TIGER

Journal Articles: 46 results
Identification of an Unknown Compound by Combined Use of IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and Mass Spectrometry: A Real-Life Experience in Structure Determination  Louis J. Liotta and Magdalena James-Pederson
In this introductory organic chemistry experiment, students are expected to operate NMR, IR, and GCMS instrumentation to obtain spectra which are interpreted to elucidate the chemical structure of the assigned compounds without the benefit of a list of possible unknowns.
Liotta, Louis J.; James-Pederson, Magdalena. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 832.
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Spectroscopy
Synthesis of Diapocynin  Mina S. Dasari, Kristy M. Richards, Mikaela L. Alt, Clark F. P. Crawford, Amanda Schleiden, Jai Ingram, Abdel Aziz Amadou Hamidou, Angela Williams, Patricia A. Chernovitz, Rensheng Luo, Grace Y. Sun, Ron Luchtefeld, and Robert E. Smith
Diapocynin is synthesized by the oxidative coupling of apocynin and analyzed by FTIR, 1H NMR, and negative ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization LCMS.
Dasari, Mina S.; Richards, Kristy M.; Alt, Mikaela L.; Crawford, Clark F. P.; Schleiden, Amanda; Ingram, Jai; Hamidou, Abdel Aziz Amadou; Williams, Angela; Chernovitz, Patricia A.; Luo, Rensheng; Sun, Grace Y.; Luchtefeld, Ron; Smith, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 411.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
HPLC |
Mass Spectrometry |
Phenols |
Synthesis
Microwave-Assisted Organic Synthesis in the Organic Teaching Lab: A Simple, Greener Wittig Reaction  Eric Martin and Cynthia Kellen-Yuen
A microwave-assisted Wittig reaction has been developed for the organic teaching laboratory. Utilizing this technique, a variety of styrene derivatives have been synthesized from aromatic aldehydes in good yields. The mixture of cis and trans alkenes produced also provides instructors with opportunities to emphasize the spectroscopic analysis of product mixtures.
Martin, Eric; Kellen-Yuen, Cynthia. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 2004.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkenes |
Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Synthesis and Characterization of Aldol Condensation Products from Unknown Aldehydes and Ketones  Nicholas G. Angelo, Laura K. Henchey, Adam J. Waxman, James W. Canary, Paramjit S. Arora, and Donald Wink
Describes an experiment in which students perform the aldol condensation on an unknown aldehyde and ketone and make use of TLC, column chromatography, recrystallization, and characterization by 1H NMR, GCMS, and FTIR.
Angelo, Nicholas G.; Henchey, Laura K.; Waxman, Adam J.; Canary, James W.; Arora, Paramjit S.; Wink, Donald. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1816.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Discovering Electronic Effects of Substituents in Nitrations of Benzene Derivatives Using GC–MS Analysis  Malgorzata M. Clennan and Edward L. Clennan
Describes an organic lab in which students pool mass spectral data to identify the distribution of isomer products generated by the nitration of six benzene derivatives whose substituents differ in their electronic effects. Students also determine which substituents direct nitration predominantly to the ortho- or para- and to the meta positions.
Clennan, Malgorzata M.; Clennan, Edward L. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1679.
Aromatic Compounds |
Constitutional Isomers |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry
A Knoevenagel Initiated Annulation Reaction Using Room Temperature or Microwave Conditions  A. Gilbert Cook
The product of a Knoevenagel initiated annulation reaction is identified through a guided prelab exercise of the synthesis of the Hagemann ester, and then through the analysis of GCMS, NMR, and IR spectra. The stereochemistry of the product is determined through the NMR spectrum and Karplus curve, and the student is required to write a mechanism for the reaction.
Cook, A. Gilbert. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1477.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Conformational Analysis |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis
Photochemical Dimerization of Dibenzylideneacetone. A Convenient Exercise in [2+2] Cycloaddition Using Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry  G. Nageswara Rao, Chelli Janardhana, V. Ramanathan, T. Rajesh, and P. Harish Kumar
Presents a laboratory procedure for the photochemical dimerization of dibenzylideneacetone, a dienone. The dimerization is confirmed by chemical ionization mass spectrometry, and other spectroscopic techniques are used to establish the structure of the product.
