TIGER

Journal Articles: 73 results
A More Challenging Interpretative Nitration Experiment Employing Substituted Benzoic Acids and Acetanilides  Edward M. Treadwell and Tung-Yin Lin
An experiment is described involving the nitration of ortho or meta, monosubstituted benzoic acids and monochlorinated acetanilides with nitric acid to evaluate the regioselectivity of addition through computational methods and 1H NMR spectroscopy.
Treadwell, Edward M.; Lin, Tung-Yin. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1541.
Aromatic Compounds |
Computational Chemistry |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Molecular Modeling |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
A Green, Guided-Inquiry Based Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Eric Eby and S. Todd Deal
This alternative, electrophilic aromatic substitutionan iodination reaction of salicylamide, a popular analgesicuses environmentally friendly reagents and serves as a guided-inquiry experiment in which students are asked to predict the orientation of the substitution reaction and determine the product's structure using FT-IR spectroscopy.
Eby, Eric; Deal, S. Todd. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1426.
Aromatic Compounds |
Constitutional Isomers |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Green Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Discovering Electronic Effects of Substituents in Nitrations of Benzene Derivatives Using GC–MS Analysis  Malgorzata M. Clennan and Edward L. Clennan
Describes an organic lab in which students pool mass spectral data to identify the distribution of isomer products generated by the nitration of six benzene derivatives whose substituents differ in their electronic effects. Students also determine which substituents direct nitration predominantly to the ortho- or para- and to the meta positions.
Clennan, Malgorzata M.; Clennan, Edward L. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1679.
Aromatic Compounds |
Constitutional Isomers |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry
Competitive Nitration of Benzene–Fluorobenzene and Benzene–Toluene Mixtures: Orientation and Reactivity Studies Using HPLC  Ronald L. Blankespoor, Stephanie Hogendoorn, and Andrea Pearson
In this experiment for the first-year organic laboratory, mixtures of benzenetoluene and benzenefluorobenzene are competitively nitrated to determine the reactivity and orientation effects of CH3 and F. HPLC is used to analyze the reaction mixtures.
Blankespoor, Ronald L.; Hogendoorn, Stephanie; Pearson, Andrea. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 697.
Aromatic Compounds |
Constitutional Isomers |
Electrophilic Substitution |
HPLC
Electronic Structure Principles and Aromaticity  P. K. Chattaraj, U. Sarkar, and D. R. Roy
Electronic structure principles dictate that aromatic molecules are associated with low energy, polarizability, and electrophilicity but high hardness values, while antiaromatic molecules possess the opposite characteristics. These relationships are demonstrated through B3LYP/6-311G** calculations on benzene and cyclobutadiene.
Chattaraj, P. K.; Sarkar, U.; Roy, D. R. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 354.
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Quantitative Analysis |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Alkenes |
Quantum Chemistry
Quantitative Thermodynamic Descriptions of Aromaticity. A Computational Exercise for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Terrence Gavin
This article describes an exercise that enables students to establish a quantitative scale of aromaticity via computer-driven quantum mechanical calculations using Spartan software. The method utilizes a group of analogous isodesmic reactions from which the energy difference between two isomeric cyclic polyenes is calculated from their optimized geometries. The energy differences found are used to characterize structures as aromatic, nonaromatic, or antiaromatic depending on the value obtained. A representative group of structures, including hydrocarbons, hydrocarbon ions, and heterocycles are studied.
Gavin, Terrence. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 953.
Aromatic Compounds |
Computational Chemistry |
Heterocycles |
Molecular Modeling |
Thermodynamics
Microscale Synthesis and Spectroscopic Analysis of Flutamide, an Antiandrogen Prostate Cancer Drug  Ryan G. Stabile and Andrew P. Dicks
The synthesis involves N-acylation of a trisubstituted aromatic compound, 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitroaniline. The procedure is easily adapted to generate structural analogues of flutamide. A significant feature is the curricular flexibility afforded by this experiment.
Stabile, Ryan G.; Dicks, Andrew P. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1439.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds
Using Hydrocarbon Acidities To Demonstrate Principles of Organic Structure and Bonding  Andrew P. Dicks
This article demonstrates the utility of hydrocarbon acidity as a teaching tool within the undergraduate classroom. Acidities of compounds containing only hydrogen and carbon vary by at least 50 orders of magnitude. Differences in acidities are rationalized by invoking principles of hybridization, resonance, induction, and aromaticity.
