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3 Assessment Questions
7 Molecular Structures
10 Journal Articles
3 Other Resources
Assessment Questions: 3 results
Radicals (9 Variations)
A collection of 9 assessment questions about Radicals
Addition Reactions |
Free Radicals |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds
MO Theory (11 Variations)
A collection of 11 assessment questions about MO Theory
MO Theory |
Reactions |
Addition Reactions |
Free Radicals |
Alkenes |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Covalent Bonding (11 Variations)
A collection of 11 assessment questions about Covalent Bonding
Carboxylic Acids |
Acids / Bases |
Resonance Theory |
Covalent Bonding |
Phenols |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Free Radicals |
Alkenes |
Amides |
Ethers
Molecular Structures: First 3 results
Nitrogen Trioxide NO3(r)

3D Structure

Link to PubChem

VSEPR Theory |
Nonmetals |
Free Radicals

Chlorine Monoxide ClO(r)

3D Structure

Link to PubChem

Free Radicals |
VSEPR Theory |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Nonmetals

Nitrogen Dioxide NO2(r)

3D Structure

Link to PubChem

Free Radicals |
VSEPR Theory |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Nonmetals

View all 7 results
Journal Articles: First 3 results.
Pedagogies:
A Substitute for “Bromine in Carbon Tetrachloride”  Joshua M. Daley and Robert G. Landolt
Benzotrifluoride (BTF) is a suitable solvent substitute for carbon tetrachloride in experiments requiring application of bromine (Br2) in free radical or addition reactions with organic substrates. A 1 M solution of Br2 in BTF may be used to distinguish hydrocarbons based on the ease of abstraction of hydrogen atoms in thermally or light-induced free radical substitutions. Efficacy of minimization of solvent use, by aliquot addition to neat samples, has been established.
Daley, Joshua M.; Landolt, Robert G. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 120.
Alkenes |
Free Radicals |
Green Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Reactions
Application of Hammond's Postulate. An Activity for Guided Discovery Learning in Organic Chemistry  J. E. Meany, Vicky Minderhout, and Y. Pocker
In this activity, students are given product distributions and other relevant experimental data concerning the free radical chlorination and bromination of propane. Students are guided in the use of Hammond's postulate to predict transition-state structures and to provide a rationale for the relationship between selectivity and reactivity in these and other reactions.
Meany, J. E.; Minderhout, Vicky; Pocker, Y. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 204.
Free Radicals |
Kinetics |
Reactions
A Safe Simple Halogenation Experiment  Hilton M. Weiss and Lara Ganz
This experiment is designed to be a safe and experimentally simple procedure appropriate to the early weeks of a course when halogenation is the only reaction which has been discussed in the lecture. It can also provide some early experience with simple interpretation of NMR spectra.
Weiss, Hilton M.; Ganz, Lara. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 534.
Synthesis |
Free Radicals |
Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy
View all 10 articles
Other Resources: 3 results
Molecular Models of Antioxidants and Radicals  William F. Coleman
This month's featured molecules come from the paper by John M. Berger, Roshniben J. Rana, Hira Javeed, Iqra Javeed, and Sandi L. Schulien (1) describing the use of DPPH to measure antioxidant activity. DPPH was one of the featured molecules in September 2007 (2) and the basics of antioxidant activity were introduced in last month's column (3). In addition, some of the other molecules in the paper are already in the featured molecules collection (4). The remaining structures in the Figure 1 and Table 1 of the paper have been added to the collection. All structures have been optimized at the 6-311G(D,P) level. These molecules suggest a number of possible student activities, some reminiscent of previous columns and some new. (R,R,R)-α-tocopherol is one of the molecules in the mixture that goes by the name vitamin E. These molecules differ in the substituents on the benzene ring and on whether or not there are alternating double bonds in the phytyl tail. In (R,R,R)-α-tocopherol the R's refer to the three chiral carbon atoms in tail while α refers to the substituents on the ring. (R,R,R)-α-Tocopherol is the form found in nature. An interesting literature problem would be to have students learn more about the vitamin E mixture and the differing antioxidant activity of the various constituents. Additionally they could be asked to explore the difference between the word natural as used by a chemist, and "natural" as used on vitamin E supplements. Can students find regulations governing the use of the term "natural"? Can they suggest alternative legislation, and defend their ideas? If students read about vitamin C they will discover that only L-ascorbic acid is useful in the body. It would be interesting to extend the experiment described in the Berger et al. paper (1) to include D-ascorbic acid. How do the antioxidant abilities of the enantiomers, as determined by reaction with DPPH compare? Is this consistent with the behavior in the body? Why or why not? Berger et al. mention two other stable neutral radicals, TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl) and Fremy's salt. In a reversal from the use of stable radicals to measure antioxidant properties, these two molecules have proven to be very versatile oxidation catalysts in organic synthesis, and would make a rich source of research papers for students in undergraduate organic courses.
Free Radicals |
Natural Products
Biologically Active Exceptions to the Octet Rule  Ed Vitz
A section of ChemPrime, the Chemical Educations Digital Library's free General Chemistry textbook.
Lewis Structures |
Free Radicals |
Vitamins
Exceptions to the Octet Rule  Ed Vitz, John W. Moore
A section of ChemPrime, the Chemical Educations Digital Library's free General Chemistry textbook.
Lewis Structures |
Free Radicals |
Molecular Properties / Structure