TIGER

Journal Articles: 45 results
Refractive Index Determination of Transparent Polymers: Experimental Setup for Multi-Wavelength Determination and Calculation at Specific Frequencies Using Group Contribution Theory  Jay Dlutowski, Andres M. Cardenas-Valencia, David Fries, and Larry Langebrake
A simple lab that clearly shows the dependence of light reflection on the angle of incidence for transparent polymers is described. Light transmission measurements are used to determine the reflection magnitude and the refractive index of the material.
Dlutowski, Jay; Cardenas-Valencia, Andres M.; Fries, David; Langebrake, Larry. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1867.
Physical Properties |
Polymerization |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Molecular Handshake: Recognition through Weak Noncovalent Interactions  Parvathi S. Murthy
This article traces the development of our thinking about molecular recognition through noncovalent interactions, highlights their salient features, and suggests ways for comprehensive education on this important concept.
Murthy, Parvathi S. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1010.
Applications of Chemistry |
Biosignaling |
Membranes |
Molecular Recognition |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Chromatography |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Polymerization |
Reactions
Teaching Chemistry Laboratory Skills in Industrial Contexts  Julianne M. Braun and Carol White
A recently completed project has produced a compilation of 40 laboratory experiments presented within the contexts of five major industries. This article provides a summary of these experiments, along with a discussion of ancillary materials.
Braun, Julianne M.; White, Carol. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 353.
Applications of Chemistry |
Industrial Chemistry |
Metals |
Polymerization |
Water / Water Chemistry
A Green Polymerization of Aspartic Acid for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory  George D. Bennett
Based on a technology that won a Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Award, this experiment involves the thermal polymerization of aspartic acid and subsequent hydrolysis to give sodium poly(aspartate). The procedure is suitable for introducing students to the important topic of polymers and for illustrating several of the principles of green chemistry.
Bennett, George D. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1380.
Green Chemistry |
Synthesis |
Industrial Chemistry |
Natural Products |
Polymerization |
Proteins / Peptides
Thermal Degradation and Identification of Heat-Sensitive Polymers. Applications of Pyrolysis and Distillation and Instrumental Methods of Analysis  Stuart C. Clough and Emma W. Goldman
An experiment for undergraduate teaching laboratories is described that involves the identification of samples of polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate). This involves the thermal degradation of the polymers (a destructive distillation) into their respective monomers. The monomers are then identified using infrared spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and gas chromatographymass spectrometry.
Clough, Stuart C.; Goldman, Emma W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1378.
Nonmajor Courses |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Polymerization
Polymers (Oxford Chemistry Primers No. 85) (David Walton and J. Phillip Lorimer)  John H. Shibata
Although the title suggests a broad, general coverage of polymers, in reality this book focuses primarily on synthesis and the macroscopic properties of polymers. A significant portion of the book emphasizes practical considerations of polymerscommercial aspects determined by the properties of polymers and the industrial processes for polymer synthesis and three-dimensional network formation. In many cases, specific polymer types and materials are described in detail. The concreteness of explicit examples to illustrate the principles of polymerization and the properties of networks and functional polymers are appropriate for readers seeking a practical introduction to polymers.
Shibata, John H. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 533.
Polymerization |
Synthesis
Chemical Recycling of Pop Bottles: The Synthesis of Dibenzyl Terephthalate from the Plastic Polyethylene Terephthalate  Craig J. Donahue, Jennifer A. Exline, and Cynthia Warner
Procedure in which students depolymerize a common plastic (PET from 2-L pop bottles) under mild conditions using nontoxic chemicals to produce monomer building blocks.
Donahue, Craig J.; Exline, Jennifer A.; Warner, Cynthia. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 79.
Industrial Chemistry |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Polymerization
Bromination, Elimination, and Polymerization: A 3-Step Sequence for the Preparation of Polystyrene from Ethylbenzene  Elizabeth M. Sanford and Heather L. Hermann
An organic chemistry lab that introduces students to polymer chemistry is presented. Students complete a radical bromination of ethylbenzene, which is followed by elimination to give styrene. A radical polymerization is then completed to produce polystyrene.
Sanford, Elizabeth M.; Hermann, Heather L. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1343.
Free Radicals |
Synthesis |
Polymerization
Not So Late Night Chemistry with USD  Koppang, Miles D.; Webb, Karl M.; Srinivasan, Rekha R.
Through the program, college students enhance their knowledge and expertise on a chemical topic and gain experience in scientific presentations. They also serve as role models to the high school students who can relate to college students more easily than the chemistry faculty members and their high school students.
Koppang, Miles D.; Webb, Karl M.; Srinivasan, Rekha R. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 929.
Forensic Chemistry |
Polymerization |
Electrochemistry |
Isotopes |
Acids / Bases
Using Formal Charges in Teaching Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry  DeWit, David G.
Using the concept of formal charges to predict bond properties, determine molecular structure, and explain reactivities and the tendency to polymerize.
DeWit, David G. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 750.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Lewis Structures |
Polymerization
Polymer additives: III. Surface property and processing modifiers  Stevens, Malcolm P.
The final installment of a three-part paper on the subject of polymer additives. Some of the properties these additives bring to polymers are: anti-blocking agents, anti-fogging agents, antistatic agents, coupling and releasing agents, blowing and crosslinking agents, defoaming agents, emulsifiers, and heat stabilizers.
Stevens, Malcolm P. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 713.
Polymerization |
Materials Science |
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry
Polymer spherulites: II. Crystallization kinetics  Marentette, J. M.; Brown, G. R.
A commonplace polarized light microscope equipped with a hot stage permits examination of crystallization kinetics in addition to morphology and birefringence.
Marentette, J. M.; Brown, G. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 539.
Kinetics |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Polymerization
Polymer additives: II. Chemical and aesthetic property modifiers  Stevens, Malcolm P.
Part two of a series that picks up on a discussion of additives that alter chemical and aesthetic properties of polymers.
Stevens, Malcolm P. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 535.
Materials Science |
Polymerization |
Dyes / Pigments |
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry
Differential scanning calorimetry study of the cross-linking of styrene and an unsaturated polyester: The chemistry of canoe manufacture.  Vebrel, Joel; Grohens, Yves; Kadmiri, Abderazak; Gowling, Eric W.
An activity geared toward a course where experiments are designed to investigate the preparation of materials, the properties essential to understanding their formation, and the optimization of their application.
Vebrel, Joel; Grohens, Yves; Kadmiri, Abderazak; Gowling, Eric W. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 501.
Materials Science |
Polymerization |
Reactions |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
Identifying polymers through combustion and density   Blumberg, Avrom A.
Using analytical chemistry class experiences as a way to not only quantitatively and qualitatively analyze substances, but also to gain practical experience with characteristic chemical reactions of those substances.
Blumberg, Avrom A. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 399.
Physical Properties |
Qualitative Analysis |
Polymerization |
Quantitative Analysis
The Aqueous Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization of Furan-Maleic Anhydride Adduct: Increased Catalytic Activity Using a Recyclable Transition Metal Catalyst  Viswanathan, Tito; Jethmalani, Jagdish
ROMP offers an opportunity for an experiment that should fit well within the context of a laboratory in organic or polymer chemistry because the experimental yield can be characterized at the molecular level.
Viswanathan, Tito; Jethmalani, Jagdish J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 165.
Polymerization |
NMR Spectroscopy
Interfacial polymerizations: Microscale polymer laboratory experiments for undergraduate students.  Lewis, Ronald G.; Choquette, Michael; Darden, Edward H.; Gilbert, Mark P.; Martinez, Douglas; Myhaver, Cindy; Schlichter, Karen; Woudenberg, Richard; Zawistowski, Keith.
Experimental procedure for vinyl polymerizations modified to fit a microscale format.
Lewis, Ronald G.; Choquette, Michael; Darden, Edward H.; Gilbert, Mark P.; Martinez, Douglas; Myhaver, Cindy; Schlichter, Karen; Woudenberg, Richard; Zawistowski, Keith. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A215.
Polymerization |
Microscale Lab |
Surface Science
Free-radical polymerization of acrylamide  Silversmith, Ernest F.
A rapid and foolproof thermal polymerization.
Silversmith, Ernest F. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 763.
Free Radicals |
Polymerization |
Reactions
Synthesis of a phenol-formaldehyde thermosetting polymer  Bedard, Y.; Riedl, B.
Procedure that allows for the synthesis of a 50% aqueous solution of a prepolymer that, with the proper application of heat and pressure, can be used to bind together wood or other materials.
Bedard, Y.; Riedl, B. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 977.
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Phenols |
Polymerization
Classroom demonstrations of polymer principles. Part II. Polymer formation  Rodriguez, F.; Mathias, L. J.; Kroschwitz, J.; Carraher, C. E., Jr.
Photopolymerization of acrylamide, bulk polymerization of methyl methacrylate, phenolic resins, and household adhesives and sealants.
Rodriguez, F.; Mathias, L. J.; Kroschwitz, J.; Carraher, C. E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 886.
Polymerization
Synthesis and a simple molecular weight determination of polystyrene  Armstrong, Daniel W.; Marx, John N.; Kyle, Don; Alak, Ala
Procedure for synthesizing styrene and determining its molecular weight using thin layer chromatography.
Armstrong, Daniel W.; Marx, John N.; Kyle, Don; Alak, Ala J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 705.
Synthesis |
Polymerization |
Chromatography
On the crosslinked structure of rubber: Classroom demonstration or experiment: A quantitative determination by swelling  Sperling, L. H.; Michael, T. C.
Uses a rubber band to examine the crosslinked behavior of rubber.
Sperling, L. H.; Michael, T. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 651.
Applications of Chemistry |
Polymerization |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Competency-based modular experiments in polymer science and technology  Pearce, Eli M.; Wright, Carl E.; Bordoloi, Binoy K.
15 modular experiments in polymer science are listed; one of these is presented in detail.
Pearce, Eli M.; Wright, Carl E.; Bordoloi, Binoy K. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 375.
Polymerization
Polymer preparations in the laboratory  Lampman, Gary M.; Ford, Doug W.; Hale, Wayne R.; Pinkers, Arthur; Sewell, Christopher G.
Some convenient procedures for preparing polymers that have been used in a course for industrial arts students.
Lampman, Gary M.; Ford, Doug W.; Hale, Wayne R.; Pinkers, Arthur; Sewell, Christopher G. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 626.
Polymerization |
Nonmajor Courses |
Industrial Chemistry
Polymer photophysics: A negative photoresist  Bramwell, Fitzgerald B.; Zadjura, Richard E.; Stemp, Leo; Fahrenholtz, Susan R.; Flowers, John M.
A negative photoresist is formulated that consists of a solution of a photosensitive film-forming polymer or resin that is used to create the negative image of an object on a glass slide.
Bramwell, Fitzgerald B.; Zadjura, Richard E.; Stemp, Leo; Fahrenholtz, Susan R.; Flowers, John M. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 541.
Photochemistry |
Polymerization
Ethylene: The organic chemical industry's most important building block  Fernelius, Condrad W.; Wittcoff, Harold; Varnerin, Robert E.
The sources, chemistry, and industrial uses of ethylene.
Fernelius, Condrad W.; Wittcoff, Harold; Varnerin, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 385.
Alkenes |
Industrial Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Polymerization
The Preparation of polyurethane foam: A lecture demonstration  Dirreen, Glen E.; Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.
A polyurethane foam is produced by forming a polyurethane polymer concurrently with a gas evolution process.
Dirreen, Glen E.; Shakhashiri, Bassam Z. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 431.
Reactions |
Polymerization
A demonstration of polymer crosslinking and gel formation without heating  Ross, Joseph H.
Produces an elastic gel at room temperature and provides an effective demonstration of gel properties to use in a discussion of lyophilic colloids.
Ross, Joseph H. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 110.
Polymerization |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Colloids
Polymerization as a model chain reaction  Morton, Maurice
The building of long chain macromolecules offers the best opportunity for the study of chain reactions and the free radical mechanism.
Morton, Maurice J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 740.
Conferences |
Professional Development |
Polymerization |
Reactions |
Free Radicals |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The preparation of "Bouncing Putty." An undergraduate experiment in silicone chemistry  Armitage, D. A.; Hughes, M. N.; Sinden, A. W.
Describes a method for preparing bouncing putty.
Armitage, D. A.; Hughes, M. N.; Sinden, A. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 434.
Polymerization
Non-conventional photochemical imaging processes  Sahyun, M. R. V.
Considers the history and development of non-conventional photochemical imaging processes as well as the mechanisms of the photochemical formation of dyes, photochromism, and photopolymerization.
Sahyun, M. R. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 88.
Photochemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Applications of Chemistry |
Polymerization
Reactivity ratios from copolymerization kinetics. A quantitative gas-liquid chromatography experiment  Mukatis, W. A.; Ohl, Temple
Gas-liquid chromatography is used to follow the rate of disappearance of two monomers as they polymerize.
Mukatis, W. A.; Ohl, Temple J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 367.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Polymerization |
Kinetics |
Rate Law
Taking the peel out of paint  Myers, Raymond R.
Prepolymerization and heating has helped to reduce the peeling of paint.
Myers, Raymond R. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 173.
Polymerization |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Kinetics of condensation polymerization: Preparation of a polyester  McCaffery, Edward L.
This experiment involves determining the reaction-rate constant for a condensation polymerization.
McCaffery, Edward L. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 59.
Kinetics |
Polymerization |
Synthesis |
Esters |
Rate Law
Preparation of terephthaloyl chloride: Prelude to ersatz Nylon  Rose, Norman C.
Describes the preparation of terephthaloyl chloride, from which nylon may be generated.
Rose, Norman C. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 283.
Synthesis |
Polymerization
Preparation and crosslinking of an unsaturated polyester: An organic chemistry experiment  Stevens, M. P.
Unsaturated polyesters are ideally suited for introducing students to polymer chemistry in the laboratory because they are easy to prepare, the use both condensation and addition polymerization, and they serve to demonstrate the techniques involved in preparing the most widely used polymers.
Stevens, M. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 160.
Polymerization |
Esters
The effect of structure on chemical and physical properties of polymers  Price, Charles C.
Suggests using polymers to teach the effect of changes in structure on chemical reactivity, the effect of structure on physical properties, the role of catalysts, and the basic principles of a chain reaction mechanism.
Price, Charles C. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 13.
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Polymerization |
Kinetics |
Reactions |
Catalysis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Polymer synthesis in the undergraduate organic laboratory  Sorenson, Wayne R.
Presents a series of experiments on polymer synthesis for the undergraduate organic laboratory.
Sorenson, Wayne R. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 8.
Synthesis |
Polymerization |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
PolystyreneA multistep synthesis: For the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory  Wilen, Samuel H.; Kremer, Chester B.; Waltcher, Irving
Describes a multistep synthesis in which polystyrene is synthesized from benzene.
Wilen, Samuel H.; Kremer, Chester B.; Waltcher, Irving J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 304.
Polymerization |
Synthesis
The nylon rope trick: Demonstration of condensation polymerization  Morgan, Paul W.; Kwolek, Stephanie L.
Describes the chemistry and variations of the classic polymerization demonstration.
Morgan, Paul W.; Kwolek, Stephanie L. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 182.
Polymerization
Anionic polymerization of vinyl monomers: A demonstration  Zilkha, Albert; Albeck, Michael; Frankel, Max
Describes experiments on the polymerization of styrene using butyl lithium as a catalyst by an anionic mechanism.
Zilkha, Albert; Albeck, Michael; Frankel, Max J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 345.
Polymerization |
Catalysis
Low-temperature polymerization: A laboratory demonstration  Jenkins, L. T.
This demonstration illustrates the use of a low-temperature redox system for suspension polymerization of various monomers.
Jenkins, L. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 231.
Polymerization
Linear polymerization and synthetic fibers  Moncrieff, Robert W.
Examines early research in polymers, the synthesis of polyesters and polyamides, the polymerization of hydrocarbons, and condensation and addition polymerization.
Moncrieff, Robert W. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 233.
Polymerization
Lecture demonstrations with silicones  Spalding, David P.
Offers a series of demonstrations designed to illustrate some of the basic properties of the silicones that make them unusual substances, including their resistance to high and low temperatures, unusual surface properties, and chemical inertness.
Spalding, David P. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 288.
Polymerization
The mechanisms of the reactions of aliphatic hydrocarbons  Schmerling, Louis
Examines the formation of carbonium ions and free radicals, the polymerization of olefins, hydrogen-halogen exchange, the condensation of haloalkanes with alkenes, the alkylation of paraffins, the condensation of paraffins with chloroolefins, the cracking of paraffins and olefins, and the isomerization of paraffins.
Schmerling, Louis J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 562.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Free Radicals |
Polymerization