TIGER

Journal Articles: 109 results
The Comparative Nucleophilicity of Naphthoxide Derivatives in Reactions with a Fast-Red TR Dye  Cheryl M. Mascarenhas
In this experiment, organic chemistry students perform reactions between three naphthyl acetate derivatives and the diazonium salt Fast-Red TR. Students discover under what conditions the hydrolysis and electrophilic aromatic substitution is fastest and slowest, allowing them to conclude that latter, rather than the former, is rate-limiting.
Mascarenhas, Cheryl M. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1271.
Alcohols |
Aromatic Compounds |
Dyes / Pigments |
Esters |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Separation of the Carotenoid Bixin from Annatto Seeds Using Thin-Layer and Column Chromatography  James V. McCullagh and Nicholas Ramos
In this experiment the carotenoid bixin is isolated from annatto seeds using column chromatography and then analyzed by UVvis and IR spectroscopy. The procedure has several advantages over previous pigment separation experiments.
McCullagh, James V.; Ramos, Nicholas. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 948.
Chromatography |
Dyes / Pigments |
Natural Products |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Annatto Polymeric Microparticles: Natural Product Encapsulation by the Emulsion–Solvent Evaporation Method  Zaine Teixeira, Nelson Durán, and Silvia S. Guterres
In this experiment, extract from annatto seeds is microencapsulated in poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) by the emulsionsolvent evaporation method. Encapsulation delays degradation and promotes the sustained release of bixin, an extract useful in the cosmetic and food industries.
Teixeira, Zaine; Durán, Nelson; Guterres, Silvia S. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 946.
Applications of Chemistry |
Colloids |
Food Science |
Natural Products |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Industrial Chemistry
Determination of Hammett Equation Rho Constant for the Hydrolysis of p-Nitrophenyl Benzoate Esters  Sheue L. Keenan, Karl P. Peterson, Kelly Peterson, and Kyle Jacobson
In this experiment, seven p-nitrophenyl benzoate esters are synthesized and characterized. Students then measure the rate constants for the base hydrolysis of these esters using UV-vis spectrophotometry and determine the Hammett equation constant for this hydrolysis reaction.
Keenan, Sheue L.; Peterson, Karl P.; Peterson, Kelly; Jacobson, Kyle. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 558.
Aromatic Compounds |
Esters |
IR Spectroscopy |
Kinetics |
Synthesis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Alternative pH-Shift Ion-Exchange Chromatography: Quantitative Spectroscopic Monitoring of the Progress of a Reaction   Concepción López, Manuel Martínez, Mercè Rocamora, and Laura Rodríguez
In this experiment, the solvolysis of [CoCl(NH3)5]2+ in nonaqueous (H3PO4) is followed by an alternative way of using ion-exchange chromatography that relies on changing the charge of the product through a shift in pH. Subsequent hydrolysis of the resulting complex is monitored and compared using UVvis and 31P NMR spectroscopy.
López, Concepción; Martínez, Manuel; Rocamora, Mercè; Rodríguez, Laura. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 426.
Chromatography |
Coordination Compounds |
Ion Exchange |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Radical Quenching of 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl: A Spectrometric Determination of Antioxidant Behavior  John M. Berger, Roshniben J. Rana, Hira Javeed, Iqra Javeed, and Sandi L. Schulien
Describes a colorimetric assay using the persistent radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl to measure the activity of common antioxidants. This exercise is particularly appropriate for a course geared for nutrition or food science majors.
Berger, John M.; Rana, Roshniben J.; Javeed, Hira; Javeed, Iqra; Schulien, Sandi L. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 408.
Food Science |
Free Radicals |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Vitamins
Synthesis of Triarylmethane and Xanthene Dyes Using Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions  James V. McCullagh and Kelly A. Daggett
In this experiment, electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions are used to synthesize several triarylmethane and xanthene dyes (fluorescein, erythrosin B, thymolphthalein, and rhodamine B) using common equipment while avoiding often troublesome, hydroscopic Lewis acids. Subsequent UVvis analysis produce spectra that match commercially available dye samples.
McCullagh, James V.; Daggett, Kelly A. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1799.
Acids / Bases |
Aromatic Compounds |
Dyes / Pigments |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Equilibrium |
Synthesis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
A New Colorimetric Assay of Tabletop Sweeteners Using a Modified Biuret Reagent  Christopher J. Fenk, Nathan Kaufman, and Donald G. Gerbig, Jr.
Presents a new, fast and effective colorimetric analysis of aspartame that incorporates a less caustic biuret reagent and visible spectroscopic analysis for selective detection in aqueous solutions using readily available instrumentation.
Fenk, Christopher J.; Kaufman, Nathan; Gerbig, Donald G., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1676.
Consumer Chemistry |
Coordination Compounds |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Food Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Amino Acids
Redox Titration of Ferricyanide to Ferrocyanide with Ascorbic Acid: Illustrating the Nernst Equation and Beer–Lambert Law  Tina H. Huang, Gail Salter, Sarah L. Kahn, and Yvonne M. Gindt
In this simple experiment, which illustrates the Nernst equation and BeerLambert law, students monitor the reduction of ferricyanide ion to ferrocyanide electrochemically and spectrophoto-metrically upon titration with ascorbic acid. The Nernst equation is used to calculate the standard reduction potential of the redox couple at pH 7 and the number of electrons transferred.
Huang, Tina H.; Salter, Gail; Kahn, Sarah L.; Gindt, Yvonne M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1461.
Coordination Compounds |
Electrochemistry |
Potentiometry |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Optical Properties of Fluorescent Mixtures: Comparing Quantum Dots to Organic Dyes  Benjamin M. Hutchins, Thomas T. Morgan, Miné G. Ucak-Astarlioglu, and Mary Elizabeth Williams
Visually observed fluorescent colors of quantum dots in conjunction with spectroscopic data show students the additive emission of such mixtures; while some appear to emit white light, their fluorescence peaks remain spectroscopically resolved.
Hutchins, Benjamin M.; Morgan, Thomas T.; Ucak-Astarlioglu, Miné G.; Williams, Mary Elizabeth. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1301.
Dyes / Pigments |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Materials Science |
Nanotechnology |
Photochemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
From the Research Bench to the Teaching Laboratory: Gold Nanoparticle Layering  Maria Oliver-Hoyo and Ralph W. Gerber
The procedures presented here involve the synthesis of gold colloidal suspensions, attachment of a functional group to glass with subsequent creation of self-assembled monolayers through deposition of gold nanoparticles, and measurements of wavelengths, absorbance, and conductivity.
Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Gerber, Ralph W. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1174.
Nanotechnology |
Surface Science |
Synthesis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
An Inexpensive Kinetic Study: The Reaction of FD&C Red #3 (Erythrosin B) with Hypochlorite  Maher M. Henary and Arlene A. Russell
Students use a desktop visible spectrophotometer to quantitatively follow the rate of disappearance of FD&C Red #3 with hypochlorite. The first-order reaction in both dye and bleach yields simple data that students can easily process and graph using spreadsheet software to obtain the rate constant and the rate law.
Henary, Maher M.; Russell, Arlene A. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 480.
Dyes / Pigments |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Zinc Biosorption by Seaweed Illustrated by the Zincon Colorimetric Method and the Langmuir Isotherm  Mara Mar Areco, Maria dos Santos Afonso, and Erika Valdman
Zinc and two algae, Ulva sp. and Gymnogongrus torulosus, are evaluated to illustrate the potential for biological materials (biosorption) to remove toxic metals.
Areco, Mara Mar; dos Santos Afonso, Maria; Valdman, Erika. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 302.
Biotechnology |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Metals |
Toxicology |
Transition Elements
pHantastic Fluorescence  Mark Muyskens
Students easily extract a fluorescent substance from shavings of a wood called narra. The fluorescence is dramatically pH dependent and can be turned on and off repeatedly using commonly available acid and base solutions.
Muyskens, Mark. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 768A.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Natural Products |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
pH |
Solutions / Solvents |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Purification and Modification of Fullerene C60 in the Undergraduate Laboratory  Tracey Spencer, Barney Yoo, and Kent Kirshenbaum
Describes an experiment for the extraction and column purification of buckminsterfullerene from fullerene-rich soot followed by a one-pot 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of an azomethine ylide. Characterization of the starting material and product can be performed by UVVis, MS, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR.
Spencer, Tracey; Yoo, Barney; Kirshenbaum, Kent. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1218.
Aromatic Compounds |
Chromatography |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Nanotechnology |
Reactions
Evaluating the Internal Charge-Transfer in Benzylidene Derivatives of N,N′-Dimethylbarbituric Acid  Marcos Caroli Rezende, Francisco Jara, and Moisés Domínguez
Four benzylidene derivatives of N,N'-dimethylbarbituric acid are prepared and their UVvisible and 1H NMR spectra used to characterize the molecular internal charge-transfer in the molecules.
Rezende, Marcos Caroli; Jara, Francisco; Domínguez, Moisés. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 937.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Dyes / Pigments |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Complexometric Titration of Aluminum and Magnesium Ions in Commercial Antacids. An Experiment for General and Analytical Chemistry Laboratories  Shui-Ping Yang and Ruei-Ying Tsai
A novel experiment for determining the total and individual aluminum and magnesium ion content in commercial antacids is described. This experiment is developed with three independent protocols based on complexometric direct and back titrations containing the concepts and usages of blocking, masking, buffer controls and metallic indicators.
Yang, Shui-Ping; Tsai, Ruei-Ying. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 906.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Chemometrics |
Consumer Chemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
The Fluorescence of Lignum nephriticum: A Flash Back to the Past and a Simple Demonstration of Natural Substance Fluorescence  Mark Muyskens
This article describes a simple but visually striking demonstration of fluorescence from the aqueous extract of the tropical hardwood Pterocarpus indicus.
Muyskens, Mark. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 765.
Acids / Bases |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Natural Products |
pH |
Solutions / Solvents |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Classroom Demonstrations of Concepts in Molecular Fluorescence  Jonathan P. Blitz, Daniel J. Sheeran, and Thomas L. Becker
A multichannel CCD-array spectrophotometer and handheld UV lamp are utilized to acquire and project in real-time the fluorescence emission spectra of quinine, fluorescein, eosin yellow, and rhodamine B.
Blitz, Jonathan P.; Sheeran, Daniel J.; Becker, Thomas L. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 758.
Dyes / Pigments |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
InterChemNet: Integrating Instrumentation, Management, and Assessment in the General Chemistry Laboratory Course  Barbara Stewart, Robert Kirk, David LaBrecque, François G. Amar, and Mitchell R. M. Bruce
InterChemNet is a Web-based management program designed to foster active learning in the laboratory. The system creates individualized pathways for students by allowing instructors to present a hierarchy of lab choices and assignments in a given week.
Stewart, Barbara; Kirk, Robert; LaBrecque, David; Amar, François G.; Bruce, Mitchell R. M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 494.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Student-Centered Learning
Convenient Microscale Synthesis of a Coumarin Laser Dye Analog  Evangelos Aktoudianakis and Andrew P. Dicks
Describes the Knoevenagel synthesis of 3-acetyl-7-(diethylamino)-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one, a fluorescent coumarin laser dye analog.
Aktoudianakis, Evangelos; Dicks, Andrew P. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 287.
Aromatic Compounds |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Assaying α-Dicarbonyl Compounds in Wine: A Complementary GC–MS, HPLC, and Visible Spectrophotometric Analysis  Tammy J. Dwyer and Jeremiah D. Fillo
A facile, aqueous reaction coupled with gas chromatographymass spectrometry, visible spectrophotometry, and high performance liquid chromatography is used to quantify the amounts of a-dicarbonyl compounds in wine samples.
Dwyer, Tammy J.; Fillo, Jeremiah D. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 273.
Aromatic Compounds |
Chromatography |
Food Science |
HPLC |
Mass Spectrometry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Synthesis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Derivatization of Fullerenes: An Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Charles T. Cox Jr. and Melanie M. Cooper
Presents two undergraduate organic chemistry laboratories detailing the synthesis of fullerene derivatives, using the Bingel (carbene insertion) and Prato (1,3-dipolar addition) protocols.
Cox, Charles T., Jr.; Cooper, Melanie M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 99.
Acids / Bases |
Addition Reactions |
Chromatography |
Heterocycles |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Preparation, Analysis, and Characterization of Some Transition Metal Complexes—A Holistic Approach  Kristy M. Blyth, Lindsay R. Mullings, David N. Phillips, David Pritchard, and Wilhelm van Bronswijk
In this laboratory procedure, a wide range of complexes are characterized by IR and UVvis spectroscopy, magnetochemistry, and conductance. The results allow one to the deduce the nature and strength of the bonding of the ligand to the central atom and the number of ions that the complex produces in aqueous solution.