Dicks, Andrew P. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1322.
Acids / Bases |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
The Anomalous Reactivity of Fluorobenzene in Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution and Related Phenomena  Joel Rosenthal and David I. Schuster
Extensive analysis of the reactivity of fluorobenzene (electrophilic substitution); includes resonance and other inductive effects, acidities of fluorinated aromatic compounds, and properties of other organofluorine compounds.
Rosenthal, Joel; Schuster, David I. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 679.
Aromatic Compounds |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Resonance Theory
Dendrimers: Branching Out of Polymer Chemistry  Eric E. Simanek and Sergio O. Gonzalez
Addresses synthetic concepts surrounding dendrimers including the use of protecting groups, functional group interconversions, and convergent and divergent synthetic strategies.
Simanek, Eric E.; Gonzalez, Sergio O. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1222.
Materials Science |
Synthesis |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Addition Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkylation |
Nucleophilic Substitution
Fractional Distillation and GC Analysis of Hydrocarbon Mixtures  Craig J. Donahue
Separating and identifying the components of a three-hydrocarbon mixture through fractional distillation and gas chromatography.
Donahue, Craig J. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 721.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Aromatic Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
Effect of Anisotropy on the Chemical Shift of Vinyl Protons in trans- and cis-1,2-Dibenzoylethylenes. A Small-Group or Recitation Activity  Roosevelt Shaw, David Roane, and Sean Nedd
Procedure to help students explain chemical shift differences for vinyl protons in alkene diastereomers.
Shaw, Roosevelt; Roane, David; Nedd, Sean. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 67.
Magnetic Properties |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Undergraduate Research |
Diastereomers |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkenes |
Photochemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Suzuki Cross-Coupling Reactions: Synthesis of Unsymmetrical Biaryls in the Organic Laboratory  Christopher S. Callam and Todd L. Lowary
Laboratory that exposes students to organometallic chemistry and application of the Suzuki reaction.
Callam, Christopher S.; Lowary, Todd L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 947.
Aromatic Compounds |
Metals |
Synthesis |
Organometallics |
Transition Elements |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The Bullvalene Story. The Conception of Bullvalene, a Molecule That Has No Permanent Structure  Addison Ault
Properties and chemistry of bullvalene, C10H10, a hydrocarbon with no permanent carbon-carbon bonds.
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 924.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Aromatic Compounds
The Oxidation of Alkylbenzenes: Using Data Pooling in the Organic Laboratory to Illustrate Research in Organic Chemistry  James C. Adrian Jr. and Leslie A. Hull
Student groups are assigned the task of oxidizing various substituted alkylbenzenes with potassium permanganate in basic solution; by pooling the results from all groups it is possible to illustrate how a research project in chemistry can be used to answer simple questions - What happens when your individual alkylbenzene is oxidized?
Adrian, James C., Jr.; Hull, Leslie A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 529.
Synthesis |
Chemometrics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds
The Discovery Approach to NMR: Development of Chemical-Shift Additivity Tables and Application to Product Identification  Eric Bosch
A discovery-based approach to the preparation and application of chemical-shift additivity tables is presented to give students insight into the development of NMR spectral prediction software.
Bosch, Eric. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 890.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Melting Point and Molecular Symmetry  R. J. C. Brown and R. F. C. Brown
In 1882 Thomas Carnelley observed that high molecular symmetry is associated with high melting point. The application of the rule to a number of different molecular crystals is discussed. The rule applies to different categories of crystal for different reasons, which can be explained by thermodynamic analysis.
Brown, R. J. C.; Brown, R. F. C. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 724.
Liquids |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Thermodynamics |
Physical Properties |
Aromatic Compounds |
Crystals / Crystallography
Keep Going with Cyclooctatetraene!  Addison Ault
This paper shows how some simple properties of cyclooctatetraene can indicate important ideas about the structure of cyclooctatetraene.
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 55.
Aromatic Compounds |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Comments on the Treatment of Aromaticity and Acid-Base Character of Pyridine and Pyrrole in Contemporary Organic Chemistry Textbooks  Hugh J. Anderson and Ludwig Bauer
Presentations of aromaticity and acid-base character of pyridine and pyrrole in 18 contemporary organic chemistry textbooks were surveyed.