Rao, G. Nageswara; Janardhana, Chelli; Ramanathan, V.; Rajesh, T.; Kumar, P. Harish. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1667.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkenes |
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Photochemistry |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Developing Critical Thinking Skills: The "Sabotaged" Synthesis of Methyl p-Bromobenzoate  Eric J. Mahan and Mary Alice Nading
Before beginning an experiment, students are told that someone might have sabotaged their experiment to produce other-than-expected results. The objective is to perform the experiment, determine if any sabotage has occurred, and, if so, identify the changes that were made to the reagents as well as the person responsible.
Mahan, Eric J.; Nading, Mary Alice. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1652.
Alcohols |
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Synthesis
3,5-Diarylisoxazoles: Individualized Three-Step Synthesis and Isomer Determination Using 13C NMR or Mass Spectroscopy  Chad E. Stephens and Reem K. Arafa
Describes the three-step synthesis and definitive characterization of a 3,5-diarylisoxazole via the chalcone and chalcone dibromide. The project is individualized with regard to compound purification, characterization, and literature searches as each student prepares a differently substituted chalcone.
Stephens, Chad E.; Arafa, Reem K. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1336.
Alkenes |
Heterocycles |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Spectroscopy
Synthesis and Analysis of a Versatile Imine for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Jacqueline Bennett, Kristen Meldi, and Christopher Kimmell II
In this experiment students prepare and analyze N-p-methoxyphenyl (N-PMP) alpha-imino ethyl glyoxalate, an imine that has been used in the synthesis of biologically active molecules. The stability and versatility of this imine allow it to be used in subsequent reactions, offering a variety of possible multistep synthetic strategies.
Bennett, Jacqueline; Meldi, Kristen; Kimmell, Christopher, II. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1221.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Gas Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Analysis of the Thickening Agents in Automotive Greases by GC–MS  David Mayotte, Craig J. Donahue, and Cheryl A. Snyder
Describes a laboratory procedure for the identification of the thickening agents in lubricating greases by GCMS.
Mayotte, David; Donahue, Craig J.; Snyder, Cheryl A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 902.
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Industrial Chemistry |
Mass Spectrometry |
Separation Science |
Fatty Acids
4-Dimethylaminopyridine or Acid-Catalyzed Syntheses of Esters: A Comparison  Annemieke W. C. van den Berg and Ulf Hanefeld
Students compare acid-catalyzed ester synthesis and the 4-dimethylaminopyridine-catalyzed reaction. Based on the outcome of the experiments, students discuss the different reaction mechanisms and reason why different products are formed.
van den Berg, Annemieke W. C.; Hanefeld, Ulf. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 292.
Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Chromatography |
Esters |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Grubbs's Cross Metathesis of Eugenol with cis-2-Butene-1,4-diol To Make a Natural Product. An Organometallic Experiment for the Undergraduate Lab   Douglass F. Taber and Kevin J. Frankowski
Describes the ruthenium catalyzed cross metathesis of eugenol with cis-1,4-butenediol. The experiment is an excellent example of the powerful selectivity possible with the Grubbs' catalyst, demonstrating the preference for trans over cis alkene formation and for cross metathesis over homodimerization.
Taber, Douglass F.; Frankowski, Kevin J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 283.
Alkenes |
Catalysis |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Organometallics |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Transition Elements
Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of a Natural Insecticide on Basic Montmorillonite K10 Clay. Green Chemistry in the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory  Matthew R. Dintzner, Paul R. Wucka, and Thomas W. Lyons
Describes a microwave-assisted, solvent-free, one-pot synthesis of a naturally occurring insecticide catalyzed by naturally benign, base-washed Montmorillonite K10 clay. The reaction features several interesting mechanistic considerations, including an electrophilic aromatic addition, dehydration, and intramolecular hetero-DielsAlder cyclization.
Dintzner, Matthew R.; Wucka, Paul R.; Lyons, Thomas W. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 270.
Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
IR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy
A GC–MS Analysis of an SN2 Reaction for the Organic Laboratory  Malgorzata M. Clennan and Edward L. Clennan
This experiment utilizes an SN2 reaction between an alkyl bromide and potassium acetate to introduce the use of mass spectrometry for structural identification. It also provides students with experience in organic synthesis, the use of IR to identify functional groups, and the use of gas chromatography and response factors to determine product ratios.
Clennan, Malgorzata M.; Clennan, Edward L. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1676.
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Synthesis |
Chromatography |
Esters |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab |
Gas Chromatography
Thermal Degradation and Identification of Heat-Sensitive Polymers. Applications of Pyrolysis and Distillation and Instrumental Methods of Analysis  Stuart C. Clough and Emma W. Goldman
An experiment for undergraduate teaching laboratories is described that involves the identification of samples of polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate). This involves the thermal degradation of the polymers (a destructive distillation) into their respective monomers. The monomers are then identified using infrared spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and gas chromatographymass spectrometry.
Clough, Stuart C.; Goldman, Emma W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1378.
Nonmajor Courses |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Polymerization
Syntheses and Characterization of Ruthenium(II) Tetrakis(Pyridine) Complexes. An Advanced Coordination Chemistry Experiment or Mini-Project  Benjamin J. Coe
This experiment involves the syntheses of several coordination complexes of ruthenium(II) and their characterization by using various spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques.
Coe, Benjamin J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 718.
Coordination Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Separation and Identification of a Mixture of Group 6 Transition-Metal Carbonyl Compounds Using GC–MS in the General Chemistry Curriculum  Lawrence K. Fong
From the mass spectral data, our students are able to determine the atomic mass of the transition metal. In addition, utilizing Mo(CO)6 as an internal standard, our students are able to quantify the quantity of Cr(CO)6 and W(CO)6 in an unknown mixture.
Fong, Lawrence K. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 103.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Isotopes |
Mass Spectrometry |
Metals |
Quantitative Analysis |
Transition Elements |
Gas Chromatography
A Series of Small-Scale, Discovery-Based Organic Laboratory Experiments Illustrating the Concepts of Addition, Substitution, and Rearrangement  Judith S. Moroz, Janice L. Pellino, and Kurt W. Field
Multistep, microscale organic laboratory experiments are presented that illustrate addition, substitution, and rearrangement reactions.
Moroz, Judith S.; Pellino, Janice L.; Field, Kurt W. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1319.
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Addition Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The Base-Induced Reaction of Salicylaldehyde with 1-Bromobutane in Acetone: Two Related Examples of Chemical Problem Solving  Holly D. Bendorf and Chriss E. McDonald
Each student performs his or her own experimental work, running one of the two reactions, and acquiring the proton and carbon NMR, IR, and mass spectra. The students work in groups to propose structures for the products and mechanisms for their formation. The students are also asked to address why the reactions take different courses.
Bendorf, Holly D.; McDonald, Chriss E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1185.
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Ethers |
Phenols |
IR Spectroscopy
Organic Spectroscopy–A Capstone Experience  Jan M. Fleischer
Experiment requiring students to make decisions regarding the likely structure of their sample based upon an IR spectrum before a final analysis with NMR spectroscopy.
Fleischer, Jan M. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1247.
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A Puzzling Alcohol Dehydration Reaction Solved by GC–MS Analysis  Michael W. Pelter and Rebecca M. Macudzinski
The reaction of 2-methyl-2-propanol with ~50% sulfuric acid at 100 C yields isobutylene, which reacts further by a "puzzling" reaction. By coupling the GC/MS analysis of the product mixture with their knowledge of the mechanism of alcohol dehydration and alkene reactivity, students are able to identify the major products of this reaction.
Pelter, Michael W.; Macudzinski, Rebecca M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 826.
Synthesis |
Microscale Lab |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Alcohols |
Alkenes
Design and Operation of a Portable Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer for the Undergraduate Curriculum  Michael Henchman and Colin Steel
We describe the design and construction of a teaching mass spectrometer from components that are available commercially. The instrument is transportable, robust, and inexpensive. It yields a mass spectrum 3 minutes after being switched on and is designed to be used by undergraduates and maintained by faculty without special instrumental skills.
Henchman, Michael; Steel, Colin. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1042.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Mass Spectrometry |
Computational Chemistry
Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry. Instrumentation and Applications  David C. Muddiman, Ray Bakhtiar, Steven A. Hofstadler, and Richard D. Smith
This article introduces educators and researchers to the theory, principles, instrumentation, and some applications of MALDI-MS. Reflectron time-of-flight (TOF) mass analyzers are described in detail, since TOF is the most common mass analyzer for ions produced by MALDI.
Muddiman, David C.; Bakhtiar, Ray; Hofstadler, Steven A.; Smith, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1288.
Mass Spectrometry |
Lasers |
Instrumental Methods
Mass Spectrometry for Large Undergraduate Laboratory Sections  A. Illies, P. B. Shevlin, G. Childers, M. Peschke and J. Tsai
A gas chromatography - mass spectrometry experiment that allows each student in a large laboratory class to analyze the products of a simple organic synthesis.
Illies, A.; Shevlin, P. B.; Childers, G.; Peschke, M.; Tsai, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 717.
Mass Spectrometry |
Chromatography |
Synthesis |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography
Many Students and Only One GC/MS  Lawrence, Stephen S.
A procedure that allows one lab section of 16-20 students to individually perform real-time analyses using one GC/MS instrument.
Lawrence, Stephen S. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 530.
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Laboratory Management |
Administrative Issues
Applications of autosampling GC-MS in an introductory organic chemistry laboratory   Asleson, Gary L.; Doig, Marion T.; Heldrich, Frederick J.
Incorporation of an automated GC-MS has allowed students to have access to state-of-the-art instrumentation in a cost-effective and pedagogically sound manner.
Asleson, Gary L.; Doig, Marion T.; Heldrich, Frederick J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A290.
Instrumental Methods |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry
GC/MS experiments for the organic laboratory: II. Friedel-Crafts alkylation of p-xylene   Novak, Michael; Heinrich, Julie
Experiments for the sophomore organic chemistry laboratory that make use of capillary gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectroscopy(MS), teach the use of MS fragmentation patterns in structure determination, and also illustrate the effects of reaction conditions on the product distribution in well-known reactions.
Novak, Michael; Heinrich, Julie J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A150.
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkylation
Integrating research instrumentation with the general chemistry curriculum. Part I: Mass spectrometry  Eichstadt, Karen E.
A three-part exercise entitled "A Glimpse of Mass Spectrometry" was designed for students enrolled in the third quarter of a one-year, nonmajor course that surveyed organic and biological chemistry.
Eichstadt, Karen E. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 48.
Mass Spectrometry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Nonmajor Courses
Liquid Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry (Brown, M. A.)  Renfrew, Malcolm M.
No. 420 in the ACS Symposium series and covers a program of the Division of Agrochemicals at the Dallas meeting in 1989; presents applications of LC/MS in agricultural, pharmaceutical, and environmental chemistry.
Renfrew, Malcolm M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A221.
Agricultural Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry
An inexpensive sample holder for storage and introduction of air-sensitive organometallic compounds into a mass spectrometer with inert-atmosphere blanketing  Messerle, Louis; Mallis, Larry M.; Hatch, Peter J.
A simple sample holder that provides a rigorous inert gas blanketing of air-sensitive samples without the need for elaborate inert atmosphere enclosures on the spectrometer inlet.
Messerle, Louis; Mallis, Larry M.; Hatch, Peter J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 618.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Organometallics |
Mass Spectrometry
Introducing plastic in the laboratory: Synthesis of a plasticizer, dioctylphthalate and evaluation of its effects on the physical properties of polystyrenes  Caspar, A.; Gillois, J.; Guillerm, G.; Savignac, M.; Vo-Quang, L.
These authors are proposing a two-stage experimental approach that combines preparative organic chemistry and polymer characterization.
Caspar, A.; Gillois, J.; Guillerm, G.; Savignac, M.; Vo-Quang, L. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 811.
Esters |
Reactions |
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Transport of caffeine through Millipore filter  Rujimethabhas, Manit; Crossley, John
Examines the permeation of caffeine through a prepared diffusion cell.
Rujimethabhas, Manit; Crossley, John J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 876.
Mass Spectrometry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Membranes
APPLESEARCH - A mass spectral search system  Traeger, John C.
32. Bits and pieces, 12.
Traeger, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 779.
Mass Spectrometry |
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Simulation of chemical instrumentation. II: A program for the synthesis of mass spectral isotopic abundances  Brownawell, Marilyn L.; San Filippo, Joseph, Jr.
31.
Brownawell, Marilyn L.; San Filippo, Joseph, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 663.
Mass Spectrometry |
Isotopes
A compact inexpensive gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer silicone rubber membrane separator  Scott, Richard B.; Brown, Peter
This interface should prove especially pertinent for those having a mass spectrometer and a gas chromatograph but unable to purchase a combination GC/MS instrument.
Scott, Richard B.; Brown, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 40.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gas Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry
The latent heat of vaporization of an organic solid: An undergraduate experiment  Khouw, B. H.; Pritchard, H. O.
A series of experiments based on a mass spectrometer to help students visualize the latent heat of vaporization for a relatively involatile solid.
Khouw, B. H.; Pritchard, H. O. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 730.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography
Minicourses for many people. A format for the future?  Hill, John W.; Murray, Bruce B.; Pavlik, James W.
Describes a series of chemistry minicourses designed to meet the needs of a variety of students.
Hill, John W.; Murray, Bruce B.; Pavlik, James W. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 515.
Food Science |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Mass Spectrometry |
Chromatography |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
Mass spectrometers - Part three - Commercial spectrometers  Ewing, Galen W.
Examines a variety of commercial mass spectrometers.
Ewing, Galen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A233.
Mass Spectrometry |
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Mass spectrometers - Part two  Ewing, Galen W.
Examines mass-analyzer systems and detectors as well as the resolution and performance of mass spectrometers.
Ewing, Galen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A149.
Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Mass spectrometers. Part 1  Ewing, Galen W.
Examines ion sources, sample handling, vacuum systems, and using the mass spectrometer to monitor the effluent from a gas chromatograph.
Ewing, Galen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A69.
Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gas Chromatography
Spectrometric identification of insect sex attractants  Silverstein, Robert M.
Uses spectrometric methods to identify the sex attractants of three types of beetle pests.
Silverstein, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 794.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy
Instrumentation teaching equipment. Part three: Miscellaneous  Eisner, Leonard
Considers magnetic resonance spectroscopy, magnetic susceptibility, atomic beam spectroscopy, mass spectrometers, chromatography, electrochemistry, electron diffraction, field emission microscopes, glass blowing and vacuum systems, high and low temperatures, and ultrasonics.
Eisner, Leonard J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A607.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Magnetic Properties |
Chromatography |
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Mass spectrometry  Wiberley, Stephen E.; Aikens, David A.
Examines the theory of mass spectroscopy and factors that influence mass spectra.
Wiberley, Stephen E.; Aikens, David A. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A75.
Mass Spectrometry |
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Interpretation of mass spectra of organic compounds (Budzikiewicz, Herbert; Djerassi, Carl; Williams, Dudley H.)  Silverstein, Robert M.

Silverstein, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 464.
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods
The use of mass spectrometry in organic analysis  Eliel, Ernest L.; Prosser, Thomas J.; Young, George W.
Examines the applications of mass spectroscopy to organic chemistry, particularly with respect to quantitative analysis.
Eliel, Ernest L.; Prosser, Thomas J.; Young, George W. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 72.
Mass Spectrometry |
Quantitative Analysis