Blyth, Kristy M.; Mullings, Lindsay R.; Phillips, David N.; Pritchard, David; van Bronswijk, Wilhelm. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1667.
IR Spectroscopy |
Magnetic Properties |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Coordination Compounds |
Qualitative Analysis |
Synthesis |
Conductivity
Cotton Effect in Copper–Proline Complexes in the Visible Region  Victor Volkov and Rolf Pfister
This article suggests taking advantage of the visible dd electronic transition of Cu2+, which allows one to contrast the normal optical rotatory dispersion response of d- and l-proline in aqueous solution with the strong Cotton effect observed when these amino acids are complexed with a metal cation.
Volkov, Victor; Pfister, Rolf. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1663.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Amino Acids |
Coordination Compounds |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory
Laboratory Experiments on the Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 8. Microscale Simultaneous Photocatalysis  Jorge G. Ibanez, Rodrigo Mena-Brito, and Arturo Fregoso-Infante
In this article we describe a microscale experiment in which the simultaneous oxidation of an organic compound (citric acid) and the reduction of a metal ion (Cu2+) are photocatalytically performed in an aqueous slurry containing TiO2 irradiated with UV light. This produces electrons (capable of reducing the metal ions) and holes (capable of oxidizing the organic molecule) that can be used for environmental clean up. The experiment allows students to have a better comprehension of the different phenomena involved in a typical photocatalytic process.
Ibanez, Jorge G.; Mena-Brito, Rodrigo; Fregoso-Infante, Arturo. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1549.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Microscale Lab |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Photochemistry |
Semiconductors |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Testing for Ultraviolet Toxicity Using Fungi  Marcelo Vital and Patricia Esperón
In this article, we describe a laboratory project quantifying the effects of UV radiation on a suspension of living cells. This laboratory experiment was designed for undergraduate students in biochemistry. The experiment was carried out employing different fungi strains, changing the dosage of radiation, the distance to the UV source, and the exposure period to the UV radiation. The quantity of viable spores was calculated and the doseresponse curves were drawn. Students were able to prove that 100% of mortality was achieved with the longest time of exposure.
Vital, Marcelo; Esperón, Patricia. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 926.
Nucleic Acids / DNA / RNA |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Molecular Biology |
Photochemistry
The Determination of Vanillin in a Vanilla Extract: An Analytical Undergraduate Experiment  Jozef L. Beckers
Vanillin is an interesting compound, often used in educational chemistry. It can be synthesized from the plant extract eugenol and can be used for the preparation of diverse products. Less attention is paid, however, to the determination of vanillin, although it can be analyzed in a rather simple way. In this article, vanillin is determined in a commercially-available vanilla extract using RP-HPLC equipment and CE apparatus, without any pretreatment. Some student results are presented, giving an indication of the accuracy and precision of the separation techniques RP-HPLC and CE.
Beckers, Jozef L. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 604.
Chromatography |
Electrophoresis |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
HPLC |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
"You're Repulsive!"Teaching VSEPR in a Not-So-Elegant Way  Robert S. H. Liu
Valence shell electron pair repulsive (VSEPR) interaction is an important concept particularly in discussing structural properties of molecules. In this article we showed five organic examples not commonly associated with VSEPR but yet all involving repulsive interactions of valence electrons, which provides ready explanations for altered chemical reactivity and spectroscopic properties of organic compounds. The ready catchy phrase Youre Repulsive! is the common thread used throughout these five examples.
Liu, Robert S. H. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 558.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Reactions |
Addition Reactions |
Electrophilic Substitution
A Chemometrics Module for an Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Chemistry Course  Huggins Z. Msimanga, Phet Elkins, Segmia K. Tata, and Dustin Ryan Smith
A chemometrics module for the undergraduate instrumental analysis chemistry course was developed and implemented. The objective of this module is to provide the skills needed by students to design experiments, to learn calibration techniques for analyzing multicomponent systems, to extract chemical information from large data sets provided by modern instruments, and, overall, to provide a broader spectrum of analytical techniques especially for those students who aspire going to graduate schools or working in chemical industries.
Msimanga, Huggins Z.; Elkins, Phet; Tata, Segmia K.; Smith, Dustin Ryan. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 415.
Instrumental Methods |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Chemometrics |
Instrumental Methods
Analog Spectrophotometers in the Digital Age: Data Acquisition on a Budget  Alexander Y. Nazarenko and Natalie A. Nazarenko
In this article we describe how to employ an inexpensive analog-to-digital converter and a user interface to Microsoft Excel to make a useful computerized spectrophotometer. Readily available types of data loggers, Vernier LabPro and digital multimeters with an RS-232 interface, were utilized. The proposed design does not compromise the quality of the measurements. The conversion of the data to the Microsoft Excel format makes it a convenient tool for a wide range of data processing applications.
Nazarenko, Alexander Y.; Nazarenko, Natalie A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 294.
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Two-Step Semi-Microscale Preparation of a Cinnamate Ester Sunscreen Analog  Ryan G. Stabile and Andrew P. Dicks
The two-step synthesis and characterization of a sunscreen analog (ethyl trans-4-methoxycinnamate) is presented. This experiment is tailored towards students with a sound theoretical understanding of organic chemistry and related laboratory techniques. Appropriate synthetic discussion topics include carbonyl condensation reactions, carboxylic acid esterifications, and the so-called "cesium effect" in organic synthesis.
Stabile, Ryan G.; Dicks, Andrew P. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1488.
Conductivity |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Consumer Chemistry
Preparation and Investigation of Monodentate and Bridging Pyrazole Complexes  Wynne Evans
This practical exercise describes the preparation and characterization of h1-coordinated pyrazole and 3,5-dimethylpyrazole nickel species and the investigation of their reactions with triethylamine. The latter reaction provides a route to preparing a polymer with bridging pyrazolato ligands, coordinating in an exobidentate (N, N?) fashion. We use this experiment, with undergraduate chemistry students, as part of a course providing an introduction to coordination chemistry. The exercise could be extended to take the form of an individual or class project. Suggestions for variations on the described experiment are included.
Evans, Wynne. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1191.
Coordination Compounds |
Synthesis |
IR Spectroscopy |
Magnetic Properties |
Organometallics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Transition Elements |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory
Syntheses and Characterization of Ruthenium(II) Tetrakis(Pyridine) Complexes. An Advanced Coordination Chemistry Experiment or Mini-Project  Benjamin J. Coe
This experiment involves the syntheses of several coordination complexes of ruthenium(II) and their characterization by using various spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques.