Anderson, Hugh J.; Bauer, Ludwig. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1151.
Acids / Bases |
Aromatic Compounds
Preparation and Identification of Benzoic Acids and Benzamides: An Organic "Unknown" Lab  Douglass F. Taber, Jade D. Nelson, and John P. Northrop
The reaction of an unknown substituted benzene derivative with oxalyl chloride and aluminum chloride gives the acid chloride. Hydrolysis of the acid chloride gives the acid, and reaction of the acid with concentrated aqueous ammonia gives the benzamide. The equivalent weight of the acid can be determined by titration; given this information and the melting points of the acid and the benzamide, it is possible to deduce the structure of the initial unknown.
Taber, Douglass F.; Nelson, Jade D.; Northrop, John P. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 828.
Qualitative Analysis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Carboxylic Acids
Photodimerization of Anthracene  Gary W. Breton and Xoua Vang
The laboratory experiment of the photodimerization of anthracene is given.
Breton, Gary W.; Vang, Xoua. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 81.
Photochemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds |
Synthesis
Correction  
Correction in equation 1.
J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 480.
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Isomers of Benzene  Gutman, I.; Potgieter, J. H.
Summary of isomers and valence isomers of benzene.
Gutman, I.; Potgieter, J. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 222.
Aromatic Compounds |
Diastereomers |
Covalent Bonding
The Blue Bottle Experiment Revisited: How Blue? How Sweet?  Cook, A. Gilbert; Tolliver, Randi M.; Williams, Janelle E.
Determining whether other colors and carbohydrates are possible with the "Blue Bottle" reaction.
Cook, A. Gilbert; Tolliver, Randi M.; Williams, Janelle E. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 160.
Aromatic Compounds |
Reactions |
Rate Law |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Carbohydrates |
Oxidation / Reduction
Organometallic benzene complexes  Maslowsky, Edward, Jr.
A look at benzene's flexibility and subsequent interactions with metal atoms.
Maslowsky, Edward, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 980.
Organometallics |
Diastereomers |
Aromatic Compounds
Don't stop with benzene! The educational value of the cyclooctatetraene (C8H8) molecule  Samet, Cindy
Educators often ignore larger molecular ring systems, suggesting to students that benzene covers all the important aspects of the chemistry of annulenes.
Samet, Cindy J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 291.
Aromatic Compounds
The diverse nature of the C6H6 molecule  Potgeiter, J. H.
The purpose of this discussion is to show that C6H6 describes more than just one kind of benzene.
Potgeiter, J. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 280.
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkenes |
Reactions |
Constitutional Isomers
Friedel-Crafts alkylation products   Kolb, Kenneth E.; Field, Kurt W.
Comments on how two recent papers could compliment one and another.
Kolb, Kenneth E.; Field, Kurt W. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 86.
Alkylation |
Gas Chromatography |
Diastereomers |
Aromatic Compounds
Reaction of bromine with hydrocarbons on the overhead, real or simulated  Solomon, Sally; Gregory, Michael; Padmanabhan, Sandeep; Smith, Kurt
A simulation that looks like the addition of bromine to hydrocarbons but is not (the bromine is simulated using a mixture of food colorings).
Solomon, Sally; Gregory, Michael; Padmanabhan, Sandeep; Smith, Kurt J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 961.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Addition Reactions
A new approach to the generation of sigma complex structures  Young, Joseph G.
An alternative to the electron pushing approach for determining intermediate resonance structures for electrophilic aromatic substitutions.
Young, Joseph G. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 550.
Aromatic Compounds |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Resonance Theory |
Mechanisms of Reactions
An effective and facile demonstration of organic photochemistry  Brown, Trevor M.; Dronsfield, Alan T.; Cooksey, Christopher J.; Crich, David
The number of experiments that illustrate photochemically induced change and are suitable for student use is limited. The photolysis experiment described here is carried out very quickly using tungsten-filament lamp irradiation.
Brown, Trevor M.; Dronsfield, Alan T.; Cooksey, Christopher J.; Crich, David J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 434.
Photochemistry |
Aromatic Compounds
ESR studies and HMO calculations on benzosemiquinone radical anions: A physical chemistry experiment  Beck, Rainer; Nibler, Joseph W.
For this laboratory study, several benzosemiquinone radical anions were chosen since they are long-lived and are easily made from inexpensive source materials. The effects of molecular symmetry and of different substituents attached to the aromatic ring system are also readily seen.
Beck, Rainer; Nibler, Joseph W. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 263.
Spectroscopy |
MO Theory |
Aromatic Compounds
The correlation of multinuclear spectral data for selectively fluorinated organic compounds  Everett, T. Stephen
This article presents a general discussion of fluorine-19 NMR spectroscopy, spectral data for two series of selectively fluorinated compounds, and the detailed correlation of multinuclear data for one specific compound.
Everett, T. Stephen J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 422.
Aromatic Compounds |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Isotopes
Molecular vibration demonstrations  Turrell, George; Demol, Robert
Two dynamic models that illustrate the normal-mode vibrations of the water and benzene molecules.
Turrell, George; Demol, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1025.
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling
Graphics drill and game programs for benzene synthesis  Flash, Patrick J.
65. Bits and pieces, 26. "Benzene Synthesis Drill", a game format program that drills students on multistep conversions involving benzene.
Flash, Patrick J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1028.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Aromatic Compounds |
Synthesis
A short set of 13C-NMR correlation tables  Brown, D. W.
The object of these tables is to enable a student to calculate rapidly approximate d values for 13C nuclei in as wide a variety of compounds as possible.
Brown, D. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 209.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Alkenes |
Alkynes |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amides |
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters
Molecular formulas of organic compounds: the nitrogen rule and degree of unsaturation  Pellegrin, Valdo
This article wishes to demonstrate the nitrogen rule and the formula for calculating the number of rings plus double bonds of any common organic compound.
Pellegrin, Valdo J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 626.
Heterocycles |
Aromatic Compounds |
Free Radicals
The synthesis of 4,6,8-trimethylazulene: an organic laboratory experiment  Garst, Michael E.; Hochlowski, Jill; Douglass, III, James G.; Sasse, Scott
A procedure for a two-step synthesis of 4,6,8-trimethylazulene.
Garst, Michael E.; Hochlowski, Jill; Douglass, III, James G.; Sasse, Scott J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 510.
Synthesis |
Heterocycles |
Aromatic Compounds |
Resonance Theory |
Chromatography
The misuse of the circle notation to represent aromatic rings  Belloli, Robert C.
This chemistry educator has noticed confusion and erroneous conclusions resulting from the overuse and misuse of the circle notation to represent aromaticity in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
Belloli, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 190.
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Nitration of naphthol: A laboratory experiment  Mowery, Dwight F.
The nitration of beta-naphthol to produce pyrotechnic snakes and the nitration of alpha-naphthol to produce Martius yellow dye.
Mowery, Dwight F. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 689.
Aromatic Compounds
Pi bonding without tears  Akeroyd, F. Michael
A non-mathematical treatment of sigma-pi bonding applied to conjugation, hyperconjugation, Markovnikoff addition, aromaticity, and aromatic substitution.
Akeroyd, F. Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 371.
Alkenes |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Addition Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds
Was there a conspiracy when Kekul's first German benzene-structure paper was frequently listed as published in 1865?  Wotiz, John H.; Rudofsky, Susanna
The question of whether Kekul was deliberately ambiguous cannot be answered without a search through editorial files and personal correspondence.
Wotiz, John H.; Rudofsky, Susanna J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 23.
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure
An undergraduate laboratory program project involving photocyclizations in independent syntheses of novel chrysenes and phenanthrenes  Letcher, R. M.
This experiment attempts to fulfill such objectives as providing meaningful and viable preparative reactions, providing an opportunity for independent laboratory work within a project framework and under conditions of nearly equal opportunity and experience.
Letcher, R. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 1020.
Undergraduate Research |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Photochemistry |
Diastereomers |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Structure-resonance theory for pericyclic transition states  Herndon, William C.
The purpose of this article is to show that structure-resonance theory can be used to understand the effects of structure or substituents on the rates of thermal pericyclic reactions.
Herndon, William C. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 371.
Aromatic Compounds |
Resonance Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Benzene, a familiar hazard?  Smith, Roger M.
Reviews the hazards of benzene.
Smith, Roger M. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, A85.
Aromatic Compounds |
Toxicology
Friedel-Crafts acylation: An experiment incorporating spectroscopic structure determination  Schatz, Paul F.
Students use IR and NMR methods to determine the product of an aromatic substitution.
Schatz, Paul F. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 480.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Aromatic Compounds
Chemical toxicology. Part I. Organic compounds  Carter, D. E.; Fernando, Quintus
General principles of toxicology, and particular consideration of aliphatics, aromatic, and halogenated hydrocarbons; alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ethers, and ketones; sulfides, mercaptans, and carbon disulfide; nitrogen-containing compounds; and carcinogens.
Carter, D. E.; Fernando, Quintus J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 284.
Toxicology |
Alcohols |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Esters |
Ethers |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Lipids
Favorskii rearrangement in bridged polycyclic compounds  Chenier, Philip J.
Favorskii rearrangement in bridged polycyclic compounds: This can be classified as an intramolecular rearrangement from carbon to carbon, involving a migrating group Z moving without its electrons from migrating origin A to an electron-rich terminus B.
Chenier, Philip J. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 286.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Carboxylic Acids |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds
Sweet organic chemistry  Bragg, Rose Wilson; Chow, Yvonne; Dennis, Lawrence; Ferguson, Lloyd N.; Howell, Susan; Morga, George; Ogino, Craig; Pugh, Harriet; Winters, Manque
The purpose of this paper is to examine some observed structure-taste correlation, and to explore one or two generalizations which might help elucidate the mechanism of taste stimulation. The sweetest compounds known to date are dipeptides; L-aspartyl-aminomalonic diester is reported to have relative sweetness of 22,000-33,200X.
Bragg, Rose Wilson; Chow, Yvonne; Dennis, Lawrence; Ferguson, Lloyd N.; Howell, Susan; Morga, George; Ogino, Craig; Pugh, Harriet; Winters, Manque J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 281.
Food Science |
Natural Products |
Aromatic Compounds |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Syntheses and rearrangements of cage molecules related to cubane  Jefford, Charles W.
This article looks at the synthesis of cubane, basketene, miscellaneous homocubane chemistry, snoutene, triqunacene, hypostrophene, tris-homocubane, and catalysis by transition metals.
Jefford, Charles W. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 477.
Catalysis |
Transition Elements |
Alkenes |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Heterocycles |
Alcohols
The photoisomerization of cyclic ketones: An experiment in organic chemistry  Haas, J. W., Jr.
This experiment deals with parameters such as the nature of the excited state, effect of triplet quenchers on product formation, chemical structure and reaction rate and quantum yield when cyclopentanone and cyclohexanone are irradiated at 254nm. These cyclic ketones provide a variety of photolysis information in a short time span, are conveniently analyzed by gas chromatography, and are readily available at the requisite levels of purity.
Haas, J. W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 346.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Aromatic Compounds |
Photochemistry |
Diastereomers |
Gas Chromatography
A laboratory study of strike and inductive effects  Fulkrod, John E.
The authors describe a general reaction that can be successfully used to teach both strike and inductive effects in the laboratory by discovery.
Fulkrod, John E. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 115.
Constitutional Isomers |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Aromatic Compounds
A demonstration of charge-transfer complex formation using octachlorofulvalene  West, Robert; Smith, R. Martin
A striking demonstration of charge-transfer complexation can be carried out using the unusual molecule octachlorofulvalene.
West, Robert; Smith, R. Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 723.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Aromatic Compounds
Experiencing relevancy in organic chemistry. Hexachlorophene - manufacturing the great clean-all  Moye, Alfred L.
Presents an experiment developed from a term paper by a student who had a serious dislike for organic chemistry.
Moye, Alfred L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 770.
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Synthesis
Dewar resonance energy  Baird, N. C.
In the present paper, some of the general properties of the Dewar Resonance Energy definition are developed. In particular, the DRE value for a compound is shown to be independent of the numerical values used to bond energies, and the use of DRE in judging the aromaticity of organic molecules is illustrated.
Baird, N. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 509.
Resonance Theory |
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Nonlinear Hammett relationships  Schreck, James 0.
The author provides examples of nonlinear structure-reactivity , Hammett correlation's, and summarize most of the types of reactions in which deviations due to change in mechanism or rate-controlling step occur.
Schreck, James 0. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 103.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds
Fluorine compounds as teaching aids in organic theory  Young, John A.
Fluorine compounds do obey the fundamental tenets of organic theory, but their frequent reversal of polarity, relative to hydrocarbon analogs, and the change in emphasis from a positive hydrogen ion to a negative fluoride ion allow the instructor to frame questions that demand reasoning rather than reiteration on the part of the student.
Young, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 733.
Aromatic Compounds |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Aromatic nitro musk synthesis  Nash, E. Gary; Nienhouse, Everett J.; Silhavy, Thomas A.; Humbert, Dale E.; Mish, Mary Jo
This synthesis involves the preparation of the nitro-musks, musk xylene and/or musk ketone, from readily available m-xylene.
Nash, E. Gary; Nienhouse, Everett J.; Silhavy, Thomas A.; Humbert, Dale E.; Mish, Mary Jo J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 705.
Aromatic Compounds |
Synthesis
An integrated NMR and synthetic organic chemistry experiment  Glaros, George; Cromwell, Norman H.
Presents a synthetic sequence that involves procedures of general utility and results in products illustrative of the basic principles of NMR spectroscopy.
Glaros, George; Cromwell, Norman H. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 854.
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds
Teaching aromatic substitution: A molecular orbital approach  Meislich, Herbert
This paper presents a way of teaching aromatic substitution using the concepts of alternate polarity and electron delocalization through extended pi-bonding.
Meislich, Herbert J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 153.
Aromatic Compounds |
MO Theory |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Sonnet on a benzene ring  Moje, Stephen
Sonnet on a benzene ring.
Moje, Stephen J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 151.
Aromatic Compounds
Who proposed the Dewar formula of benzene?  Sementsov, A.
The bridged formula of benzene was first proposed by two German chemists in 1868.
Sementsov, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 151.
Aromatic Compounds
Aromatic substitution  Duewell, H.
Reports on the use of the molecular orbit theory in a qualitative approach to the activation and orientation of substitution in aromatic systems.
Duewell, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 138.
Aromatic Compounds |
MO Theory |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Benzene clathrate  Bhatnagar, Vijay Mohan
Describes the properties and investigations of a benzene clathrate, [Ni(CN)2.NH3.C6H6].
Bhatnagar, Vijay Mohan J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 646.
Aromatic Compounds
Structural variety of natural products  Roderick, William R.
Classes of natural products examined includes alkynes; quinones; benzpyrones; small and large rings; sulfur, nitrogen, and halogen-containing compounds; and new amino acids.
Roderick, William R. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 2.
Natural Products |
Amino Acids |
Alkynes |
Aromatic Compounds
The chemistry of benzyne  Bunnett, Joseph F.
Examines the chemistry of benzyne and alkynes.
Bunnett, Joseph F. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 278.
Aromatic Compounds |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Alkynes
The contributions of Fritz Arndt to resonance theory  Campaigne, E.
Examines the contribution of Fritz Arndt to resonance theory and his work regarding the nature of bonds in pyrone ring systems.
Campaigne, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 336.
Resonance Theory |
Aromatic Compounds |
Covalent Bonding
Representation of polycyclic aromatic compounds  Bieber, Theodore I.
Reviews the representation of polycyclic aromatic compounds and the matter of pi-electron sharing by adjacent sextets.
Bieber, Theodore I. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 235.
Aromatic Compounds |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Aromatic substitution by free radicals  Nelson, Peter F.
This article summarizes recent investigations upon orientation and reaction rates with respect to homolytic substitution.
Nelson, Peter F. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 606.
Free Radicals |
Aromatic Compounds |
Reactions |
Rate Law |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Nucleophilic substitution in aromatic systems  Gillis, Richard G.
Classifies and examines various categories of nucleophilic substitution in aromatic systems.
Gillis, Richard G. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 296.
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Aromatic Compounds
The orientation and mechanism of electrophilic aromatic substitution  Ferguson, Lloyd N.
Electrophilic aromatic substitution apparently takes place by the formation of an intermediate pentadienate cation, +ArG, where Ar is an aromatic molecule and G is a portion of the reagent.
Ferguson, Lloyd N. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 42.
Electrophilic Substitution |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds
Kekule's theory of aromaticity  Gero, Alexander
Examines what Kekule really wrote in his famous paper on the structure of benzene.
Gero, Alexander J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 201.
Aromatic Compounds |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Resonance Theory
The organization of subject matter in elementary organic chemistry  MacKenzie, Charles A.
Describes a curricular approach in which aliphatic and aromatic compounds are treated simultaneously rather than separately.
MacKenzie, Charles A. J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 243.
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes