminology  Ciereszko, Leon S.
Three questions analogous to percentage composition and Charles' law calculations.
Ciereszko, Leon S. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 402.
Chemometrics
Derivation of the ideal gas law  Levine, S.
Derivation of the ideal gas law from a thermodynamic influence.
Levine, S. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 399.
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Chemometrics
Using a conversion matrix to simplify stoichiometric calculations from balanced equations  Berger, Selman A.
Two examples of using a conversion matrix to simplify stoichiometric calculations from balanced equations.
Berger, Selman A. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 396.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
Problem-solving skills in chemistry made easier  Fast, Kenneth V.
Step-by-step format for performing common calculations in chemistry.
Fast, Kenneth V. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 396.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Acid rain analysis by standard addition titration  Ophardt, Charles E.
A simple standard addition titration method for determining the acidity of a rain or snow sample.
Ophardt, Charles E. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 257.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Qualitative Analysis
Colorblindness and titrations with visual indicators  Diehl, Harvey; Johnson, Dennis C.; Markuszewski, Richard; Moore, Robert M.
Discussion and investigation of the problem of colorblindness in determining the endpoints of titrations.
Diehl, Harvey; Johnson, Dennis C.; Markuszewski, Richard; Moore, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 255.
Minorities in Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases
A convenient device to demonstrate statistically based sampling error in a particulate mixture  Reid, R. S.
Apparatus to demonstrate statistically based sampling error using a mixture of colored beads.
Reid, R. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 252.
Chemometrics
Why isn't my rain as acidic as yours?  Zajicek, O. T.
Calculating of pH values of acid rain and comparisons to uncontaminated samples.
Zajicek, O. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 158.
Acids / Bases |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
pH |
Chemometrics
Limiting reagent problems made simple for students  Kalantar, A. H.
Method for determining the limiting reagent among three or more reactants.
Kalantar, A. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 106.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Five Avogadro's number problems  Todd, David
Five problems involving Avogadro's number.
Todd, David J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 76.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
A LAP on moles: Teaching an important concept  Ihde, John
The objective of the Learning Activity Packet on moles include understanding the basic concept of the mole as a chemical unit, knowing the relationships between the mole and the atomic weights in the periodic table, and being able to solve basic conversion problems involving grams, moles, atoms, and molecules. [Debut]
Ihde, John J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 58.
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table
Graphical Analysis, Review II (Dice, David R.)  Sievers, Dennis
A computerized program that generates graphs of empirical data.
Sievers, Dennis J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, A324.
Chemometrics
Graphical Analysis, Review I (Dice, David R.)  Palmer, Glenn E.
A computerized program that generates graphs of empirical data.
Palmer, Glenn E. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, A323.
Chemometrics
Titrator, Review II (Dice, David D.)  Drake, Gordon P.
Program that allows the user to simulate the titration of either a strong or weak acid with a strong base.
Drake, Gordon P. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, A273.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Titrator, Review I (Dice, David D.)  Hill, Sister Mary Mechtilde, RSM
Program that allows the user to simulate the titration of either a strong or weak acid with a strong base.
Hill, Sister Mary Mechtilde, RSM J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, A273.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
The Elements of Style in Chemistry, A Computer-assisted Instruction Supported Text (Beatty, James W.; Beatty, James J.)  Crawford, Victor A.
Intended to support students who have trouble solving important types of problems in chemistry.
Crawford, Victor A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, A27.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Chemometrics
Preparation and analysis of potassium tris(oxalato)ferrate(III)trihydrate: A general chemistry experiment  Olmsted, John, III
The analysis of this compound combines gravimetric and titrimeric methods and includes a unique and colorful photoredox reaction.
Olmsted, John, III J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1098.
Synthesis |
Photochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
The preparation of acid-base titration curves  McClendon, Michael
A simple technique for generating mechanically plotted titration curves using an electron pH meter and a low-voltage chart recorder.
McClendon, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1022.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis
Uncertainty analysis by the "worst case" method  Gordon, Roy; Pickering, Miles; Bisson, Denise
A new method of uncertainty propagation that is in many ways superior to the traditional manipulation of absolute and relative uncertainty.
Gordon, Roy; Pickering, Miles; Bisson, Denise J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 780.
Chemometrics
The factor-label method: Is it all that great?  Navidi, Marjorie H.; Baker, A. David
The development of reasoning skills in chemistry is better achieved by postponing the introduction of the factor-label method.
Navidi, Marjorie H.; Baker, A. David J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 522.
Chemometrics
The density of solids  Burgess, Dale
Using density measurements as an opportunity to discuss experimental procedures, error, and significant figures.
Burgess, Dale J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 242.
Chemometrics |
Physical Properties
Teaching factor-label method without sleight of hand  Garrett, James M.
As an aid in teaching the factor-label method, the author has developed a rather simple card game involving the matching of symbols and colors.
Garrett, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 962.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Determination of ammonia in household cleaners: an instrumental analysis experiment  Graham, Richard C.; DePew, Steven
This popular experiment describes a procedure that is easily modified to determine quantitatively such analytes as ammonia in solution.
Graham, Richard C.; DePew, Steven J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 765.
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Consumer Chemistry |
Stoichiometry |
Solutions / Solvents
Reflections upon mathematics in the introductory chemistry course  Goodstein, Madeline P.
It is the purpose of this paper to call attention to the lack of mathematical competence by chemistry students and to invite consideration of one conceptual scheme which may be used to unify the mathematical approach.
Goodstein, Madeline P. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 665.
Chemometrics |
Gases
On the chemically impossible "other" roots in equilibrium problems  Ludwig, Oliver G.
Students often have a hard time knowing when to disregard equilibrium roots that are too large or are negative. The author suggests a convincing proof that helps students understand how the relationship between the conceptual and mathematical.
Ludwig, Oliver G. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 547.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Empirical pKb and pKa for nonmetal hydrides from periodic table position  Bayless, Philip L.
The equation in this article was developed by the author. It estimates the aqueous pKa for certain acids to an average deviation of 0.1pK unit for those with experimentally determined values and agrees with experimentally determined values, and as well as with estimates for those too weak or too strong to be measured.
Bayless, Philip L. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 546.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Chemometrics
Determination of phosphoric acid in cola beverages: a colorimetric and pH titration experiment for general chemistry  Murphy, Joe
Two techniques are compared so that students gain an appreciation for the greater sensitivity and selectivity of colorimetric compared to titrimetric methods of analysis.
Murphy, Joe J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 420.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Consumer Chemistry
Le Châtelier's principle: the effect of temperature on the solubility of solids in liquids  Brice, L. K.
The purpose of this article is to provide a rigorous but straightforward thermodynamic treatment of the temperature dependence of solubility of solids in liquids that is suitable for presentation at the undergraduate level. The present discussion may suggest how to approach the qualitative aspects of the subject for freshman.
Brice, L. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 387.
