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Journal Articles: 22 results
Synthesis of Triarylmethane and Xanthene Dyes Using Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions  James V. McCullagh and Kelly A. Daggett
In this experiment, electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions are used to synthesize several triarylmethane and xanthene dyes (fluorescein, erythrosin B, thymolphthalein, and rhodamine B) using common equipment while avoiding often troublesome, hydroscopic Lewis acids. Subsequent UVvis analysis produce spectra that match commercially available dye samples.
McCullagh, James V.; Daggett, Kelly A. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1799.
Acids / Bases |
Aromatic Compounds |
Dyes / Pigments |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Equilibrium |
Synthesis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Chemical Aspects of Local and Regional Anesthesia  Robert Brunsvold and Daryl L. Ostercamp
The chemistry that underlies the development of local and regional anesthesia is explored. Emphasis is placed upon the importance of acidity constants and lipophilic versus hydrophilic character in interpreting what affect a particular compound has upon biological processes.
Brunsvold, Robert; Ostercamp, Daryl L. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1816.
Acids / Bases |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Synthesis |
Applications of Chemistry
Presumptive and Confirmatory Drug Tests  Craig Anderson
Tests for illegal drugs were performed on unknowns obtained from over-the-counter cold medicines. Substances that tested positive for the qualitative Marquis color test were found to be false positives for illegal substances, while scopolamine hydrochloride shows a false positive for cocaine hydrochloride with the cobalt thiocyanate reagent.
Anderson, Craig. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1809.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Qualitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry
Using "Basic Principles" To Understand Complex Science: Nicotine Smoke Chemistry and Literature Analogies  Jeffrey I. Seeman
The HendersonHasselbalch equation calculates the equilibrium distribution of 50:50 for nicotine in its nonprotonated (free base form), relative to its monoprotonated form, at pH of 8 in dilute aqueous solution. This ratio has then been used in the literature to predict the effect of ammonia compounds in tobacco and in smoke on nicotine pyrolysis and smoke chemistry. Experiments demonstrate that neither the thermal chemistry of tobacco alkaloids nor the transfer of nicotine from tobacco to smoke can be explained by the position of the nonprotonated versus monoprotonated form equilibrium in aqueous extracts of tobacco. The high thermal stability of nicotine in air allows nicotine salts to be converted to nonprotonated nicotine and volatilize during heating prior to any substantial decomposition of the nicotine moiety. In contrast, cocaine hydrochloride is thermally unstable and will rapidly decompose upon heating; cocaine hydrochloride must first be converted to its nonprotonated form prior to heating and volatilization.
Seeman, Jeffrey I. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1577.
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Heterocycles |
pH |
Natural Products |
Gases
Enantiomeric Resolution of (±)-Mandelic Acid by (1R,2S)-(–)-Ephedrine. An Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Illustrating Stereoisomerism  Marsha R. Baar and Andrea L. Cerrone-Szakal
There has been an increasing need, particularly in the pharmaceutical industry, to prepare chiral substances in single-isomer form. A chiral technique that makes an excellent introductory organic chemistry experiment is enantiomeric resolution. The classical resolution of ()-mandelic acid using the chiral amine, (1R,2S)-()-ephedrine, was adapted for use in introductory organic chemistry lab curricula.
Baar, Marsha R.; Cerrone-Szakal, Andrea L. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1040.
Acids / Bases |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Separation Science |
Stereochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Enantiomers
Demonstrating Encapsulation and Release: A New Take on Alginate Complexation and the Nylon Rope Trick  Andrienne C. Friedli and Inge R. Schlager
Three variations on a classroom demonstration of the encapsulation of droplets and evidence for release of the interior solution are described. The first two demonstrations mimic biocompatible applications of encapsulation. A third encapsulation exercise exploits the irreversible interfacial polymerization of diamine and diacid chloride to form membranes and illustrates the detection of diamine release from the capsule using an indicator.
Friedli, Andrienne C.; Schlager, Inge R. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1017.
Biotechnology |
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Carbohydrates |
Consumer Chemistry |
Membranes
Lewis Acid–Base, Molecular Modeling, and Isotopic Labeling in a Sophomore Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory  Chip Nataro, Michelle A. Ferguson, Katherine M. Bocage, Brian J. Hess, Vincent J. Ross, and Daniel T. Swarr
Computational methods can be introduced to simulate IR spectra and to view the HOMO of the Lewis base and the LUMO of the Lewis acid. In addition to the computational exercise, NaBD4 can be used in the synthesis of the adduct in place of NaBH4. This allows the students to observe the effect of isotopic labeling on IR spectra.
Nataro, Chip; Ferguson, Michelle A.; Bocage, Katherine M.; Hess, Brian J.; Ross, Vincent J.; Swarr, Daniel T. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 722.
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Molecular Modeling |
Isotopes |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Simulating How a Virus Spreads through a Population: An Introduction to Acid-Base Chemistry in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Ronald M. Jarret
The traditional lab exercise that achieves separation of a mixture of 4-aminoacetophenone and benzoic acid by chemically active extraction has been expanded to include an exercise that uses materials from the extraction experiment to simulate how a virus spreads through a population.
Jarret, Ronald M. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 525.
Acids / Bases |
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids
Thermochromism in Commercial Products  Mary Anne White and Monique LeBlanc
Many commercial products change color with a change of temperature. How do they do it? The processes responsible for the two major categories of commercial thermochromic coloring agents are presented, along with a description of applications of thermochromic materials.
White, Mary Anne; LeBlanc, Monique. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1201.
Acids / Bases |
Consumer Chemistry |
Materials Science |
Applications of Chemistry
Comments on the Treatment of Aromaticity and Acid-Base Character of Pyridine and Pyrrole in Contemporary Organic Chemistry Textbooks  Hugh J. Anderson and Ludwig Bauer
Presentations of aromaticity and acid-base character of pyridine and pyrrole in 18 contemporary organic chemistry textbooks were surveyed.
Anderson, Hugh J.; Bauer, Ludwig. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1151.
Acids / Bases |
Aromatic Compounds
Using Bad Science To Teach Good Chemistry  Michael S. Epstein
This paper presents examples of bad science ranging from "unintentional mistakes" to "fraud" that can be used as part of traditional courses in general and analytical chemistry to encourage scientific reasoning and ethical behavior, and to provide a classroom atmosphere that encourages students to think and learn.
Epstein, Michael S. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1399.
Acids / Bases
"Crack" - A High-Interest Compound Illustrating Important Concepts in General Chemistry  Hoyt, William
Using crack and cocaine as examples of amine acid-base chemistry.
Hoyt, William J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 322.
Acids / Bases |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Esters
The Determination of "Apparent" pKa's: Part II. An Experiment Using Very Weak Acids (pKa's > 11.4)  Cawley, John J.
Experimental procedure for illustrating when the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation fails for very weak acids; data and analysis included.
Cawley, John J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 88.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Studying Acid-Base Equilibria in Two-Phase Solvent Media: Analyzing Results Using Aqueous Surfactant Solutions with Organic Solvents in the Titration of Analytes with Low Solubilities and Low Dissociation Constants  Tucker, Sheryl A.; Amszi, Vicki L.; Acree, William E., Jr.
Authors offer suggestions for the types of problems encountered in an analytical laboratory activity involving the quantitative analysis of weak acids and weak bases.
Tucker, Sheryl A.; Amszi, Vicki L.; Acree, William E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 80.
Acids / Bases |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
A One-Step Synthesis of Cinnamic Acids Using Malonic Acid: The Verley-Doebner Modification of the Knoevenagel Condensation  Kolb, Kenneth E.; Field, Kurt W.; Schatz, Paul F.
With this procedure malonic acid itself, rather than its diester, can be effectively condensed with benzaldehyde to produce trans-cinnamic acid.
Kolb, Kenneth E.; Field, Kurt W.; Schatz, Paul F. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A304.
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Acids / Bases |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Carboxylic Acids
Consumer applications of chemical principles: Drugs  Hill, John W.; Jones, Susan M.
Acid-base chemistry of drugs (nicotine, cocaine, and aspirin), general anesthesia (nitrous oxide, enflurane, isoflurane, halothane), local anesthetics (procaine, lidocaine, cocaine), and intravenous anesthetics (thiopental, ketamine hydrochloride, phencyclidine).
Hill, John W.; Jones, Susan M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 328.
Consumer Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry
Imidazole - Versatile today, prominent tomorrow  Matuszak, C. A.; Matuszak, A. J.
Imidazole chemistry has pedagogical utility for all the organic chemistry students pursing careers in the life sciences.
Matuszak, C. A.; Matuszak, A. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 280.
Grignard Reagents |
Aromatic Compounds |
Heterocycles |
Phenols |
Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Coordination Compounds |
Hydrogen Bonding
A new chemistry program for nursing and allied health students  Stanitski, Conrad L.; Sears, Curtis T., Jr.
Outlines and discusses the topics considered in a chemistry program for nursing and allied health students.
Stanitski, Conrad L.; Sears, Curtis T., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 226.
Nonmajor Courses |
Applications of Chemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Catalysis |
Acids / Bases |
pH |
Metabolism |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
Letter to the editor  Onwood, D. P.
Discusses variations in the usage of the terms "acid" and "base," including Lowry-Bronsted and Lewis systems.
Onwood, D. P. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 335.
Acids / Bases |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Effect of amine structure on the relative acidity of conjugate acids  Griswold, Robert E.
the primary objectives of this experiment are to investigate the effect of structure of amines on the relative acidity of their conjugate acids and to study some of the factors affecting equilibrium constants.
Griswold, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 483.
Acids / Bases |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Equilibrium |
pH
A versatile and inexpensive pH recording electrometer  Malmstadt, H. V.
Presents the design and operation of a modular pH unit with automatic temperature compensation.
Malmstadt, H. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 148.
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A separation and identification experiment for elementary organic chemistry laboratory  Laughton, Paul M.
The student selects a test tube containing two unknowns and is told only that they have been selected from two of three possible groups: a primary or tertiary amine, an aldehyde or ketone, and an acid or phenol. The components are to be separated, their physical properties determined, their categories assigned, and one specific derivative prepared for each.
Laughton, Paul M. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 133.
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Acids / Bases |
Phenols |
Physical Properties |
Synthesis