TIGER

Journal Articles: 141 results
Assessing Nitration Products of Benzene Derivatives Using TLC Analysis  Rita K. Hessley
Thin layer chromatography is applied to an earlier published, guided discovery experiment using GCMS analyses to identify isomers formed by the nitration of mono-substituted benzenes.
Hessley, Rita K. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1623.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Aromatic Compounds
Identification of Secondary Metabolites in Citrus Fruit Using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectroscopy  Jean-Michel Lavoie, Esteban Chornet, and André Pelletier
Using a simple extraction and a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer, this protocol allows students in analytical or organic chemistry to quantify and qualify monoterpenes from the peels of limes, grapefruits, and oranges.
Lavoie, Jean-Michel; Chornet, Esteban; Pelletier, André. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1555.
Alkenes |
Food Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Natural Products |
Plant Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
The Iodochlorination of Styrene: An Experiment That Makes a Difference  R. Gary Amiet and Sylvia Urban
This purpose of this laboratory exercise is to determine the various substitution and elimination products generated in the iodochlorination of styrene and their relative proportions through the application of mechanistic principles and a basic knowledge of GCMS and NMR.
Amiet, R. Gary; Urban, Sylvia. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 962.
Alkenes |
Constitutional Isomers |
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Student-Centered Learning
Identification of an Unknown Compound by Combined Use of IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and Mass Spectrometry: A Real-Life Experience in Structure Determination  Louis J. Liotta and Magdalena James-Pederson
In this introductory organic chemistry experiment, students are expected to operate NMR, IR, and GCMS instrumentation to obtain spectra which are interpreted to elucidate the chemical structure of the assigned compounds without the benefit of a list of possible unknowns.
Liotta, Louis J.; James-Pederson, Magdalena. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 832.
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Spectroscopy
A Nitration Reaction Puzzle for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Milton J. Wieder and Russell Barrows
Treatment of phenylacetic acid with different concentrations of nitric acid yields two different products. Using 1H NMR and IR spectral data, students are asked to deduce the structures of the two products, thus illustrating fundamental concepts in electrophilic aromatic substitution while posing an interesting structure elucidation puzzle.
Wieder, Milton J.; Barrows, Russell. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 549.
Constitutional Isomers |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Synthesis of Diapocynin  Mina S. Dasari, Kristy M. Richards, Mikaela L. Alt, Clark F. P. Crawford, Amanda Schleiden, Jai Ingram, Abdel Aziz Amadou Hamidou, Angela Williams, Patricia A. Chernovitz, Rensheng Luo, Grace Y. Sun, Ron Luchtefeld, and Robert E. Smith
Diapocynin is synthesized by the oxidative coupling of apocynin and analyzed by FTIR, 1H NMR, and negative ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization LCMS.
Dasari, Mina S.; Richards, Kristy M.; Alt, Mikaela L.; Crawford, Clark F. P.; Schleiden, Amanda; Ingram, Jai; Hamidou, Abdel Aziz Amadou; Williams, Angela; Chernovitz, Patricia A.; Luo, Rensheng; Sun, Grace Y.; Luchtefeld, Ron; Smith, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 411.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
HPLC |
Mass Spectrometry |
Phenols |
Synthesis
Microwave-Assisted Organic Synthesis in the Organic Teaching Lab: A Simple, Greener Wittig Reaction  Eric Martin and Cynthia Kellen-Yuen
A microwave-assisted Wittig reaction has been developed for the organic teaching laboratory. Utilizing this technique, a variety of styrene derivatives have been synthesized from aromatic aldehydes in good yields. The mixture of cis and trans alkenes produced also provides instructors with opportunities to emphasize the spectroscopic analysis of product mixtures.
Martin, Eric; Kellen-Yuen, Cynthia. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 2004.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkenes |
Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Synthesis and Characterization of Aldol Condensation Products from Unknown Aldehydes and Ketones  Nicholas G. Angelo, Laura K. Henchey, Adam J. Waxman, James W. Canary, Paramjit S. Arora, and Donald Wink
Describes an experiment in which students perform the aldol condensation on an unknown aldehyde and ketone and make use of TLC, column chromatography, recrystallization, and characterization by 1H NMR, GCMS, and FTIR.
Angelo, Nicholas G.; Henchey, Laura K.; Waxman, Adam J.; Canary, James W.; Arora, Paramjit S.; Wink, Donald. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1816.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Discovering Electronic Effects of Substituents in Nitrations of Benzene Derivatives Using GC–MS Analysis  Malgorzata M. Clennan and Edward L. Clennan
Describes an organic lab in which students pool mass spectral data to identify the distribution of isomer products generated by the nitration of six benzene derivatives whose substituents differ in their electronic effects. Students also determine which substituents direct nitration predominantly to the ortho- or para- and to the meta positions.
Clennan, Malgorzata M.; Clennan, Edward L. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1679.
Aromatic Compounds |
Constitutional Isomers |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry
Teaching Science in Art  Erich S. Uffelman
Describes two linked, interdisciplinary courses examining conservation science and the history of 17th-century Dutch painting. Strengths and limitations of the approaches taken are discussed and key resources cited.
Uffelman, Erich S. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1617.
Applications of Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Instrumental Methods |
Lasers |
Mass Spectrometry |
Spectroscopy
A Knoevenagel Initiated Annulation Reaction Using Room Temperature or Microwave Conditions  A. Gilbert Cook
The product of a Knoevenagel initiated annulation reaction is identified through a guided prelab exercise of the synthesis of the Hagemann ester, and then through the analysis of GCMS, NMR, and IR spectra. The stereochemistry of the product is determined through the NMR spectrum and Karplus curve, and the student is required to write a mechanism for the reaction.
Cook, A. Gilbert. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1477.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Conformational Analysis |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis
A Developmental History of Polymer Mass Spectrometry  Matthew J. Vergne, Robert P. Lattimer, and David M. Hercules
This review provides a historical perspective of the development of polymer mass spectrometry, divided into three eras: the small molecule era (1950s and 1960s); the macromass era (1970s and 1980s); and the modern era (the late 1980s to the present).
Vergne, Matthew J.; Lattimer, Robert P.; Hercules, David M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 81.
Mass Spectrometry |
Materials Science |
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Instrumental Methods
Photochemical Dimerization of Dibenzylideneacetone. A Convenient Exercise in [2+2] Cycloaddition Using Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry  G. Nageswara Rao, Chelli Janardhana, V. Ramanathan, T. Rajesh, and P. Harish Kumar
Presents a laboratory procedure for the photochemical dimerization of dibenzylideneacetone, a dienone. The dimerization is confirmed by chemical ionization mass spectrometry, and other spectroscopic techniques are used to establish the structure of the product.
Rao, G. Nageswara; Janardhana, Chelli; Ramanathan, V.; Rajesh, T.; Kumar, P. Harish. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1667.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alkenes |
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Photochemistry |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Developing Critical Thinking Skills: The "Sabotaged" Synthesis of Methyl p-Bromobenzoate  Eric J. Mahan and Mary Alice Nading
Before beginning an experiment, students are told that someone might have sabotaged their experiment to produce other-than-expected results. The objective is to perform the experiment, determine if any sabotage has occurred, and, if so, identify the changes that were made to the reagents as well as the person responsible.
Mahan, Eric J.; Nading, Mary Alice. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1652.
Alcohols |
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Synthesis
3,5-Diarylisoxazoles: Individualized Three-Step Synthesis and Isomer Determination Using 13C NMR or Mass Spectroscopy  Chad E. Stephens and Reem K. Arafa
Describes the three-step synthesis and definitive characterization of a 3,5-diarylisoxazole via the chalcone and chalcone dibromide. The project is individualized with regard to compound purification, characterization, and literature searches as each student prepares a differently substituted chalcone.
Stephens, Chad E.; Arafa, Reem K. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1336.
Alkenes |
Heterocycles |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Spectroscopy
Synthesis and Analysis of a Versatile Imine for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Jacqueline Bennett, Kristen Meldi, and Christopher Kimmell II
In this experiment students prepare and analyze N-p-methoxyphenyl (N-PMP) alpha-imino ethyl glyoxalate, an imine that has been used in the synthesis of biologically active molecules. The stability and versatility of this imine allow it to be used in subsequent reactions, offering a variety of possible multistep synthetic strategies.
Bennett, Jacqueline; Meldi, Kristen; Kimmell, Christopher, II. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1221.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Gas Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Analysis of the Thickening Agents in Automotive Greases by GC–MS  David Mayotte, Craig J. Donahue, and Cheryl A. Snyder
Describes a laboratory procedure for the identification of the thickening agents in lubricating greases by GCMS.
Mayotte, David; Donahue, Craig J.; Snyder, Cheryl A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 902.
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Industrial Chemistry |
Mass Spectrometry |
Separation Science |
Fatty Acids
4-Dimethylaminopyridine or Acid-Catalyzed Syntheses of Esters: A Comparison  Annemieke W. C. van den Berg and Ulf Hanefeld
Students compare acid-catalyzed ester synthesis and the 4-dimethylaminopyridine-catalyzed reaction. Based on the outcome of the experiments, students discuss the different reaction mechanisms and reason why different products are formed.
van den Berg, Annemieke W. C.; Hanefeld, Ulf. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 292.
Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Chromatography |
Esters |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Grubbs's Cross Metathesis of Eugenol with cis-2-Butene-1,4-diol To Make a Natural Product. An Organometallic Experiment for the Undergraduate Lab   Douglass F. Taber and Kevin J. Frankowski
Describes the ruthenium catalyzed cross metathesis of eugenol with cis-1,4-butenediol. The experiment is an excellent example of the powerful selectivity possible with the Grubbs' catalyst, demonstrating the preference for trans over cis alkene formation and for cross metathesis over homodimerization.
Taber, Douglass F.; Frankowski, Kevin J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 283.
Alkenes |
Catalysis |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Organometallics |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Transition Elements
Assaying α-Dicarbonyl Compounds in Wine: A Complementary GC–MS, HPLC, and Visible Spectrophotometric Analysis  Tammy J. Dwyer and Jeremiah D. Fillo
A facile, aqueous reaction coupled with gas chromatographymass spectrometry, visible spectrophotometry, and high performance liquid chromatography is used to quantify the amounts of a-dicarbonyl compounds in wine samples.
Dwyer, Tammy J.; Fillo, Jeremiah D. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 273.
Aromatic Compounds |
Chromatography |
Food Science |
HPLC |
Mass Spectrometry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Synthesis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of a Natural Insecticide on Basic Montmorillonite K10 Clay. Green Chemistry in the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory  Matthew R. Dintzner, Paul R. Wucka, and Thomas W. Lyons
Describes a microwave-assisted, solvent-free, one-pot synthesis of a naturally occurring insecticide catalyzed by naturally benign, base-washed Montmorillonite K10 clay. The reaction features several interesting mechanistic considerations, including an electrophilic aromatic addition, dehydration, and intramolecular hetero-DielsAlder cyclization.
Dintzner, Matthew R.; Wucka, Paul R.; Lyons, Thomas W. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 270.
Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
IR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy
Using Punnett Squares To Facilitate Students' Understanding of Isotopic Distributions in Mass Spectrometry  Lawrence T. Sein Jr.
Punnett squares are shown to be useful in teaching chemistryto interpret and predict low-resolution mass spectra.
Sein, Lawrence T., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 228.
Isotopes |
Mass Spectrometry
Presumptive and Confirmatory Drug Tests  Craig Anderson
Tests for illegal drugs were performed on unknowns obtained from over-the-counter cold medicines. Substances that tested positive for the qualitative Marquis color test were found to be false positives for illegal substances, while scopolamine hydrochloride shows a false positive for cocaine hydrochloride with the cobalt thiocyanate reagent.
Anderson, Craig. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1809.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Qualitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry
A GC–MS Analysis of an SN2 Reaction for the Organic Laboratory  Malgorzata M. Clennan and Edward L. Clennan
This experiment utilizes an SN2 reaction between an alkyl bromide and potassium acetate to introduce the use of mass spectrometry for structural identification. It also provides students with experience in organic synthesis, the use of IR to identify functional groups, and the use of gas chromatography and response factors to determine product ratios.
Clennan, Malgorzata M.; Clennan, Edward L. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1676.
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Synthesis |
Chromatography |
Esters |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab |
Gas Chromatography
The Quantitative Determination of Butylated Hydroxytoluene in Chewing Gum Using GC–MS  A. E. Witter
An undergraduate experiment for the quantitative determination of the synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in chewing gum is described. A simple extraction procedure was used that did not require sample derivatization for analysis.
Witter, A. E. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1538.
Food Science |
Free Radicals |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Chromatography |
Consumer Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography
Thermal Degradation and Identification of Heat-Sensitive Polymers. Applications of Pyrolysis and Distillation and Instrumental Methods of Analysis  Stuart C. Clough and Emma W. Goldman
An experiment for undergraduate teaching laboratories is described that involves the identification of samples of polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate). This involves the thermal degradation of the polymers (a destructive distillation) into their respective monomers. The monomers are then identified using infrared spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and gas chromatographymass spectrometry.
Clough, Stuart C.; Goldman, Emma W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1378.
Nonmajor Courses |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Polymerization
Understanding Mass Spectra, A Basic Approach, Second Edition (R. Martin Smith)  Bill Boggess
The interpretation of mass spectra represents arguably the most significant challenge to both newcomers and practitioners in the field of mass spectrometry (MS). For those of us who have ever struggled to use a mass spectrum to solve the structure of an organic compound, R. Martin Smith offers the second edition of Understanding Mass Spectra, A Basic Approach. Fortunately, the author manages to go well beyond the obvious and expected explanations of the common modes of fragmentation for ions generated during electron ionization (EI) by offering a rational approach to mass spectral problem solving. This ten-step approach, which represents the most important contribution of this text, appears in chapter 5 and is condensed into table 5.1.
Boggess, Bill. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 687.
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods
Quantitation of Phenol Levels in Oil of Wintergreen Using Gas ChromatographyMass Spectrometry with Selected Ion Monitoring. A Quantitative Analysis Laboratory Experiment  Robert M. Sobel, David S. Ballantine, and Victor Ryzhov
A quantitative analysis or instrumental analysis laboratory experiment was created to perform a gas chromatographymass spectrometry analysis of phenol level found in natural products. The analysis utilizes selected ion monitoring for the determination of phenol concentration in natural oil of wintergreen. The experimental design addresses the industrys need for increasing awareness of gas chromatographymass spectrometry techniques with shortened analysis time.
Sobel, Robert M.; Ballantine, David S.; Ryzhov, Victor. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 601.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Natural Products |
Gas Chromatography |
Quantitative Analysis
Applying Chemical Potential and Partial Pressure Concepts To Understand the Spontaneous Mixing of Helium and Air in a Helium-Inflated Balloon  Jee-Yon Lee, Hee-Soo Yoo, Jong Sook Park, Kwang-Jin Hwang, and Jin Seog Kim
In developing this laboratory, our initial motivation for the analysis of gases in a balloon was to answer simple and basic questions, such as, Why does a helium-charged balloon left in the air always drop in a few days? Is leakage of helium the only cause of the drop? What is the composition of the gas in the balloon when it falls after deflation? Students were intrigued by these questions, too, as they analyzed the variation over time in the composition in a balloon inflated with helium. Using the concepts of partial pressure and chemical potential, the laboratory experiment described effectively investigates the diffusion process and the behavior of gas molecules for teaching these concepts in general and physical chemistry.
Lee, Jee-Yon; Yoo, Hee-Soo; Park, Jong Sook; Hwang, Kwang-Jin; Kim, Jin Seog. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 288.
Transport Properties |
Gases |
Mass Spectrometry |
Quantitative Analysis
Tetraglyme Trap for the Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in Urban Air. Projects for Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry  Wilbert W. Hope, Clyde Johnson, and Leon P. Johnson
Students at Medgar Evers College use tetraglyme (tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether) to scrub a variety of VOCs from ambient air. The chilled tetraglyme traps VOCs as the air is bubbled through it. The VOCs are then dispersed in water, from which they are analyzed by purge-and-trap, followed by GC-MSD (gas chromatography-mass selective detector). This method has been used for a number of projects for the quantitative analysis course. Students are also introduced to the practical features of 23-factorial design of experiments to optimize the method; they monitor three variables (location, volume of tetraglyme, and sampling rate) simultaneously.
Hope, Wilbert W.; Johnson, Clyde; Johnson, Leon P. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1182.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Chromatography |
Gases |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry
A Mass Spectral Chlorine Rule for Use in Structure Determinations in Sophomore Organic Chemistry  Ray A. Gross, Jr.
The number of chlorine atoms, n, is stoichiometrically related to the ratio of peak intensities of the lowest-mass-to-highest-mass molecular ions in ideal molecular-ion clusters displayed in the mass spectra of Br- and Cl-containing compounds. The chlorine rule provides a new tool for use in organic structure determination. A discovery exercise for the chlorine rule and the names of 69 compounds, the spectra of 68 of which have been successfully analyzed by students using the chlorine rule, are provided in the Supplemental Material.
Gross, Ray A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1161.
Isotopes |
Mass Spectrometry |
Stoichiometry
Syntheses and Characterization of Ruthenium(II) Tetrakis(Pyridine) Complexes. An Advanced Coordination Chemistry Experiment or Mini-Project  Benjamin J. Coe
This experiment involves the syntheses of several coordination complexes of ruthenium(II) and their characterization by using various spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques.
Coe, Benjamin J. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 718.
Coordination Compounds |
IR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
LC–MS of Metmyoglobin at pH = 2. Separation and Characterization of Apomyoglobin and Heme by ESI–MS and UV–Vis  Helen Cleary Stynes, Araceli Layo, and Richard W. Smith
This article describes an experiment employing LCMS where metmyoglobin is denatured to apomyoglobin and heme in a mobile phase gradient of acetonitrile H2O with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid. The apomyoglobin is separated from the heme group by reversed-phase chromatography.
Stynes, Helen Cleary; Layo, Araceli; Smith, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 266.
Biotechnology |
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Proteins / Peptides |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Separation and Identification of a Mixture of Group 6 Transition-Metal Carbonyl Compounds Using GC–MS in the General Chemistry Curriculum  Lawrence K. Fong
From the mass spectral data, our students are able to determine the atomic mass of the transition metal. In addition, utilizing Mo(CO)6 as an internal standard, our students are able to quantify the quantity of Cr(CO)6 and W(CO)6 in an unknown mixture.
Fong, Lawrence K. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 103.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Isotopes |
Mass Spectrometry |
Metals |
Quantitative Analysis |
Transition Elements |
Gas Chromatography
Investigation of Imposter Perfumes Using GC–MS  Kelley A. Mowery, Daniel E. Blanchard, Stephanie Smith, and Thomas A. Betts
The minimal sample preparation required for this experiment enables students to spend significantly more time becoming familiar with GCMS hardware and software. After performing the experiment students should be familiar with the operation of a modern GCMS, headspace sampling, data analysis using GCMS software tools, and mass spectral library searching.
Mowery, Kelley A.; Blanchard, Daniel E.; Smith, Stephanie; Betts, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 87.
Chromatography |
Consumer Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography
A Series of Small-Scale, Discovery-Based Organic Laboratory Experiments Illustrating the Concepts of Addition, Substitution, and Rearrangement  Judith S. Moroz, Janice L. Pellino, and Kurt W. Field
Multistep, microscale organic laboratory experiments are presented that illustrate addition, substitution, and rearrangement reactions.
Moroz, Judith S.; Pellino, Janice L.; Field, Kurt W. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1319.
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Addition Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The Base-Induced Reaction of Salicylaldehyde with 1-Bromobutane in Acetone: Two Related Examples of Chemical Problem Solving  Holly D. Bendorf and Chriss E. McDonald
Each student performs his or her own experimental work, running one of the two reactions, and acquiring the proton and carbon NMR, IR, and mass spectra. The students work in groups to propose structures for the products and mechanisms for their formation. The students are also asked to address why the reactions take different courses.
Bendorf, Holly D.; McDonald, Chriss E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1185.
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Ethers |
Phenols |
IR Spectroscopy
Measurement of Organics Using Three FTIR Techniques: Absorption, Attenuated Total Reflectance, and Diffuse Reflectance  M. E. Gebel, M. A. Kaleuati, and B. J. Finlayson-Pitts
Determination of methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) in gasoline using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ethanol in vodka using attenuated total reflectance (ATR), and total hydrocarbons in soil samples using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS).
Gebel, M. E.; Kaleuati, M. A.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 672.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solids |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry
Environmental Analysis in the Instrumental Lab: More Than One Way...  M. Sittidech and S. Street
Laboratory practical in which students are asked to complete a problem of quantitative analysis drawn from environmental hazards (acrolein and acrylonitrile) using available instrumentation (spectroscopic, chromatographic, electrochemical, and mass spectrometric techniques).
Sittidech, M.; Street, S. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 376.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
Electrochemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Applications of Chemistry
Identifying a Protein by MALDI–TOF Mass Spectrometry: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory  Anne E. Counterman, Matthew S. Thompson, and David E. Clemmer
Experiment that requires students to use mass spectral data (MALDI-TOF) to find the identity of an unknown protein sample by performing a database search on the Internet.
Counterman, Anne E.; Thompson, Matthew S.; Clemmer, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 177.
Mass Spectrometry |
Proteins / Peptides |
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis
Quantitative Determination of Nicotine and Cotinine in Urine and Sputum Using a Combined SPME-GC/MS Method  A. E. Witter, D. M. Klinger, X. Fan, M. Lam, D. T. Mathers, and S. A. Mabury
Quantifying a naturally formed metabolite that is a biochemical indicator of exposure to tobacco smoke.
Witter, A. E.; Klinger, D. M.; Fan, X.; Lam, M.; Mathers, D. T.; Mabury, S. A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1257.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Quantitative Analysis |
Applications of Chemistry
Teaching Experimental Design Using a GC–MS Analysis of Cocaine on Money: A Cross-Disciplinary Laboratory  Christopher A. Heimbuck and Nathan W. Bower
An opportunity for students to develop and use experimental designs to refine and optimize an extraction technique from the literature.
Heimbuck, Christopher A.; Bower, Nathan W. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1254.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Forensic Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Chemometrics |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Undergraduate Research
Organic Spectroscopy–A Capstone Experience  Jan M. Fleischer
Experiment requiring students to make decisions regarding the likely structure of their sample based upon an IR spectrum before a final analysis with NMR spectroscopy.
Fleischer, Jan M. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1247.
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Applications of Inorganic Mass Spectrometry (by John R. de Laeter)  Bill Boggess
Development of the field of inorganic mass spectroscopy.
Boggess, Bill. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1206.
Mass Spectrometry
Spectroscopy for Schools and Colleges [CD-ROM] (by the Royal Society of Chemistry and GlaxoWellcome)  Thomas H. Eberlein
Interactive CR-ROM to assist in learning the fundamentals of interpreting spectroscopy in organic chemistry.
Eberlein, Thomas H. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1204.
Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Identification of Flavor Components in Perfumes by Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry  Gerd Knupp, Peter Kusch, and Michael Neugebauer
Experiment for the identification of flavor components in commercial perfume through headspace-solid-phase extraction (HS-SPME) followed by GC-MS.
Knupp, Gerd; Kusch, Peter; Neugebauer, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 98.
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Consumer Chemistry
Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry: Practices and Techniques (by Howard E. Taylor)   John K. Sanders
Introductory text to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).
Sanders, John K. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1465.
Mass Spectrometry
Mass Spectral Fragmentation Patterns of Deuterated Butyl and Ethyl Acetates: An Easy Microscale Isotopic Labeling Experiment  Hengameh Zahedkargaran and Leverett R. Smith
Microscale experiment that illustrates the use of isotopic labeling to help confirm and interpret mass spectral fragmentation patterns.
Zahedkargaran, Hengameh; Smith, Leverett R. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1379.
Chromatography |
Isotopes |
Mass Spectrometry |
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Gas Chromatography
Personalized Combined Organic Spectroscopy Problems--Online and in the Lab  Marjorie Kandel and Peter J. Tonge
Assigning individualized spectroscopy problems from SDBS, the Japanese National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research Spectroscopic Database, combined with a laboratory unknown.
Kandel, Marjorie; Tonge, Peter J. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1208.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry
News from Online: Teaching with Chemical Instrumentation on the Web  Thomas G. Chasteen
Variety of web-based animations on analytical instrumentation; WWW addresses for software, plug-ins, sites for images and animations, references for designing sites, and sites regarding specific analytical techniques.
Chasteen, Thomas G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1144.
Instrumental Methods |
Molecular Modeling |
Spectroscopy |
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy
Metal Complexes of Trifluoropentanedione. An Experiment for the General Chemistry Laboratory  Robert C. Sadoski, David Shipp, and Bill Durham
Investigation of the transition-metal complexes produced by the reactions of Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II) with 1,1,1-trifluoro-2,4-pentanedione; mass spectroscopy is used to determine the stoichiometry of the reaction products.
Sadoski, Robert C.; Shipp, David; Durham, Bill. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 665.
Coordination Compounds |
Synthesis |
Mass Spectrometry |
Transition Elements |
Stoichiometry
Mass Spectrometry Desk Reference (by O. David Sparkman)   Bill Boggess
Informative lexicon of mass spectrometric terminology.
Boggess, Bill. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 168.
Mass Spectrometry
Determination of Aspartame and Caffeine in Carbonated Beverages Utilizing Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry  H. Robert Bergen III, Linda M. Benson, and Stephen Naylor
High school students utilize ESI-MS in an analysis of aspartame and caffeine. The lab is procedurally simple and the results clearly demonstrate the potential and limitations of ESI-coupled mass spectrometry.
Bergen, H. Robert, III; Benson, Linda M.; Naylor, Stephen. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1325.
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Quantitative Analysis
Analysis of Semivolatile Organic Compounds in Fuels Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry  Tal M. Nahir
The analysis of diesel fuel using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is described. The experiment is especially appropriate for courses in instrumental analysis and environmental chemistry. Results from the injections of small amounts of liquid samples include total-ion- and single-ion-mode chromatograms as well as mass spectra of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon derivatives.
Nahir, Tal M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1695.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry
Antacids Revisited with Modern Chemical Instruments: GCMS, AAS, and CCT  Stanley L. Burden and Christopher J. Petzold
This paper describes a novel experiment that requires students to obtain and interpret data from several analytical techniques to identify the brand name of a commercial antacid. They are required to design a set of experiments utilizing computer controlled titrations (CCT), atomic absorption (AA), gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GCMS), and careful quantitative manual titrations using a visual indicator of their choice to determine the brand name of their sample from a list of six to eight choices.
Burden, Stanley L.; Petzold, Christopher J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1544.
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Acids / Bases |
Qualitative Analysis
MacMS: A Mass Spectrometer Simulator: Abstract of Issue 9906M  Stephen W. Bigger and Robert A. Craig
MacMS is a program for Mac-OS compatible computers that simulates a magnetic sector mass spectrometer designed to operate in the mass-to-charge (m/z) ratio range of 1-200 amu.
Bigger, Stephen W.; Craig, Robert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1464.
Mass Spectrometry
Gradualism: A Method for Primary Instruction on Spectroscopic Analysis in Introductory Organic Chemistry  Christopher W. Alexander, Gary L. Asleson, Charles F. Beam, Marion T. Doig, Frederick J. Heldrich*, and Shannon Studer-Martinez
The pedagogical style of gradualism is described for the instruction of spectroscopic analysis in the introductory organic chemistry laboratory. Gradualism is defined as a series of steps or lessons that build one upon the other until the student is able to solve complex problems.
Alexander, Christopher W.; Asleson, Gary L.; Beam, Charles F.; Doig, Marion T.; Heldrich, Frederick J.; Studer-Martinez, Shannon. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1297.
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Learning Theories
Spectroscopic Instruction in Introductory Organic Chemistry: Results of a National Survey  Christopher W. Alexander, Gary L. Asleson, Marion T. Doig, and Frederick J. Heldrich*
The survey results indicated that the spectroscopic techniques of IR, MS, proton NMR, and carbon NMR are core techniques in most courses. A considerable amount of the instruction in spectroscopy is occurring in both the laboratory and the lecture portions of the course.
Alexander, Christopher W.; Asleson, Gary L.; Doig, Marion T.; Heldrich, Frederick J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1294.
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy
Correction to "How Mathematics Figures in Chemistry: Some Examples" (J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 258-267)  John Andraos
With respect to the widths of parabolas discussed in Problem 3, shallow wells should be characterized as having the a parameter between 0 and 1 (0 < a < 1). The words "deep" and "shallow" appearing in the paragraph following eq 17 are incorrectly transposed.
Andraos, John. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 897.
Mass Spectrometry |
Photochemistry
A Puzzling Alcohol Dehydration Reaction Solved by GC–MS Analysis  Michael W. Pelter and Rebecca M. Macudzinski
The reaction of 2-methyl-2-propanol with ~50% sulfuric acid at 100 C yields isobutylene, which reacts further by a "puzzling" reaction. By coupling the GC/MS analysis of the product mixture with their knowledge of the mechanism of alcohol dehydration and alkene reactivity, students are able to identify the major products of this reaction.
Pelter, Michael W.; Macudzinski, Rebecca M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 826.
Synthesis |
Microscale Lab |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Alcohols |
Alkenes
Incorporation of GC-MS into an Environmental Science Curriculum  Audrey E. McGowin and George G. Hess
Incorporating modern analytical instrumentation such as GC-MS into an interdisciplinary environmental science program presents many challenges. The most daunting challenge is the variety of disciplines from which students come and their limited understanding of chemistry and chemical analysis.
McGowin, Audrey E.; Hess, George G. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 23.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods
A New GC-MS Experiment for the Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Laboratory in Environmental Chemistry: Methyl-t-butyl Ether and Benzene in Gasoline  Dinh T. Quach, Nancy A. Ciszkowski, and Barbara J. Finlayson-Pitts
In addition to illustrating the fundamentals of GC and MS, this experiment demonstrates (i) the use of internal standards to improve precision; (ii) the application of the method of standard additions; and (iii) the importance of techniques such as selected ion extraction/monitoring in the identification and measurement of specific highly volatile organic compounds in complex environmental mixtures.
Quach, Dinh T.; Ciszkowski, Nancy A.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1595.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography |
Aromatic Compounds |
Ethers
Chemical Analysis of an Endangered Conifer: Environmental Laboratory Experiments  Royce S. Woosley and David J. Butcher
Elemental analysis of foliage was used to assess the effects of acidic deposition and pollution levels. Volatile compounds were identified and determined in foliage and other plant tissues by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC. Chlorophylls a and b were determined by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy by simultaneous analysis of a two-component mixture.
Woosley, Royce S.; Butcher, David J. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1592.
Plant Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry
A Scientific Approach to Cultural Heritage Preservation: A Case Study of Vandalistic Acts on Important Roman Mosaics  Enrico Ciliberto, Giuseppe Spoto, Mauro Matteini, and Concetto Puglisi
As an example of the way in which a scientific study can help the restorer in the restoration of important artistic works, the authors report the case study of vandalistic acts on important Roman mosaics.
Ciliberto, Enrico; Spoto, Giuseppe; Matteini, Mauro; Puglisi, Concetto. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1302.
Mass Spectrometry |
Materials Science |
Surface Science |
Forensic Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Design and Operation of a Portable Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer for the Undergraduate Curriculum  Michael Henchman and Colin Steel
We describe the design and construction of a teaching mass spectrometer from components that are available commercially. The instrument is transportable, robust, and inexpensive. It yields a mass spectrum 3 minutes after being switched on and is designed to be used by undergraduates and maintained by faculty without special instrumental skills.
Henchman, Michael; Steel, Colin. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1042.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Mass Spectrometry |
Computational Chemistry
Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry. Instrumentation and Applications  David C. Muddiman, Ray Bakhtiar, Steven A. Hofstadler, and Richard D. Smith
This article introduces educators and researchers to the theory, principles, instrumentation, and some applications of MALDI-MS. Reflectron time-of-flight (TOF) mass analyzers are described in detail, since TOF is the most common mass analyzer for ions produced by MALDI.
Muddiman, David C.; Bakhtiar, Ray; Hofstadler, Steven A.; Smith, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1288.
Mass Spectrometry |
Lasers |
Instrumental Methods
Quantitative Determination of Caffeine in Beverages Using a Combined SPME-GC/MS Method  Janusz Pawliszyn, Min J. Yang, and Maureen L. Orton
Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been applied to the analysis of various caffeinated beverages. Unlike the current methods, this technique is solvent free and requires no pH adjustments. The simplicity of the SPME-GC/MS method lends itself to a good undergraduate laboratory practice.
Pawliszyn, Janusz; Yang, Min J.; Orton, Maureen L. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1130.
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods |
Food Science |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography
Integration of GC/MS Instrumentation into the Undergraduate Laboratory: Separation and Identification of Fatty Acids in Commercial Fats and Oils  Judith F. Rubinson and Jennifer Neyer-Hilvert

Rubinson, Judith F.; Neyer-Hilvert, Jennifer. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1106.
Instrumental Methods |
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Food Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Fatty Acids
Identification of Volatile Flavor Components by Headspace Analysis: A Quick and Easy Experiment for Introducing GC/MS  Richard Kjonaas, Jean L. Soller, and Leslee A. McCoy
By placing a piece of chewing gum (Wrigley's) or a crushed piece of hard candy (LifeSavers or Runts) into a vial, followed by GC/MS analysis of a five microliter sample of the headspace, students are able to identify several of the volatile flavoring components which are present.
Kjonaas, Richard; Soller, Jean L.; McCoy, Leslee A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1104.
Instrumental Methods |
Food Science |
Mass Spectrometry |
Natural Products |
Quantitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography
News from On-Line  Carolyn Sweeney Judd
Helpful chemistry WWW sites.
Judd, Carolyn Sweeney. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 620.
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry
Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectroscopy: Part I. Instrumentation and Spectral Interpretation  Steven A. Hofstadler, Ray Bakhtiar, and Richard D. Smith
ESI-MS is now one of the most widely utilized and fastest growing mass spectrometric techniques for the analysis of biomolecular species. This article is intended to introduce the theory, principles, and instrumentation of ESI-MS to teachers, researchers, and future researchers with a rudimentary knowledge of ion formation, separation, and detection processes.
Hofstadler, Steven A.; Bakhtiar, Ray; and Smith, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A82.
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods |
Bioanalytical Chemistry
An LC/Particle Beam/MS Experiment for Undergraduates  Norman Sproch, Kelly J. Begin, and Robert J. Morris

Sproch, Norman; Begin, Kelly J.; Morris, Robert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A33.
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
HPLC
An Environmentally Significant Experiment Using GC/MS and GC Retention Indices in an Undergraduate Analytical Laboratory  Rebecca Guisto-Norkus, Giv Gounili, Peter Wisniecki, John A. Hubball, S. Ruven Smith, James D. Stuart
Students extract and analyze the additives from plastic food wrap, Tygon tubing and plastic soda bottles that have been crushed in a bottle return machine. The modifiers are extracted from the plastics using methylene chloride and/or methanol as solvents and the extracts are analyzed by GC/MS.
Guisto-Norkus, Rebecca; Gounili, Giv; Wisniecki, Peter; Hubball, John A.; Smith, S. Ruven; Stuart, James D. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1176.
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry
A Simple Digital Interface for the HP 5985 Mass Spectrometer Using a PC  K uruppu A. N. Dharmasiri, Michael Davenport, Curtis M. Regentin, Jack F. Holland, J. Throck Watson
189. The design and construction of a simple digital interface for controlling a quadrupole mass spectrometer (HP 5985) and collecting data using a PC with an Intel 486 CPU is described.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 881.
Mass Spectrometry |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Use of Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) in Nonscience Major Course Laboratory Experiments  Keith S. Kostecka, Zafra M. Lerman, and Sanford A. Angelos
Our efforts have centered on introducing prospective science communicators (film, video, radio, television, and journalism majors) to science relative to their majors and personal interests. Quality lecture-discussion topics, "mystery"-based laboratory activities have assisted in introducing and/or explaining specific areas of chemistry that attempt to reduce fear of subject matter.
Keith S. Kostecka, Zafra M. Lerman, and Sanford A. Angelos. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 565.
Nonmajor Courses |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Chromatography |
Forensic Chemistry |
Separation Science
In This Issue  
The instruments that chemists use in their research have changed dramatically in the past decades. The explosion in new techniques and their instrumental counterparts has been made possible by two significant advances.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 288.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods
An Efficient Microscale Procedure for the Preparation of 3,5-Dinitrobenzoates  Richard F. Smith and Gaetano M. Cristalli
A laboratory to introduce the concept and technique of mass spectroscopy to introductory organic students; sample data and analysis included.
Smith, Richard F.; Cristalli, Gaetano M. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A160.
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis |
Microscale Lab
1H NMR, 13C NMR, and Mass Spectrometry of 1-Phenyl-1,2-Dihaloethanes  Joseph R. Gandler, Kevin W. Kittredge, and Oliver L. Saunders
Procedure to introduce organic chemistry students to spectroscopic methods for characterizing structure and calculating 13C NMR chemical shifts.
Gandler, Joseph R.; Kittredge, Kevin W.; Saunders, Oliver L. . J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 855.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry
GC/MS Analysis of the Aromatic Composition of Gasoline  Keith S. Kostecka, Ashraf Rabah, and Charles F. Palmer, Jr.
Procedure for examining 11 aromatics species in three unleaded regular-grade commercial fuels using GC/MS analysis; includes sample data.
Kostecka, Keith S.; Rabah, Ashraf; Palmer, Charles F., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 853.
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography
Using GC-MS to Determine Relative Reactivity Ratios   R. Daniel Bishop, Jr.
Experiment that demonstrates the use of GC-mass spectrometry in the separation and analysis of mixtures; also uses the GC-mass spectrometer to find the relative reactivity of primary, secondary, and tertiary hydrogens.
Bishop, R. Daniel, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 743.
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography
Mass Spectrometry for Large Undergraduate Laboratory Sections  A. Illies, P. B. Shevlin, G. Childers, M. Peschke and J. Tsai
A gas chromatography - mass spectrometry experiment that allows each student in a large laboratory class to analyze the products of a simple organic synthesis.
Illies, A.; Shevlin, P. B.; Childers, G.; Peschke, M.; Tsai, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 717.
Mass Spectrometry |
Chromatography |
Synthesis |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography
Bromination of Disubstituted Arenes: Kinetics and Mechanism: GC/MS Experiments for the Instrumental Analysis and Organic Chemistry Labs  Annis, D. Allen; Collard, David M.; Bottomley, Lawrence A.
Experimental procedure using gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy to trace the progression of a reaction over time and determine the several possible steps of its mechanism; sample data and analysis included.
Annis, D. Allen; Collard, David M.; Bottomley, Lawrence A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 460.
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Kinetics |
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Aromatic Compounds
Crayons, Boxes, and Books: A Model for Mass Spectrometry  Crute, Thomas D.; Myers, Stephanie A.
Analogy for helping students to understand the basic principle and operation of mass spectrometry.
Crute, Thomas D.; Myers, Stephanie A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 232.
Mass Spectrometry
Trihalomethanes Produced in Humic Acid Reactions: A GC-MS Experiment for Instrumental Analysis  Brush, Robert C.; Rice, Gary W.
This lab was developed for an instrumental analysis course to determine quantitatively trihalomethanes produced from the chlorination of humic acids in the presence of various levels of bromide.
Brush, Robert C.; Rice, Gary W. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A293.
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis
Interpretation of Mass Spectra, 4th ed. (McLafferty, Fred W.; Turecek, Frantisek)  
Monograph.
J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A54.
Mass Spectrometry
Many Students and Only One GC/MS  Lawrence, Stephen S.
A procedure that allows one lab section of 16-20 students to individually perform real-time analyses using one GC/MS instrument.
Lawrence, Stephen S. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 530.
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Laboratory Management |
Administrative Issues
Interpretation of mass spectra: A direct learning approach through software   Lehman, Thomas; Vagenin, Grigory
Software available from NIST makes it possible for students to peruse 735 carefully chosen spectra.
Lehman, Thomas; Vagenin, Grigory J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A316.
Mass Spectrometry
Applications of autosampling GC-MS in an introductory organic chemistry laboratory   Asleson, Gary L.; Doig, Marion T.; Heldrich, Frederick J.
Incorporation of an automated GC-MS has allowed students to have access to state-of-the-art instrumentation in a cost-effective and pedagogically sound manner.
Asleson, Gary L.; Doig, Marion T.; Heldrich, Frederick J. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A290.
Instrumental Methods |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry
Microscale qualitative organic analysis   Goller, Edwin J.; Miller, John H.
Students gain critical thinking skills in an organic chemistry course by selecting their own chemical tests.
Goller, Edwin J.; Miller, John H. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A159.
Qualitative Analysis |
Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Microscale Lab
GC/MS experiments for the organic laboratory: II. Friedel-Crafts alkylation of p-xylene   Novak, Michael; Heinrich, Julie
Experiments for the sophomore organic chemistry laboratory that make use of capillary gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectroscopy(MS), teach the use of MS fragmentation patterns in structure determination, and also illustrate the effects of reaction conditions on the product distribution in well-known reactions.
Novak, Michael; Heinrich, Julie J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A150.
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkylation
Animated demonstrations II: Mass spectrometer; single-crystal X-ray diffraction  Pavlik, Philip I.
A review of the second installment of this series.
Pavlik, Philip I. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 763.
X-ray Crystallography |
Mass Spectrometry
Integrating research instrumentation with the general chemistry curriculum. Part I: Mass spectrometry  Eichstadt, Karen E.
A three-part exercise entitled "A Glimpse of Mass Spectrometry" was designed for students enrolled in the third quarter of a one-year, nonmajor course that surveyed organic and biological chemistry.
Eichstadt, Karen E. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 48.
Mass Spectrometry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Nonmajor Courses
Liquid Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry (Brown, M. A.)  Renfrew, Malcolm M.
No. 420 in the ACS Symposium series and covers a program of the Division of Agrochemicals at the Dallas meeting in 1989; presents applications of LC/MS in agricultural, pharmaceutical, and environmental chemistry.
Renfrew, Malcolm M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A221.
Agricultural Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry
Mass spectrometer interface with an Apple II computer   Stahl, John W.
The author upgraded a low-cost mass spectrometer into a very functional instrument using a commercial computer interface, some hardware modification, and custom-written software.
Stahl, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A72.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Mass Spectrometry
Qualitative amino acid analysis of small peptides by GC/MS  Mabbott, Gary A.
Besides being appealing to students the exercise described here gives them experiences in derivation methods that are often necessary in order to make nonvolatile samples amenable to gas chromatography separation.
Mabbott, Gary A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 441.
Amino Acids |
Qualitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods
The Wiley / NBS Registry of Mass Spectral Data, Volumes 1-7 (McLafferty, Fred W.; Stauffer, Douglas B.)  Johnston, Christine
40,000 spectra from the EPA / NIH database and over 70,000 spectra from the Wiley collection.
Johnston, Christine J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A256.
Mass Spectrometry
Organic spectroscopy  Hiatt, Richard
Six programs that generate and display infrared, proton NMR, carbon-13 NMR, and mass spectra.
Hiatt, Richard J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 927.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry
An inexpensive sample holder for storage and introduction of air-sensitive organometallic compounds into a mass spectrometer with inert-atmosphere blanketing  Messerle, Louis; Mallis, Larry M.; Hatch, Peter J.
A simple sample holder that provides a rigorous inert gas blanketing of air-sensitive samples without the need for elaborate inert atmosphere enclosures on the spectrometer inlet.
Messerle, Louis; Mallis, Larry M.; Hatch, Peter J. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 618.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Organometallics |
Mass Spectrometry
The mass spectrum of sulfur  Dudek, Gerald; Dudek, Emily P.
The concepts of isotopic abundance, mass defect, fragmentation, and nuclear binding energies are all illustrated in the readily interpretable spectrum of a nonorganic material.
Dudek, Gerald; Dudek, Emily P. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 304.
Mass Spectrometry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Introducing plastic in the laboratory: Synthesis of a plasticizer, dioctylphthalate and evaluation of its effects on the physical properties of polystyrenes  Caspar, A.; Gillois, J.; Guillerm, G.; Savignac, M.; Vo-Quang, L.
These authors are proposing a two-stage experimental approach that combines preparative organic chemistry and polymer characterization.
Caspar, A.; Gillois, J.; Guillerm, G.; Savignac, M.; Vo-Quang, L. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 811.
Esters |
Reactions |
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Thin Layer Chromatography
"Delta plots"A new way to visualize electronic excitation  Morrison, Harry; Jorgensen, William L.; Bigot, Bernard; Severance, Daniel; Munoz-Sola, Yldefonso; Strommen, Randy; Pandey, Bipin
Generating electron density surfaces to illustrate electronic transitions in organic molecules (with examples and applications from photochemistry and mass spectrometry).
Morrison, Harry; Jorgensen, William L.; Bigot, Bernard; Severance, Daniel; Munoz-Sola, Yldefonso; Strommen, Randy; Pandey, Bipin J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 298.
Mass Spectrometry |
Spectroscopy
A modern GS/MS/data system  Karasek, Francis W.; Viau, Alan C.
Describes the design, use, and advantages of a gas chromatography / mass spectrometer / computerized data system.
Karasek, Francis W.; Viau, Alan C. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, A233.
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Instrumental Methods
Employing data management software for the production and searching of customized mass spectral libraries  Gouge, Edward M.
54. Bits and pieces, 21. Creating a customized computer data base for mass spectra and similar data.
Gouge, Edward M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 787.
Mass Spectrometry
Analytical chemistry of surfaces. Part III. Ion spectroscopy  Hercules, David M.; Hercules, Shirley H.
Analysis of surfaces through secondary-ion mass spectrometry and ion-scattering spectroscopy.
Hercules, David M.; Hercules, Shirley H. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 592.
Surface Science |
Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry
Separation and analysis of citral isomers: an undergraduate organic laboratory experiment  Sacks, Jeff; Greenley, Erin; Leo, Greg; Willey, Paul; Gallis, David; Mangravite, John A.
In this laboratory, the authors have introduced students to HPLC, mass spectrometric analysis, and the separation of thermally sensitive materials by vacuum distillation.
Sacks, Jeff; Greenley, Erin; Leo, Greg; Willey, Paul; Gallis, David; Mangravite, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 434.
Mass Spectrometry |
HPLC |
Separation Science
Mass spectral analysis of halogen compounds   Holdsworth, David K.
37. Bits and pieces, 14. A pocket calculator can be programmed to decide and display the halogen combination in a molecular-ion cluster by examination of the (M+2)/M or (X+2)/X percentage values.
Holdsworth, David K. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 103.
Chemometrics |
Mass Spectrometry
Transport of caffeine through Millipore filter  Rujimethabhas, Manit; Crossley, John
Examines the permeation of caffeine through a prepared diffusion cell.
Rujimethabhas, Manit; Crossley, John J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 876.
Mass Spectrometry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Membranes
Mass spectra of organic compounds containing bromine and chlorine  Holdsworth, David K.
32. Bits and pieces, 12.
Holdsworth, David K. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 780.
Mass Spectrometry
APPLESEARCH - A mass spectral search system  Traeger, John C.
32. Bits and pieces, 12.
Traeger, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 779.
Mass Spectrometry |
Physical Properties |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Simulation of chemical instrumentation. II: A program for the synthesis of mass spectral isotopic abundances  Brownawell, Marilyn L.; San Filippo, Joseph, Jr.
31.
Brownawell, Marilyn L.; San Filippo, Joseph, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 663.
Mass Spectrometry |
Isotopes
Spectroscopy in organic chemistry at the introductory level  Gurst, Jerome E.
This author has found that the use of a limited series of compounds allow students to focus attention on the spectra rather than the structural formulas of many compounds. This allows students to grasp the significance of the spectral measurements in a minimal time period.
Gurst, Jerome E. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 511.
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
A simple system to illustrate mass spectrometry principles  Finet, Daniel
A simple didactic system that enables one to simulate the different operations of a mass spectrometer and the necessary conditions for ionic refocusing.
Finet, Daniel J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 232.
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods
High resolution mass spectra analysis with a programmable calculator  Holdsworth, David K.
Calculator programs to analyze mass spectra data.
Holdsworth, David K. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 99.
Mass Spectrometry
A compact inexpensive gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer silicone rubber membrane separator  Scott, Richard B.; Brown, Peter
This interface should prove especially pertinent for those having a mass spectrometer and a gas chromatograph but unable to purchase a combination GC/MS instrument.
Scott, Richard B.; Brown, Peter J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 40.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gas Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry
The latent heat of vaporization of an organic solid: An undergraduate experiment  Khouw, B. H.; Pritchard, H. O.
A series of experiments based on a mass spectrometer to help students visualize the latent heat of vaporization for a relatively involatile solid.
Khouw, B. H.; Pritchard, H. O. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 730.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Physical Properties |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography
Illustrating gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. An undergraduate experiment  Gross, Michael L.; Olsen, Virgil K.; Forc, R. Ken
One lab period is used to separate and collect the components of a ketone mixture; the second lab period is used to explain and demonstrate the MS instrumentation and the interpretation of ketone spectra; and in part three the spectra of the separated ketones are analyzed by individual students.
Gross, Michael L.; Olsen, Virgil K.; Forc, R. Ken J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 535.
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Minicourses for many people. A format for the future?  Hill, John W.; Murray, Bruce B.; Pavlik, James W.
Describes a series of chemistry minicourses designed to meet the needs of a variety of students.
Hill, John W.; Murray, Bruce B.; Pavlik, James W. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 515.
Food Science |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Mass Spectrometry |
Chromatography |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
Isomer analysis by spectral methods  Poulton, Gerald A.
The use of NMR, UV and mass spectroscopy and gas chromatography to introduce students to the use of spectra to determine the products of a reaction and their relative amounts.
Poulton, Gerald A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 397.
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography
The preparation and spectral analysis of toluene-a[alpha]-d  Ellis, Jerry W.; Buchanan, David H.
Provides dramatic visual evidence of the changes in IR, NMR, and mass spectra upon substitution of deuterium for hydrogen in a simple molecule.
Ellis, Jerry W.; Buchanan, David H. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 265.
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Spectroscopy
The effects of aryl substituents on ir, nmr, and mass spectra of N-t-butylbenzamides  Rubottom, George M.
The authors have developed this experiment in order to give students the opportunity to carry out a high yield synthetic reaction coupled with an analysis of the effects of substituents on the IR, NMR, and mass spectral properties of the compounds prepared.
Rubottom, George M. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 616.
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry
Relative isotopic abundances in halogenated methane fragments. An undergraduate experiment  Leech, J. R.; Daugherty, K. E.
A mass spectrometer experiment at the sophomore level in analytical chemistry is designed for the determination of the relative isotopic abundances of halogenated methane fragments and the subsequent comparison with known abundances.
Leech, J. R.; Daugherty, K. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 569.
Mass Spectrometry
An interactive mass spectral search system  Heller, Stephen R.; Fales, Henry M.; Milne, G. W. A.
Briefly describes an interactive mass spectral search system and the options for searching the database.
Heller, Stephen R.; Fales, Henry M.; Milne, G. W. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 725.
Mass Spectrometry
Rapid calculation of molecular formulas from mass values  Lederberg, Joshua
Presents a table of mass fractions for all combinations of H, N, O, for the rapid calculation of molecular formulas from mass values.
Lederberg, Joshua J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 613.
Chemometrics |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties |
Mass Spectrometry
Variable scale for mass spectral relative ion abundance measurement  Katcher, M. L.
The use of a variable scale allows one to obtain the relative ion abundances directly from the mass spectrum without the necessity of using arithmetic manipulations and/or desk calculators.
Katcher, M. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 567.
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis
Calculated relative intensities of the first eight isotopic lines in mass spectra of compounds containing carbon, hydrogen and chlorine atoms  Demayo, A.; Green, D. A.
Availability of a computer program that calculates the relative intensities of the first eight isotopic lines in mass spectra of compounds containing carbon, hydrogen and chlorine atoms.
Demayo, A.; Green, D. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 397.
Mass Spectrometry
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
Five questions requiring an application of basic chemical principles.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 328.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Applications of Chemistry |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Thermodynamics |
Mass Spectrometry |
Isotopes
Atlas of mass spectral data. 3 Vol. (Stenhagen, E.; Abrahamsson, S.; McLafferty, F. W.)  Lippincott, W. T.

Lippincott, W. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, A64.
Mass Spectrometry
The calculation of relative abundance of isotope clusters in mass spectrometry  Gorman, Mel; DeMattia, Dennis; Doonan, Daniel; Gohlke, R. S.
Describes the calculation of relative abundance of isotope clusters in mass spectrometry.
Gorman, Mel; DeMattia, Dennis; Doonan, Daniel; Gohlke, R. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 467.
Mass Spectrometry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Isotopes |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Chemometrics
Mass spectrometers - Part three - Commercial spectrometers  Ewing, Galen W.
Examines a variety of commercial mass spectrometers.
Ewing, Galen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A233.
Mass Spectrometry |
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Mass spectrometers - Part two  Ewing, Galen W.
Examines mass-analyzer systems and detectors as well as the resolution and performance of mass spectrometers.
Ewing, Galen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A149.
Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Instrumental Methods
Mass spectrometers. Part 1  Ewing, Galen W.
Examines ion sources, sample handling, vacuum systems, and using the mass spectrometer to monitor the effluent from a gas chromatograph.
Ewing, Galen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, A69.
Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gas Chromatography
Problems in spectroscopy - Organic structure determination by NMR, IR, UV, and mass spectra (Trost, Barry M.)  Danforth, Joseph D.

Danforth, Joseph D. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A242.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry
Spectrometric identification of insect sex attractants  Silverstein, Robert M.
Uses spectrometric methods to identify the sex attractants of three types of beetle pests.
Silverstein, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 794.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy
Interpretation of mass spectra: An introduction (McLafferty, F. W.)  Meyerson, Seymour

Meyerson, Seymour J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 430.
Mass Spectrometry
Introduction to mass spectrometry and its applications (Kiser, Robert W.)  Rosenstock, Henry

Rosenstock, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 394.
Mass Spectrometry
Instrumentation teaching equipment. Part three: Miscellaneous  Eisner, Leonard
Considers magnetic resonance spectroscopy, magnetic susceptibility, atomic beam spectroscopy, mass spectrometers, chromatography, electrochemistry, electron diffraction, field emission microscopes, glass blowing and vacuum systems, high and low temperatures, and ultrasonics.
Eisner, Leonard J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A607.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Magnetic Properties |
Chromatography |
Electrochemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Mass spectrometry, part two  Wiberley, Stephen E.; Aikens, David A.
Considers the applications of mass spectrometry and various commercial mass spectrometers.
Wiberley, Stephen E.; Aikens, David A. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A153.
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry
Mass spectrometry  Wiberley, Stephen E.; Aikens, David A.
Examines the theory of mass spectroscopy and factors that influence mass spectra.
Wiberley, Stephen E.; Aikens, David A. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A75.
Mass Spectrometry |
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Interpretation of mass spectra of organic compounds (Budzikiewicz, Herbert; Djerassi, Carl; Williams, Dudley H.)  Silverstein, Robert M.

Silverstein, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 464.
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods
Spectrometric identification of organic compounds  Silverstein, Robert M.; Bassler, G. Clayton
Presents a sequence of procedures for identifying an unknown organic liquid using mass, NMR, IR, and UV spectroscopy, along with specific examples of unknowns and their spectra,
Silverstein, Robert M.; Bassler, G. Clayton J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 546.
Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Mass Spectrometry |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
The use of mass spectrometry in organic analysis  Eliel, Ernest L.; Prosser, Thomas J.; Young, George W.
Examines the applications of mass spectroscopy to organic chemistry, particularly with respect to quantitative analysis.
Eliel, Ernest L.; Prosser, Thomas J.; Young, George W. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 72.
Mass Spectrometry |
Quantitative Analysis