TIGER

Journal Articles: 332 results
The Fuge Tube Diode Array Spectrophotometer  B. T. Arneson, S. R. Long, K. K. Stewart, and J. J. Lagowski
Presents details for adapting a diode array UVvis spectrophotometer to incorporate the use of polypropylene microcentrifuge tubesfuge tubesas cuvettes. The fuge tubes also can serve as reaction vessels, which permits the ready study of chemical systems involving heterogeneous phases by eliminating the need for tedious separations.
Arneson, B. T.; Long, S. R.; Stewart, K. K.; Lagowski, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1663.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Solutions / Solvents |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Designing and Conducting a Purification Scheme as an Organic Chemistry Laboratory Practical  Kate J. Graham, Brian J. Johnson, T. Nicholas Jones, Edward J. McIntee, and Chris P. Schaller
Describes an open-ended laboratory practical that challenges students to evaluate when different purification techniques are appropriate.
Graham, Kate J.; Johnson, Brian J.; Jones, T. Nicholas; McIntee, Edward J.; Schaller, Chris P. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1644.
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Physical Properties |
Separation Science
Revising the ACS Guidelines for Chemistry Programs in Two-Year Colleges: Exploring Changes and Opportunities  John V. Clevenger, Margaret S. Richards, and Jodi L. Wesemann
A draft of the next edition of the ACS Guidelines for Chemistry Programs in Two-Year Colleges contains guidelines designed to maximize the potential of students, faculty, and programs in two-year colleges; reflect changes in pedagogy, technology, and accountability; facilitate student transfer; and provide a more useful resource for strengthening programs.
Clevenger, John V.; Richards, Margaret S.; Wesemann, Jodi L. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1602.
Administrative Issues |
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Nonmajor Courses |
Professional Development |
Spectroscopy |
Undergraduate Research
The Electrochemical Synthesis of Transition-Metal Acetylacetonates  S. R. Long, S. R. Browning, and J. J. Lagowski
The electrochemical synthesis of transition-metal acetylacetonates can assist in the transformation of an entry-level laboratory course into a research-like environment where all members of a class are working on the same problem, but each student has a personal responsibility for the synthesis and characterization of a specific compound.
Long, S. R.; Browning, S. R.; Lagowski, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1429.
Coordination Compounds |
Electrochemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Physical Properties |
Synthesis |
Transition Elements |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Data Pooling in a Chemical Kinetics Experiment: The Aquation of a Series of Cobalt(III) Complexes  Richard S. Herrick, Kenneth V. Mills, and Lisa P. Nestor
Describes an experiment that introduces students to integrated rate laws, the search for a mechanism that is consistent with chemical and kinetic data, and the concept of activation barriers and their measurement in a curriculum whose pedagogical philosophy makes the laboratory the center of learning for undergraduates in their first two years of instruction.
Herrick, Richard S.; Mills, Kenneth V.; Nestor, Lisa P. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1120.
Coordination Compounds |
Kinetics |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Rate Law |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Sampling the Soils Around a Residence Containing Lead-Based Paints: An X-ray Fluorescence Experiment  Steven J. Bachofer
A soil sampling experiment using field portable instruments was conducted at a pre-1950 construction known to have lead-based paint. Students collected data following regulatory protocols at multiple locations within and outside of the house's dripline, reported their results, and provided the owner advice on methods to minimize contact with contaminated soil.
Bachofer, Steven J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 980.
Applications of Chemistry |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Nonmajor Courses |
Spectroscopy |
Toxicology |
Metals
Resolving Spectral Lines with a Periscope-Type DVD Spectroscope  Fumitaka Wakabayashi
Describes the periscope-type of DVD spectroscope and demonstrates the numerical analysis of its emission and absorption spectra. This improved design allows one to observe and photograph visible spectra more easily and clearly than earlier models; it thus has the potential to be a cost-effective, powerful, and versatile tool for science education.
Wakabayashi, Fumitaka. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 849.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Solutions / Solvents |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Identification of an Unknown Compound by Combined Use of IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and Mass Spectrometry: A Real-Life Experience in Structure Determination  Louis J. Liotta and Magdalena James-Pederson
In this introductory organic chemistry experiment, students are expected to operate NMR, IR, and GCMS instrumentation to obtain spectra which are interpreted to elucidate the chemical structure of the assigned compounds without the benefit of a list of possible unknowns.
Liotta, Louis J.; James-Pederson, Magdalena. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 832.
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Spectroscopy
Size Exclusion Chromatography: An Experiment for High School and Community College Chemistry and Biotechnology Laboratory Programs  Linda S. Brunauer and Kathryn K. Davis
Describes an experiment in which students use column chromatography to separate and characterize biomolecules, thus expanding their exposure to chromatographic procedures beyond those more commonly employed at the secondary level (e.g., paper or thin-layer chromatography).
Brunauer, Linda S.; Davis, Kathryn K. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 683.
Biotechnology |
Chromatography |
Enzymes |
Separation Science |
Spectroscopy
Flames Tests with Flair  Nicholas C. Thomas
When conducted in a suitable fume hood, spraying hydrogen-filled balloons with aqueous solutions of metal salts provides a simple and safe method for demonstrating flame tests.
Thomas, Nicholas C. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 521.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Gases |
Metals
Using Hydrogen Balloons To Display Metal Ion Spectra  James H. Maynard
Describes a procedure for igniting hydrogen-filled balloons containing metal salts to obtain the brightest possible flash while minimizing the quantity of airborne combustion products.
Maynard, James H. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 519.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Gases |
Metals |
Solutions / Solvents
Kinetic Analysis of Amylase Using Quantitative Benedict's and Iodine Starch Reagents  Beverly Cochran, Deborah Lunday, and Frank Miskevich
This laboratory emphasizes that enzymes mediate the conversion of a substrate into a product and that either the concentration of product or reactant may be used to follow the course of a reaction. It does so by using an inexpensive scanner and open-source image analysis software to quantify amylase activity through the breakdown of starch and the appearance of glucose.
Cochran, Beverly; Lunday, Deborah; Miskevich, Frank. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 401.
Biosynthesis |
Carbohydrates |
Catalysis |
Enzymes |
Food Science |
Nutrition |
Quantitative Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Integrating Advanced High School Chemistry Research with Organic Chemistry and Instrumental Methods of Analysis  Brian J. Kennedy
Describes the unique opportunities in chemistry available at a science and technology magnet high school. Students may select entry-level courses such as honors and advanced placement chemistry, take electives in organic chemistry with instrumental methods of analysis, and ultimately complete a senior chemical analysis research course.
Kennedy, Brian J. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 393.
Applications of Chemistry |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis |
Undergraduate Research |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Student-Centered Learning
Peer Mentoring in the General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories  Caleb A. Arrington, Jameica B. Hill, Ramin Radfar, David M. Whisnant, and Charles G. Bass
This article describes a discovery experiment in which organic chemistry students act as mentors to general chemistry students. Members from both groups work together to isolate an unknown compound using distillation. The structure of the product is then determined collaboratively using IR and NMR spectroscopy.
Arrington, Caleb A.; Hill, Jameica B.; Radfar, Ramin; Whisnant, David M.; Bass, Charles G. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 288.
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
A Simple Experiment in the Separation of a Solid-Phase Mixture and Infrared Spectroscopy for Introductory Chemistry  Paul S. Szalay
In this guided-inquiry experiment, a two-component solid mixture of caffeine and ibuprofen is separated through a series of solution extractions and precipitations. The components are then analyzed using IR spectrophotometry to determine how effectively they were separated.
Szalay, Paul S. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 285.
Acids / Bases |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
IR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents
Determining the Solubility Product of Fe(OH)3: An Equilibrium Study with Environmental Significance  Michelle Meighan, Joseph MacNeil, and Renee Falconer
This study explores the environmental impact of acidic mine drainage by investigating the relationship between pH and the aqueous solubility of heavy metals. Students precipitate Fe(OH)3 from acidic FeCl3 and NaOH and use the concentrations of ferric and hydroxide ionsdetermined through pH and flame spectroscopyto calculate the Ksp of Fe(OH)3.
Meighan, Michelle; MacNeil, Joseph; Falconer, Renee. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 254.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Spectroscopy
Experimental Determination of Ultraviolet Radiation Protection of Common Materials  Susana C. A. Tavares, Joaquim C. G. Esteves de Silva, and João Paiva
The oxidation of iodide is used as an indicator for the degree of exposure to UV radiation and to investigate the protection given by a simulation of ozone using plexiglass plates, sunscreen lotions, cotton cloth with different colors, and aqueous solutions with different concentrations of natural organic matter.
Tavares, Susana C. A.; Esteves de Silva, Joaquim C. G.; Paiva, João. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1963.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Paint Analysis Using Visible Reflectance Spectroscopy  Erin M. Hoffman and Douglas J. Beussman
This paint analysis lab is meant to allow students to determine if paint samples that may appear similar to the human eye have measurable differences. The forensic aspect of the experiment lies in the application of reflectance spectroscopy to determine if a paint sample found at a crime scene matches that found in a suspect's possession.
Hoffman, Erin M.; Beussman, Douglas J. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1806.
Dyes / Pigments |
Forensic Chemistry |
Nonmajor Courses |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Mapping of Environmental Samples across College Campuses  Kathleen L. Purvis-Roberts, Harriet P. Moeur, and Andrew Zanella
In this laboratory experiment, students take environmental samples (concentrations of nitrogen dioxide) and geospatial coordinates with a global position systems unit at various locations around campus, map their data on a geo-referenced map with geographical information systems software, and compare their results to those observed by governmental agencies.
Purvis-Roberts, Kathleen L.; Moeur, Harriet P.; Zanella, Andrew. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1691.
Applications of Chemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
A Qualitative Experiment To Analyze Microbial Activity in Topsoil Using Paper and a Handmade Reflection Photometer   Julius Kofi Agbeko and Masakazu Kita
This article describes a novel method to qualitatively determine the extent of microbial activity in topsoil using blank paper containing high amounts of starch and a simple, handmade, cadmium sulfidelight emitting diode (CdSLED) reflection photometer.
Agbeko, Julius Kofi; Kita, Masakazu. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1689.
Bioanalytical Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis |
Spectroscopy
A New Colorimetric Assay of Tabletop Sweeteners Using a Modified Biuret Reagent  Christopher J. Fenk, Nathan Kaufman, and Donald G. Gerbig, Jr.
Presents a new, fast and effective colorimetric analysis of aspartame that incorporates a less caustic biuret reagent and visible spectroscopic analysis for selective detection in aqueous solutions using readily available instrumentation.
Fenk, Christopher J.; Kaufman, Nathan; Gerbig, Donald G., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1676.
Consumer Chemistry |
Coordination Compounds |
Crystal Field / Ligand Field Theory |
Food Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Amino Acids
Teaching Science in Art  Erich S. Uffelman
Describes two linked, interdisciplinary courses examining conservation science and the history of 17th-century Dutch painting. Strengths and limitations of the approaches taken are discussed and key resources cited.
Uffelman, Erich S. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1617.
Applications of Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Instrumental Methods |
Lasers |
Mass Spectrometry |
Spectroscopy
Redox Titration of Ferricyanide to Ferrocyanide with Ascorbic Acid: Illustrating the Nernst Equation and Beer–Lambert Law  Tina H. Huang, Gail Salter, Sarah L. Kahn, and Yvonne M. Gindt
In this simple experiment, which illustrates the Nernst equation and BeerLambert law, students monitor the reduction of ferricyanide ion to ferrocyanide electrochemically and spectrophoto-metrically upon titration with ascorbic acid. The Nernst equation is used to calculate the standard reduction potential of the redox couple at pH 7 and the number of electrons transferred.
Huang, Tina H.; Salter, Gail; Kahn, Sarah L.; Gindt, Yvonne M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1461.
Coordination Compounds |
Electrochemistry |
Potentiometry |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Fluorescent Fun: Using a Homemade Fluorometer  M. Farooq Wahab
A homemade fluorometer is used to investigate the fluorescence of highlighter marker ink with a flashlight or white LED as a light source, colored cellophane sheets as filters, and the human eye as a detector. The activity illustrates the concepts of excitation and emission, Stokes shift, and the dependence of fluorescence on the intensity of light.
Wahab, M. Farooq. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1312A.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Student-Centered Learning
Fluorescence Spectroscopy in a Shoebox  M. Farooq Wahab
Concepts related to fluorescence spectroscopy are demonstrated with a simple fluorometer that examines highlighter ink using a flashlight or the sun as a light source, a bowl of water with a mirror as the dispersing element, colored cellophane as filters, and the human eye as a detector. In addition, a spectrofluorometer is constructed using gratings made from a DVD or CD.
Wahab, M. Farooq. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1308.
Dyes / Pigments |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Qualitative Analysis |
Spectroscopy
Optical Properties of Fluorescent Mixtures: Comparing Quantum Dots to Organic Dyes  Benjamin M. Hutchins, Thomas T. Morgan, Miné G. Ucak-Astarlioglu, and Mary Elizabeth Williams
Visually observed fluorescent colors of quantum dots in conjunction with spectroscopic data show students the additive emission of such mixtures; while some appear to emit white light, their fluorescence peaks remain spectroscopically resolved.
Hutchins, Benjamin M.; Morgan, Thomas T.; Ucak-Astarlioglu, Miné G.; Williams, Mary Elizabeth. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1301.
Dyes / Pigments |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Materials Science |
Nanotechnology |
Photochemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Guitar Strings as Standing Waves: A Demonstration  Michael Davis
This demonstration uses an acoustic guitar to produce three unique harmonic vibrations, each of which is representative of a standing wave and illustrates the concept of quantization.
Davis, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1287.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Imidazole as a pH Probe: An NMR Experiment for the General Chemistry Laboratory  William J. Hagan, Jr., Dennis L. Edie, and Linda B. Cooley
An experiment is described that employs the 1H-NMR signal of aqueous imidazole to determine the pH of an unknown solution. The procedure involves the preparation of a calibration curve, which is then used for the analysis of the unknown(s).
Hagan, William J., Jr.; Edie, Dennis L.; Cooley, Linda B. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1188.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Aromatic Compounds |
Calibration |
NMR Spectroscopy |
pH
Modifying Optical Properties of ZnO Films by Forming Zn1-xCoxO Solid Solutions via Spray Pyrolysis  Anne K. Bentley, Gabriela C. Weaver, Cianán B. Russell, William L. Fornes, Kyoung-Shin Choi, and Susan M. Shih
Presents a simple experiment demonstrating the presence of an energy band gap in a semiconductor and its relationship to the material's composition through observed color and UVvis absorption.
Bentley, Anne K.; Weaver, Gabriela C.; Russell, Cianán B.; Fornes, William L.; Choi, Kyoung-Shin; Shih, Susan M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1183.
Materials Science |
Semiconductors |
Solid State Chemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
From the Research Bench to the Teaching Laboratory: Gold Nanoparticle Layering  Maria Oliver-Hoyo and Ralph W. Gerber
The procedures presented here involve the synthesis of gold colloidal suspensions, attachment of a functional group to glass with subsequent creation of self-assembled monolayers through deposition of gold nanoparticles, and measurements of wavelengths, absorbance, and conductivity.
Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Gerber, Ralph W. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1174.
Nanotechnology |
Surface Science |
Synthesis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Circuit Board Analysis for Lead by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy in a Course for Nonscience Majors  Jeffrey D. Weidenhamer
The analysis for lead through atomic absorption spectroscopy applied to the qualitative screening of circuit boards and the quantitative analysis of environmental samples demonstrates the potential hazards of improper disposal of used electronic equipment.
Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1165.
Applications of Chemistry |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Metals |
Nonmajor Courses |
Quantitative Analysis
News from the Periodic Table: An Introduction to "Periodicity Symbols, Tables, and Models for Higher-Order Valency and Donor–Acceptor Kinships"  Henry A. Bent and Frank Weinhold
Proposes that alternative display topologies such as a 2D "left-step" or "step-pyramid" table or 3D "periodic towers" can supplement or supplant the standard periodic table by better emphasizing higher-order patterns of chemical association and reactivity, rather than the physical resemblances of standard-state elemental substances.
Bent, Henry A.; Weinhold, Frank. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1145.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Spectroscopy
A New Tool To Aid Students in NMR Interpretation  John V. McClusky
Presents a tool that allows students to logically analyze NMR spectra and to visualize how peak multiplicity reveals molecular connectivity.
McClusky, John V. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 983.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy
Using Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy To Analyze Archaeological Materials  Adam D. Hill, Ann H. Lehman, and Maria L. Parr
In a course linking chemistry and archaeology, students analyze artifacts with a scanning electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to discover the relationship between materials and the culture that produced them.
Hill, Adam D.; Lehman, Ann H.; Parr, Maria L. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 810.
Applications of Chemistry |
Nonmajor Courses |
Spectroscopy
The Origin of the s, p, d, f Orbital Labels  William B. Jensen
Traces the origins of the s, p, d, and f orbital labels.
Jensen, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 757.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Spectroscopy
Preparation of CdS Nanoparticles by First-Year Undergraduates  Kurt Winkelmann, Thomas Noviello, and Steven Brooks
First-year undergraduate students prepare bulk and nanometer-sized cadmium sulfide clusters within water-in-oil micelles and calculate particle size using the effective mass model.
Winkelmann, Kurt; Noviello, Thomas; Brooks, Steven. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 709.
Colloids |
Materials Science |
Nanotechnology |
Micelles |
Semiconductors |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
The Analysis of a Murder, a Case Study  Frank J. Dinan, Steven H. Szczepankiewicz, Melinda Carnahan, and Michael T. Colvin
In conjunction with a forensic chemistry case study, students perform strontium determinations, use the data to locate a victim's origin, and act as detectives to formulate a plan to apprehend the murderers.
Dinan, Frank J.; Szczepankiewicz, Steven H.; Carnahan, Melinda; Colvin, Michael T. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 617.
Applications of Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Hydrophilic Inorganic Macro-Ions in Solution: Unprecedented Self-Assembly Emerging from Historical "Blue Waters"  Tianbo Liu, Ekkehard Diemann, and Achim Müller
The behavior of supramolecular structures in solution is different from that of simple ions, polymers, surfactant micelles, and colloids. New research involving polyoxometalates, which are fully hydrophilic but tend to self-associate into macro-ionic structures, may change our understanding of inorganic ionic solutions.
Liu, Tianbo; Diemann, Ekkehard; Müller, Achim. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 526.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Colloids |
Materials Science |
Nanotechnology |
Solutions / Solvents |
Spectroscopy |
Lasers |
Physical Properties
An Inexpensive Kinetic Study: The Reaction of FD&C Red #3 (Erythrosin B) with Hypochlorite  Maher M. Henary and Arlene A. Russell
Students use a desktop visible spectrophotometer to quantitatively follow the rate of disappearance of FD&C Red #3 with hypochlorite. The first-order reaction in both dye and bleach yields simple data that students can easily process and graph using spreadsheet software to obtain the rate constant and the rate law.
Henary, Maher M.; Russell, Arlene A. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 480.
Dyes / Pigments |
Kinetics |
Rate Law |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Flame Emission Spectrometry in General Chemistry Labs: Solubility Product (Ksp) of Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate  Frazier W. Nyasulu, William Cusworth III, David Lindquist, and John Mackin
In this general chemistry laboratory, flame emission spectrometry is used to determine the potassium ion concentration in saturated solutions of potassium hydrogen phthalate. From these data the solubility products, the Gibbs free energies of solution, the standard enthalpy of solution, and the standard entropy of solution are calculated.
Nyasulu, Frazier W.; Cusworth, William, III; Lindquist, David; Mackin, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 456.
Acids / Bases |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy |
Equilibrium |
Quantitative Analysis |
Thermodynamics |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Application of Calibrated Peer Review (CPR) Writing Assignments To Enhance Experiments with an Environmental Chemistry Focus  Lawrence D. Margerum, Maren Gulsrud, Ronald Manlapez, Rachelle Rebong, and Austin Love
Proposes the use of Web-based peer-reviewed writing for pre- and postlab assignments for large enrollment first-semester general chemistry laboratory courses. Results show that students submit average essays, but master the material via sequential reviews of exemplary and peer essays.
Margerum, Lawrence D.; Gulsrud, Maren; Manlapez, Ronald; Rebong, Rachelle; Love, Austin. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 292.
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantitative Analysis |
Atomic Spectroscopy
More Thoughts on the Narra Tree Fluorescence  A. Ulises Acuña
The source of L. nephriticum and the substance responsible for the intense blue fluorescence in an earlier published demonstration may require further consideration.
Acuña, A. Ulises. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 231.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Natural Products |
Plant Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Acids / Bases
Plasmons: Why Should We Care?  D. J. Campbell and Younan Xia
Reviews the techniques of surface plasmon resonance, optical sensing methods, and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.
Campbell, D. J.; Xia, Younan. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 91.
Nanotechnology |
Raman Spectroscopy |
Surface Science
The Art and Science of Science and Art  John W. Moore
Is teaching an art or a science? Like both it requires creativity and hard work, but can it be quantified sufficiently to satisfy a scientist?
Moore, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 7.
TA Training / Orientation |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Student-Centered Learning
pHantastic Fluorescence  Mark Muyskens
Students easily extract a fluorescent substance from shavings of a wood called narra. The fluorescence is dramatically pH dependent and can be turned on and off repeatedly using commonly available acid and base solutions.
Muyskens, Mark. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 768A.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Natural Products |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
pH |
Solutions / Solvents |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
A Method of Visual Interactive Regression  Michelle S. Kim, Maureen Burkart, and Myung-Hoon Kim
The process behind the least-squares method, minimizing the sum of the deviations squared, is made visible, interactive, and dynamic by allowing the user to adjust heights in a bar graph.
Kim, Michelle S.; Burkart, Maureen; Kim, Myung-Hoon. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1884.
Kinetics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Quantitative Analysis |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Student-Centered Learning
Astrochemistry Examples in the Classroom  Reggie L. Hudson
In this article some recent developments in astrochemistry are suggested as examples for the teaching of acid-base chemistry, molecular structure, and chemical reactivity. Suggestions for additional reading are provided, with an emphasis on readily-accessible materials.
Hudson, Reggie L. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1611.
Acids / Bases |
Astrochemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Using Visible Absorption To Analyze Solutions of Kool-Aid and Candy  Karen E. Stevens
This article describes materials and a technique to introduce concepts of color and visible absorption to students; Kool-Aid solutions are used to prepare a Beer's law plot from which an unknown's concentration can be determined.
Stevens, Karen E. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1544.
Dyes / Pigments |
Food Science |
Nonmajor Courses |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
A Polymer in Everyday Life: The Isolation of Poly(vinyl alcohol) from Aqueous PVA Glues. An Undergraduate Chemistry Experiment   Yueh-Huey Chen and Jing-Fun Yaung
The IR spectra of three common and related polymers are used to identify functional groups and rationalize molecular structures.
Chen, Yueh-Huey; Yaung, Jing-Fun. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1534.
Applications of Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Esters |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Solar Irradiation of Bilirubin: An Experiment in Photochemical Oxidation  A. E. Pillay and F. M. Salih
Describes an experiment on photochemical oxidation employing solar irradiation of bilirubin followed by spectrophotometric absorption. The bilirubin undergoes depletion, and the declining concentration can be expressed exponentially as a function of time. The instantaneous reaction rates, half-life, and rate constant can be derived directly from the exponential plot.
Pillay, A. E.; Salih, F. M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1327.
Applications of Chemistry |
Bioanalytical Chemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Photochemistry
A Sequence of Linked Experiments, Suitable for Practical Courses of Inorganic, Organic, Computational Chemistry, and NMR Spectroscopy  Grigoriy A. Sereda
A sequence of investigations associated with the iodochlorination of styrene and 1-hexene is described. The sequence is flexible enough to be used in inorganic, organic, computational, and instrumental courses.
Sereda, Grigoriy A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 931.
Alkenes |
Computational Chemistry |
Constitutional Isomers |
MO Theory |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
A Simple Method for Rapidly Obtaining Absorption Spectra with a Spectronic-20D+ Spectrophotometer  Jonathan E. Thompson
This article describes how simple modifications to the Spectronic 20D+ and interfacing this instrument to a popular data acquisition system allows for a significant decrease in the time necessary for collection of an absorption spectrum from 400 to 650 nm.
Thompson, Jonathan E. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 913.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Complexometric Titration of Aluminum and Magnesium Ions in Commercial Antacids. An Experiment for General and Analytical Chemistry Laboratories  Shui-Ping Yang and Ruei-Ying Tsai
A novel experiment for determining the total and individual aluminum and magnesium ion content in commercial antacids is described. This experiment is developed with three independent protocols based on complexometric direct and back titrations containing the concepts and usages of blocking, masking, buffer controls and metallic indicators.
Yang, Shui-Ping; Tsai, Ruei-Ying. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 906.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Chemometrics |
Consumer Chemistry |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Do the Series in the Hydrogen Atom Spectrum Ever Overlap?  David W. Ball
Addresses the question, do the series in the hydrogen atom spectrum ever overlap?
Ball, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 883.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Spectroscopy
An Introduction to UV–Vis Spectroscopy Using Sunscreens  Harriet P. Moeur, Andrew Zanella, and Thomas Poon
Two commercially available lotions that utilize only one active ingredient as a sunscreen were used to develop a general chemistry laboratory experiment involving the quantitative determination of the active component in each lotion by UVvis spectroscopy.
Moeur, Harriet P.; Zanella, Andrew; Poon, Thomas. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 769.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
The Fluorescence of Lignum nephriticum: A Flash Back to the Past and a Simple Demonstration of Natural Substance Fluorescence  Mark Muyskens
This article describes a simple but visually striking demonstration of fluorescence from the aqueous extract of the tropical hardwood Pterocarpus indicus.
Muyskens, Mark. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 765.
Acids / Bases |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Natural Products |
pH |
Solutions / Solvents |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Simultaneous Display of Spectral Images and Graphs Using a Web Camera and Fiber-Optic Spectrophotometer  Brian K. Niece
A method is presented for displaying images and graphs of spectra on a single screen in the classroom. The simultaneous display of both forms of the spectra helps students to make connections between the qualitative, visual spectra and quantitative, graphical representations.
Niece, Brian K. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 761.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Solid State Chemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Classroom Demonstrations of Concepts in Molecular Fluorescence  Jonathan P. Blitz, Daniel J. Sheeran, and Thomas L. Becker
A multichannel CCD-array spectrophotometer and handheld UV lamp are utilized to acquire and project in real-time the fluorescence emission spectra of quinine, fluorescein, eosin yellow, and rhodamine B.
Blitz, Jonathan P.; Sheeran, Daniel J.; Becker, Thomas L. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 758.
Dyes / Pigments |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Demonstration of Absorbance Using Digital Color Image Analysis and Colored Solutions  Shane K. Kohl, James D. Landmark, and Douglas F. Stickle
This article describes a simple experiment in which the principle of absorbance may be demonstrated using digital color image analysis.
Kohl, Shane K.; Landmark, James D.; Stickle, Douglas F. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 644.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
An Enzyme Kinetics Experiment Using Laccase for General Chemistry   Yaqi Lin and Patrick M. Lloyd
This article describes the use of laccase, an oxidoreductase enzyme, to study the effects of enzyme catalysts on reaction rates.
Lin, Yaqi; Lloyd, Patrick M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 638.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Bioanalytical Chemistry |
Catalysis |
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Synthesis of Unsymmetrical Alkynes via the Alkylation of Sodium Acetylides. An Introduction to Synthetic Design for Organic Chemistry Students  Jennifer N. Shepherd and Jason R. Stenzel
Teams of students design a microscale synthesis of an unsymmetrical alkyne using commercially available terminal alkynes and alkyl halides and characterize the resulting products using TLC, IR, and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Depending on the chosen reactants, students observe both substitution and elimination products, or in some cases, no reaction at all.
Shepherd, Jennifer N.; Stenzel, Jason R. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 425.
Alkylation |
Alkynes |
Elimination Reactions |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Synthesis
Mechanisms That Interchange Axial and Equatorial Atoms in Fluxional Processes: Illustration of the Berry Pseudorotation, the Turnstile, and the Lever Mechanisms via Animation of Transition State Normal Vibrational Modes  Marion E. Cass, King Kuok Hii, and Henry S. Rzepa
Teaching the Berry pseudorotation mechanism presents particular pedagogic problems due to both its dynamic and three dimensional character. The approach described here illustrates these processes using interactive animations embedded in a Web page.
Cass, Marion E.; Hii, King Kuok; Rzepa, Henry S. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 336.
Computational Chemistry |
Enantiomers |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Nonmetals
Using Jmol To Help Students Better Understand Fluxional Processes   William F. Coleman and Edward W. Fedosky
This new WebWare neatly combines instructional text and Jmol interactive, animated illustrations to teach mechanisms that need to be clearly visualized in order to be well understood.
Coleman, William F.; Fedosky, Edward W. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 336.
Computational Chemistry |
Enantiomers |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Nonmetals
4-Dimethylaminopyridine or Acid-Catalyzed Syntheses of Esters: A Comparison  Annemieke W. C. van den Berg and Ulf Hanefeld
Students compare acid-catalyzed ester synthesis and the 4-dimethylaminopyridine-catalyzed reaction. Based on the outcome of the experiments, students discuss the different reaction mechanisms and reason why different products are formed.
van den Berg, Annemieke W. C.; Hanefeld, Ulf. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 292.
Acids / Bases |
Catalysis |
Chromatography |
Esters |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
An Improved Flame Test for Qualitative Analysis Using a Multichannel UV–Visible Spectrophotometer  Jonathan P. Blitz, Daniel J. Sheeran, and Thomas L. Becker
Describes the application of a multichannel array spectrometer equipped with a fiber optic probe for the acquisition of emission spectra as a means of performing flame tests for qualitative analysis in the general chemistry laboratory.
Blitz, Jonathan P.; Sheeran, Daniel J.; Becker, Thomas L. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 277.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Qualitative Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Atomic Spectroscopy
An Environmentally Focused General Chemistry Laboratory  Morgan Mihok, Joseph T. Keiser, Jacqueline M. Bortiatynski, and Thomas E. Mallouk
A one-semester laboratory has been developed in which principles of general chemistry (aqueous acidbase equilibria, kinetics, thermodynamics, chromatographic separations, spectroscopy) are presented in the context of environmental aquatic chemistry.
Mihok, Morgan; Keiser, Joseph T.; Bortiatynski, Jacqueline M.; Mallouk, Thomas E. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 250.
Acids / Bases |
Chromatography |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Ion Exchange |
Kinetics |
Nonmajor Courses |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Reducing the Use of Agrochemicals: A Simple Experiment   M. M. Vidal, Olga M. S. Filipe, and M. C. Cruz Costa
This article describes a simple laboratory project to demonstrate that dissemination of nutrients and pesticides is prone to surface runoff and groundwater leaching by following the movement of inorganic phosphorus into groundwater.
Vidal, M. M.; Filipe, Olga M. S.; Costa, M. C. Cruz. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 245.
Agricultural Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Natural Products |
Quantitative Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Derivatization of Fullerenes: An Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Charles T. Cox Jr. and Melanie M. Cooper
Presents two undergraduate organic chemistry laboratories detailing the synthesis of fullerene derivatives, using the Bingel (carbene insertion) and Prato (1,3-dipolar addition) protocols.
Cox, Charles T., Jr.; Cooper, Melanie M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 99.
Acids / Bases |
Addition Reactions |
Chromatography |
Heterocycles |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Simple and Inexpensive Computer Interface to a Durrum Stopped-Flow Apparatus Tested Using the Iron(III)–Thiocyanate Reaction  Craig M. Hoag
Describes a computer interface between a Durrum model 110 stopped-flow apparatus and a LabPro voltage probe using LoggerPro software from Vernier. This probe and software can be used to measure and record data from most instruments normally connected to an oscilloscope or chart recorder.
Hoag, Craig M. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1823.
Instrumental Methods |
Kinetics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Coordination Compounds |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Determination of Hypochlorite in Bleaching Products with Flower Extracts To Demonstrate the Principles of Flow Injection Analysis  Luiz Antônio Ramos, Kátia Roberta Prieto, Éder Tadeu Gomes Cavalheiro, and Carla Cristina Schmitt Cavalheiro
Proposes the use of crude flower extracts and a bleaching reaction between hypochlorite and anthocyanins to teach the principles of flow injection procedures.
Ramos, Luiz Antônio; Prieto, Kátia Roberta; Cavalheiro, Éder Tadeu Gomes; Cavalheiro, Carla Cristina Schmitt. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1815.
Dyes / Pigments |
Natural Products |
pH |
Quantitative Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds
Presumptive and Confirmatory Drug Tests  Craig Anderson
Tests for illegal drugs were performed on unknowns obtained from over-the-counter cold medicines. Substances that tested positive for the qualitative Marquis color test were found to be false positives for illegal substances, while scopolamine hydrochloride shows a false positive for cocaine hydrochloride with the cobalt thiocyanate reagent.
Anderson, Craig. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1809.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Qualitative Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry
The Virtual ChemLab Project: A Realistic and Sophisticated Simulation of Organic Synthesis and Organic Qualitative Analysis  Brian F. Woodfield, Merritt B. Andrus, Gregory L. Waddoups, Melissa S. Moore, Richard Swan, Rob Allen, Greg Bodily, Tricia Andersen, Jordan Miller, Bryon Simmons, and Richard Stanger
Describes a set of sophisticated and realistic laboratory simulations for use in freshman- and sophomore-level chemistry classes and laboratories called Virtual ChemLab. The purpose of these simulations is to reinforce concepts taught in the classroom, provide an environment for creative learning, and emphasize the thinking behind instructional laboratory experiments.
Woodfield, Brian F.; Andrus, Merritt B.; Waddoups, Gregory L.; Moore, Melissa S.; Swan, Richard; Allen, Rob; Bodily, Greg; Andersen, Tricia; Miller, Jordan; Simmons, Bryon; Stanger, Richard. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1728.
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Synthesis |
Reactions |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Using Visible Spectrophotometers and pH Measurements To Study Speciation in a Guided-Inquiry Laboratory   William H. Otto, Cynthia K. Larive, Susan L. Mason, Janet B. Robinson, Joseph A. Heppert, and James D. Ellis
A collective-effort, guided-inquiry laboratory investigation was developed for the second-semester general chemistry laboratory for the purpose of increasing student conceptual understanding of equilibrium and speciation phenomena. This investigation required students to employ the chemical indicator phenol red in phosphate buffer solution, computer interfaced pH probes, and visible spectrophotometers. Through a combination of potentiometric and visible absorption measurements, the students determined the pH conditions that alter equilibrium concentrations of multiple species (colored and transparent) in solution.
Otto, William H.; Larive, Cynthia K.; Mason, Susan L.; Robinson, Janet B.; Heppert, Joseph A.; Ellis, James D. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1552.
Acids / Bases |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Equilibrium |
pH |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments
Gas Permeability of Polymers  Bruno Lunelli
By studying a number of soft drinks with color but with or without phosphoric acid, the authors have determined that the required 20-fold dilution required in the Determination of Phosphorus in Cola Drinks is not to dilute the color but merely to place the sample within the calibration range of the analysis.
Lunelli, Bruno. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1471.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Gases |
Transport Properties
Measurement of the Isotopic Ratio of 10B/11B in NaBH4 by 1H NMR  Murray Zanger and Guillermo Moyna
A simple and remarkably accurate method for estimating the isotopic ratio between 10B and 11B through the use of 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is presented. The experiment relies on the splitting caused by 10B (I = 3) and 11B (I = 3/2) on the 1H signal of a proton directly bound to boron, a phenomenon readily observed on an aqueous sample of NaBH4. In combination with a brief lecture or prelaboratory presentation, this laboratory can serve to introduce students to magnetic properties as well as theoretical and experimental aspects of NMR spectroscopy as early as the freshman-level chemistry.
Zanger, Murray; Moyna, Guillermo. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1390.
Instrumental Methods |
Magnetic Properties |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Isotopes
Thermal Degradation and Identification of Heat-Sensitive Polymers. Applications of Pyrolysis and Distillation and Instrumental Methods of Analysis  Stuart C. Clough and Emma W. Goldman
An experiment for undergraduate teaching laboratories is described that involves the identification of samples of polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate). This involves the thermal degradation of the polymers (a destructive distillation) into their respective monomers. The monomers are then identified using infrared spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and gas chromatographymass spectrometry.
Clough, Stuart C.; Goldman, Emma W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1378.
Nonmajor Courses |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Polymerization
Making and Using a Sensing Polymeric Material for Cu2+: An Introduction to Polymers and Chemical Sensing  Jean R. Paddock, Anne T. Maghasi, William R. Heineman, and Carl J. Seliskar
In this experiment, students will be introduced to concepts of polymer chemistry, chemical sensors, metal chelates, spectroscopy, and quantitative analytical methods. A polymer network is generated by students and consists of crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol) blended with the polyelectrolyte poly(acrylic acid), which is then doped with the spectroscopically-active chelating agent PAN, 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-napthol. All components of this hydrogel serve as an ion-exchange medium trapping cations that, when exposed to solutions of 2+ metals, can act as a material in a chemical sensor.
Paddock, Jean R.; Maghasi, Anne T.; Heineman, William R.; Seliskar, Carl J. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1370.
Quantitative Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Polymerization |
Ion Exchange |
Quantitative Analysis
Colors in Liquid Crystals  George Lisensky and Elizabeth Boatman
This activity is suitable for exploring relationships between color, wavelength, reflection, and transmission and illustrates how temperature changes the liquid crystal's Bragg reflection wavelength.
Lisensky, George; Boatman, Elizabeth. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1360A.
Nanotechnology |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Spectroscopy |
Fatty Acids
Synthesis and Physical Properties of Liquid Crystals: An Interdisciplinary Experiment  Gerald R. Van Hecke, Kerry K. Karukstis, Hanhan Li, Hansford C. Hendargo, Andrew J. Cosand, and Marja M. Fox
This experiment features an investigative approach designed for the introductory science or engineering major and integrates concepts in the fields of chemistry, biology, and physics. Derived from faculty research interests, this novel experiment gives students the opportunity to draw conclusions from tests performed to illustrate the connection between molecular structure and macroscopic properties. The chemical synthesis of the compounds studied further enhances the connection between molecular structure and macroscopic physical properties. The results of two separate physical measurements, refractometry and absorption spectroscopy, are combined to calculate a microscopic, but very practical, property of chiral nematic liquidsthe pitch of the helix formed in the liquid crystalline phase.
Van Hecke, Gerald R.; Karukstis, Kerry K.; Li, Hanhan; Hendargo, Hansford C.; Cosand, Andrew J.; Fox, Marja M. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1349.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Acids / Bases |
Esters |
Physical Properties |
Physical Properties
A Networked NMR Spectrometer: Configuring a Shared Instrument  David Alonso, G. William Mutch, Peter Wong, Steven Warren, Bal Barot, Jan Kosinski, and Mark Sinton
Andrews University, Lake Michigan College, and Southwestern Michigan College established an educational consortium in southwest lower Michigan. An FT-NMR spectrometer was installed at AU and networked with the community colleges. Students and faculty from LMC and SMC visit Andrews on a regular basis to receive training and operate the NMR. The instrument is accessible via the Internet for data acquisition, processing, and transfer. The spectrometer has helped the consortium schools improve the quality of chemistry education, exposed students in chemistry courses to the concepts and techniques of modern NMR spectroscopy, and strengthened the collaboration between the chemistry faculty of the three schools. This article describes the NMR network configuration and the methodology for NMR data acquisition and distribution.
Alonso, David; Mutch, G. William; Wong, Peter; Warren, Steven; Barot, Bal; Kosinski, Jan; Sinton, Mark. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1342.
Instrumental Methods |
NMR Spectroscopy
A Passive Sampler for Determination of Nitrogen Dioxide in Ambient Air  Dan Xiao, Lianzhi Lin, Hongyan Yuan, Martin M. F. Choi, and Winghong Chan
This article describes the use of a passive sampler for detecting and collecting nitrogen dioxide, NO2, in ambient air. This device is based on microporous PTFE membranes that allow air samples to diffuse through and subsequently react with an absorbing reagent solution. The absorbance value of this reagent is proportional to the NO2 concentration in ambient air. It has been successfully applied to determine the NO2 concentrations in various sampling sites.
Xiao, Dan; Lin, Lianzhi; Yuan, Hongyan; Choi, Martin M. F.; Chan, Winghong. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1231.
Calibration |
Membranes |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Coordination Compounds |
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Nonmajor Courses |
Quantitative Analysis
Mineral Analysis of Whole Grain Total Cereal  Paul Hooker
This article describes the quantitative analysis of the elements iron, zinc, and calcium in Whole Grain Total Cereal, a cereal product that claims to contain 100% of the daily value of several vitamins and minerals. This experiment can be implemented at several instructional levels including chemistry courses for science and nonscience majors, and in more advanced chemistry courses such as quantitative or instrumental analysis.
Hooker, Paul. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1223.
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
Nutrition |
Quantitative Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Nonmajor Courses
Kinetics of Alcohol Dehydrogenase-Catalyzed Oxidation of Ethanol Followed by Visible Spectroscopy  Kestutis Bendinskas, Christopher DiJiacomo, Allison Krill, and Ed Vitz
A two-week biochemistry experiment was introduced in the second-semester general chemistry laboratory to study the oxidation of ethanol in vitro in the presence of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). This reaction should pique student interest because the same reaction also occurs in human bodies when alcoholic drinks are consumed. Procedures were developed to follow the biochemical reaction by visible spectroscopy and to avoid specialized equipment. The effect of substrate concentration on the rate of this enzymatic reaction was investigated during the first week. The effects of temperature, pH, the specificity of the enzyme to several substrates, and the enzyme's inhibition by heavy metals were explored during the second week.
Bendinskas, Kestutis; DiJiacomo, Christopher; Krill, Allison; Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1068.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Alcohols |
Biophysical Chemistry |
Food Science
Investigating the Photoelectric Effect Using LEDs and a Modular Spectroscope  Lucia Diaz and Charles A. Smith
With a modular spectroscope, students can monitor the effect of adjusting individually the position and orientation of the light source, grating, and slits. Investigating the position of the individual components dramatically illustrates the advantages of using long monochromators in conjunction with narrow slit widths in maximum-resolution spectroscopy. Once students fully understand the operation of the modular spectroscope, they calibrate it using a light source with a known spectrum. A circuit board containing colored light-emitting diodes (i.e., LEDs) is then used to measure a value for Plancks constant through a photoelectric-effect-type equation.
Diaz, Lucia; Smith, Charles A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 906.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis |
Spectroscopy
A LED Microtiter Plate Reader  James Gordon and Sandra Tye
An inexpensive photometric detector system was designed for use with a 96-well microtiter plate. The absorbance of solutions in the wells was measured by using a light-emitting diode as the light source and a Vernier LabPro data-collection interface with a light sensor as the detector. The feasibility of the system was demonstrated with a linear absorbance versus concentration calibration curve constructed from solutions of yellow food coloring.
Gordon, James; Tye, Sandra. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 903.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Biophysical Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments
Addendum to "Laser-Pointer-Based Spectrometer for Endpoint Detection of EDTA Titrations"  Chris Dahm
It has come to my attention that a paper that I recently published in the Journal should have referenced an article previously published in the Journal by Mehta and Dallinger entitled A Colorimetric Titration Experiment with Laser Excitation and Computer-Interfaced Endpoint Detection. I would like to thank Dr. Dallinger for bringing this to my attention and I apologize for not including his paper.
Dahm, Chris. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 683.
Lasers |
Spectroscopy
Turning on the Light  Patricia B. O'Hara, Carol Engelson, and Wayne St. Peter
This activity explores some of the fundamental properties of light spontaneously emitted from glow-in-the-dark stickers, wintergreen-flavored hard candies, and a chlorophyll solution made from spinach leaves. Students are led to explore the different properties of fluorescence, phosphorescence, and triboluminescence.
O'Hara, Patricia B.; Engelson, Carol; St. Peter, Wayne. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 48A.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Photochemistry
Analog Spectrophotometers in the Digital Age: Data Acquisition on a Budget  Alexander Y. Nazarenko and Natalie A. Nazarenko
In this article we describe how to employ an inexpensive analog-to-digital converter and a user interface to Microsoft Excel to make a useful computerized spectrophotometer. Readily available types of data loggers, Vernier LabPro and digital multimeters with an RS-232 interface, were utilized. The proposed design does not compromise the quality of the measurements. The conversion of the data to the Microsoft Excel format makes it a convenient tool for a wide range of data processing applications.
Nazarenko, Alexander Y.; Nazarenko, Natalie A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 294.
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Turning on the Light: Lessons from Luminescence  Patricia B. OHara, Carol Engelson, and Wayne St. Peter
The goal of this article is to provide secondary school science teachers with a background in an array of luminescent phenomena including fluorescence, phosphorescence, and chemiluminescence that will enable them to teach their students fundamental properties of light and matter. Instructions for building and operating a simple spectrofluorometer and five detailed lesson plans are provided in the Supplemental Material for experiments that utilize these processes.
O'Hara, Patricia B.; Engelson, Carol; St. Peter, Wayne. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 49.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Forensic Chemistry |
Photochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Color My Nanoworld  Adam D. McFarland, Christy L. Haynes, Chad A. Mirkin, Richard P. Van Duyne, and Hilary A. Godwin
This activity begins with the synthesis of 13 nm-diameter gold nanoparticles by reduction of a gold salt. The students use the resulting nanoparticle solution to explore the size-dependent optical properties of gold nanoparticles.
McFarland, Adam D.; Haynes, Christy L.; Mirkin, Chad A.; Van Duyne, Richard P.; Godwin, Hilary A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 544A.
Colloids |
Materials Science |
Nanotechnology |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Metals
A Laser-Pointer-Based Spectrometer for Endpoint Detection of EDTA Titrations  Christopher E. Dahm, James W. Hall, and Brian E. Mattioni
A simple laser-pointer-based spectrometer has been developed for endpoint detection of EDTA titrations of magnesium and calcium. This spectrometer was built to decrease the uncertainty in determining the endpoint of titrations performed with a Calmagite indicator. With a photoresistor as the detector, and with the aid of a voltage-divider circuit, the quantity of light being absorbed can be followed with a simple pHvoltmeter. Students determine the endpoint by graphing the data and applying simple mathematics. BeerLambert studies with the spectrometer also show excellent agreement for a given set of solutions.
Dahm, Christopher E.; Hall, James W.; Mattioni, Brian E. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1787.
Dyes / Pigments |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
The Quantitative Determination of Food Dyes in Powdered Drink Mixes. A High School or General Science Experiment  Samuella B. Sigmann and Dale E. Wheeler
A simple spectrophotometric procedure for the quantitative determination of FD&C food dyes in powdered drink mixes appropriate for high school or general science classes is presented. This method describes the determination of the total quantity of food dye, the quantity of dye per serving, and the percent by mass of each dye in the sample. Directions for the creation of food dye calibration curves is also presented.
Sigmann, Samuella B.; Wheeler, Dale E. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1475.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Food Science |
Quantitative Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Consumer Chemistry
A Simple, Inexpensive Water-Jacketed Cuvette for the Spectronic 20  Jonathan E. Thompson and Jason Ting
A simple, inexpensive, water-jacketed cuvette for the Spectronic 20 is described. The cuvette and associated flow system can easily be constructed from materials commonly found in an undergraduate chemistry laboratory. As a demonstration of the cuvette's utility, we used the cuvette for the determination of the activation energy for the reaction between crystal violet and hydroxide ion. However, the cuvette may prove useful in a variety of applications in which a sample must be thermostated within a spectrophotometer.
Thompson, Jonathan E.; Ting, Jason. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1341.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Kinetics |
Spectroscopy
Water in the Atmosphere  Joel M. Kauffman
None of eight college-level general chemistry texts gave a mean value for water in the atmosphere, despite its being the third most prevalent constituent at about 1.5% by mass as vapor and about 2% if clouds and ice crystals are included. The importance of water as a greenhouse gas was omitted or marginalized by five of the eight texts. An infrared spectrum of humid air was determined to demonstrate that water vapor, because of its higher concentration, was more absorptive than carbon dioxide. The cooling effect of clouds, or other influences on the Earth's albedo, were not mentioned in most of the texts. These pervasive errors should be corrected in new or future editions of textbooks.
Kauffman, Joel M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1229.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Gases |
Green Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy
Quantitative Assay for Starch by Colorimetry Using a Desktop Scanner  Kurt R. Mathews, James D. Landmark, and Douglas F. Stickle
Here we describe a procedure to produce a standard curve for quantification of starch concentration using colorimetry.
Mathews, Kurt R.; Landmark, James D.; Stickle, Douglas F. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 702.
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis |
Carbohydrates |
Food Science |
Natural Products |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The Singlet States of Molecular Oxygen   Jean-Pierre Puttemans and Georges Jannes
Although the purpose of the article The Visible Spectrum of Liquid Oxygen in the General Chemistry Laboratory is an analysis of the two-moleculesone-photon absorption spectrum of oxygen, it nevertheless assigns arrangements of the electrons in an energy diagram to the two singlet states of molecular oxygen which do not seem to be correct in our opinion.
Puttemans, Jean-Pierre; Jannes, Georges. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 639.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
MO Theory |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
The Singlet States of Molecular Oxygen   Jean-Pierre Puttemans and Georges Jannes
Although the purpose of the article The Visible Spectrum of Liquid Oxygen in the General Chemistry Laboratory is an analysis of the two-moleculesone-photon absorption spectrum of oxygen, it nevertheless assigns arrangements of the electrons in an energy diagram to the two singlet states of molecular oxygen which do not seem to be correct in our opinion.
Puttemans, Jean-Pierre; Jannes, Georges. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 639.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
MO Theory |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
A Modular Laser Apparatus for Polarimetry, Nephelometry, and Fluorimetry in General Chemistry  Scott A. Darveau, Jessica Mueller, April Vaverka, Cheri Barta, Anthony Fitch, Jessica Jurzenski, and Yvonne Gindt
We present an apparatus suitable for multiple uses in the general chemistry laboratory including polarimetry, fluorescence, and nephelometry. The open design of the instrument also decreases the chance that students will contract the "black-box syndrome" that seems to develop when using instruments that only provide the final data in an experiment without showing how the measurements are obtained.
Darveau, Scott A.; Mueller, Jessica; Vaverka, April; Barta, Cheri; Fitch, Anthony; Jurzenski, Jessica; Gindt, Yvonne. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 401.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Kinetics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Proteins / Peptides |
Water / Water Chemistry
Preparation and Analysis of Libethenite: A Project for the First-Year Laboratory  Kelly E. Ginion and Claude H. Yoder
This first-year chemistry project involves the preparation and analysis of the naturally-occurring double salt Cu2PO4OH. Students prepare (or are supplied with) a list of possible products and use the results of their analyses to determine which compound was actually prepared.
Ginion, Kelly E.; Yoder, Claude H. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 394.
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Remote NMR Data Acquisition and Processing in the Organic Chemistry Curriculum  Caleb Benefiel, Ron Newton, Gregory J. Crouch, and Karen Grant
A procedure for enabling remote and hands-on access to a Varian Mercury 300 MHz Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectrometer in a large organic chemistry laboratory is described. Additionally, procedures for remotely connecting two high schools and a community college to the NMR are also described.
Benefiel, Caleb; Newton, Ron; Crouch, Gregory J.; Grant, Karen. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1494.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
An NMR-Smell Module for the First-Semester General Chemistry Laboratory  Erich S. Uffelman, Elizabeth H. Cox, J. Brown Goehring, Tyler S. Lorig, and C. Michele Davis
The series of experiments involves an exploration of organic stereochemistry via hands-on model building, several chemosensory smell tests, and hands-on use of 13C NMR, thus serving as a powerful interdisciplinary lab involving chemistry, physics, and neuroscience. Similarities and differences between NMR and MRI methods are emphasized.
Uffelman, Erich S.; Cox, Elizabeth H.; Goehring, J. Brown; Lorig, Tyler S.; Davis, C. Michele. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1368.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Molecular Modeling |
Medicinal Chemistry
SpecScan: A Utility Program for Generating Numerical Data from Printed Forms of Spectra or Other Signals  Constantinos E. Efstathiou
SpecSpan is a utility program for Microsoft Windows that generates numerical data from printed spectra or other plots found as figures in text, chart recordings, or freehand drawings. SpecScan can process bitmap (.BMP) images of such figures and drawings. After a brief interaction with the user, it generates and exports numerical data as Excel (.XLS) or text (.TXT) files.
Efstathiou, Constantinos E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1093.
Chemometrics |
Spectroscopy
From Our Peer-Reviewed Collection  William F. Coleman and Edward W. Fedosky
The JCE WebWare collection continues to evolve and grow. This month we add another program, SpecScan: A Utility Program for Generating Numerical Data from Printed Forms of Spectra or Other Signals, to our collection of peer-reviewed WebWare.
Coleman, William F.; Fedosky, Edward W. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1093.
Chemometrics |
Spectroscopy
SpecScan: A Utility Program for Generating Numerical Data from Printed Forms of Spectra or Other Signals  Constantinos E. Efstathiou
The JCE WebWare collection continues to evolve and grow. This month we add another program, SpecScan: A Utility Program for Generating Numerical Data from Printed Forms of Spectra or Other Signals, to our collection of peer-reviewed WebWare.
Efstathiou, Constantinos E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1093.
Chemometrics |
Spectroscopy
Purple or Colorless—Which Way Up? An Entertaining Solubility Demonstration  Trevor M. Kitson
Discrepant demonstration involving immiscible mixture of water colored with potassium permanganate and hexane.
Kitson, Trevor M. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 892.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Physical Properties
Laboratory Sequence in Computational Methods for Introductory Chemistry  Jason A. Cody and Dawn C. Wiser
Description of a four-week laboratory sequence that exposes students to instrumentation (FT-NMR, GC) and computational chemistry.
Cody, Jason A.; Wiser, Dawn C. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 793.
Chromatography |
Computational Chemistry |
Noncovalent Interactions |
MO Theory |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Gas Chromatography
ORBITAL  Robert M. Hanson
Software that produces probability-based three-dimensional representations of the hydrogen atom and other single-electron systems.
Hanson, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 710.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Computational Chemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Classification of Vegetable Oils by Principal Component Analysis of FTIR Spectra  David A. Rusak, Leah M. Brown, and Scott D. Martin
Comparing unknown samples of vegetable oils to known samples using FTIR and principal component analysis (PCA) and nearest means classification (NMC).
Rusak, David A.; Brown, Leah M.; Martin, Scott D. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 541.
IR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Food Science |
Lipids |
Chemometrics |
Qualitative Analysis |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Analysis of Carbon Monoxide in Blood  Benjamin P. Huddle and Joseph C. Stephens
Qualitative and quantitative analysis of carbon monoxide in blood using the Conway diffusion method.
Huddle, Benjamin P.; Stephens, Joseph C. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 441.
Gases |
Toxicology |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Applications of Chemistry |
Forensic Chemistry
A Photolithography Laboratory Experiment for General Chemistry Students   Adora M. Christenson, Gregory W. Corder, Thomas C. DeVore, and Brian H. Augustine
A photolithography laboratory experiment for general chemistry that introduces materials science and the production of microfabricated devices.
Christenson, Adora M.; Corder, Gregory W.; DeVore, Thomas C.; Augustine, Brian H. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 183.
Kinetics |
Materials Science |
Photochemistry |
Spectroscopy
A General Chemistry Laboratory Theme: Spectroscopic Analysis of Aspirin  Houston Byrd and Stephen E. O’Donnell
A laboratory sequence designed for introductory chemistry students that focusses on the synthesis and spectroscopic (IR and NMR) and chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of aspirin as an alternative to traditional general chemistry laboratories.
Byrd, Houston; O’Donnell, Stephen E. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 174.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Chromatography |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
ORBITAL  Robert M. Hanson
Software for producing probability-based three-dimensional representations of atomic orbitals of the hydrogen atom and other single-electron systems; found on the Advanced Chemistry Collection CD-ROM, 3rd Edition.
Hanson, Robert M. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 109.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Computational Chemistry
Micelle-Mediated Extraction of Heavy Metals from Environmental Samples: An Environmental Green Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  Dimosthenis L. Giokas, Evangelos K. Paleologos, and Miltiades I. Karayannis
A laboratory focussing on the determination of metallic elements in drinking water through cloud-point extraction.
Giokas, Dimosthenis L.; Paleologos, Evangelos K.; Karayannis, Miltiades I. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 61.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Metals |
Micelles |
Separation Science |
Green Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
The Analysis of Seawater: A Laboratory-Centered Learning Project in General Chemistry  Jodye I. Selco, Julian L. Roberts, Jr., and Daniel B. Wacks
Experiment designed to introduce students to qualitative and quantitative analysis methods (gravimetric analysis, potentiometric titration, ion-selective electrodes, and atomic absorption and atomic emission spectroscopy) in the context of an overall analysis of an environmental sample.
Selco, Jodye I.; Roberts, Julian L., Jr.; Wacks, Daniel B. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 54.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Potentiometry
A Film Canister Colorimeter  James Gordon, Alan James, Stephanie Harman, and Kristen Weiss
Constructing a low-cost, low-tech colorimeter that illustrates all of a colorimeter's elementary components and a fundamental application of spectroscopy (determining the unknown concentration of a solution).
Gordon, James; James, Alan; Harman, Stephanie; Weiss, Kristen. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1005.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Structure and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. An Experiment for the General Chemistry Laboratory  Rosa M. Dávila and R. K. Widener
Lab exercise to introduce first-year students to the concepts of functional groups and isomerism, as well as using NMR spectroscopy to determine simple molecular structures.
Dávila, Rosa M.; Widener, R. K. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 997.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Instrumental Methods
A Structure–Activity Investigation of Photosynthetic Electron Transport. An Interdisciplinary Experiment for the First-Year Laboratory  Kerry K. Karukstis, Gerald R. Van Hecke, Katherine A. Roth, and Matthew A. Burden
Investigation in which students measure the effect of several inhibitors (herbicides) on the electron transfer rate in chloroplasts and formulate a hypothesis between the inhibitor's activity and its structure as a means of using a physical technique to measure a chemical process in a biological system.
Karukstis, Kerry K.; Van Hecke, Gerald R.; Roth, Katherine A.; Burden, Matthew A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 985.
Biophysical Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds |
Plant Chemistry
A New Glow on the Chromatography of M&M Candies  Kurt R. Birdwhistell and Thomas G. Spence
Examining M&M candy chromatographs under UV light to determine which components contribute to the fluorescence of some of the candies.
Birdwhistell, Kurt R.; Spence, Thomas G. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 847.
Chromatography |
Dyes / Pigments |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
Synthesis and Characterization of a Gasoline Oxygenate, Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether  Craig J. Donahue, Teresa D'Amico, and Jennifer A. Exline
Procedure for the synthesis and characterization of ethyl tert-butyl ether.
Donahue, Craig J.; D'Amico, Teresa; Exline, Jennifer A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 724.
Chromatography |
Synthesis |
Ethers |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
Fingerprinting: Commercial Products and Elements  DeeDee Allen and Maria T. Oliver-Hoyo
Activity in which students relate emission spectra to bar codes.
Allen, DeeDee; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 459.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The Visible Spectrum of Liquid Oxygen in the General Chemistry Laboratory  Frazier Nyasulu, John Macklin, and William Cusworth III
Examination of the spectrum of liquid oxygen and testing several hypotheses to explain the pattern of spectral lines observed.
Nyasulu, Frazier; Macklin, John; Cusworth, William, III. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 356.
MO Theory |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The Physics Teacher: The Overlap of Chemistry and Physics  Roy W. Clark
Chemistry relevant articles appearing in The Physics Teacher.
Clark, Roy W. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 154.
IR Spectroscopy |
Surface Science
Cigarette Smoke Analysis Using an Inexpensive Gas-Phase IR Cell  N. Garizi, A. Macias, T. Furch, R. Fan, P. Wagenknecht, and K. A. Singmaster
A PVC gas cell used to collect and analyze cigarette smoke and car exhaust through IR spectroscopy.
Garizi, N.; Macias, A.; Furch, T.; Fan, R.; Wagenknecht, P.; Singmaster, K. A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1665.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Qualitative Analysis
Beer's Law Revoked? (re J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 694)  Maureen Kendrick Murphy
Question regarding absorbance versus concentration plot for buckminsterfullerene.
Murphy, Maureen Kendrick. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1595.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Ethics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Undergraduate Research |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Beer's Law Revoked? (re J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 694)  Roy W. Clark
Question regarding absorbance versus concentration plot for buckminsterfullerene.
Clark, Roy W. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1595.
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Ethics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Undergraduate Research |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
The Use of an Inexpensive Laser Pointer to Perform Qualitative and Semiquantitative Laser Refractometry  Amarílis de Vicente Finageiv Neder, Edgardo García, and Leonardo N. Viana
A simple, low-cost refractometry experiment designed for inexperienced students or use as a demonstration to estimate the refractive index of various liquids.
Neder, Amarílis de Vicente Finageiv; García, Edgardo; Viana, Leonardo N. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1481.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Liquids |
Qualitative Analysis |
Physical Properties
A Liquid Prism for Refractive Index Studies  Michael D. Edmiston
Easy fabrication of a hollow glass prism and application involving measuring the sugar content of soft drinks.
Edmiston, Michael D. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1479.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis
News from Online: Teaching with Chemical Instrumentation on the Web  Thomas G. Chasteen
Variety of web-based animations on analytical instrumentation; WWW addresses for software, plug-ins, sites for images and animations, references for designing sites, and sites regarding specific analytical techniques.
Chasteen, Thomas G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1144.
Instrumental Methods |
Molecular Modeling |
Spectroscopy |
Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Gas Chromatography |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy
A Microscale Spectrophotometric Determination of Water Hardness  James S. Gordon
Measuring water hardness using EDTA as a titrant, calmagite as an indicator, a colorimeter, and a graphing calculator.
Gordon, James S. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1089.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
A Dramatic Flame Test Demonstration  Kristin A. Johnson and Rodney Schreiner
Spraying a methanol / salt solution into the flame of a Meker burner to produce a large, brightly colored flame.
Johnson, Kristin A.; Schreiner, Rodney. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 640.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Infrared Spectroscopy in the General Chemistry Lab  Margaret A. Hill
Three laboratory exercises in which students learn to interpret infrared spectra for simple structural identification. A polymer identification lab uses familiar household polymer samples and teaches students how to use infrared spectral data to determine what bond types are present in the polymers. In a second lab, students learn to prepare potassium bromide pellets of fluorene derivatives and identify them by their functional group differences. The final exercise combines IR with several other lab techniques to identify an organic acid from a field of fourteen possibilities.
Hill, Margaret A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 26.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A Phthalocyanine Synthesis Group Project for General Chemistry  Darren K. MacFarland, Christopher M. Hardin, and Michael J. Lowe
A group experiment synthesizing phthalocyanine dyes in one step from commercially available starting materials is described. The importance of a metal template is explored. The experiment is suitable for a second-semester general chemistry course.
MacFarland, Darren K.; Hardin, Christopher M.; Lowe, Michael J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1484.
Aromatic Compounds |
Synthesis |
Organometallics |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds
A Simple Protein Purification and Folding Experiment for General Chemistry Laboratory  Robert Bowen, Richard Hartung, and Yvonne M. Gindt
A simple procedure for the crude purification of a chromoprotein suitable for a general chemistry laboratory. The protein, phycocyanin, is easy to purify and very stable. It contains a chromophore that can serve to report the integrity of the protein structure: the chromoprotein is dark blue when the protein is folded in its native conformation, and it turns a very pale blue when the protein is unfolded or denatured.
Bowen, Robert ; Hartung, Richard; Gindt, Yvonne M. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1456.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Photochemistry |
Proteins / Peptides |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Epoxy Polymerization  Fred Schubert and Tom LoBuglio
Identifying the gel point of a polymer using a multimeter.
Schubert, Fred; LoBuglio, Tom. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1409.
Kinetics |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy
Interpretation of Second Virial Coefficient  Vivek Utgikar
Identifying the gel point of a polymer using a multimeter.
Utgikar, Vivek. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1409.
Kinetics |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Gases |
Thermodynamics
Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy of Calcium in Foodstuffs in Non-Science-Major Courses  Keith S. Kostecka
Non-science-major students are introduced to the concept of ppm, prepare AAS standard solutions, digest foodstuffs in nitric acid, conduct AAS analysis for Ca, determine mass percentage of calcium in the sample, and check calcium levels in various food items on the Internet with a critical eye.
Kostecka, Keith S. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1321.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Nonmajor Courses |
Quantitative Analysis |
Food Science
Studying Thermally Induced Chemical and Physical Transformations in Common Synthetic Polymers: A Laboratory Project  Steven C. Hodgson, John D. Orbell, Stephen W. Bigger, and John Scheirs
A simple project is described for introducing students to some experimental procedures commonly used to measure the effects of thermal treatment on synthetic polymers. The thermally induced changes that occur in the commodity polymers low-density polyethylene (LDPE), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) are examined as a function of the time of thermal treatment in an air-circulating oven.
Hodgson, Steven C.; Orbell, John D.; Bigger, Stephen W.; Scheirs, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 745.
IR Spectroscopy |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Thermal Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
An Inexpensive Convenient Press for KBr and CsI Pellets in Infrared Studies  Chris Kalberg and Paul J. Ogren
Directions are provided for the fabrication of an inexpensive IR salt pellet press that may be used easily and quickly by beginning chemistry students.
Kalberg, Chris; Ogren, Paul J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 391.
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Inexpensive Digital Monitoring of Signals from a Spectronic-20 Spectrophotometer  John R. Amend, Matthew E. Morgan, and Alex Whitla
Obsolete analog-readout vacuum-tube and solid-state Spectronic-20 family spectrophotometers can be found in most college and university chemistry laboratories. While optically these are good single-beam instruments, their electronics package does not permit attachment of recorders or digital displays. This article describes a simple modification that costs less than $10.00 for parts and will permit direct digital readout of the Spectronic-20 signal with a digital voltmeter or a laboratory interface and a computer.
Amend, John R.; Morgan, Matthew E.; Whitla, Alex. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 252.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
CD Spectroscope  Whitten, Lanny
Variation on design of the CD spectroscope.
Whitten, Lanny J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1624.
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Analysis of Soft Drinks Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Mentorship  Arkim Wilson, Craig Myers, George Crull, Michael Curtis, and Pamela Pasciak Patterson
This mentorship was designed to expose a student to the laboratory routine for a chemist at Bristol Myers Squibb Company (BMS). The student visited BMS, collaborated with BMS scientists, and actually completed a project on site. He was asked to determine the identity of an unknown sample of soft drink retrieved from a fictitious crime scene using NMR spectroscopy.
Wilson, Arkim; Myers, Craig; Crull, George; Curtis, Michael; Pasciak, Pamela M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1414.
Instrumental Methods |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Student / Career Counseling
Demonstration of Optical Rotatory Dispersion of Sucrose  S. M. Mahurin, R. N. Compton, and Richard N. Zare
A method for demonstrating and measuring the optical activity of chiral molecules in solution is described in which the rotation of linearly polarized light is directly observed at right angles to the propagation of light in the liquid.
Mahurin, S. M.; Compton, Robert N.; Zare, Richard N. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1234.
Instrumental Methods |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Carbohydrates
A Classroom Demonstration of Rayleigh Light Scattering in Optically Active and Inactive Systems  Monica Avalos Pecina and Charles A. Smith
The objective of this demonstration is to allow students to make a direct observation of the rotation of polarized light in an optically active medium. The observation is performed by passing a laser beam through a long vertical cylinder, which contains a solution of a nonabsorbing optically active compound.
Pecina, Monica Avalos; Smith, Charles A. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1230.
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Quantum Chemistry
News from Online: More Spectroscopy  Carolyn Sweeney Judd
Summary of two web sites dealing with the properties and behavior of light.
Judd, Carolyn Sweeney. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1177.
Lasers |
Spectroscopy
The Genius of Slater's Rules  James L. Reed
With only a few modifications a procedure has been developed that yields the one-electron energies for atoms and ions with a level of detail very well suited for instruction in the structure and properties of atoms. It provides for the computation of very reasonable values for such properties as ionization energies, electron affinities, promotion energies, electronic transitions, and even XPS and ESCA spectra.
Reed, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 802.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Theoretical Chemistry |
Spectroscopy
News from Online: A Spectrum of Color  Carolyn Sweeney Judd
Links to a variety of on-line resources relating to rainbows, spectra, and the color of light.
Judd, Carolyn Sweeney. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 728.
Lasers |
Spectroscopy
The o-Phenylenediamine-Horseradish Peroxidase System: Enzyme Kinetics in the General Chemistry Laboratory  T. M. Hamilton, A. A. Dobie-Galuska, and S. M. Wietstock
The purpose of the experiment is to measure the kinetic parameters in the oxidative coupling reaction of o-phenylenediamine (OPD) to 2,3-diaminophenazine (DAP), a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP).
Hamilton, Todd M.; Dobie-Galuska, A. A.; Wietstock, S. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 642.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
A Simplified Method for Finding the pKa of an Acid-Base Indicator by Spectrophotometry  George S. Patterson
Experiments on determining the pKa of an acid-base indicator by visible spectroscopy are often found in analytical and physical chemistry lab texts. The procedure described here is a modification suitable for general chemistry lab students.
Patterson, George S. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 395.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Sweet Chemistry  Benedict Aurian-Blajeni, Jonathan Sam, and Michael Sisak
This laboratory exercise is an introduction to spectrophotometry suitable for college freshmen and high school students. It involves food dyes and brown M&M candy. The spectra of "primary" dyes are measured and represented graphically as absorbance vs wavelength to show that minimum absorption of light occurs in the spectral region corresponding to the color of the dye.
Aurian-Blajeni*, Benedict; Sam, Jonathan; Sisak, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 91.
Food Science |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Spectroscopy of Simple Molecules  C. Baer and K. Cornely
A spectroscopy experiment in which students utilize IR and NMR spectroscopy to identify the structures of three unknowns from a list of 15 carefully chosen simple organic molecules. In taking IR and NMR spectra, students learn to use state-of-the-art instrumentation that is used by practicing chemists.
Baer, Carl; Cornely, Kathleen. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 89.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The Physics Teacher  Volker B. E. Thomsen
Selected articles with a chemistry emphasis.
Thomsen, Volker B. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 18.
Spectroscopy |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
The Science Teacher: Winter Break, 1999  Steve Long
Selected articles with a chemistry emphasis.
Long, Steve. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 17.
Spectroscopy
A Simple Method To Demonstrate the Enzymatic Production of Hydrogen from Sugar  Natalie Hershlag, Ian Hurley, and Jonathan Woodward
In the experimental protocol described here, it has been demonstrated that the common sugar glucose can be used to produce hydrogen using two enzymes, glucose dehydrogenase and hydrogenase. No sophisticated or expensive hydrogen detection equipment is required-only a redox dye, benzyl viologen, which turns purple when it is reduced. The color can be detected by a simple colorimeter.
Hershlag, Natalie; Hurley, Ian; Woodward, Jonathan. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1270.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Carbohydrates |
Applications of Chemistry
Chromatographic Separation Techniques for Undergraduates  Darwin B. Dahl, John T. Riley, and Thomas K. Green
Over the past several years the Chemistry Department at Western Kentucky University (WKU) has sought to strengthen its undergraduate program departmental through acquisition of FT-NMR, fluorescence, electrochemical, thermal analysis, laser Raman, microscale organic, and polymer laboratory instrumentation; this has enabled the department to build a successful undergraduate program.
Dahl, Darwin B.; Riley, John T.; Green, Thomas K. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1209.
Separation Science |
Chromatography |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Raman Spectroscopy |
Electrochemistry |
Photochemistry |
Thermal Analysis |
Microscale Lab
The Reaction of a Food Colorant with Sodium Hypochlorite: A Student-Designed Kinetics Experiment  Josefina Arce, Rosa Betancourt, Yamil Rivera, and Joan Pijem
The kinetics of the reaction of the food colorant FD&C Blue #1 with sodium hypochlorite (Clorox) is described in a student-designed experimental format. In this format, students are guided- by means of questions- to make decisions regarding concentration of reagents, choice of equipment, and actual laboratory procedures to be followed.
Arce, Josefina; Betancourt-Perez, Rosa; Rivera, Yamil; Pijem, Joan. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1142.
Kinetics |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Dyes / Pigments
Galactic Data Viewer, Version 2.08 (by Galactic Industries Corporation)  Jack G. Goldsmith
The Galactic DataViewer software is a freeware product designed to allow those who are not users of Galactic's GRAMS/386 or GRAMS/32 commercial software packages the capability to open spectral and chromatographic files stored in Galactic's SPC format.
Goldsmith, Jack G. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1091.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Basic Laboratory Chemistry  reviewed by Deborah McCool
Basic Laboratory Chemistry is a series of sixteen programs presenting demonstrations of many processes and experimental techniques used in the chemistry laboratory in both macroscale and microscale. Topics included in the programs are assembling macroscale and microscale apparatus, spectroscopy, chromatography, and procedures such as filtration, extraction, distillation, and titration.
McCool, Deborah. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 830.
Microscale Lab |
Spectroscopy |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Saving Your Students' Skin. Undergraduate Experiments that Probe UV Protection by Sunscreens and Sunglasses  James R. Abney and Bethe A. Scalettar
This article describes absorption spectroscopy experiments that illustrate the mechanism of action of sunscreens and sunglasses and that highlight the differences between different products. The experiments are well suited to incorporation into an undergraduate science laboratory and will expose students to absorption phenomena in a familiar context with substantial environmental and medical relevance.
Abney, James R.; Scalettar, Bethe A. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 757.
Photochemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Spectroscopy
Demonstrating Electron Transfer and Nanotechnology: A Natural Dye-Sensitized Nanocrystalline Energy Converter  Greg P. Smestad and Michael Gratzel
A unique solar cell fabrication procedure has been developed using natural anthocyanin dyes extracted from berries. It can be reproduced with a minimum amount of resources in order to provide an interdisciplinary approach for lower-division undergraduate students learning the basic principles of biological extraction, physical chemistry, and spectroscopy as well as environmental science and electron transfer.
Smestad, Greg P.; Grtzel, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 752.
Photochemistry |
Plant Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Dyes / Pigments |
Nanotechnology |
Separation Science |
Spectroscopy
News from Online: Photons and Lasers  Carolyn Sweeney Judd
Online resources related to light and lasers.
Judd, Carolyn Sweeney. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 526.
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A Guided Inquiry Approach to NMR Spectroscopy  Laura E. Parmentier, George C. Lisensky, and Brock Spencer
The authors present a novel way to introduce NMR spectroscopy into the general chemistry curriculum as part of a week-long aspirin project in their one-semester introductory course. Purity is determined by titration and IR and NMR spectroscopy.
Laura E. Parmentier, George C. Lisensky, and Brock Spencer. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 470.
Learning Theories |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
An Improved Method for Students' Flame Tests in Qualitative Analysis  William D. Bare, Tom Bradley, and Elizabeth Pulliam
A new method for flame tests to be performed by students is presented. The method involves the use of a hot wire to vaporize the sample,which is subsequently drawn into the flame via the burner air vent.
William D. Bare, Tom Bradley, and Elizabeth Pulliam. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 459.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Analysis of Iron in Ferritin, the Iron-Storage Protein: A General Chemistry Experiment  Maureen J. Donlin, Regina F. Frey, Christopher Putnam, Jody Proctor, and James K. Bashkin
The chemical properties of the iron-storage protein ferritin will be examined in this experiment by quantitating the average amount of iron in a ferritin sample, and observing the kinetics of iron release from the protein core under reducing conditions. Students learn and apply the principles of absorption spectroscopy, redox reactions, and metal chelation to study ferritin.
Maureen J. Donlin, Regina F. Frey, Christopher Putnam, Jody Proctor, and James K. Bashkin. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 437.
Oxidation / Reduction |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Proteins / Peptides
Using Chemistry and Color To Analyze Household Products: A 10-12 Hour Laboratory Project at the General Chemistry Level  Wayne B. Bosma
A sequence of experiments using a UV-Vis spectrometer to identify food colorings and to measure the pH of soft drinks allowing qualitative and quantitative measurements to be made.
Bosma, Wayne B. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 214.
Consumer Chemistry |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Dyes / Pigments |
pH |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
Flame Tests That Are Portable, Storable, and Easy To Use  George M. McKelvy
How to build a portable, storable, and easy to use flame test apparatus.
McKelvy, George M. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 55.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy
IR Spectroscopy or Hooke's Law at the Molecular Level - A Joint Freshman Physics-Chemistry Experience  Jeffrey T. Burke
The activity described is intended to unify for the student the topics of IR spectroscopy and Hooke's Law. This is accomplished by first working with springs and masses and then by acquiring and comparing the IR spectra of chloroform and chloroform-d.
Burke, Jeffrey T. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1213.
Instrumental Methods |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Modeling
Challenges of Everyday Spectra  Stephen F. Jacobs
Teachers usually introduce light and its spectrum to students using standard sources such as hydrogen, spectroscopes (with or without a slit and scale), and a wall chart for spectrum identification. The stunning beauty of spectra is immediately appreciated, but where do we go from there?
Jacobs, Stephen F. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1070.
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
ACD/ChemSketch 1.0 (freeware); ACD/ChemSketch 2.0 and its Tautomers, Dictionary, and 3D Plug-ins; ACD/HNMR 2.0; ACD/CNMR 2.0  reviewed by Allen D. Hunter
Chemistry drawing and NMR prediction packages.
Hunter, Allen D. . J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 905.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A General Chemistry Experiment Incorporating Synthesis and Structural Determination  Hal Van Ryswyk
An experiment for the general chemistry laboratory is described wherein gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) are used to characterize the products of a series of microscale reactions on vanillin.
Van Ryswyk, Hal. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 842.
Instrumental Methods |
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
Spectroscopy
News from On-Line  Carolyn Sweeney Judd
Helpful chemistry WWW sites.
Judd, Carolyn Sweeney. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 620.
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry
Analysis of Mouthwash  Eleanor Siegrist and Guy Anderson
Students analyze commercial mouthwash solutions in order to identify the dyes which are present and determine the alcohol content.
Siegrist, Eleanor ; Anderson, Guy. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 567.
Consumer Chemistry |
Chromatography |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Dyes / Pigments
An Investigation into the Absorption of Infrared Light by Small Molecules: A General Chemistry Experiment  William B. Heuer and Edward Koubek
An introductory, two-part classroom/laboratory activity demonstrating the mechanism of absorption of infrared light by small molecules is described. A model for molecular vibration is introduced during pre-lab discussion, and a mechanism by which such vibrations may be excited by infrared radiation light is postulated.
Heuer, William B.; Koubek, Edward. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 313.
IR Spectroscopy
Using Lasers to Demonstrate Refraction, Diffraction, and Dispersion  Elvin Hughes, Jr. and L. H. Holmes, Jr.
Using a red and green laser the phenomenon of refraction and diffraction can be demonstrated relatively easily in the classroom. Also the difference in dispersion with a prism (normal dispersion) and dispersion with a grating (which follows the Bragg equation) can be shown.
Hughes, Elvin, Jr.; Holmes, L. H. Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 298.
Lasers |
Spectroscopy
Screening and Sequential Experimentation: Simulations and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Experiments  Richard J. Stolzberg
Students are introduced to screening and sequential experimentation using simulations and experimentation. The work begins with spreadsheet simulations and practice with the experimental design software. Students learn how to use the graphical output, normal quantile plots, to recognize the specific factors that affect the result of an experiment. In the laboratory, students make a preliminary investigation of the effect of six variables (flame observation height, flame stoichiometry, acetic acid, lamp current, wavelength, and slit width) on the atomic absorption signal for silver.
Stolzberg, Richard. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 216.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods
A Unifying Approach to Absorption Spectroscopy at the Undergraduate Level  Roger S. Macomber
This article suggests that when introducing the topics associated with absorption spectroscopy, the students can greatly benefit from a preliminary discussion of the principle of frequency matching. Virtually all types of absorption spectroscopy share a simple but critical requirement: the frequency of absorbed radiation must exactly match the frequency of some inherent or induced periodic motion of the particles. If the particles are not engaged in such motion, there can be no absorption.
Macomber, Roger S. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 65.
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Spectroscopy
An Introductory Dye Laser Experiment  Sally R. Hair
Students measure the visible absorption spectrum, the fluorescence spectrum, and the dye laser emission curve of one or more laser dyes.
Hair, Sally R. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A7.
Dyes / Pigments |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy
The Extraction of Caffeine from Tea: A Modification of the Procedure of Murray and Hansen  Andreas Hampp
This slight variation of Murray and Hansen's procedure is currently used in our first-year chemistry laboratory classes and clearly shows a higher student success rate in the isolation crude caffeine. The experiment described here is performed in a three-hour lab period, which is followed by sublimation and characterization through melting point and infrared spectroscopy on a second day.
Hampp, Andreas. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1172.
Separation Science |
Physical Properties |
IR Spectroscopy
Four Programs for Windows: Abstract of Volume 4D, Number 2: PSL Photometer  Steven D. Gammon
The majority of freshman chemistry laboratory programs include experiments that employ visible spectroscopy to teach Beer's law and derive related concentration information. These experiments are often done with a Baush and Lomb Spectronic 20 or Spectronic 21. We have developed an alternative instrument and software that offers significant advantages over the above spectrometers.
Gammon, Steven D. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1077.
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis
Effects of Solution Physical Properties on Copper and Chromium Signals in Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry  Fàbio R. P. Rocha, Joaquim A. Nòbrega
Instrumental techniques, such as flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), are frequently used in chemical analysis. Independently of the technique used, the chemical principles must be considered to assure that the analytical results are correct.
Rocha, Fàbio R. P.; Nòbrega , Joaquim A. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 982.
Physical Properties |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Instrumental Methods
Symmetry Elements and Operations  Albert W.M. Lee, K.M. Leung, W.J Daniel, C.L. Chan
Symmetry Elements and Operations is a multimedia presentation that illustrates the basics of symmetry with three dimensional molecular models and simple text explanations.
Lee, Albert W.M.; Leung, K.M.; Kwong, Daniel W.J.; Chan, C.L. . J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 924.
Molecular Modeling |
Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Group Theory / Symmetry |
Quantum Chemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials
NMR Shielding and the Periodic Table  I. P. Gerothanassis and C. G. Kalodimos
The object of this article is to find periodic, structurally significant observables that can be correlated to the nuclear shielding or alternatively to investigate whether chemical shift can be used to intensify the periodic disposition of valence electrons.
Gerothanassis, I. P.; Kalodimos, C. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 801.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Instrumental Methods
Ionization Energies, Electronegativity, Polar Bonds, and Partial Charges  James N. Spencer, Richard S. Moog, and Ronald J. Gillespie
Ionization energies obtained experimentally from photoelectron spectroscopy provide a convenient and simple method for obtaining electronegativity values that correlate well with the standard methods of Pauling, Allred, and Rochow.
James N. Spencer, Richard S. Moog, and Ronald J. Gillespie. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 627.
Covalent Bonding |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy
Electron Configurations from Experiment  Ronald J. Gillespie, James N. Spencer, and Richard S. Moog
Alternative methods of introducing students to atomic energy levels and electron configurations are presented based on experimental evidence rather than quantum mechanics.
Ronald J. Gillespie, James N. Spencer, and Richard S. Moog. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 617.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy
The Helium-Neon Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectrum of Molecular Iodine: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment  John S. Muenter
The wavelength analyzed fluorescence spectrum provides accurate values of spectroscopic properties for the ground state electronic configuration of I2. From these spectroscopic properties students calculate the bond length, harmonic oscillator force constant, and a Birge-Sponer estimate of the bond dissociation energy.
Muenter, John S. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 576.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Lasers
GC-MS and GC-FTIR Characterization of Products: From Classical Freshman and Sophomore Syntheses  D. S. Amenta, T. C. Devore, T. N. Gallaher, C. M. Zook, and J. A. Mosbo
The GC separation of ferrocene, acetylferrocene, and diacetylferrocene is accomplished in less than ten minutes. In addition to the operation of the instrument, the students are introduced to the interpretation of mass spectra and library aided spectral identification.
D. S. Amenta, T. C. Devore, T. N. Gallaher, C. M. Zook, and J. A. Mosbo. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 572.
Instrumental Methods |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
In This Issue  
The instruments that chemists use in their research have changed dramatically in the past decades. The explosion in new techniques and their instrumental counterparts has been made possible by two significant advances.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 288.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods
PVC Photometer: Computer-Assisted Spectroscopy Experiments  Christine M. Pharr, Barry J. Maimberg, John D. Jegla, and Steven D. Gammon
183. To circumvent the limitations of spectrometers such as cost, learning the component parts or understanding the fundamental operation of the spectrometer in introductory spectrometry for students and learning institutions, a computer-assisted visible photometer known as the PVC Photometer was designed.
Pharr, Christine M.; Maimberg, Barry J.; Jegla, John D.; Gammon, Steven D. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 238.
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Determining the Lead Content of Paint Chips: An Introduction to AAS  Peter G. Markow
This article describes a two-week experiment for introductory chemistry students, where they analyze the lead content of paint chip samples using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS).
Markow, Peter G. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 178.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Applications of Chemistry
Binding-Energy Curve for Iodine Using Laser Spectroscopy   L. C. O'Brien and R. L. Kubicek
The laser induced fluorescence spectrum of iodine is recorded using the 514.5 nm line of an Ar+ laser to excite the molecule. The molecular constants obtained by the analysis are used as input to an RKR program, which calculates the classical turning points for the binding-energy curve for iodine.
O'Brien, L. C.; Kubicek, R. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 86.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy
Interfacing an Old UV-VIS Spectrophotometer to a PC Computer  Guinon, J. L.; Garcia-Jareno, J.; Garcia-Anton, J.; Perez-Herranz, V.
Instructions for interfacing an old UV-VIS spectrophotometer to a PC computer.
Guinon, J. L.; Garcia-Jareno, J.; Garcia-Anton, J.; Perez-Herranz, V. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A81.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Quick Method for Making Colored-Flame Flash Paper  Sally Solomon, Chinhyu Hur, Alan Lee, and Kurt Smith
Procedure for making for making colored-flame (and multicolored) flash paper.
Solomon, Sally; Hur, Chinhyu; Lee, Alan; Smith, Kurt. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1133.
Reactions |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Atomic Spectroscopy
A Simple, Discovery-Based Laboratory Exercise: The Molecular Mass Determination of Polystyrene  Greg A. Slough
Identification of an unknown polymer using silica gel TLC sheets and IR spectroscopy.
Slough, Greg A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1031.
Stoichiometry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Infrared Spectroscopy: A Versatile Tool in Practical Chemistry Courses   Volker Wiskam, Wolfgang Fichtner, Volker Kramb, Alexander Nintschew, and Jens Stefan Schneider
Procedure for preparing samples of basic inorganic compounds and analyzing them through IR spectroscopy in freshman chemistry.
Wiscamp, Volker; Fichtner, Wolfgang; Kramb, Volker; Nintschew, Alexander; Schneider, Jens Stefan. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 952.
IR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Coordination Compounds
Synthesis and Characterization of Potassium Tris(oxalato)ferrate(III) Trihydrate: A Spectrophotometric Method of Iron Analysis  Richard F. Dallinger
A general chemistry experiment that combines titrimetric, gravimetric, and spectrophotometric analysis in two, three-hour lab periods.
Dallinger, Richard F. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 936.
Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Gravimetric Analysis
The Use of Erythrosin B in Undergraduate Spectrophotometry Experiments   L. James Stock III
Substitution of a nontoxic food color for an originally used toxic chromium(VI) salt in a general chemistry, spectrophotometry experiment.
Stock, L. James, III. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 926.
Toxicology |
Solutions / Solvents |
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Management
Syringe Ammonia Fountain  Jin Li and Ai-Zhi Peng
Energizing various metallic chlorides in watch glasses with methanol to introduce atomic emission spectroscopy.
Li, Jin; Peng, Ai-Zhi; Burgett, P. Clayton. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 828.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Proton NMR Basics  Carolyn S. Judd, Joel D. Morrisett, Mohan V. Chari, and Jeffrey L. Browning
Multimedia tutorial to introduce and develop understanding of NMR spectroscopy concepts and techniques.
Judd, C. Sweeney; Morrisett, J. D.; Chari, M. V. ; Browning, J. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 706.
NMR Spectroscopy
An Introductory Infrared Spectroscopy Experiment   Kenneth R. Hess, Wendy D. Smith, Marcus W. Thomsen, and Claude H. Yoder
An activity designed to introduce IR spectroscopy as a structure-determining technique to introductory chemistry students.
Hess, Kenneth R.; Smith, Wendy D.; Thomsen, Marcus W.; Yoder, Claude H. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 655.
IR Spectroscopy |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The Chemical Bond Studied by IR Spectroscopy in Introductory Chemistry: An Exercise in Cooperative Learning  Janet S. Anderson, David M. Hayes, and T. C. Werner
Activity that enables introductory chemistry students to run their own IR spectra using a FTIR spectrophotometer as part of learning about the dynamical nature of the chemical bond.
Anderson, Janet S.; Hayes, David M.; Werner, T. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 653.
IR Spectroscopy |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Determining Iron Content in Foods by Spectrophotometry   Paul E. Adams
Activity to introduce high school students to the concept and techniques of colorimetry by determining the iron content in various foods; sample data and analysis included.
Adams, Paul E. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 649.
Spectroscopy |
Metals |
Food Science |
Consumer Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis
Obtaining a Spectrum Easily: Using a Single-Beam Spectrophotometer  Mattson, Miranda E.; Mattson, William A.
Using a single-beam spectrophotometer (e.g. Spec 20) to obtain a spectrum.
Mattson, Miranda E.; Mattson, William A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 569.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Instrumental Methods
Continuous Liquid-Sample Introduction for Bunsen Burner Atomic Emission Spectrometry  Smith, Gregory D.; Sanford, Caryn L.; Jones, Bradley T.
Description of a laboratory-constructed atomic emission spectrometer with modular instrumentation components and a simple Bunsen burner atomizer with continuous sample introduction for lab work or demonstrations; includes sample data.
Smith, Gregory D.; Sanford, Caryn L.; Jones, Bradley T. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 438.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Simple Microwell Colorimeter for Use in an Introductory Chemistry Lab  Crump, Jennifer; Sandwick, Roger K.
Using simple and common electronic components to manufacture an inexpensive microwell detector that uses and LCD as a light source and a CdS photocell as a detector; includes examples of applications of the device in a high school or undergraduate chemistry curriculum.
Crump, Jennifer; Sandwick, Roger K. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A199.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Discovering the Beer-Lambert Law  Ricci, Robert W.; Ditzler, Mauri; Nestor, Lisa P.
This article is unique in its use of a simple physical model to help students taking general chemistry gain a more meaningful picture of the process of light absorption. The approach is empirical and free of calculus.
Ricci, Robert W.; Ditzler, Mauri; Nestor, Lisa P. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 983.
Spectroscopy
Determination of Calcium in Analgesic Tablets Using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry  Quigley, Michael N.
Procedure to determine the amount of calcium in calcium carbonate coated analgesic tablets using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer.
Quigley, Michael N. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 800.
Quantitative Analysis |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
A Simple Lab Activity To Teach Subtractive Color and Beer's Law  Suding, Heather L.; Buccigross, Jeanne M.
An activity that demonstrates subtractive color mixing using colored filters.
Suding, Heather L.; Buccigross, Jeanne M. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 798.
Spectroscopy
Multimedia Chemistry Lectures  Whitnell, Robert M.; Fernandes, Eric A.; Almassizadeh, Farshad; Love, John J. C.; Dugan, Brookie M.; Sawrey, Barbara A.; Wilson, Kent R.
Development of a full set of multimedia lectures for the second quarter of a two-quarter physical chemistry sequence.
Whitnell, Robert M.; Fernandes, Eric A.; Almassizadeh, Farshad; Love, John J. C.; Dugan, Brookie M.; Sawrey, Barbara A.; Wilson, Kent R. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 721.
Quantum Chemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Statistical Mechanics
Atomic Spectra-Graph  Surovell, Todd
Displays the emission spectra of over 80 elements; data are encapsulated into Microsoft Excel spreadsheets.
Surovell, Todd J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 422.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Spectroscopy
An Inexpensive Flame Test Technique  McRae, Robert A.; Jones, Richard F.
Burning moistened paper towel dipped in various salts for an easy flame test.
McRae, Robert A.; Jones, Richard F. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 68.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
Analyze and identify surface colors with a $35 surface spectroscopy interface and your personal computer   Schnable, Joseph; Cheeseman, Matthew; Metzger, Charlene; Orr, Robert
An IBM-compatible computer interface constructed to control blue, green, yellow, orange, crimson, and red LEDs that works with software to scan and analyze colors. An idea for a student activity is included in this article.
Schnable, Joseph; Cheeseman, Matthew; Metzger, Charlene; Orr, Robert J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A126.
Spectroscopy
Models and molecules: A laboratory-based course in spectroscopy for the nonscience major   Werner, T. C.; Hull, L. A.
Recent general education curriculum requirements at the authors' institution led to the development of several laboratory-based courses for nonscience majors. One such course is presented in this paper.
Werner, T. C.; Hull, L. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 936.
Nonmajor Courses |
Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
Banish quantum mechanics from general chemistry?   Schaefer, Henry F., III.
Is the subject of quantum mechanics unteach-able at the general level? This author disagrees with a previous article in which a case was made for removing quantum mechanics from general chemistry.
Schaefer, Henry F., III. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 782.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Quantum Chemistry
Experiments for modern introductory chemistry: Limiting reagent, stoichiometry, and the mole  Kildahl, Nicholas; Berka, Ladislav H.
Description of an experiment based on electronic absorption spectroscopy for general chemistry students that gives accurate results, conveys the excitement of discovery in experimental science, and illustrates key concepts.
Kildahl, Nicholas; Berka, Ladislav H. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 671.
Stoichiometry |
Spectroscopy
Why is water blue?  Braun, Charles L.; Smirnov, Sergei N.
Exploring the problem of why water in a beaker appears to be clear, yet we see large bodies of water as blue in color.
Braun, Charles L.; Smirnov, Sergei N. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 612.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Water / Water Chemistry
Atmospheric smog analysis in a balloon using FTIR spectroscopy: A novel experiment for the introductory laboratory   Amey, Ralph L.
The author has developed a simple experiment that examines and identifies some of the components of Los Angeles air by FTIR spectroscopy using an inexpensive toy balloon as a sample gas cell.
Amey, Ralph L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A148.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
IR Spectroscopy |
Gases
Primary and secondary inner filtering: Effect of K2Cr2O7 on fluorescence emission intensities of quinine sulfate  Tucker, Sheryl A.; Amszi, Vicki L.; Acree, William E., Jr.
Fluorescence spectroscopy is an extremely versatile, sensitive experimental technique used in identification and quantification of many environmentally important compounds.
Tucker, Sheryl A.; Amszi, Vicki L.; Acree, William E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A8.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy
Line spectra using a CD disc  Brouwer, Henry
Viewing the emission spectrum from a gas discharge tube or element heated in a flame using a CD disk.
Brouwer, Henry J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 829.
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Three methods for studying the kinetics of the halogenation of acetone.  Birk, James P.; Walters, David L.
Three methods for carrying out a kinetic study of the reaction between propanone and elemental iodine.
Birk, James P.; Walters, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 585.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Kinetics |
Spectroscopy |
Rate Law
Atomic spectroscopy with a compact disc   Mebane, Robert C.; Rybolt, Thomas R.
The compact disc used by the music industry provides a convenient and ubiquitous diffraction grating that can be used with a mercury street lamp to explore the electronic structure of atoms through simple atomic spectroscopy observations.
Mebane, Robert C.; Rybolt, Thomas R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 401.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Determination of the solubility product of copper(II) tartrate  Thomsen, Marcus W.
The spectrophotometric determination of the solubility product of cupric tartrate is an appropriate experiment for the introductory chemistry course.
Thomsen, Marcus W. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 328.
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Spectroscopy
Avoiding capillary blockage of AA and AE spectrophotometers  Quigley, Michael N.
Using a piece of filter paper is a preventative measure that saves on equipment.
Quigley, Michael N. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 324.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Atomic Spectroscopy  Coleman, William F.; Pavlik, Philip; Rittenhouse, Robert C.; Rose, Martin J.
Atomic Spectroscopy has been designed to introduce students to the principles of the emission spectra of simple gas-phase atoms and ions.
Coleman, William F.; Pavlik, Philip; Rittenhouse, Robert C.; Rose, Martin J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 129.
Atomic Spectroscopy
Synthesis, oxidation and UV/IR spectroscopy illustrated: An integrated freshman lab session   Zoller, Uri; Lubezky, Aviva; Danot, Miriam
This paper describes a specially designed, and successfully implemented lab-session for the first-year college general chemistry course.
Zoller, Uri; Lubezky, Aviva; Danot, Miriam J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, A274.
IR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Coordination Compounds |
Metals
A poster exhibit on stoichiometry for National Chemistry Week  Pacer, Richard A.
An idea for a visually intriguing poster that will invite attention.
Pacer, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 549.
Stoichiometry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Spec 20  Gable, Ralph; McCormick, James
A realistic simulator of a Bausch and Lomb Spectronic-20 spectrophotometer.
Gable, Ralph; McCormick, James J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 221.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Measurements of equilibrium constants of acid-base indicators with a blocktronic colorimeter  Walters, David; Birk, James P.
A computer-interfaced measurement of equilibrium constants of acid-base indicators (methyl orange, methyl red, and phenolphthalein).
Walters, David; Birk, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A252.
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments |
Spectroscopy |
Equilibrium |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
The Fourier transform in chemistry--NMR: Part 4. Two-dimensional methods   Williams, Kathryn R.; King, Roy W.
This article will conclude the series with an examination of some of the most important types of two-dimensional spectra.
Williams, Kathryn R.; King, Roy W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A125.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
NMR Spectroscopy
The Fourier transform in chemistry--NMR: A glossary of NMR terms   King, Roy W.; Williams, Kathryn R.
This glossary is a resource for anyone new to the literature of the Fourier transform.
King, Roy W.; Williams, Kathryn R. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A100.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
NMR Spectroscopy
The Fourier transform in chemistry--NMR: Part 3. Multiple-pulse experiments   Williams, Kathryn R.; King, Roy W.
This paper will provide the average chemist with an introduction to the information that can be gained from Fourier transform in chemistry.
Williams, Kathryn R.; King, Roy W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A93.
Fourier Transform Techniques |
NMR Spectroscopy
A visible spectrometer  Martin, James D.
An overhead projector spectrophotometer.
Martin, James D. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1061.
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Spectacular classroom demonstration of the flame test for metal ions  Mattson, Bruce M.; Snipp, Robert L.; Michels, Gary D.
Spraying a 1 M solution of a metal salt into the flame of a large Fisher burner.
Mattson, Bruce M.; Snipp, Robert L.; Michels, Gary D. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 791.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy
A simple second-order kinetics experiment  Weiss, Hilton M.; Touchette, Kim
The reaction studied in this experiment is the (reversible) dimerization of 2,5-dimethyl-3,4-diphenylcyclopentadienone; the monomer is colored while the dimer is not, so monitoring the reaction with a simple spectrophotometer provides the concentration of the monomer and therefore the rate of its disappearance.
Weiss, Hilton M.; Touchette, Kim J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 707.
Kinetics |
Spectroscopy |
Aromatic Compounds
Quincy meets Perry Mason: An experience in chemistry and law: A simple spectrophotometric method for the determination of traces of mercury(II) and lead(II)  Murcia, Noel S.; Lundquist, Eric G.; Russo, Steven O.; Peters, Dennis G.
High school students are lead through the scientific, forensic, and legal aspects of a suspected (simulated) mercury poisoning; they determine the amount of Hg(II) in an aqueous solution by extraction with dithizone in methylene chloride.
Murcia, Noel S.; Lundquist, Eric G.; Russo, Steven O.; Peters, Dennis G. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 608.
Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis |
Forensic Chemistry
Molecular diffusion coefficients: Experimental determination and demonstration.  Fate, Gwendolyn; Lynn, David G.
This demonstration highlights the dependence of molecular transport on molar mass and temperature.
Fate, Gwendolyn; Lynn, David G. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 536.
Transport Properties |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A simple method for drying an NMR spinner air supply  Holden, Michael S.; Ogren, Paul J.; Lainhart, Steven D.
A simple alternative to a commercial dryer is a modified cold trap.
Holden, Michael S.; Ogren, Paul J.; Lainhart, Steven D. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 445.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Two easy chemical rate experiments   Garver, Emerson E.
One can use the spectrophotometer to investigate the rates of colored chemical reactions in solution.
Garver, Emerson E. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 183.
Rate Law |
Spectroscopy
Identification of polymers in university class experiments  Bowen, Humphry J. M.
With a certain amount of skill and experience, most students can learn how to identify common polymers.
Bowen, Humphry J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 75.
Physical Properties |
Spectroscopy |
Chromatography
The use of a simple spectrometer/microcomputer arrangement for teaching atomic theory in general chemistry courses  Casanova, J.; Arellano, M.; Lazo, L.; Gomez, H.
Experiment involving the analysis of a discharge tube to introduce students to the hydrogen atom model.
Casanova, J.; Arellano, M.; Lazo, L.; Gomez, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, A201.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing
Coordination complexes of cobalt: Inorganic synthesis in the general chemistry laboratory  Williams, Gregory M.; Olmstead, John, III; Breksa, Andrew P., III
An experiment involving synthesis and spectral studies of a series of [Co(NH3)5L] complexes that introduces general chemistry students to inorganic synthesis and allows them to conduct a systematic study on the effect of different ligands on absorption spectra.
Williams, Gregory M.; Olmstead, John, III; Breksa, Andrew P., III J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1043.
Coordination Compounds |
Synthesis |
Spectroscopy
An easy model for teaching mass / charge in mass spectrometry  de Souza, Nelson Angelo; Bravo, Ruiess Van Fossen
A model for the demonstration of ion deflection by the action of a magnet that is occurring inside of a tube of a mass spectrometer.
de Souza, Nelson Angelo; Bravo, Ruiess Van Fossen J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1039.
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Multiport student spectrometer  Bishop, Carl B.
A spectrometer that can be used simultaneously by seven students to observe a single spectrum emitted by an element of compound in a single light tube against a calibrated screen.
Bishop, Carl B. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1037.
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Screw-cap test tubes as spectrometer cuvets  Lisensky, G. C.; Limon, E.
Screw-cap test tubes have several advantages with respect to normal round cuvets for use in Spec 20 or similar spectrometers.
Lisensky, G. C.; Limon, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 869.
Spectroscopy
Colorimetric determination of pH  Tucker, Sheryl; Robinson, Rebecca; Keane, Charlene; Boff, Margaret; Zenko, Michelle; Batish, Sanjay; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.
Advantages and application of colorimeter to pH measurements.
Tucker, Sheryl; Robinson, Rebecca; Keane, Charlene; Boff, Margaret; Zenko, Michelle; Batish, Sanjay; Street, Kenneth W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 769.
pH |
Spectroscopy |
Dyes / Pigments
Another View of the Visible Spectrum  Hanrahan, E.S.
Chalk can be used with a Spectronic 20 to view the visible spectrum.
Hanrahan, E.S. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 359.
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Safety Warning: Uncontrolled Reaction  Smith, David H.
An experimental procedure published recently led to a potentially serious accident.
Smith, David H. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 359.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Alcohols
Construction of a photoelectric colorimeter and application to students' experiments  Matsuo, Tsutomu; Muromatsu, Akihiko; Katayama, Kazuko; Mori, Minako
The PEC is an instrument that examines quantitatively the color change in the solutions.
Matsuo, Tsutomu; Muromatsu, Akihiko; Katayama, Kazuko; Mori, Minako J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 329.
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis
Zero-cost polystyrene film for IR spectroscopy  Fain, D.
The transparency section of many envelopes used for correspondence consists of a polystyrene film suitable for IR spectroscopy.
Fain, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 171.
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Analysis of kinetic data with a spreadsheet program  Henderson, John
An article about spreadsheet templates that accept concentration versus time data for several runs of an experiment, determination of least-squares lines through data points for each run, and will allow the user to exclude points from the least-squares calculation.
Henderson, John J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A150.
Chemometrics |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Rate Law |
Kinetics |
Enzymes
Chemical principles for the introductory laboratory, CHM 384 (Johnson, James F.)  Wegner, Carol
A comprehensive review of the title program which overviews basic techniques and concepts presented in introductory laboratory courses. Topics include: titration, equilibrium, Ksp, solubility, Beer's law, coordination complexes and first-order rates of reaction.
Wegner, Carol J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, A47.
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents |
Coordination Compounds |
Kinetics
An integrated first-year laboratory experiment involving synthesis, spectroscopy, and chromatography of metal acetylacetonates  Glidewell, Christopher; McKenchnic, James S.
This article presents a comprehensive experiment, involving synthesis, thin-layer chromatography, interpretation of two types of NMR and mass spectra.
Glidewell, Christopher; McKenchnic, James S. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1015.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Synthesis |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Nuclear waste glass, and the Fe2+/Fe3+ ratio  Fanning, James C.; Hunter, R. Todd
These authors present a chemical problem of current interest that can be used for pedagogical purposes.
Fanning, James C.; Hunter, R. Todd J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 888.
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Oxidation State |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Green Chemistry |
Chromatography |
Spectroscopy
A "semimicro" spectrophotometric determination of the Ksp of silver acetate at various temperatures  Liebermann, John, Jr.; Yun, Ki J.
An experiment appropriate for Advanced Placement high school chemistry courses.
Liebermann, John, Jr.; Yun, Ki J. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 728.
Equilibrium |
Spectroscopy
Spectroscopy in large lecture halls   Juergens, Fred
Spectroscopes are impractical to pass out to large lectures. This author submits his strategy for demonstrating both continuous and discontinuous spectra to 350 students in a large lecture hall using large sheets of grating materials with various light sources.
Juergens, Fred J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 266.
Spectroscopy
Determination of iron in a bar of soap  Grompone, M. A.
Determining the iron(III) content of bar soap through colorimetry.
Grompone, M. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1057.
Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis
A device to demonstrate the principles of photometry and three experiments for its use  Delumyea, R. Del
Design, construction, and use of a simple photometer that can be used in place of a Spec 20; includes three experimental procedures applying the instrument.
Delumyea, R. Del J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 630.
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Easy demonstration of the visible spectrum using the Spectronic 20  Sherman, Marie
This demonstration can be performed to provide a relation between wavelength measurements on the Spec 20 and the actual colors of light being used.
Sherman, Marie J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 627.
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Hydrogen atom spectrum using an AA spectrophotometer  Douglas, John; von Nagy Felsobuki, Ellak I.
Using an AA spectrophotometer to measure the Balmer series of the hydrogen atom spectrum.
Douglas, John; von Nagy Felsobuki, Ellak I. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 552.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Thermodynamics of the rhodamine B lactone zwitterion equilibrium: An undergraduate laboratory experiment  Hinckley, Daniel A.; Seybold, Paul G.
An experiment to derive thermodynamic values from a thermochromic equilibrium that uses a commercially available dye, attains equilibrium rapidly, and employs a simple, single-beam spectrophotometer.
Hinckley, Daniel A.; Seybold, Paul G. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 362.
Thermodynamics |
Dyes / Pigments |
Spectroscopy |
Equilibrium
Hemoglobinometry: A biochemistry experiment that utilizes the principles of transition metal chemistry  Giuliano, Vincenzo
Colorimetric measurements are used to determine the concentration of hemoglobin in blood and the effect of the effect that the presence of cyanide ions has on the formation of cyanomethemoglobin.
Giuliano, Vincenzo J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 354.
Transition Elements |
Metals |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Spectroscopy
Using NASA and the space program to help high school and college students learn chemistry. Part II. The current state of chemistry in the space program  Kelter, Paul B.; Snyder, William E.; Buchar, Constance S.
Examples and classroom applications in the areas of spectroscopy, materials processing, and electrochemistry.
Kelter, Paul B.; Snyder, William E.; Buchar, Constance S. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 228.
Astrochemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Materials Science |
Electrochemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography
A simple extraction procedure for the determination of lead in gasoline by atomic absorption spectrometry  Bye, Ragnar
Substituting nitric acid for the more hazardous iodine monochloride in the atomic absorption spectrometry of lead in gasoline.
Bye, Ragnar J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 188.
Quantitative Analysis |
Atomic Spectroscopy
UV spectral data acquisition, spectra search, and library software package for the IBM 9420 Spectrophotometer  Jencen, David A.; Hardy, James K.
78. Bits and pieces, 32. The authors describe a series of computer programs that have been developed to allow a student to acquire, process, search for, and store UV spectra obtained on an IBM interfaced with a UV-vis spectra.
Jencen, David A.; Hardy, James K. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 1075.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Preparation and spectrophotometric analysis of hexaaminenickel(II) chloride: A general chemistry experiment  Wieder, Grace M.
The preparation and ammonia analysis of an amminenickel (II) chloride suggested by a previous author has been modified and extended to include spectrophotometric analysis for nickel. This introduces freshman to a quantitative instrumental technique based on Beer's law.
Wieder, Grace M. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 988.
Spectroscopy |
Coordination Compounds
The coming renaissance of descriptive chemistry  Zuckerman, J. J.
Inorganic chemistry is facing an identity crises.
Zuckerman, J. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 829.
Descriptive Chemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Reactions |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents
Spectrophotometric titration of a mixture of calcium and magnesium  Fulton, Robert; Ross, Michael; Schroeder, Karl
Because the conditions chosen for the titration are not well suited to visual endpoints, students become aware of the unique advantage of spectrophotometric titrations.
Fulton, Robert; Ross, Michael; Schroeder, Karl J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 721.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Coordination Compounds |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
The Nebraska instrument sharing consortium  Smith, David H.
A small group of colleges have banded together to solve one of the pressing problems in chemical education today- how to provide modern instrumentation to students at an affordable price.
Smith, David H. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 68.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Windowsill kinetics: A spectrophotometric study of the photochromism of mercury dithizonate  Petersen, Richard L.; Harris, Gaylon L.
Mercury dithizonate undergoes a color change from orange to an intense royal blue upon irradiation with visible light.
Petersen, Richard L.; Harris, Gaylon L. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 802.
Photochemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Kinetics |
Coordination Compounds |
Raman Spectroscopy
A simple device for obtaining visible spectra  Dmmgen, Ulrich; Keune, Herbert
Converting a standard slide projector into an effective spectroscope.
Dmmgen, Ulrich; Keune, Herbert J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 155.
Spectroscopy
Chain Structure and Conformation of Macromolecules (Bovey, Frank A.; Jelinski, Lynn W.)  Carraher, Charles E., Jr.
The first seven chapters are based on lectures delivered in 1981 at MIT.
Carraher, Charles E., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, A209.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Stereochemistry |
Conformational Analysis |
NMR Spectroscopy
Suitable light sources and spectroscopes for student observation of emission spectra in lecture halls  Hughes, Elvin, Jr.
Assembly of a simple, rugged spectroscope suitable for the lecture hall.
Hughes, Elvin, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 908.
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The solubility of NiSO46H2O  Pacer, Richard A.
Approaches the position of equilibrium from both unsaturated and supersaturated solutions.
Pacer, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 467.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Equilibrium |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Chlorophyll separation and spectral identification  Diehl-Jones, Susan M.
Extracting chlorophyl a and b from spinach and separating them using thin-layer and column chromatography.
Diehl-Jones, Susan M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 454.
Separation Science |
Spectroscopy |
Plant Chemistry |
Photosynthesis |
Dyes / Pigments |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography
The use of an air-natural gas flame in atomic absorption  Melucci, Robert C.
The experiment reported in this paper demonstrates that students can get excellent results using air-natural gas flame in atomic absorption, and a tremendous advantage in safety is gained for a small sacrifice in the limit of detectability.
Melucci, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 238.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Metals |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Determination of sodium in salt substitute by flame emission spectroscopy  Goodney, David E.
Using this procedure a student should be able to report the ppm Na in a salt substitute with an error of a few percent.
Goodney, David E. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 875.
Food Science |
Consumer Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Solubility of lead sulfate in water and in sodium sulfate solutions: An experiment in atomic absorption spectrophotometry  Lehman, Thomas A.; Everett, Wayne W.
Measurement of Pb+2 concentrations by atomic absorption spectrophotometry permits direct calculation of the solubility product constant of lead sulfate in the presence of low concentrations of added sulfate.
Lehman, Thomas A.; Everett, Wayne W. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 797.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Demonstrating color-wavelength relations  Paselk, Richard A.
Demonstrating the correspondence of color and wavelength using a Spectronic 20.
Paselk, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 383.
Spectroscopy
A simple, effective introduction to the Beer-Lambert relationships  Bowman, Leo H.
Demonstrates the realities of light absorbing phenomenon.
Bowman, Leo H. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 155.
Spectroscopy |
Solutions / Solvents
A demonstration of the basic principle of NMR  Meloan, Clifton, E.
Uses a toy gyroscope, wire, and two waste baskets.
Meloan, Clifton, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 154.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Magnetic Properties
Isolation, separation and identification of synthetic food colors  Dixon, E. A.; Renyk, G.
A simple, inexpensive experiment for the extraction of synthetic dyes permitted in foodstuffs, and their separation and identification using thin-layer chromatography and ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy.
Dixon, E. A.; Renyk, G. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 67.
Separation Science |
Food Science |
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Consumer Chemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
Recreating some early work in chemical spectroscopy: A freshman chemistry laboratory exercise  Smedley, Leslie C., Jr.
An experiment utilizing an original account of the spectro-analytical work of Bunsen and Kirchhoff.
Smedley, Leslie C., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 24.
Spectroscopy
Infrared spectrum of methanol: A first-year student experiment  Boehm, Garth; Dwyer, Mark
This paper describes an experiment in infrared spectroscopy designed to complement an alternative course, and the audiovisual system which supports this experiment.
Boehm, Garth; Dwyer, Mark J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 809.
MO Theory |
IR Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Co(acac)3 Synthesis, reactions, and spectra: An experiment for general chemistry  Shalhoub, George M.
Students demonstrate that nitration of Co(acac)3 has occurred through proton NMR and IR spectroscopy.
Shalhoub, George M. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 525.
Synthesis |
Spectroscopy |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy
Spectroscopic cation analysis using metal salt pills  Barnard, Sister Marquita
Making metal salt pills for spectroscopic cation flame analysis using a Carver press.
Barnard, Sister Marquita J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 153.
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Triboluminescence spectroscopy of common candies  Zink, Jeffrey I.; Angelos, Rebecca; Hardy, Gordon E.
Experimental methods of measuring spectra and the origins of triboluminescence; includes spectra data for spearmint, peppermint, and wintergreen Lifesavers.
Zink, Jeffrey I.; Angelos, Rebecca; Hardy, Gordon E. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 413.
Photochemistry |
Spectroscopy
Producing flame spectra  Smith, Douglas D.
Adding the desired salt to canned heat.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 48.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Construction of a novel sample holder for use in undergraduate IR spectroscopy experiments  Law, R.; Ronald, B. P.; Ferrin, L.; Pocker, Y.
The authors share a more economical solution for holding IR samples.
Law, R.; Ronald, B. P.; Ferrin, L.; Pocker, Y. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 508.
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
Colorimetric analysis for salicylate in urine: An experiment for nursing chemistry  Cavanaugh, Margaret A.; Bambenek, Mark A.
The iron-salicylate system provides a chemistry experiment is described here and is suitable for students majoring in nursing.
Cavanaugh, Margaret A.; Bambenek, Mark A. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 464.
Nonmajor Courses |
Bioanalytical Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Quantitative Analysis |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Magnetic and spectral behavior of Co(py)2X2 complexes. A teaching experiment  Webb, D. L.; Meek, T. L.
The pedagogical merit of this experiment is two-fold: a considerable portion of the syllabus is covered and there is a requirement for students to collaborate and discuss.
Webb, D. L.; Meek, T. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 408.
Spectroscopy |
Magnetic Properties |
Coordination Compounds |
Organometallics
Computer assisted analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance spectra  Calkins, Keith G.; Daley, Richard F.
The authors have implemented an interactive computer program designed to assist the beginning student in interpreting NMR data.
Calkins, Keith G.; Daley, Richard F. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 322.
NMR Spectroscopy
Spectrophotometric analysis simulation  Breneman, G. L.
A Basic computer program has been written that completely simulates a spectrophotometric analysis of an unknown solution. This includes measuring the absorbance spectrum of the compound, selection of wavelength for the analysis, determining the relationship between absorbance and concentration, and making any dilutions needed.
Breneman, G. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 241.
Spectroscopy
Synthesis and reactions of a cobalt complex. A project for freshman laboratory  Alexander, John J.; Dorsey, John G.
This lab offers first-year students a rare opportunity for interesting discussions with brighter students, for extending the work involved and for conveying some of the excitement of a developing research problem.
Alexander, John J.; Dorsey, John G. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 207.
Coordination Compounds |
Diastereomers |
Spectroscopy
A readily made simulated optical spectrum for an overhead projector  Rix, Colin J.; Phillips, Keith A.
Combining six differently colored transparent sheets to generate a useful approximation of an optical spectrum and 15 solutions whose colors are representative of different regions of the visible spectrum.
Rix, Colin J.; Phillips, Keith A. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 579.
Spectroscopy
Illustrating infrared spectroscopy using commercially available plastic films  Webb, John; Rasmussen, Malcolm; Selinger, Ben
Collecting and comparing the IR spectra of commercially available plastic films.
Webb, John; Rasmussen, Malcolm; Selinger, Ben J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 303.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Singlet oxygen in aqueous solution: A lecture demonstration   Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.; Williams, Lloyd G.
Lecture demonstrations involving chemiluminescence are useful for the purpose both of displaying chemical phenomena and of illustrating specific principles.
Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.; Williams, Lloyd G. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 358.
Photochemistry |
Reactions |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Spectroscopy
UV spectra and cost analysis of suntan lotions: A simple introduction to the use of recording spectrophotometers  Evans, George O., II
Students enjoy this experiment which has a Consumer Reports aspect to it.
Evans, George O., II J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 315.
Photochemistry |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Consumer Chemistry
A simple system for demonstrations in spectroscopy  Alman, David H.; Billmeyer, Fred W., Jr.
The system presented here is an easily accessible horizontal working surface and projects both the color and spectrum of the radiation simultaneously.
Alman, David H.; Billmeyer, Fred W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 166.
Spectroscopy
A Vidicon detection system for teaching absorption spectroscopy  Richtol, H. H.; Nelson, D. L.; Reeves, R. R.
Describes the conversion of a television system into an absorption spectrograph that can be used as a live demonstration.
Richtol, H. H.; Nelson, D. L.; Reeves, R. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 218.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Spectroscopy
Converting a television system into a quantitative atomic emission spectrograph  Richtol, H. H.; Reeves, R. R.; Nelson, D. L.
The conversion involves placing a transmission grating over the lens of a television camera that is focussed on a discharge tube.
Richtol, H. H.; Reeves, R. R.; Nelson, D. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 198.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A general chemistry laboratory project utilizing atomic absorption  Testa, J. F.; Wyatt, J. L.
This project involves the preparation and purification of an unknown inorganic compound followed by qualitative and quantitative analysis for the materials used in the preparation.
Testa, J. F.; Wyatt, J. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 50.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis
The spectrum of atomic lithium. An undergraduate laboratory experiment  Miller, Kenneth J.
The author gives a background on the theory and experimental procedure for the spectrum of atomic lithium.
Miller, Kenneth J. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 805.
Quantum Chemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Fluorimetric analysis of nitrate in real samples  Miguel, Antonio H.; Braun, Robert D.
The fluorimetric analysis of "real" samples is often undesirable as a student experiment, since prior separations of elaborate sample preparations are required. It is the purpose of this paper to report a fluorimetric, student experiment for the determination of trace nitrate in river water and soil.
Miguel, Antonio H.; Braun, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 682.
Agricultural Chemistry |
Spectroscopy
A spectrophotometric determination of fluoride adapted for the freshman laboratory  Daines, Terri L.; Morse, Karen W.
In this experiment the student determines the fluoride ion concentration of a sodium fluoride solution, which they can do with high precision and accuracy.
Daines, Terri L.; Morse, Karen W. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 680.
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Spectroscopy
Synthesis and spectral study of copper(II) complexes  Potts, Richard A.
The authors propose a series of experiments for general chemistry that are related to one and another.
Potts, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 539.
Coordination Compounds |
Synthesis |
Spectroscopy
A new oxidation-reduction experiment  Williams, T. R.; Van Doren, J. D.
The authors describe an experiment in oxidation and reduction that also introduces students to spectroscopy.
Williams, T. R.; Van Doren, J. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 421.
Oxidation / Reduction |
Spectroscopy
Roadside salt pollution and the absorption-emission spectra of sodium: A general chemistry experiment  Tripp, Terrance B.; Nadeau, Jeanne L.
This experiment illustrates the absorption-emission spectra of atoms by analyzing soil samples for sodium. The experiment also stimulates an awareness of the environmental problems associated with the accumulation of common salt along roadsides resulting from ice removal operations.
Tripp, Terrance B.; Nadeau, Jeanne L. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 130.
Spectroscopy
Line spectrum demonstration for the large lecture hall  Driscoll, Jerry A.
The undergraduate's learning experience with quantum mechanics and Bohr's theory can be greatly enhanced by the presentation of a line spectrum demonstration, but these are often hard to see in large lecture halls. The authors present a physical arrangement of an apparatus that can be easily assembled to allow for easier student viewing in a lecture-hall situation.
Driscoll, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 97.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Quantum Chemistry |
Spectroscopy
The aspirin project. Laboratory experiments for introductory chemistry  Brown, David B.; Friedman, Lawrence B.
This laboratory project involves the synthesis, characterization, and study of some reactions of acetylsalicylic acid, and the comparison of acetylsalicylic acid with the major components of various commercial brands of aspirin tablets.
Brown, David B.; Friedman, Lawrence B. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 214.
Constitutional Isomers |
Synthesis |
Acids / Bases |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Quantitative Analysis
The iron content of breakfast cereals  Laswick, Patty Hall
Determination of the amount of iron in commercial cereal products using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer.
Laswick, Patty Hall J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 132.
Food Science |
Consumer Chemistry |
Nutrition |
Quantitative Analysis |
Atomic Spectroscopy
The helix coil transition of DNA  Steinert, Roger; Hudson, Bruce
The design and use of a photometer to detect the transition of DNA from the double helix to random coil form.
Steinert, Roger; Hudson, Bruce J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 129.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Let's get the nonscience majors into the lab!  Griffin, Roger W., Jr.
The author shares his experiences with a successful laboratory course for nonmajors. Experiments which have been carried out include: geometry of molecules, measurements and errors, separation and purification, spectroscopy, chromatography, colored natural products, and dyes.
Griffin, Roger W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 685.
Nonmajor Courses |
Dyes / Pigments |
Natural Products |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis |
VSEPR Theory |
Spectroscopy
Modification of the Fisher-Todd spectranal for student use  Knudson, George
The presented modifications to the Fisher-Todd spectranal allows first-year students to observe standards and unknowns quickly with minimum assistance by the instructor.
Knudson, George J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 308.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Spectroscopy
Infrared spectrometry of inorganic salts: A general chemistry experiment  Ackermann, Martin N.
An experiment in inorganic qualitative analysis for general chemistry.
Ackermann, Martin N. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 69.
IR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Counter-current distribution as a student laboratory experiment  Lindblad, Bengt; Lindstedt, Goran; Tiselius, Hans-Goran
This experiment demonstrates the principles of extraction and counter-current distribution as well as spectrophotometric analysis.
Lindblad, Bengt; Lindstedt, Goran; Tiselius, Hans-Goran J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 525.
Separation Science |
Spectroscopy
The principle of exponential change: Applications in chemistry, biochemistry, and radioactivity  Green, Frank O.
Examines the nature of exponential change and its applications to chemistry, biochemistry, and radioactivity, including radioactive decay, enzyme kinetics, colorimetry, spectrophotometry, and first order reaction kinetics.
Green, Frank O. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 451.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Kinetics |
Enzymes |
Spectroscopy
Acid-base indicators: An experiment in aqueous equilibria  Brown, William E.; Campbell, J. A.
Examines absorbtivity values for six acid-base indicators under various conditions.
Brown, William E.; Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 674.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Dyes / Pigments
Inexpensive applications of Polaroid film  Scherer, George A.; Sakurai, Richard S.
Describes the use of Polaroid film to detect emission spectra from a grating spectrograph, X-rays diffracted by crystals, and radioactivity from 14C in plant materials.
Scherer, George A.; Sakurai, Richard S. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 134.
Spectroscopy |
X-ray Crystallography |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry
The spectrum of atomic hydrogen: A mass scale freshman laboratory experiment  Companion, A. L.; Schug, K.
Student-built spectroscopes are used to measure the Balmer series for hydrogen.
Companion, A. L.; Schug, K. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 591.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The spectrum of atomic hydrogen: A freshman laboratory experiment  Hollenberg, J. Leland
This experiment allows more precise measurements of the wavelengths of the emission spectrum of atomic hydrogen with a spectrophotometer than those previously published.
Hollenberg, J. Leland J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 216.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
A molecular spectral corroboration of elementary operator quantum mechanics  Gerkin, Roger E.
This experiment has been prepared especially for first year students and assumed no prior familiarity with either theory or practice of spectrophotometry.
Gerkin, Roger E. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 490.
Quantum Chemistry |
Spectroscopy
Qualitative tests for K+  McCoy, Robert E.
Flame tests of solid or concentrated cobaltnitrites produce results that are easily mistaken for potassium.
McCoy, Robert E. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 444.
Qualitative Analysis |
Atomic Spectroscopy
Behavior of electrons in atoms: Structure, spectra, and photochemistry of atoms (Hochstrasser, Robin M.)  Gregory, N. W.

Gregory, N. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 62.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Photochemistry |
Spectroscopy |
Quantum Chemistry
Infrared spectrometry to study second order reaction kinetics  Gastambide, B.; Blanc, J.; Allamagny, Y.
The change studied is a synthesis reaction between menthol and phenyl isocyanate.
Gastambide, B.; Blanc, J.; Allamagny, Y. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 613.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Reactions |
Kinetics |
Synthesis
An inexpensive Littrow spectrograph  Thorn, Craig
A spectrograph of sufficient quality for introductory students need not be expensive is one is willing to construct it from readily available parts.
Thorn, Craig J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 209.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An inexpensive spectrograph of moderately high resolution  Schoenbeck, Ralph; Tabbutt, Frederick D.
This article describes a spectrograph with a resolving power greater than 6000 that can easily be built for a minimal cost.
Schoenbeck, Ralph; Tabbutt, Frederick D. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 452.
Spectroscopy |
Instrumental Methods |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Formation of monothiocyanatoiron(III): A photometric equilibrium study  Ramette, Richard W.
Presents a beginning equilibrium experiment using photometry.
Ramette, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 71.
Photochemistry |
Equilibrium |
Spectroscopy
Letters  Harris, Sidney P.
Suggests some additional information to supplement a previous article.
Harris, Sidney P. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 319.
Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A simple and inexpensive student spectroscope  Edwards, R. K.; Brandt, W. W.; Companion, Audrey L.
Presents a design for a simple and inexpensive student spectroscope.
Edwards, R. K.; Brandt, W. W.; Companion, Audrey L. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, 147.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Spectroscopy
Infrared spectroscopy: A chemist's tool  Pimentel, George C.
This paper serves as an introduction to infrared spectroscopy and seeks to explain why it has assumed such an important role in chemistry.
Pimentel, George C. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 651.
Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy
Color photography of spectra  Marquisee, Joseph A.
Using a relatively inexpensive spectrograph, students with no previous experience at color photography can turn out beautiful full color transparencies of spectra that can be viewed in less than two hours.
Marquisee, Joseph A. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 580.
Spectroscopy
The lecture demonstration of atomic spectra  Wendlandt, Wesley W.
Suggests the use of railway or highway flares of different colors to demonstrate the atomic spectra of strontium, barium, or sodium.
Wendlandt, Wesley W. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 9.
Spectroscopy |
Atomic Properties / Structure
Letters to the editor  Steinhardt, Ralph G., Jr.
The author replies to a commentary on his earlier article regarding the definition of "spectrum."
Steinhardt, Ralph G., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 217.
Spectroscopy |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols
Letters to the editor  Rosenbaum, E. J.
Commentary on an earlier article regarding the definition of "spectrum."
Rosenbaum, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 216.
Spectroscopy |
Nomenclature / Units / Symbols