Thermodynamics |
Liquids |
Solids |
Chemometrics |
Equilibrium
The use of the Warnier-Orr program design method in the preparation of general chemistry tutorials   Hach, Edwin E., Jr.
39. In this article, a modified Warnier-Orr approach is illustrated for a computer tutorial involving ideal gas calculations.
Hach, Edwin E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 348.
Gases |
Chemometrics
The spilled can of paint   Perkins, Robert
The writer describes a problem for students to work out in order to better understand units of conversion.
Perkins, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 343.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
The liquid silver parade   Perkins, Robert
The activity described in this note is useful in illustrating how small atoms are to students.
Perkins, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 343.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Titration calculations- a problem-solving approach  Waddling, Robin E. L.
This author shares a strategy for helping students who might be struggling with understanding how to calculate and understand titration data.
Waddling, Robin E. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 230.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics
Mass spectral analysis of halogen compounds   Holdsworth, David K.
37. Bits and pieces, 14. A pocket calculator can be programmed to decide and display the halogen combination in a molecular-ion cluster by examination of the (M+2)/M or (X+2)/X percentage values.
Holdsworth, David K. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 103.
Chemometrics |
Mass Spectrometry
A pocket calculator program for the solution of pH problems via the method of successive approximations   Guida, Wayne C.
37. Bits and pieces, 14. A description of a pocket calculator program for the solution of pH problems via the method of successive approximations .
Guida, Wayne C. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 101.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics
A tutorial program for pH calculation   Palmer, Glenn E.
37. Bits and pieces, 14. These authors describe a calculator program that can be used to help students drill pH calculations.
Palmer, Glenn E. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 101.
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Wood ash analysis: An experiment for introductory courses  Guenther, William B.
Determination of potassium carbonate in wood ashes with a titer method to allow use by students without knowledge of molarity-volume-mole calculations.
Guenther, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 1047.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Data generation in the classroom  Blanco, Luis H.
A pendulum device for generating data for statistical analysis.
Blanco, Luis H. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 1028.
Chemometrics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The titration of air with nitric oxide: An application of Gay-Lussac's law of combining volumes in a general chemistry experiment  Everett, Kenneth G.
Gay-Lussac's law of combining volumes is demonstrated through the reaction between NO and the oxygen in air.
Everett, Kenneth G. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 802.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases
The estimation of Avogadro's number using cetyl alcohol as the monolayer  Feinstein, H. I.; Sisson, Robert F., III
Results and calculations using cetyl alcohol as the monolayer in estimating Avogadro's number.
Feinstein, H. I.; Sisson, Robert F., III J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 751.
Stoichiometry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chemometrics
Chemical equation balancing: A general method which is quick, simple, and has unexpected applications  Blakley, G. R.
Using matrices to solve mathematical equations and balance chemical equations. From "The Goals of General Chemistry - A Symposium."
Blakley, G. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 728.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Some tungsten oxidation-reduction chemistry: A paint pot titration  Pickering, Miles; Monts, David L.
Mild reducing agents reduce WO3 to a nonstoichiometric blue oxide, "mineral blue," whose approximate formula is WO2.2-3.0.
Pickering, Miles; Monts, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 693.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry
Mathematics in data analysis: An introduction  Wang, Taitzer
The meaning of simple mathematical equations are described in a perspective that, for some reasons, many beginning students do not seem to be able to obtain from reading textbooks on the subject.
Wang, Taitzer J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 592.
Chemometrics
Recurrent difficulties: Solving quantitative problems  Kramers-Pals, H.; Lambrechts, J.; Wolff, P. J.
Investigating the process students use to solve quantitative problems using a think aloud strategy.
Kramers-Pals, H.; Lambrechts, J.; Wolff, P. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 509.
Chemometrics
Remedial mathematics for the introductory chemistry course: The "CHEM. 99" concept  Bohning, James J.
An approach that is aimed specifically at mathematical deficiencies and based on the premise that the deductive reasoning process that accompanies basic mathematical technique is crucial for a meaningful comprehension of general chemistry principles.
Bohning, James J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 207.
Chemometrics
Buffers  Gold, Marvin
A demonstration based on buffer calculations.
Gold, Marvin J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 155.
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics
Calculation of statistical thermodynamic properties  Vicharelli, P. A.; Collins, C. B.
25. Bits and pieces, 9. A computer program for the calculation of specific heat, entropy, enthalpy, and Gibbs free energy of polyatomic molecules.
Vicharelli, P. A.; Collins, C. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 131.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Chemometrics
CAI Programs in BASIC and an associated MATH subroutine  Anderson, Robert Hunt
25. Bits and pieces, 9. Four BASIC programs involving basic calculations and mathematical problems in chemistry.
Anderson, Robert Hunt J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 129.
Chemometrics |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Basic mathematics for beginning chemistry (Goldish, Dorthoy M.)  Ellison, Herbert R.

Ellison, Herbert R. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, A65.
Chemometrics |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Think   Wheeler, S. J., James D.
Students have an easy enough time crunching numbers, but it is alarming how little they understand the concepts behind the numbers. Students should not be making remarks such as, "If they keep changing how they write the problems, how am I supposed to know how to solve them?"
Wheeler, S. J., James D. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 1004.
Learning Theories |
Chemometrics
Computer applications in the freshman laboratory  Palmer, Glenn E.
The objectives of the computer applications described in this note are: 1) practical experience in the application of the concept of logical sequence and deduction in a chemical context and 2) closely supervised practice in the techniques and applications of volumetric analysis.
Palmer, Glenn E. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 995.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Small things and large numbers   Rosenberg, Milton H.
Some challenging solubility problems are featured in this note.
Rosenberg, Milton H. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 962.
Solutions / Solvents |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Superlative problems  Akers, Hugh A.; Akers, Gwyn E.
The data in the Guinness Book of World Records holds great potential for fun, interesting chemistry exercises.
Akers, Hugh A.; Akers, Gwyn E. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 795.
Chemometrics
Another approach to titration curves: Which is the dependent variable?  Willis, Christropher J.
In this paper, an approach to titration curves is described which eliminates common stumbling blocks in achieving student understanding.
Willis, Christropher J. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 659.
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Balancing complex redox equations by inspection   Kolb, Doris
A step-by-step walk through of the inspection process for balancing equations.
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 642.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
A statistical note on the time lag method for second-order kinetic rate constants  Schwartz, Lowell M.
A clever method for finding second-order kinetic rate constants by using a time lag method that avoids direct measurement of the end point reading P(infinity) can easily be programmed.
Schwartz, Lowell M. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 588.
Chemometrics |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
A mathematics readiness test for prospective chemistry students  Weisman, Rence L.
A mathematics readiness test is prepared to determine whether students have the minimum competency necessary to succeed in chemistry.
Weisman, Rence L. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 564.
Chemometrics |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
How big is Avogadro's number (or how small are atoms, molecules and ions)  Fulkrod, John E.
Calculating the volume occupied by Avogadro's number of drops of water helps students understand the magnitude of this quantity while giving them practice at using scientific notation and the metric system.
Fulkrod, John E. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 508.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
Pressure and the exploding beverage container   Perkins, Robert R.
The question in this article is an extension of exploding pop bottles to illustrate the balancing of a chemical equation, enthalpy, stoichiometry, and vapor pressure calculations, and the use of the Ideal Gas Equation. The question is aimed at the first-year level student.
Perkins, Robert R. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 363.
Stoichiometry |
Gases |
Thermodynamics |
Chemometrics
A specific heat analogy  McCullough, Brother Thomas, CSC
An analogy for helping students to understand the concepts of specific heat and heat transfer problems.
McCullough, Brother Thomas, CSC J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 896.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Chemometrics
Sweet heat  O'Connor, Rod
What would be the net enthalpy change for the complete combustion of 5.00 g of glucose at body temperature?
O'Connor, Rod J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 889.
Carbohydrates |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Chemometrics
Teaching and learning problem solving in science. Part I: A general strategy  Mettes, C. T. C. W.; Pilot, A.; Roossink, H. J.; Kramers-Pals, H.
A systematic approach to solving problems and on designing instruction where students learn this approach.
Mettes, C. T. C. W.; Pilot, A.; Roossink, H. J.; Kramers-Pals, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 882.
Chemometrics
Empirical formulas - A ratio problem  Knox, Kerro
A problem involving an analogy between ratios of boys to girls given their average weights and percentage composition of the class by weight.
Knox, Kerro J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 879.
Chemometrics |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Mole fraction analogies  DeLorenzo, Ron
An analogy to help students solve concentration problems.
DeLorenzo, Ron J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 733.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics |
Solutions / Solvents
Dissociation of a weak acid  Ladd, M. F. C.
An earlier treatment of the equilibrium of a weak acid in water gives, for certain ranges of concentration, significantly incorrect results.
Ladd, M. F. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 669.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
A "road map" problem for freshman chemistry students  Burness, James H.
Question suitable for a take-home type of exam.
Burness, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 647.
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Stoichiometry |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Significant figures: Removing the zero mystique  Treptow, Richard S.
Zeros are significant if they appear before a number takes on size or as stand-ins for unknown digits.
Treptow, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 646.
Chemometrics
Whatever became of significant figures? The trend toward numerical illiteracy  Anderlik, Barbara
How does one persuade students, when working with physical measurements, to part with excess digits and become numerically literate.
Anderlik, Barbara J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 591.
Chemometrics
Co(acac)3 Synthesis, reactions, and spectra: An experiment for general chemistry  Shalhoub, George M.
Students demonstrate that nitration of Co(acac)3 has occurred through proton NMR and IR spectroscopy.
Shalhoub, George M. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 525.
Synthesis |
Spectroscopy |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy
An illustration to demonstrate the smallness of molecules  Kingston, David W.
An exercise in dimensional analysis.
Kingston, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 506.
Chemometrics
Correlating Celsius and Fahrenheit temperatures by the "unit calculus"  Gorin, George
Deriving the mathematical relationship between Celsius and Fahrenheit temperatures.
Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 350.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Adopting SI units in introductory chemistry  Davies, William G.; Moore, John W.
Conventions associated with SI units, conversion relationships commonly used in chemistry, and a roadmap method for solving stoichiometry problems.
Davies, William G.; Moore, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 303.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Adding another dimension to dimensional analysis  DeLorenzo, Ronald
Adding words to typical dimensional analysis work to improve understanding and communication.
DeLorenzo, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 302.
Chemometrics
Significant digits: Numbers and their logarithms  Clever, H. Lawrence
The number of digits to report in a base 10 logarithm is an unresolved problem for many students.
Clever, H. Lawrence J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 824.
Chemometrics |
pH
The physically meaningful solution of the quadratic equation  Levy, Mel; Byers, Larry D.
Shows that the potential ambiguity of two unequal but physically meaningful roots never arises.
Levy, Mel; Byers, Larry D. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 526.
Chemometrics
Calculators in freshman chemistry - An alternative view  Gold, Marvin
There is a serious negative aspect to allowing freshmen use of calculators in chemistry.
Gold, Marvin J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 526.
Chemometrics
The barium hydroxide ammonium thiocyanate reaction: A titrimetric continuous variations experiment  Harris, Arlo D.
Experiment that uses acid-base titrimetry to study the stoichiometry of a novel solid state reaction.
Harris, Arlo D. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 477.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Solid State Chemistry |
Stoichiometry
Measurement errors: A lecture demonstration  Munn, Robert J.
A lecture demonstration to realistically discuss precision, accuracy, averaging, data rejection, and significant digits.
Munn, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 267.
Chemometrics
How many significant digits in 0.05C?  Power, James D.
Textbooks abound with erroneous examples, such as 33F = 0.56C.
Power, James D. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 239.
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Calculators, slide rules, and significant figures  McCullough, Thomas, CSC
Using a slide rule to help students understand the concept of significant figures before using a calculator.
McCullough, Thomas, CSC J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 238.
Chemometrics
Titration curve for a programmable pocket calculator  Williams, Howard P.
A titration curve program written for a TI-58 or TI-59 programmable pocket calculator.
Williams, Howard P. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 237.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Comparison of strong acid and weak acid titration curves  Schultz, C. W.; Spannuth, S. L.
Allows comparison of mechanically reproduced titration curves of strong acid and one or more weak acids versus strong base on the same piece of paper.
Schultz, C. W.; Spannuth, S. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 194.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
pH
Intuitive and general approach to acid-base equilibrium calculations  Felty, Wayne L.
The purpose of this paper is to show that the usual intuitive approach used in general chemistry can be readily extended without introduction of additional, sophisticated concepts to give the general, exact expression and to point out the pedagogical advantage of its use.
Felty, Wayne L. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 576.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
Pressure calculations   Schultz, Charles W.
This question requires students to be able to distinguish two kinds of pressure: Boyles law pressure of gas (that depends on volume) from the equilibrium vapor pressure above a liquid (that does not).
Schultz, Charles W. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 515.
Gases |
Chemometrics
Development of intellectual skills in the laboratory  Ophardt, Charles E.
This first semester laboratory was designed to give instruction and practice in the intellectual skills of application, analysis, synthesis, and in Piaget's formal operations.
Ophardt, Charles E. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 485.
Learning Theories |
Qualitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Balancing an atypical redox equation  Carrano, S. A.
The author presents a particularly tricky redox problem and walks readers through a solution.
Carrano, S. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 382.
Chemometrics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry
Chemical predictions from pKa values  Hassanali, A.
The problem presented here develops student understanding of both pKa calculations and organic acids.
Hassanali, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 378.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Chemometrics
Teaching the method of successive approximations  Nassiff, Peter J.; Boyko, E. R.
The purpose of this papers is to help the teacher show the student why basic methods of successive approximations work, how they may be applied, and under what conditions it will be successful.
Nassiff, Peter J.; Boyko, E. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 376.
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
Gases
Determination of the percent Na4EDTA in bathroom cleaners  Kump, K. I.; Palocsay, F. A.; Gallaher, T. N.
There has been much publicity recently about the importance and virtues of relevant experiments in chemistry lab courses. This experiment is for the general chemistry student involving the analysis of bathroom cleaners and determining the concentration of active ingredients.
Kump, K. I.; Palocsay, F. A.; Gallaher, T. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 265.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH |
Consumer Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis
Collision theory  Myers, Richard S.
The question presented here can be employed in general or physical chemistry courses.
Myers, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 243.
Chemometrics |
Thermodynamics |
Kinetics
The chemical equation. Part I: Simple reactions  Kolb, Doris
A chemical equation is often misunderstood by students as an "equation" that is used in chemistry. However, a more accurate description is that it is a concise statement describing a chemical reaction expressed in chemical symbolism.
Kolb, Doris J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 184.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Reactions
Simple liquid-liquid extraction experiment for freshmen  Jones, Mark M.; Champion, Gwendalyn R.
A procedure can be described here can be carried out with the equipment normally present in a typical freshman laboratory. The experiment turns out to be a very good test of the student' technique and understanding.
Jones, Mark M.; Champion, Gwendalyn R. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 119.
Separation Science |
Liquids |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
A pre-general chemistry course for the underprepared student  Krannich, Larry K.; Patick, David; Pevear, Jesse
Outline and evaluation of a course in chemical problem solving.
Krannich, Larry K.; Patick, David; Pevear, Jesse J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 730.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Chemometrics
Determination of pKa using the half-volume method: A laboratory experiment  Stephens, S. Jane; Jonich, Michael J.
The equivalence point of an unknown acid is found; the value of pKa is read directly from the titration curve using the "half-volume" method.
Stephens, S. Jane; Jonich, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 711.
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Chemical equilibrium: Analogies that separate the mathematics from the chemistry  DeLorenzo, Ronald A.
Demonstrates that the mathematics of chemical equilibria are not difficult, particularly when put in a non-chemical context.
DeLorenzo, Ronald A. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 676.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
On significant figures  MacCarthy, Patrick
Illustrating the decrease in uncertainty that accompanies an increase in significant figures.
MacCarthy, Patrick J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 578.
Chemometrics
Determination of iodide in seaweed. A general chemistry research experience  Senyk, Joan I.
Students determine the best procedure for the analysis of iodide in locally gathered seaweed.
Senyk, Joan I. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 511.
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Vanadium for high school students  Grant, A. Ward, Jr.
After the instructor performs the reduction of vanadium(V) as a demonstration, students can perform the oxidation of the vanadium(II) back to its original state.
Grant, A. Ward, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 500.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation State |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals |
Transition Elements
Simple classroom experiment on uncertainty of measurement  Sen, B.
This activity demonstrates several aspects regarding the statistical treatment of data.
Sen, B. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 468.
Chemometrics
Copper(II) aspirinate project for the general chemistry laboratory  Dudek, Emily
The weight percent of copper in student-prepared copper(II) aspirinate is measured by electrogravimetric, spectrophotometric, and titrimetric methods.
Dudek, Emily J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 329.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Synthesis |
Quantitative Analysis
Simple titrimetric determination of lead in gasoline  Watt, Sandra L.; Martino, Theresa M.; Chamberlin, Margaret A.; Laswick, Patty H.
Chlorine is used to break the lead-carbon bonds of lead additives, and the lead is titrated with EDTA.
Watt, Sandra L.; Martino, Theresa M.; Chamberlin, Margaret A.; Laswick, Patty H. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 262.
Applications of Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Visual aid for acid-base concepts  Olson, Virgil K.; Osteryoung, Janet; Christie, Joseph H.; Turner, John A.
Three plots that the authors have found particularly useful in concisely illustrating a number of acid-base concepts relating to buffer capacity and acid-base titrations.
Olson, Virgil K.; Osteryoung, Janet; Christie, Joseph H.; Turner, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 220.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Introductory quantitative laboratory exercise  Crossfield, A. J.
Two laboratory exercises that give good experiences with balance use, titration techniques, aliquot use, and mole calculations.
Crossfield, A. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 190.
Quantitative Analysis |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Stoichiometry
Calculators and significant figures  Satek, Larry C.
A demonstration on the topic of significant figures and random errors.
Satek, Larry C. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 177.
Chemometrics
Cookbook dimensional analysis  DeLorenzo, Ronald
Frequently, teachers will hear, "...it looks easy when you do it..." when teaching dimensional analysis. This teacher advises others on a way to help students gain self-efficacy with this problem solving-strategy.
DeLorenzo, Ronald J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 633.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
A criterion for the simple approximation in dissociation equilibria  Leffler, Amos J.
The author demonstrates quantitative criterion for the assumption that permits the neglect of the amount of dissociated species in the denominator of the dissociation equation.
Leffler, Amos J. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 460.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics
The solubility of CaSO4: An ion exchange-complexometric titration experiment for the freshman laboratory  Koubek, Edward
This lab may be used to introduce the student to two important areas of chemistry with the added advantage that one method serves as a direct check on the other.
Koubek, Edward J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 254.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Ion Exchange
Mercurimetric determination of chloride in Lite Salt. A freshman chemistry experiment  Long, G. G.; Hentz, F. C., Jr.
A titration that can be used to determine Cl-, Br-, or I- in a wide variety of mixtures.
Long, G. G.; Hentz, F. C., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 714.
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Consumer Chemistry
Ksp experiment: The solubility product for barium hydroxide  Reynolds, John P.
Two procedures for determining the solubility product of barium hydroxide and the effect of temperature on Ksp.
Reynolds, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 521.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
A logic diagram for teaching stoichiometry  Tyndall, John R.
Presents a diagram that the author found helpful in teaching the fundamentals of stoichiometry.
Tyndall, John R. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 492.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Determining an endpoint by the appearance of precipitate  Cochran, George T.; Hobart, David E.
A method for dependably identifying the endpoint in the titration of various concentrations of iodide solutions with lead(II).
Cochran, George T.; Hobart, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 459.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Precipitation / Solubility
Maximizing profits in equilibrium processes  Rish, Ronald J.
Provides the student with an example in which both chemical principles and calculus are applied to a realistic industrial situation where profits are a must.
Rish, Ronald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 441.
Equilibrium |
Industrial Chemistry |
Chemometrics
Modification of a constant flow buret  Sturtevant, Floyd; Hartman, Kenneth
Modification and testing of an earlier presented design for of a constant flow buret.
Sturtevant, Floyd; Hartman, Kenneth J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 393.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Quantitative Analysis
Computer simulated titration curves  Wilson, C. E.
Three computer programs for generating theoretical titration curves.
Wilson, C. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 344.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Molar solubility calculations and the control equilibrium  Chaston, S. H. H.
The Control-Equilibrium method uses as its starting point a precise procedure for obtaining the equilibrium that accounts for the bulk of the decomposition of starting materials.
Chaston, S. H. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 206.
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics |
Equilibrium
A computer generated titration exercise  Bishop, Craig V.; Wartell, M. A.
A computer program which is designed for use as an exercise in teaching titration and use of titration curves.
Bishop, Craig V.; Wartell, M. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 187.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Mysterious stoichiometry  Bowman, L. H.; Shull, C. M.
The student's task in this experiment is to determine the composition of a compound of chromium produced in an electrolytic cell.
Bowman, L. H.; Shull, C. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 186.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Stoichiometry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
Illustrating large and small numbers. A problem for the birds  Sattler, Louis
A calculation designed to illustrate the relative size of Avogadro's number. The solution from p. 181 is reproduced in this PDF.
Sattler, Louis J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 180.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
FeSCN2+ - A computer aid to the CHEM Study experiment  McCall, Arthur J., Jr.
A Fortran program assists in making the calculations that accompany investigation of the iron(III)thiocyanate equilibrium system.
McCall, Arthur J., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 118.
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Chemometrics
An easily fabricated pH cell  Hendrixson, R. R.
A pH cell for use in titration experiments where the solution should be protected from the air.
Hendrixson, R. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 109.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
pH |
Quantitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
A computer program for the analysis of titration data  Scholler, D. M.; Lyndrup, M. L.
A computer program to analyze titration data for monoprotic and diprotic acids.
Scholler, D. M.; Lyndrup, M. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 106.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
pH
Discussion: Mathematics in the first-year chemistry course  Richter, G. P.
Report of the Third Biennial Conference on Chemical Education and the Second Centennial of Chemistry Celebration.
Richter, G. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 19.
Conferences |
Professional Development |
Chemometrics
A study of water pollution. An undergraduate chemistry laboratory experience  Sarkis, Vahak D.
In addition to its environmental relevance, a water pollution study of the inorganic constituents in water as outlined in this article, provides the student with certain important principles of chemistry namely, colorimetric and titrimetric procedures.
Sarkis, Vahak D. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 745.
Applications of Chemistry |
Metals |
Green Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Theoretical shape of acid-base titration curves without using logarithms   Vennos, Mary S.
This presentation of the acid-base titration curve relates to interests students in paramedical careers might have.
Vennos, Mary S. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 631.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Nonmajor Courses
A simple recording titrator  Walton, Harold F.
Design and use of a simple recording titrator.
Walton, Harold F. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 795.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
A graphical-analytical iterative procedure for equivalence point determinations  Sellers, Neal G.; Caruso, Joseph A.
An iterative approach has been developed that combines graphical measurements with analytical calculations to give an exact potentiometric endpoint irrespective of the stoichiometry of the reaction and magnitude of the associated equilibrium constants.
Sellers, Neal G.; Caruso, Joseph A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 547.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
A computer program for heat of combustion calculations  Wilhoit, Randolph C.; Bell, Mary Ellen; Subach, Daniel J.; Chen, Carol
A computer program is available for converting raw combustion data to the standard state energy of combustion.
Wilhoit, Randolph C.; Bell, Mary Ellen; Subach, Daniel J.; Chen, Carol J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 486.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Chemometrics
A use for broken glass electrodes  Davidson, John E.
Once broken, the electrode can still be used as an indicator electrode for a potentiometric precipitation titration of silver or halide ions.
Davidson, John E. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 375.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis
A quick scored item analysis for objective tests  Stokes, Jimmy C.; Strickland, James F., Jr.
Analyzing test data with students in the classroom.
Stokes, Jimmy C.; Strickland, James F., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 354.
Chemometrics
A simple, effective demonstration of titration curves and indicator selection  Nathan, Lawrence C.
The concepts of acid-base titration curves and selection of the appropriate indicator for an acid-base titration can be easily and effectively demonstrated by use of a potentiometric titration.
Nathan, Lawrence C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 262.
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH |
Quantitative Analysis
Enthalpy and entropy of evaporation from measured vapor pressure using a programmable desk calculator  McEachern, Douglas M.
A program for a calculator that calculates the heat of evaporation of a solid or a liquid and the corresponding entropy change.
McEachern, Douglas M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 190.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Chemometrics
Problem solving for chemistry (Peters, Edward I.)  Fiekers, Bernard A., S. J.

Fiekers, Bernard A., S. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A491.
Chemometrics
Chemical calculations (Benson, Sidney W.)  Melgaard, Kennett G.

Melgaard, Kennett G. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, A98.
Chemometrics
The determination of dissolved oxygen by the Winkler method. A student laboratory experiment  McCormick, Patrick G.
This method is based on the reaction between oxygen and a suspension of manganese(II) hydroxide in a strongly alkaline solution.
McCormick, Patrick G. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 839.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Gases |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Significant digits in logarithm-antilogarithm interconversions  Jones, Donald E.
Most textbooks are in error in the proper use of significant digits when interconverting logarithms and antilogarithms.
Jones, Donald E. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 753.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
A "relevant" first experiment for freshman chemistry laboratory  Macomber, Roger S.
This activity involves popping corn and introduces students to the processes of observation and inference as well as the use of the analytical balance and gravimetric procedure.
Macomber, Roger S. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 714.
Chemometrics
An interactive program for teaching pH and logarithms  Eskinazi, Jak; Macero, Daniel J.
A computer program written in APL for teaching students logarithms and pH calculations.
Eskinazi, Jak; Macero, Daniel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 571.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics
The hydroxylaminolysis of penicillin G. A kinetic experiment  Stuckwisch, C. G.
Penicillin reacts with hydroxylamine to yield a hydroxamic acid, which gives a colored complex with iron (III).
Stuckwisch, C. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 539.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Gravimetric titrimetry. A neglected technique  Butler, Eliot A.; Swift, Ernest H.
Describes the gravimetric buret and its use in quantitative measurements.
Butler, Eliot A.; Swift, Ernest H. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 425.
Gravimetric Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
The two-place logarithm table. An aid to understanding and use of logarithms  Freiser, Henry
Presents a two-place logarithm table that serves to aid the understanding and use of logarithms.
Freiser, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 325.
Chemometrics
Programmable calculators. Simulated experiments  Runquist, O.; Olsen, Rodney; Snadden, Bruce
Describes how titration and reaction rate experiments can be simulated on a programmable calculator.
Runquist, O.; Olsen, Rodney; Snadden, Bruce J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 265.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
pH
A general chemistry experiment for the blind  Hiemenz, Paul C.; Pfeiffer, EIizabeth
Presents a method for weighing and a conductometric titration that relies on an audio signal.