Coe, Benjamin J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 718.
Coordination Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
LC–MS of Metmyoglobin at pH = 2. Separation and Characterization of Apomyoglobin and Heme by ESI–MS and UV–Vis  Helen Cleary Stynes, Araceli Layo, and Richard W. Smith
This article describes an experiment employing LCMS where metmyoglobin is denatured to apomyoglobin and heme in a mobile phase gradient of acetonitrile H2O with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid. The apomyoglobin is separated from the heme group by reversed-phase chromatography.
Stynes, Helen Cleary; Layo, Araceli; Smith, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 266.
Biotechnology |
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Proteins / Peptides |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
The Determination of Caffeine in Coffee: Sense or Nonsense?  Jozef L. Beckers
Determination of caffeine in coffee applying a UV spectrophotometer, HPLC equipment, and CE apparatus. Some representative results are given showing the accuracy of the methods and showing the differences between the separation methods HPLC and CE versus UV spectrophotometry.
Beckers, Jozef L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 90.
Chromatography |
Consumer Chemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Instrumental Methods |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
HPLC
Analytical Spectroscopy Using Modular Systems  Brian M. Patterson, Neil D. Danielson, Gary A. Lorigan, and André J. Sommer
This article describes the development of three analytical spectroscopy experiments that compare the determination of salicylic acid (SA) content in aspirin tablets. The experiments are based on UVvis, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopies and utilize modular spectroscopic components. Students assemble their own instruments, optimize them with respect to signal-to-noise, generate calibration curves, determine the SA content in retail aspirin tablets, and assign features in the respective spectra to functional groups within the active material.
Patterson, Brian M.; Danielson, Neil D.; Lorigan, Gary A.; Sommer, André J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1460.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis |
Raman Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds |
Esters |
Carboxylic Acids |
Alcohols
Analysis of Carbon Monoxide in Blood  Benjamin P. Huddle and Joseph C. Stephens
Qualitative and quantitative analysis of carbon monoxide in blood using the Conway diffusion method.
Huddle, Benjamin P.; Stephens, Joseph C. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 441.
Gases |
Toxicology |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Applications of Chemistry |
Forensic Chemistry
Collaboration between Chemistry and Biology to Introduce Spectroscopy, Electrophoresis, and Molecular Biology as Tools for Biochemistry  Vicky L. H. Bevilacqua, Jennifer L. Powers, Connie Tran, Swapan S. Jain, Reem Chabayta, Dale L. Vogelien, Ralph J. Rascati, Michelle Hall, and Kathleen Diehl
Program that integrates a variety of instrumental techniques across the biological and chemistry curricula, including biochemistry, plant physiology, genetics, and forensics.
Bevilacqua, Vicky L. H.; Powers, Jennifer L.; Vogelien, Dale L.; Rascati, Ralph J.; Hall, Michelle; Diehl, Kathleen; Tran, Connie; Jain, Swapan S.; Chabayta, Reem . J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1311.
Biotechnology |
Enzymes |
Forensic Chemistry |
Hormones |
Instrumental Methods |
Kinetics |
Plant Chemistry |
Proteins / Peptides |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Spectrophotometric Determination of Total Sulfite in White Wine Samples Using Crude Extracts from Flowers  Márlon Herbert Flora Barbosa Soares, Luiz Antonio Ramos, and Éder Tadeu Gomes Cavalheiro
Procedure using flower pigments in the spectrophotometric determination of total sulfite in white wine samples.
Soares, Márlon Herbert Flora Barbosa; Ramos, Luiz Antonio; Cavalheiro, Éder Tadeu Gomes. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1111.
Dyes / Pigments |
Food Science |
Natural Products |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis
A Structure–Activity Investigation of Photosynthetic Electron Transport. An Interdisciplinary Experiment for the First-Year Laboratory  Kerry K. Karukstis, Gerald R. Van Hecke, Katherine A. Roth, and Matthew A. Burden
Investigation in which students measure the effect of several inhibitors (herbicides) on the electron transfer rate in chloroplasts and formulate a hypothesis between the inhibitor's activity and its structure as a means of using a physical technique to measure a chemical process in a biological system.
Karukstis, Kerry K.; Van Hecke, Gerald R.; Roth, Katherine A.; Burden, Matthew A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 985.
Biophysical Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds |
Plant Chemistry
Exploring the Diffraction Grating Using a He-Ne Laser and a CD-ROM  Joel Tellinghuisen
Demonstrating the grating equation using a compact disc.
Tellinghuisen, Joel. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 703.
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
The Visible Spectrum of Liquid Oxygen in the General Chemistry Laboratory  Frazier Nyasulu, John Macklin, and William Cusworth III
Examination of the spectrum of liquid oxygen and testing several hypotheses to explain the pattern of spectral lines observed.
Nyasulu, Frazier; Macklin, John; Cusworth, William, III. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 356.
MO Theory |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Colorful Azulene and Its Equally Colorful Derivatives  Robert S. H. Liu
Analysis of azulene and related compounds for an explanation of their respective colors.
Liu, Robert S. H. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 183.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
MO Theory |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkenes
A Simple Preparative Method to Evaluate Total UV Protection by Commercial Sunscreens  Shouei Fujishige, Sumiko Takizawa, and Kaoru Tsuzuki
Evaluating total UV protection of commercial sunscreens using commercial cellulose membrane to hold the samples.
Fujishige, Shouei; Takizawa, Sumiko; Tsuzuki, Kaoru. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1678.
Consumer Chemistry |
Materials Science |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Spec UV-Vis: An Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometer Simulation  N. Papadopoulos, Maria Limniou, Giannis Koklamanis, Apostolos Tsarouxas, Mpampis Roilidis, and Stephen W. Bigger
A windows compatible program that simulates a single- and double beam, UV-visible spectrophotometer.
Papadopoulos, N.; Limniou, Maria; Koklamanis, Giannis; Tsarouxas, Apostolos; Roilidis, Mpampis; Bigger, Stephen W. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1560.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Tablet Analysis Using Gravimetric Dilutions  Larry A. Simonson
Procedure that replaces volumetric analysis of caffeine tablets with gravimetric techniques.
Simonson, Larry A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1387.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Quantitative Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Synthesis and Analysis of a Solvatochromic Dye, 1-(p-Dimethylaminophenyl)-2-nitroethylene. An Advanced Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment  Dana L. Richter-Egger, Aaron Tesfai, Spencer J. Flamm, and Sheryl A. Tucker
Synthesis and analysis of 1-(p-dimethylaminophenyl)-2-nitroethylene.
Richter-Egger, Dana L.; Tesfai, Aaron; Flamm, Spencer J.; Tucker, Sheryl A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1375.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Undergraduate Research |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Dyes / Pigments |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkenes
A Microscale Spectrophotometric Determination of Water Hardness  James S. Gordon
Measuring water hardness using EDTA as a titrant, calmagite as an indicator, a colorimeter, and a graphing calculator.
Gordon, James S. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1089.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Modular Spectrometers in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory  Paul Bernazzani and Francine Paquin
Effect of integrating two Ocean Optics S2000 series spectroscopic instruments, based on a 2048-element linear CCD-array, into an undergraduate laboratory.
Bernazzani, Paul; Paquin, Francine. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 796.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
UV-Visible First-Derivative Spectrophotometry Applied to an Analysis of a Vitamin Mixture  F. Aberásturi, A. I. Jiménez, F. Jiménez, and J. J. Arias
A simple experiment that uses UV-vis spectrophotometry to introduce undergraduate chemistry students to multicomponent analysis and a method for the simultaneous determination of three vitamins using derivative spectrophotometry (zero-crossing method).
Aberásturi, F.; Jiménez, A. I.; Jiménez, F.; Arias, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 793.
Undergraduate Research |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Vitamins |
Quantitative Analysis
Isolation and Spectral Analysis of Naturally Occurring Thiarubrine A  Juan Reyes, Melita Morton, Kelsey Downum, and Kevin E. O'Shea
An experiment in which students isolate (from ragweed) and characterize thiarubrine A; thiarubrines are an important class of compounds which have recently received attention because of their unusual reactivity, unique biological activity, and potential medicinal applications.
Reyes, Juan; Morton, Melita; Downum, Kelsey; O'Shea, Kevin E. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 781.
Aromatic Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Medicinal Chemistry
Determining the Percent Water in Organic Solvents Using the Zwitterionic Dimroth-Reichardt Betaine ET-30 Dye. An Industrially Relevant Application of a Previously Published Laboratory Experiment  Mark F. Vitha
ET-30 is used to determine the percent water in an organic solvent. This experiment, combined with a case study from Procter & Gamble's workshop "Professional Analytical Chemists in Industry", teaches students about the importance of dry organic solvents, the differences in diode array and scanning UV-vis spectrophotometers, the use of a wide variety of instrumental and wet-chemical analyses in answering analytical questions, and the application of the scientific approach to the solution of industrial chemical problems.
Vitha, Mark F. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 370.
Dyes / Pigments |
Instrumental Methods |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Industrial Chemistry
A Phthalocyanine Synthesis Group Project for General Chemistry  Darren K. MacFarland, Christopher M. Hardin, and Michael J. Lowe
A group experiment synthesizing phthalocyanine dyes in one step from commercially available starting materials is described. The importance of a metal template is explored. The experiment is suitable for a second-semester general chemistry course.
MacFarland, Darren K.; Hardin, Christopher M.; Lowe, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1484.
Aromatic Compounds |
Synthesis |
Organometallics |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds
Visible Aromatic Electronic Effects Using a Series of Substituted Copper Phthalocyanines  Darren K. MacFarland, Solomon Lieb, and Jessica Oswald
Phthalocyanines provide an opportunity to directly observe electronic effects in an aromatic system through color changes that are dependent on the nature of peripheral substituents. Simple, reliable syntheses of electron-poor and electron-rich phthalocyanines are reported, along with corresponding UV-visible spectra.
MacFarland, Darren K.; Lieb, Solomon; Oswald, Jessica. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1482.
Aromatic Compounds |
Synthesis |
Organometallics |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds
Time-Dependent Changes in a Shampoo Bubble  Arun Chattopadhyay
This article demonstrates the fascinating phenomenon of time evolution of a shampoo bubble. The changes in thickness of the bubble films with time are followed by UV-vis spectroscopy. The change in chemical composition as a bubble film evolves is monitored by FTIR spectroscopy.
Chattopadhyay, Arun. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1339.
Learning Theories |
Micelles |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy
Studying Thermally Induced Chemical and Physical Transformations in Common Synthetic Polymers: A Laboratory Project  Steven C. Hodgson, John D. Orbell, Stephen W. Bigger, and John Scheirs
A simple project is described for introducing students to some experimental procedures commonly used to measure the effects of thermal treatment on synthetic polymers. The thermally induced changes that occur in the commodity polymers low-density polyethylene (LDPE), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) are examined as a function of the time of thermal treatment in an air-circulating oven.
Hodgson, Steven C.; Orbell, John D.; Bigger, Stephen W.; Scheirs, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 745.
IR Spectroscopy |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermal Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Thermal Denaturation of Proteins Studied by UV Spectroscopy  Natasa Poklar and Gorazd Vesnaver
UV spectroscopy has been widely used for monitoring the unfolding of proteins. During temperature-induced denaturation the protein absorbance changes with temperature until the process of unfolding is completed. A determination of DH(Td) and DS(Td) for a-chymotrypsinogen A at pH 3.0 is demonstrated.
Poklar, Natasa; Vesnaver, Gorazd. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 380.
Biophysical Chemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Undergraduate Research |
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The Development of Innovative Laboratory Experiments with UV-Visible Spectrophotometer   Peter Abeta Iyere
A brief description of the instrument acquired with National Science Foundation funds (Cary 300 BIO UV-Vis Spectrophotometer, model EL98013047 equipped with diffuse reflectance and temperature control accessories) precedes highlights of some of the experiments being developed at Tennessee State University.
Iyere, Peter Abeta. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 153.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The Preparation of a UV-Light-Absorbing Polymer: A Project-Oriented Laboratory Experiment for the Introductory Organic Chemistry Curriculum  Thomas Poon, Jean P. McIntyre, Andrea Dorigo, Drew J. Davis, Matthew A. Davis, Crystal F. Eller, Leah R. Eller, Heather K. Izumi, Kenya M. Jones, Kurt H. Kelley, William Massello, Megan L. Melamed, Cynthia M. Norris, Jeffrey A. Oelrich, Thomas A. Pluim, Sarah E. Poplawski, Jason M. St. Clair, Matthew P. Stokes, Wells C. Wheeler, and Erin E. Wilkes
A laboratory experiment is described that combines organic synthesis, spectroscopy, and polymer chemistry and is suitable for the sophomore organic chemistry curriculum. In this three-week sequence, students synthesize and characterize the UV-absorber 2-(2',4'-dimethylbenzoyl)benzoic acid and incorporate it into films of polymethylmethacrylate.
Poon, Thomas; McIntyre, Jean P.; Dorigo, Andrea; Davis, Drew J.; Davis, Matthew A.; Eller, Crystal F.; Eller, Leah R.; Izumi, Heather K.; Jones, Kenya M.; Kelley, Kurt H.; Massello, William; Melamed, Megan L.; Norris, Cynthia M.; Oelrich, Jeffrey A.; Pluim, Thomas A.; Poplawski, Sarah E.; St. Clair, Jason M.; Stokes, Matthew P.; Wheeler, Wells C.; Wilkes, Erin E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1523.
Synthesis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Free Radicals
Gradualism: A Method for Primary Instruction on Spectroscopic Analysis in Introductory Organic Chemistry  Christopher W. Alexander, Gary L. Asleson, Charles F. Beam, Marion T. Doig, Frederick J. Heldrich*, and Shannon Studer-Martinez
The pedagogical style of gradualism is described for the instruction of spectroscopic analysis in the introductory organic chemistry laboratory. Gradualism is defined as a series of steps or lessons that build one upon the other until the student is able to solve complex problems.
Alexander, Christopher W.; Asleson, Gary L.; Beam, Charles F.; Doig, Marion T.; Heldrich, Frederick J.; Studer-Martinez, Shannon. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1297.
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Learning Theories
Spectroscopic Instruction in Introductory Organic Chemistry: Results of a National Survey  Christopher W. Alexander, Gary L. Asleson, Marion T. Doig, and Frederick J. Heldrich*
The survey results indicated that the spectroscopic techniques of IR, MS, proton NMR, and carbon NMR are core techniques in most courses. A considerable amount of the instruction in spectroscopy is occurring in both the laboratory and the lecture portions of the course.
Alexander, Christopher W.; Asleson, Gary L.; Doig, Marion T.; Heldrich, Frederick J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1294.
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy
A Simple Method To Demonstrate the Enzymatic Production of Hydrogen from Sugar  Natalie Hershlag, Ian Hurley, and Jonathan Woodward
In the experimental protocol described here, it has been demonstrated that the common sugar glucose can be used to produce hydrogen using two enzymes, glucose dehydrogenase and hydrogenase. No sophisticated or expensive hydrogen detection equipment is required-only a redox dye, benzyl viologen, which turns purple when it is reduced. The color can be detected by a simple colorimeter.
Hershlag, Natalie; Hurley, Ian; Woodward, Jonathan. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1270.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Carbohydrates |
Applications of Chemistry
Galactic Data Viewer, Version 2.08 (by Galactic Industries Corporation)  Jack G. Goldsmith
The Galactic DataViewer software is a freeware product designed to allow those who are not users of Galactic's GRAMS/386 or GRAMS/32 commercial software packages the capability to open spectral and chromatographic files stored in Galactic's SPC format.
Goldsmith, Jack G. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1091.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Spectrophotometry (by Barbara Sawrey and Gabriele Wienhausen)  reviewed by David Pringle
Spectrophotometry is an interactive CD-ROM which introduces the basics of UV-visible spectrophotometry with some mention of infrared and other forms of spectrophotometry. The CD is divided into six sections: Introduction, Background, A Detailed Look, The Spectrophotometer, Practice, and Quantitative Spectrophotometry.
Pringle, David. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 978.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy
Bilinear Regression Analysis as a Means To Reduce Matrix Effects in Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Determination of Cr(III) and Co(II): AQuantitative Analysis Laboratory Experiment  Siddharth Pandey, Mary E. R. McHale, Karen S. Coym, and William E. Acree Jr.
Unlike several published laboratory experiments, in our method standard solutions contain both ions. Numerical values of the four molar absorptivities are calculated from a least squares of analysis of the Beer-Lambert law expression for two light-absorbing species. From an educational standpoint, our modification gives students greater exposure to standard curve-fitting techniques and provides a convenient means to introduce computer programming and/or spreadsheet computations into the laboratory portion of the course.
Pandey, Siddharth; McHale, Mary E. R.; Coym, Karen S.; Acree, William E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 878.
Quantitative Analysis |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Solutions / Solvents
Saving Your Students' Skin. Undergraduate Experiments that Probe UV Protection by Sunscreens and Sunglasses  James R. Abney and Bethe A. Scalettar
This article describes absorption spectroscopy experiments that illustrate the mechanism of action of sunscreens and sunglasses and that highlight the differences between different products. The experiments are well suited to incorporation into an undergraduate science laboratory and will expose students to absorption phenomena in a familiar context with substantial environmental and medical relevance.
Abney, James R.; Scalettar, Bethe A. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 757.
Photochemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Spectroscopy
Analysis of Soft Drinks: UV Spectrophotometry, Liquid Chromatography, and Capillary Electrophoresis  Valerie L. McDevitt, Alejandra Rodriguez, and Kathryn R. Williams
Instrumental analysis students analyze commercial soft drinks in three successive laboratory experiments. UV multicomponent analysis is used to determine caffeine and benzoic acid in Mello Yellow; caffeine, benzoic acid and aspartame are determined in a variety of soft drinks by reversed-phase liquid chromatography; and the same samples are analyzed by capillary electrophoresis.
McDevitt, Valerie L.; Rodriguez, Alejandra; Williams, Kathryn R. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 625.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Consumer Chemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Photodimerization of Anthracene  Gary W. Breton and Xoua Vang
The laboratory experiment of the photodimerization of anthracene is given.
Breton, Gary W.; Vang, Xoua. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 81.
Photochemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds |
Synthesis
Simultaneous Determination of Aspirin, Salicylamide, and Caffeine in Pain Relievers by Target Factor Analysis  Huggins Z. Msimanga, Melissa J. Charles, and Nea W. Martin
A factor analysis-based experiment for the undergraduate instrumental analysis labs is reported. Target factor analysis (TFA) is investigated as an option to the use of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the analysis of a pain reliever sample containing aspirin, caffeine, and salicylamide.
Msimanga, Huggins Z.; Charles, Melissa J.; Martin, Nea W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1114.
Separation Science |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
HPLC |
Medicinal Chemistry
Microburger Biochemistry: Extraction and Spectral Characterization of Myoglyobin from Hamburger  Sheri A. Bylkas and Laura A. Andersson
The protocol combines protein extraction, oxidation and reduction, and simple spectroscopic analysis, as well as gel filtration chromatography and generation/analysis of spectral scans. Mammalian myoglobin (Mb) is easily extracted from steak, to illustrate and address why fresh meat is red and aged meat is brown; the protein has unique spectral properties that are diagnostic for characterization of sample identity.
Bylkas, Sheri A.; Andersson, Laura A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 426.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Proteins / Peptides |
Oxidation / Reduction |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Chromatography
Identification of Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Alcohols: An Experiment in Spectrophotometry, Organic Chemistry, and Analytical Chemistry  I. A. Leenson
A simple method is presented that enables students to distinguish in a few minutes between primary, secondary and tertiary alkyl alcohols. This method is based on peculiarities of absorption spectra in the near-UV region of alkyl nitrites, the products of alcohol nitrosation.
Leenson, I. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 424.
Alcohols |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Interfacing an Old UV-VIS Spectrophotometer to a PC Computer  Guinon, J. L.; Garcia-Jareno, J.; Garcia-Anton, J.; Perez-Herranz, V.
Instructions for interfacing an old UV-VIS spectrophotometer to a PC computer.
Guinon, J. L.; Garcia-Jareno, J.; Garcia-Anton, J.; Perez-Herranz, V. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A81.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Inexpensive Instrumental Analysis: II: Introductory Spectroscopy  Ramaley, Louis; Young, Kathleen; Guy, Robert D.; Stephens, Roger
A simple atomic flame spectrometer and a solution spectrophotometer that are easily constructed yet provide accurate and reliable results.
Ramaley, Louis; Young, Kathleen; Guy, Robert D.; Stephens, Roger J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 353.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An Experiment in trans-cis Isomerization: Synthesis and Kinetics of trans-Dichlorotetraamminecobalt(III) Chloride  Borer, Londa L.; Erdman, Howard W.
Synthesis and kinetics investigation of trans-dichlorotetraamminecobalt(III) chloride.
Borer, Londa L.; Erdman, Howard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 332.
Diastereomers |
Synthesis |
Kinetics |
Coordination Compounds |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Conductivity
The microscale separation of lycopene and [beta]-carotene from tomato paste   Goodrich, James; Parker, Chris; Phelps, Ruff
A time effective way to isolate beta-carotene and lycopene from tomato paste on the microscale level.
Goodrich, James; Parker, Chris; Phelps, Ruff J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A158.
Chromatography |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis |
Food Science |
Microscale Lab
Spectroscopic Analysis of Semiconductor Colloids: An Experiment in Materials Science for the Advanced Inorganic or Physical Chemistry Laboratory  Chandler, Robin R.; Bigham, Shelli R.; Coffer, Jeffery L.
While the study of clusters and the materials derived from them is rapidly expanding, little attention is paid to them in undergraduate chemistry. The authors describe an appropriate undergraduate activity.
Chandler, Robin R.; Bigham, Shelli R.; Coffer, Jeffery L. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A7.
Colloids |
Semiconductors |
MO Theory |
Metalloids / Semimetals |
Solid State Chemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Micelles |
Metals |
Materials Science |
Metallic Bonding
Determining the critical micelle concentration of aqueous surfactant solutions: Using a novel colorimetric method  Furton, Kenneth G.; Norelus, Arold
Surfactants are versatile chemicals which, at a sufficiently high concentration, will arrange themselves into organized molecular assemblies known as micelles. This paper examines a method for determining this concentration.
Furton, Kenneth G.; Norelus, Arold J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 254.
Micelles |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Bioorganic Chemistry
Experimental study of monochromators in UV-vis and IR spectrophotometers  Guion, Jose L.; Garcia-Anton, J.
This is a laboratory exercise where students strip down a UV-vis spectrophotometer and an IR spectrophotometer.
Guion, Jose L.; Garcia-Anton, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 77.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Transition metal complexes with 1,4,7-trithiacyclononane: A laboratory experiment in coordination chemistry  Grant, Gregory J.; Mauldin, Penny L.; Setzer, William N.
A laboratory experiment in coordination chemistry that deals with the synthesis of four transition metal complexes containing a crown thioether ligand.
Grant, Gregory J.; Mauldin, Penny L.; Setzer, William N. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 605.
Coordination Compounds |
Metals |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
IR Spectroscopy |
Magnetic Properties |
Qualitative Analysis
Experiments in synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy for the undergraduate instrumental chemistry course  Byron, Colleen M.; Werner, T. C.
These experiments can be used to compare the detection limits afforded by UV/visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy for a given analysis and to show that the latter method is capable of of greater selectivity.
Byron, Colleen M.; Werner, T. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 433.
Instrumental Methods |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy
Simultaneous determination of cobalt, copper, and nickel by multivariate linear regression  Dado, Greg; Rosenthal, Jeffrey
The use of multivariate linear regression in order to reduce the number of absorbance measurements and provide a means for evaluating the precision of the results of the simultaneous determination of cobalt, copper, and nickel in solution by UV-vis spectroscopy.
Dado, Greg; Rosenthal, Jeffrey J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 797.
Quantitative Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
Molecular diffusion coefficients: Experimental determination and demonstration.  Fate, Gwendolyn; Lynn, David G.
This demonstration highlights the dependence of molecular transport on molar mass and temperature.
Fate, Gwendolyn; Lynn, David G. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 536.
Transport Properties |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A simple method for analyzing first-order kinetics  Borderie, B.; Lavabre, D.; Levy, G.; Micheau, J. C.
The authors describe a new and simple method for accurate determination of the first-order rate constant.
Borderie, B.; Lavabre, D.; Levy, G.; Micheau, J. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 459.
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Student comparisons of analytical chemical methods in undergraduate chemistry courses  Harrison, Aline M.; Peterman, Keith E.
Four experiments in which different analytical methods are used to make the same measurement for purposes of comparison.
Harrison, Aline M.; Peterman, Keith E. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 772.
Gravimetric Analysis |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Enzymes |
Quantitative Analysis
A tandem Michael-aldol reaction sequence: An undergraduate research organic experiment  Coutlangus, Marilyin L.; Filla, Sandra A.; Rowland, Alex T.
A short reaction sequence that allows students to determine by spectroscopic methods the constitutions of and stereochemistry in the reaction products.
Coutlangus, Marilyin L.; Filla, Sandra A.; Rowland, Alex T. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 520.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
Antioxidants in plastic: An instrumental analysis project  Chan, Wing Hong; Lam, King Sum; Yu, Wai Keung
The authors have devised the following project in their instrumental analysis laboratory to investigate the antioxidant content in polypropylene products.
Chan, Wing Hong; Lam, King Sum; Yu, Wai Keung J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 172.
Phenols |
Instrumental Methods |
Gas Chromatography |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Analysis of kinetic data with a spreadsheet program  Henderson, John
An article about spreadsheet templates that accept concentration versus time data for several runs of an experiment, determination of least-squares lines through data points for each run, and will allow the user to exclude points from the least-squares calculation.
Henderson, John J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A150.
Chemometrics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Enzymes
UV spectral data acquisition, spectra search, and library software package for the IBM 9420 Spectrophotometer  Jencen, David A.; Hardy, James K.
78. Bits and pieces, 32. The authors describe a series of computer programs that have been developed to allow a student to acquire, process, search for, and store UV spectra obtained on an IBM interfaced with a UV-vis spectra.
Jencen, David A.; Hardy, James K. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 1075.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
The Nebraska instrument sharing consortium  Smith, David H.
A small group of colleges have banded together to solve one of the pressing problems in chemical education today- how to provide modern instrumentation to students at an affordable price.
Smith, David H. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 68.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Hexaammine complexes of Cr(III) and Co(III): A spectra study  Brown, D. R.; Pavlis, R. R.
Synthesis and characterization of hexaaminecobalt(III) chloride and hexaaminechromium(III) nitrate.
Brown, D. R.; Pavlis, R. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 807.
Synthesis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Coordination Compounds |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory
An inexpensive, easily constructed cryostat for variable-temperature spectrophotometry  Burgstahler, Albert W.; McBain, Douglas S.
Easily made cryostat for use in standard UV-visible spectrophotometers that allows for adding reagents or withdrawing aliquots during operation.
Burgstahler, Albert W.; McBain, Douglas S. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 469.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Structure elucidation of a natural product  Letcher, Roy M.
This experiment is an attempt to simulate a real-life structure elucidation problem through the isolation, characterization, and chemical transformation of an unknown naturally occurring monoterpene, with extensive use being made of spectroscopy and aided by biogenetic considerations.
Letcher, Roy M. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 79.
Natural Products |
Separation Science |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Reactions
A microcomputer-based data acquisition system for use in undergraduate laboratories  Johnson, Ray L.
Describes a laboratory computer system based on the Commodore PET 2001 and its application to the analytical chemistry loaboratory.
Johnson, Ray L. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 784.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Separation and determination of hydroxyacetophenones: An experiment in preparative TLC and UV spectroscopy  Bick, I. R. C.; Blackman, A. J.; Browne, E. J.
A mixture of o-, m-, and p-hydroxyacetophenones is separated through thin-layer chromatography, and the constituents are identified by UV spectroscopy.
Bick, I. R. C.; Blackman, A. J.; Browne, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 618.
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Isolation, separation and identification of synthetic food colors  Dixon, E. A.; Renyk, G.
A simple, inexpensive experiment for the extraction of synthetic dyes permitted in foodstuffs, and their separation and identification using thin-layer chromatography and ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy.
Dixon, E. A.; Renyk, G. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 67.
Separation Science |
Food Science |
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Consumer Chemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
Analysis of analgesic mixtures: An organic chemistry experiment  Martin, Ned H.
The lab described here allows for students to work out experimental conditions themselves and introduces semi-micro techniques.
Martin, Ned H. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 818.
Microscale Lab |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy
Spectroscopy in organic chemistry at the introductory level  Gurst, Jerome E.
This author has found that the use of a limited series of compounds allow students to focus attention on the spectra rather than the structural formulas of many compounds. This allows students to grasp the significance of the spectral measurements in a minimal time period.
Gurst, Jerome E. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 511.
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
A novel communications-skills-based approach to the instrumental laboratory  Varnes, Arthur W.; Wetmore, David E.
Describes the approach used in a course designed to stress the importance of good writing style in laboratory reports.
Varnes, Arthur W.; Wetmore, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 801.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
NMR Spectroscopy
Isomer analysis by spectral methods  Poulton, Gerald A.
The use of NMR, UV and mass spectroscopy and gas chromatography to introduce students to the use of spectra to determine the products of a reaction and their relative amounts.
Poulton, Gerald A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 397.
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography
Acid and base catalyzed isomerization of 5-cholesten-3-one. An experiment in UV/kinetics  Dimmel, Donald R.; McKinney, Michael A.
This experiment is designed to introduce the student to the principles of ultraviolet spectroscopy and point out its application to following the rate of a chemical change; the experiment also clearly demonstrates that a conjugated system is thermodynamically more stable than a nonconjugated system.
Dimmel, Donald R.; McKinney, Michael A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 373.
Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
The structure and properties of choleic acids. A biologically oriented organic experiment  Jesaitis, R. G.; Krantz, A.
The experiment described here introduces students to techniques which are often not introduced in the context of a laboratory experiment.
Jesaitis, R. G.; Krantz, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 137.
Acids / Bases |
Aromatic Compounds |
Stoichiometry |
Quantitative Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Fourier Transform Spectrometers - Part Two  Low, M. J. D.
Surveys available commercial IR and UV spectrometers.
Low, M. J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A255.
Instrumental Methods |
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Recent Instrumentation for UV-Visible Spectrophotometry - Part 1 (continued): Dual-Beam Spectrophotometers  Lott, Peter F.
Examines a variety of commercial, dual-beam spectrophotometers.
Lott, Peter F. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A169.
Instrumental Methods |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Spectrometric identification of insect sex attractants  Silverstein, Robert M.
Uses spectrometric methods to identify the sex attractants of three types of beetle pests.
Silverstein, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 794.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy
Interpretation of the ultraviolet spectra of natural products (Scott, A. I.)  Ferguson, Lloyd

Ferguson, Lloyd J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, A62.
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Natural Products
Applications absorption spectroscopy of organic compounds (Dyer, John R.)  Williams, Theodore R.

Williams, Theodore R. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 690.
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
Spectrometric identification of organic compounds  Silverstein, Robert M.; Bassler, G. Clayton
Presents a sequence of procedures for identifying an unknown organic liquid using mass, NMR, IR, and UV spectroscopy, along with specific examples of unknowns and their spectra,
Silverstein, Robert M.; Bassler, G. Clayton J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 546.
Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Mass Spectrometry |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Sources of information on ultraviolet absorption spectrophotometry  Hirt, Robert C.
Provides a bibliography of resources containing information on ultraviolet absorption spectrophotometry.
Hirt, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 301.
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy