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5 Assessment Questions
13 Molecular Structures
7 Journal Articles
12 Other Resources
Assessment Questions: First 3 results
MO Theory (11 Variations)
A collection of 11 assessment questions about MO Theory
MO Theory |
Reactions |
Addition Reactions |
Free Radicals |
Alkenes |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Molecular_Structure : Hybridization (10 Variations)
Which of the following molecules/ions have sp hybridization around the indicated atom?
Covalent Bonding |
MO Theory
Conjugation (1 Variations)
A collection of 1 assessment questions about Conjugation
MO Theory |
Aromatic Compounds
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Molecular Structures: First 3 results
Superoxide Ion O21-

3D Structure

Link to PubChem

MO Theory |
Free Radicals |
Oxidation State

Chlorine Dioxide ClO2(r)

3D Structure

Link to PubChem

Free Radicals |
VSEPR Theory |
Gases |
MO Theory |
Molecular Properties / Structure

Nitrogen Trioxide NO3(r)

3D Structure

Link to PubChem

VSEPR Theory |
Nonmetals |
Free Radicals

View all 13 results
Journal Articles: First 3 results.
Pedagogies:
The Quantitative Determination of Butylated Hydroxytoluene in Chewing Gum Using GC–MS  A. E. Witter
An undergraduate experiment for the quantitative determination of the synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in chewing gum is described. A simple extraction procedure was used that did not require sample derivatization for analysis.
Witter, A. E. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1538.
Food Science |
Free Radicals |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Chromatography |
Consumer Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography
Motivating Students in Sophomore Organic Chemistry by Examining Nature's Way- Why Are Vitamins E and C Such Good Antioxidants?  Bruce D. Beaver
Motivating students in sophomore organic chemistry by integrating material from an area of contemporary research activity into the course. This article contains an overview of the antioxidant function of vitamins E and C.
Beaver, Bruce D. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1108.
Nutrition |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Free Radicals |
Learning Theories |
Applications of Chemistry
The NBS reaction: A simple explanation for the predominance of allylic substitution over olefin addition by bromine at low concentrations  Wamser, Carl C.; Scott, Lawrence T.
What factors govern the reaction of Br2 with an alkene to give either allylic substitution or double bond addition?
Wamser, Carl C.; Scott, Lawrence T. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 650.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Free Radicals |
Kinetics |
Alkenes
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Other Resources: First 3 results
Molecular Models of Antioxidants and Radicals  William F. Coleman
This month's featured molecules come from the paper by John M. Berger, Roshniben J. Rana, Hira Javeed, Iqra Javeed, and Sandi L. Schulien (1) describing the use of DPPH to measure antioxidant activity. DPPH was one of the featured molecules in September 2007 (2) and the basics of antioxidant activity were introduced in last month's column (3). In addition, some of the other molecules in the paper are already in the featured molecules collection (4). The remaining structures in the Figure 1 and Table 1 of the paper have been added to the collection. All structures have been optimized at the 6-311G(D,P) level. These molecules suggest a number of possible student activities, some reminiscent of previous columns and some new. (R,R,R)-α-tocopherol is one of the molecules in the mixture that goes by the name vitamin E. These molecules differ in the substituents on the benzene ring and on whether or not there are alternating double bonds in the phytyl tail. In (R,R,R)-α-tocopherol the R's refer to the three chiral carbon atoms in tail while α refers to the substituents on the ring. (R,R,R)-α-Tocopherol is the form found in nature. An interesting literature problem would be to have students learn more about the vitamin E mixture and the differing antioxidant activity of the various constituents. Additionally they could be asked to explore the difference between the word natural as used by a chemist, and "natural" as used on vitamin E supplements. Can students find regulations governing the use of the term "natural"? Can they suggest alternative legislation, and defend their ideas? If students read about vitamin C they will discover that only L-ascorbic acid is useful in the body. It would be interesting to extend the experiment described in the Berger et al. paper (1) to include D-ascorbic acid. How do the antioxidant abilities of the enantiomers, as determined by reaction with DPPH compare? Is this consistent with the behavior in the body? Why or why not? Berger et al. mention two other stable neutral radicals, TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl) and Fremy's salt. In a reversal from the use of stable radicals to measure antioxidant properties, these two molecules have proven to be very versatile oxidation catalysts in organic synthesis, and would make a rich source of research papers for students in undergraduate organic courses.
Free Radicals |
Natural Products
Biologically Active Exceptions to the Octet Rule  Ed Vitz
A section of ChemPrime, the Chemical Educations Digital Library's free General Chemistry textbook.
Lewis Structures |
Free Radicals |
Vitamins
Interactive Molecular Orbitals  William F. Coleman
The majority of Introductory Chemistry texts provide students with an adequate introduction to the visual aspects of the molecular orbital model for homonuclear diatomic molecules. The treatment of heteronuclear diatomic and polyatomic molecules is less uniform. Heteronuclear diatomics, when mentioned, are invariably treated as being derived from homonuclear diatomics. While the atomic orbital energy level differences in heteronuclear diatomics is sometimes pictured, the consequences of those differences for the resultant molecular orbitals are rarely discussed. The discussion of polyatomic molecular orbitals in these texts is limited to showing that parallel p-orbitals produce delocalized pi molecular orbitals. The molecules typically mentioned in this context are benzene, nitrate ion and carbonate ion. However, It is rarely pointed out that the six p-orbitals in benzene would form 6 pi molecular orbitals, and that only one of these orbitals would look like the picture in the text.These interactive modules are designed to clarify this subject.
MO Theory
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