Hiemenz, Paul C.; Pfeiffer, EIizabeth J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 263.
Minorities in Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Electrochemistry
Computer evaluation of titrations by Gran's method. An analytical chemistry experiment  MacDonald, Timothy J.; Barker, Barbara J.; Caruso, Joseph A.
A computer program has been developed for the evaluation of potentiometric redox titration data by Gran's method.
MacDonald, Timothy J.; Barker, Barbara J.; Caruso, Joseph A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 200.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry |
Acids / Bases
Density of a binary mixture. A classroom or laboratory exercise  Feinstein, H. I.
Provides a hypothetical problem in the density of a binary mixture.
Feinstein, H. I. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 111.
Physical Properties |
Chemometrics
Using alligation alternate to solve composition problems  Mancott, Anatol
Problems involving the composition of mixtures may be solved by using the relatively obscure method of "alligation alternate" in lieu of the standard algebraic procedure with no loss in accuracy; includes five examples.
Mancott, Anatol J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 57.
Chemometrics |
Solutions / Solvents |
Isotopes
Audio taped explanations of freshman experimental calculations  Harrison, Aline M.
The authors have found audio tapes to be effective replacements for live, in-lab explanations of experimental calculations.
Harrison, Aline M. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 826.
Chemometrics |
Laboratory Management
SI units in physico-chemical calculations  Norris, A. C.
This article demonstrates how the adoption of SI units affects some of the more important physico-chemical calculations found at the undergraduate level.
Norris, A. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 797.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Differential titration for Ksp determination  Krieger, Albert G.
Brief note recommending the use of silver electrodes for the determination of Ksp of silver acetate.
Krieger, Albert G. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 842.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Ion Exchange
Acid-base reaction parameters  Freiser, Henry
The author demonstrates how the combined algebraic graphical approach can be extended to acid-base titration curve calculations as well as to buffer and sharpness index formulation.
Freiser, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 809.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics
Grading the copper sulfide experiment  Novick, Seymour
The author recommends a more liberal analysis in grading the copper sulfide experiment.
Novick, Seymour J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 785.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Chemical exponentialism for beginners  Larson, G. Olof
Presents a method for introducing and reviewing exponential mathematical operations.
Larson, G. Olof J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 693.
Chemometrics
Determination of successive ionization constants: A computer assisted laboratory experiment  Jensen, R. E.; Garvey, R. G.; Paulson, B. A.
The computer programs described here plot students' titration data, locate equivalence points of the titration, calculate the apparent equivalent mass of the acid, and determine the successive ionization constants of the acid.
Jensen, R. E.; Garvey, R. G.; Paulson, B. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 147.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Hydrolysis of sodium carbonate  Nakayama, F. S.
Presents a procedure for obtaining the ion concentrations of the various component species produced by the hydrolysis of sodium carbonate.
Nakayama, F. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 67.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Chemometrics |
pH
Component concentrations in solutions of weak acids  Goldish, Dorothy M.
presents a new approach to teaching the subject of weak acid equilibria and its associated calculations.
Goldish, Dorothy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 65.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
pH
Essential Math for the Sciences: Algebra, Trigonometry, and Vectors (Beiser, Arthur)  Reuland, Donald J.

Reuland, Donald J. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A899.
Chemometrics
An inexpensive motor-driven buret  Hansen, Lee D.; Litchman, William M.; Lewis, Edwin A.; Allred, Ronald E.
Presents a design for as inexpensive motor-driven buret that relies on a micrometer syringe and a constant-speed electric motor.
Hansen, Lee D.; Litchman, William M.; Lewis, Edwin A.; Allred, Ronald E. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 876.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Laboratory Management
Transistorized power sources for constant current coulometric titration  Stock, John T.
This coulometric titrator uses a complementary pair of transistors to minimize heating affects and improve stability with respect to temperature; an example of experimental use for the apparatus is included.
Stock, John T. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 858.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Electrochemistry
Volkswagen versus the hummingbird  Nebbia, Giorgio
Questions the cited (046-07-0455) thermodynamic calculations.
Nebbia, Giorgio J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 701.
Thermodynamics |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Chemometrics
LTE.  Crocker, Roger
The author points out that the objections raised to his earlier work are academic.
Crocker, Roger J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 699.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
LTE. Algebra and chemical equations  Copley, George Novello
The author questions the mathematic validity of the cited work.
Copley, George Novello J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 699.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
A versatile reagent for general chemistry  Dauphinee, G. A.; Heit, M. L.
This short note lists seven general chemistry experiments on various aspects of potassium hydrogen oxalate.
Dauphinee, G. A.; Heit, M. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 660.
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis
A simple amperostat for coulometric titration  Vincent, Colin A.; Ward, J. G.
Describes the circuit, assembly, and performance of a simple amperostat for coulometric titration.
Vincent, Colin A.; Ward, J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 613.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Electrochemistry
The oxidation states of molybdenum  Stark, J. G.
This experiment involves a titrimetric determination of the oxidation states of molybdenum.
Stark, J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 505.
Oxidation State |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Transition Elements
Fuel conversion in transport phenomena  Gerlach, E. R.
Calculations comparing the fuel efficiency of a hummingbird with that of a Volkswagen.
Gerlach, E. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 455.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Chemometrics |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
A distribution experiment  Campbell, J. A.; Nelson, Douglas; Rudesill, John
An experiment to determine the distribution coefficient of an acid between an aqueous and nonaqueous phase.
Campbell, J. A.; Nelson, Douglas; Rudesill, John J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 454.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Equilibrium |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
A computerized soda ash experiment for first-year college chemistry  Dinga, Gustav P.
A modification of the traditional soda ash experiment to include a double indicator titration, pH titration, plotting of first and second derivative plots, and calculation of data by a computer.
Dinga, Gustav P. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 60.
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Circular slide rule conversion of pH to [H+]  Grimm, Larry C.
This short note discusses the use of a circular slide rule to convert pH to [H+].
Grimm, Larry C. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 22.
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Hazardous chemicals data  National Fire Protection Association
Explains aspects of chemical hazard data and presents hazards associated with acetaldehyde.
National Fire Protection Association J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A115.
Chemometrics |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Laboratory Management
Corrections for simple equations for titration curves of monoprotic acids  Cortelyou, W. P.
Presents corrections for simple equations for titration curves of monoprotic acids and their derivations.
Cortelyou, W. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 677.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Is a weak acid monoprotic? A new look at titration curves  Sturrock, Peter E.
It is suggested that experimental values of ?pH may be employed as a simple, yet sensitive, criterion to determine whether an unknown acid is monoprotic.
Sturrock, Peter E. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 258.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH
Coulometric titration of cyclohexene with bromine  Evans, Dennis H.
Describes the coulometric titration of cyclohexene with bromine appropriate for an introductory course.
Evans, Dennis H. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 88.
Electrochemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Chlorine trifluoride.  Steere, Norman V.
Summarizes the hazards associated with chlorine trifluoride.
Steere, Norman V. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A1057.
Chemometrics |
Laboratory Management
Letter to the editor  Bhatnagar, Vijay Mohan
Distinguishes between alpha- and beta-amylose and their mixtures, particular with respect to iodimetric titrations.
Bhatnagar, Vijay Mohan J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 771.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Carbohydrates
The stoichiometry of an oxidation-reduction reaction  Latimer, George W., Jr.
A short note on the titration of hydrazine sulfate with standard bromate in the presence of sodium molybdate that requires students to identify the products through the use of some elementary qualitative analysis.
Latimer, George W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 537.
Stoichiometry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis
Syntheses and titrations of unknown acids: A general chemistry laboratory experiment  Kauffman, George B.; Houghten, Richard A., Jr.
Students prepare a solid unknown acid from an unknown starting material and then determine its equivalent weight by titration with a standard base.
Kauffman, George B.; Houghten, Richard A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 408.
Acids / Bases |
Synthesis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Acid-base titration and distribution curves  Waser, Jurg
Presents an alternative method for the calculation of acid-base titration curves.
Waser, Jurg J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 274.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The significance of significant figures  Pinkerton, Richard C.; Gleit, Chester E.
This paper is an attempt to clarify some of our ideas about numerical data, measurements, mathematical operations, and significant figures.
Pinkerton, Richard C.; Gleit, Chester E. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 232.
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Chemometrics
Gravimetric titrations in the introductory chemistry laboratory  Christian, Robert, Jr.
This short note suggests the use of single pan balances for gravimetric titrations in lieu of titrations requiring burets.
Christian, Robert, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 144.
Gravimetric Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Ionization, Electricity D. Special electrical phenomena   Bernard, Robert; Slabaugh, W. H.
Demonstrations include cation analysis, conductivity during the titration of Ba(OH)2 + HCl vs H2C2O4, and conductivity during the titration of Ba(OH)2 + HCl vs H3PO4.
Bernard, Robert; Slabaugh, W. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, A901.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Conductivity
A new twist to Ksp evaluation  Hazel, J. Fred
Evaluating the concentration of slightly soluble slats by passing the saturated solution through a cation resin and titrating the resulting acid in the eluate.
Hazel, J. Fred J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 636.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Theoretical error in acid-base titrations  Butcher, John; Quintus, Fernanado
The purpose of this report is to describe simple derivations of equations for titration error calculations for a number of acid-base titrations, and to show error curves for some typical cases.
Butcher, John; Quintus, Fernanado J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 546.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases
Lewis acid-base titration in fused salts  Schlegel, James M.
Dichromate ion, a Lewis acid, is titrated with carbonate ion, a Lewis base, in a fused KNO3-NaNO3 solvent.
Schlegel, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 362.
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Simple equipment for automatic potentiometric pH titrations  Olsen, Eugene D.
This paper describes a simple yet versatile apparatus employing a siphon pipet to deliver titrant solution automatically and accurately during the course of a titration.
Olsen, Eugene D. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 310.
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The non-aqueous titration of the salts of weak acids  Latimer, George W., Jr.
A method for the HClO4 titration of the salts of carboxylic acid in glacial acetic acid.
Latimer, George W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 215.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Statistical analysis of data in the general chemistry laboratory  Chapin, Earl C.; Burns, Richard F.
Students are asked to analyze data collected with respect to determinations of Dumas molecular weight, equivalent weight of a metal, equivalent weight of an acid, and molecular weight by freezing point depression.
Chapin, Earl C.; Burns, Richard F. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 564.
Chemometrics
Potentiometric titration of aspirin in ethanol  Shen, Samuel Y.; Gilman, Alfred J.
This experiment illustrates the potentiometric end point in nonaqueous acid-base titrations.
Shen, Samuel Y.; Gilman, Alfred J. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 540.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases
Experimental approach to stoichiometry. In first-year chemistry at Northwestern  King, L. Carroll; Cooper, Milton
Presents five experiments in which students are given a minimal set of directions and a simply stated objective.
King, L. Carroll; Cooper, Milton J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 464.
Stoichiometry |
Coordination Compounds |
Undergraduate Research |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
A simple constant-flow device for use in titrimetric analysis  van Swaay, M.; Lolley, R. F.
Presents the design and an evaluation of performance for a simple constant-flow device for use in titrimetric analysis.
van Swaay, M.; Lolley, R. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 381.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
Computer program for the calculation of acid-base titration curves  Emery, Allan R.
Describes the development of a computer program for the calculation of acid-base titration curves.
Emery, Allan R. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 131.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Chemometrics
Teaching ionic equilibrium: Use of log chart transparencies  Freiser, Henry; Fernando, Quintus
The use of graphical methods brings the problem of significance of various terms in complicated expressions into proper focus. Furthermore, a pictorial representation permits the student to see at a glance how the concentrations of various species in a system at equilibrium change with conditions.
Freiser, Henry; Fernando, Quintus J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 35.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Chemometrics |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Solubility and pH Calculations (Butler, James N.)  Ramette, R. W.

Ramette, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A970.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Chemometrics |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Problem solving in chemistry (Tilbury, Glen)  Whitney, Richard M.

Whitney, Richard M. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A532.
Chemometrics |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Overhead projection with the pH meter  Hoff, Darrel B.
Describes a means of projecting an image of a pH meter.
Hoff, Darrel B. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 662.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Operator formalism in dimensional analysis  Musulin, Boris
Describes another approach to dimensional analysis.
Musulin, Boris J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 622.
Chemometrics
Automatic titrimetry in introductory college chemistry  Zajicek, O. T.
The experiment described here employs an automatic pH titrator as a tool for the teaching of a detailed treatment of simultaneous equilibria.
Zajicek, O. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 554.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium
The Carnot cycle and Maxwell's relations  Nash, Leonard K.
Maxwells equations can be derived from nothing more than the Carnot cycle and the deployment of the simplest plane geometry.
Nash, Leonard K. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 368.
Thermodynamics |
Chemometrics
Beer's law without calculus  Pinkerton, Richard C.
There is no good reason for using calculus in the presentation of Beer's law.
Pinkerton, Richard C. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 366.
Chemometrics
A method of visual representation of three dimensional functions  Lemlich, Arthur; Zinsser, Hans H.
Lego blocks are used to visually represent three-dimensional functions.
Lemlich, Arthur; Zinsser, Hans H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 165.
Chemometrics |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
Analysis of aspirin: A conductometric titration  Proctor, J. S.; Roberts, J. E.
Suggests research questions based on an earlier published article.
Proctor, J. S.; Roberts, J. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A306.
Undergraduate Research |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Conductivity
An amperometric-kinetic experiment emphasizing the importance of error treatment  Young, J. A.
Provides suggestions for student research based on an earlier article published in the Journal.
Young, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A139.
Undergraduate Research |
Kinetics |
Chemometrics
Chemical calculations (Benson, Sidney W.)  Masterton, William L.

Masterton, William L. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 499.
Chemometrics |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Some experiments on the stoichiometry of reactions  Tietzie, H. R.
Students establish the stoichiometry of several reactions through volumetric analysis.
Tietzie, H. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 344.
Stoichiometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Basic mathematics of science and engineering (Wood, Reuben E.)  Rosenberg, Robert M.

Rosenberg, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A60.
Chemometrics |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Balancing ionic equations by the method of undetermined coefficients  Haas, Rudy; Gayer, Karl H.
Describes a mathematical method for balancing chemical equations.
Haas, Rudy; Gayer, Karl H. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 537.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
Laboratory group exercises in acid-base theory  Zuehlke, R. W.
An experiment to introduce the topic of acid-base titrimetry and illustrate the properties of acids and bases.
Zuehlke, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 354.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH
Writing a chemical equation from titration data: Experiment for general chemistry  State, Harold M.
Students titrate phosphoric acid with sodium hydroxide to determine the chemical formula of Na2HPO4.
State, Harold M. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 297.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Stoichiometry
Demonstrations for the overhead projector  Spiegler, K. S.; Gruenberg, J.; Trattner, Adriana; Weiss, W.
Demonstrations include the production of iron, potentiometric titration, photography, and the measurement of pH by indicators.
Spiegler, K. S.; Gruenberg, J.; Trattner, Adriana; Weiss, W. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 86.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
A simple method for finding slopes  Hoare, James P.
Describes a simple method for determining the tangent at any point on a given curve using a solid glass rod.
Hoare, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 570.
Chemometrics
An approach to complex equilibrium problems  Butler, James N.
Presents an approach to equilibrium problems that sets up enough equations relating the various concentrations present to define the system completely and then makes approximations that simplify the equations.
Butler, James N. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 141.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Weight titrations revived  Thoburn, James M.
With the use of syringes and automatic balances, it is possible to make weight titrations more practical than ordinary volumetric determinations.
Thoburn, James M. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 616.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Letters to the editor  Radley, Edward T.
A suggestion to improve the precision of titrations without burets.
Radley, Edward T. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 474.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Titration without burets  Gaddis, Shirley W.
Describes the use of small polyethylene bottles to measure the acid strength of vinegar.
Gaddis, Shirley W. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 290.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Initial ratio of reactants to give, at equilibrium, a maximum yield of products  Haslam, E.
Derivation of the initial ratio of reactants to give, at equilibrium, a maximum yield of products.
Haslam, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 471.
Stoichiometry |
Chemometrics
An exact titration equation  Bolie, Victor W.
The purpose of this paper is to show the development of a titration equation for a precipitation reaction which is exact in the mathematical sense.
Bolie, Victor W. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 449.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics |
Undergraduate Research
Radioactive decay calculations without calculus  Guenther, William B.
Presents a method for half-life calculations that does not rely on the use of calculus.
Guenther, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 414.
Chemometrics |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
Inexpensive, nonclogging, non-freezing buret valve  Crawford, Crayton M.
Presents a design for a nonclogging, non-freezing buret valve.
Crawford, Crayton M. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 380.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Solution of problems in chemistry  Trousdale, Everett A.
Presents a method for analyzing and solving mole calculations.
Trousdale, Everett A. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 299.
Chemometrics |
Stoichiometry
Dimensional analysis of chemical laws and theories  Benfey, O. Theodore
The dimensional analysis of the kinetic theory and organic structural theory.
Benfey, O. Theodore J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 286.
Chemometrics |
Kinetic-Molecular Theory
On the second order rate equation  Said, Abdel S.
Presents a derivation of the rate equation of a second order reaction.
Said, Abdel S. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 251.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
Chemometrics
A formula for indirect gravimetry  Fiekers, B. A.
Derivation of a formula for indirect gravimetry and application to a sample problem.
Fiekers, B. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 575.
Gravimetric Analysis |
Chemometrics |
Quantitative Analysis
A graphical method for determining the order of homogeneous reactions  Wright, J. H.; Black, J. H.; Coull, James
Provides a review of classical kinetics, derivation of the reaction order equation, and the determination of reaction order using a graph provided.
Wright, J. H.; Black, J. H.; Coull, James J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 542.
Kinetics |
Chemometrics
Fluorescent lighting as an analytical hazard  Bishop, John A.
Fluorescent lighting in an analytical laboratory decomposes AgCl precipitates, obscuring certain titrations.
Bishop, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 372.
Photochemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Laboratory Management
Indicators and the basis for their use  Gorin, George
Describes the method for selecting appropriate indicators and the teaching of this subject.
Gorin, George J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 318.
Dyes / Pigments |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
pH
The experimental determination of an error distribution  Nelson, Lloyd S.
Discusses an experiment in which students are asked to the average deviation and probable errors in their measurements.
Nelson, Lloyd S. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 126.
Chemometrics
Pocket slide rule for pH calculations  Pitzer, Edgar C.
A pocket slide rule may be used for direct conversion from hydrogen-ion activity to pH, or vice versa, without the need for arithmetical computation.
Pitzer, Edgar C. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 300.
pH |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Chemometrics
Finding the rest point of an undamped analytical balance  Stacy, Irving F.
Provides a mathematical analysis for finding the rest point of an undamped analytical balance.
Stacy, Irving F. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 90.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
Chemometrics
A general equation for approximate hydronium ion calculations  Drenan, James W.
Presents a general equation for simplifying calculations of the hydronium ion.
Drenan, James W. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 36.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
pH |
Chemometrics
Proper place problems  MacKenzie, Scott
A mathematical analysis of evaluating problems in which students are asked to place items in the correct order.
MacKenzie, Scott J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 428.
Chemometrics
A log table for pH problems  Condon, Francis E.
Provides a readily remembered log table suitable for computing pH from hydronium-ion concentration and the reverse.
Condon, Francis E. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 323.
pH |
Chemometrics |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Letters to the editor  Weaver, Elbert C.
Acknowledges and corrects an error in the referenced article regarding an example of Pearson's square.
Weaver, Elbert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 102.
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics
Letters to the editor  Wescott, Emery N.
Points out an error in the referenced article regarding an example of Pearson's square.
Wescott, Emery N. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 101.
Solutions / Solvents |
Chemometrics
Mathematical chemistry  Swinbourne, Ellice S.; Lark, P. David
Examines some of the challenges involved in the design of a course in mathematics suitable for undergraduate chemists.
Swinbourne, Ellice S.; Lark, P. David J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 570.
Chemometrics |
Mathematics / Symbolic Mathematics
A procedure for solving equilibrium problems  Boyd, Robert Neilson
A procedure for solving equilibrium problems is illustrated through several sample problems.
Boyd, Robert Neilson J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 198.
Equilibrium |
Chemometrics |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry