TIGER

Journal Articles: 372 results
Designing and Conducting a Purification Scheme as an Organic Chemistry Laboratory Practical  Kate J. Graham, Brian J. Johnson, T. Nicholas Jones, Edward J. McIntee, and Chris P. Schaller
Describes an open-ended laboratory practical that challenges students to evaluate when different purification techniques are appropriate.
Graham, Kate J.; Johnson, Brian J.; Jones, T. Nicholas; McIntee, Edward J.; Schaller, Chris P. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1644.
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Physical Properties |
Separation Science
Magnetized Water: Science or Fraud?  L. Lahuerta Zamora, G. M. Antón-Fos, P. A. Alemán López, and R. V. Martin Algarra
Commercial water magnetizers provide a unique opportunity to help university and secondary students develop appropriate skepticism against extraordinary claims and use testing as the basis for their scientific evaluation.
Lahuerta Zamora, L.; Antón-Fos, G. M.; Alemán López, P. A.; Martin Algarra, R. V. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1416.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Magnetic Properties |
pH |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry
Fog Machines, Vapors, and Phase Diagrams  Ed Vitz
This series of demonstrations elucidate the operation of commercial fog machines using common laboratory materials and can be adapted for elementary through tertiary levels. The formation of fogs is discussed in terms of the phase diagram for water and other chemical principles.
Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1385.
Liquids |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Physical Properties |
Water / Water Chemistry
Greener Alternative to Qualitative Analysis for Cations without H2S and Other Sulfur-Containing Compounds  Indu Tucker Sidhwani and Sushmita Chowdhury
The classic technique for the qualitative analysis of inorganic salts and mixtures relies on highly toxic hydrogen sulfide. Increasing environmental awareness has prompted the development of a green scheme for the detection of cations by spot tests that is simple and fast.
Sidhwani, Indu Tucker; Chowdhury, Sushmita. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1099.
Green Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Stilling Waves with Ordered Molecular Monolayers  Ed Vitz
The amazing ability of a film of oil one molecule thick to dissipate the relatively large energy of water waves can be readily demonstrated, but an explanation of the effect has been elusive until recently.
Vitz, Ed. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1064.
Lipids |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Surface Science |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Fatty Acids
If You Were a Molecule in a Chromatography Column, What Would You See?  John Mattice
To visualize what takes place in a chromatography column, enlarge the molecules to human size and expand the columns to keep the ratio of size of molecule to size of column the same. Using such a model, this article explains how band broadening occurs as a result of resistance to mass transfer, multiple flow paths, and stagnant mobile phase.
Mattice, John. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 925.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
HPLC |
Separation Science
Size Exclusion Chromatography: An Experiment for High School and Community College Chemistry and Biotechnology Laboratory Programs  Linda S. Brunauer and Kathryn K. Davis
Describes an experiment in which students use column chromatography to separate and characterize biomolecules, thus expanding their exposure to chromatographic procedures beyond those more commonly employed at the secondary level (e.g., paper or thin-layer chromatography).
Brunauer, Linda S.; Davis, Kathryn K. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 683.
Biotechnology |
Chromatography |
Enzymes |
Separation Science |
Spectroscopy
Colorful Column Chromatography: A Classroom Demonstration of a Three-Component Separation  Lars V. Heumann
Describes a classroom demonstration for the separation of a ternary mixture consisting of intensely colored compounds using silica gel column chromatography.
Heumann, Lars V. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 524.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Yet Another Variation on the Electrolysis of Water at Iron Nails  Mark T. Stauffer and Justin P. Fox
Describes a variation on the electrolysis of water with iron nails in which a sharp contrast in the colors produced effectively demonstrates electrolysis and the diffusion of oxidized and reduced species from the electrodes.
Stauffer, Mark T.; Fox, Justin P. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 523.
Acids / Bases |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials
A Simple Experiment in the Separation of a Solid-Phase Mixture and Infrared Spectroscopy for Introductory Chemistry  Paul S. Szalay
In this guided-inquiry experiment, a two-component solid mixture of caffeine and ibuprofen is separated through a series of solution extractions and precipitations. The components are then analyzed using IR spectrophotometry to determine how effectively they were separated.
Szalay, Paul S. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 285.
Acids / Bases |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
IR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents
Understanding the Clausius–Clapeyron Equation by Employing an Easily Adaptable Pressure Cooker  Monica Galleano, Alberto Boveris, and Susana Puntarulo
Describes a laboratory exercise to understand the effect of pressure on phase equilibrium as described by the ClausiusClapeyron equation. The equipment required is a pressure cooker adapted with a pressure gauge and a thermometer in the lid, allowing the measurement of the pressure and the temperature of the chamber containing the water heated until vaporization.
Galleano, Monica; Boveris, Alberto; Puntarulo, Susana. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 276.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry
The Role of Water Chemistry in Marine Aquarium Design: A Model System for a General Chemistry Class  Jeffrey J. Keaffaber, Ramiro Palma, and Kathryn R. Williams
Water chemistry is central to aquarium design, and it provides many potential applications for discussion in undergraduate chemistry and engineering courses. This article uses a hypothetical tank to house ocean sunfish as a model to show students the calculations and other considerations that are needed when designing a marine aquarium.
Keaffaber, Jeffrey J.; Palma, Ramiro; Williams, Kathryn R. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 225.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry |
Water / Water Chemistry
A Simplified Model To Predict the Effect of Increasing Atmospheric CO2 on Carbonate Chemistry in the Ocean  Brian J. Bozlee, Maria Janebo, and Ginger Jahn
The chemistry of dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater is reviewed and used to predict the potential effect of rising levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. It is found that calcium carbonate may become unsaturated in cold surface seawater by the year 2100, resulting in the destruction of calcifying organisms such as coral.
Bozlee, Brian J.; Janebo, Maria; Jahn, Ginger. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 213.
Applications of Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Green Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry
JCE Resources for Chemistry and Water  Erica K. Jacobsen
This annotated bibliography collects the best that past issues of JCE have to offer for use with the 2008 Chemists Celebrate Earth Day theme, "Streaming Chemistry".
Jacobsen, Erica K. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 188.
Water / Water Chemistry
Streaming Chemistry  John W. Moore
The JCE editorial staff has collected a broad range of articles in support of the topic Water, this years theme for Chemists Celebrate Earth Day.
Moore, John W. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 171.
Water / Water Chemistry
Colorful Lather Printing  Susan A. S. Hershberger, Matt Nance, Arlyne M. Sarquis, and Lynn M. Hogue
Students explore the chemistry of polar and nonpolar substances and surfactants while marbling paper with shaving cream and food coloring.
Hershberger, Susan A. S.; Nance, Matt; Sarquis, Arlyne M.; Hogue, Lynn M. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 608A.
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Physical Properties |
Surface Science |
Water / Water Chemistry
New Analytical Method for the Determination of Detergent Concentration in Water by Fabric Dyeing  Set Seng, Masakazu Kita, and Reiko Sugihara
This article describes a high school classroom activity in which an acrylic fabric is used as the extraction medium in the analysis of detergent concentration rather than more harmful organic solvents. An handmade reflection photometer, assembled with inexpensive materials such as LED, PVC tube, and CdS sensor, is used to determine the detergent concentration.
Seng, Set; Kita, Masakazu; Sugihara, Reiko. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1803.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Water / Water Chemistry
Gas Clathrate Hydrates Experiment for High School Projects and Undergraduate Laboratories  Melissa P. Prado, Annie Pham, Robert E. Ferazzi, Kimberly Edwards, and Kenneth C. Janda
Presents a procedure for preparing and studying propane clathrate hydrate. This experiment introduces students to this unusual solid while stimulating a discussion of the interplay of intermolecular forces, thermodynamics, and solid structure.
Prado, Melissa P.; Pham, Annie; Ferazzi, Robert E.; Edwards, Kimberly; Janda, Kenneth C. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1790.
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Applications of Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Hydrogen Bonding
The Chemistry of Swimming Pool Maintenance  Carl Salter and David L. Langhus
This paper examines the key ideas behind swimming pool chemistry -- the central importance of pH and its effect on chlorine sanitation and calcium carbonate solubility. The paper also reviews the analytical procedures and common practices used to monitor and control pool chemistry or correct problems.
Salter, Carl; Langhus, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1124.
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
pH |
Photochemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Water / Water Chemistry
Molecular Model of Zincon  William F. Coleman
The Featured Molecules this month are the tautomeric forms of the colorimetric reagent zincon. The structures could be used as an introduction to the concept of tautomerism, with students being asked to develop a definition of the term based on their observations of the difference(s) in linkage in the two forms.
Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 305.
Biological Cells |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Popcorn—What's in the Bag?  Marissa B. Sherman and Thomas A. Evans
Three independent activities explore microwave popcorn, the nature of the packaging, and the popcorn produced.
Sherman, Marissa B.; Evans, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 416A.
Carbohydrates |
Nutrition |
Physical Properties |
Solutions / Solvents |
Water / Water Chemistry
Equilibrium Constants and Water Activity Revisited  David Keeports
Subtle arguments based upon the use of chemical potentials show that numerical values of solute molar concentrations can be used as good approximate activities in equilibrium calculations for reactions involving dilute solutions.
Keeports, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1290.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Alcohols
Equilibrium Constants and Water Activity Revisited  E. J. Behrman
In teaching the effects of structure on acid strength, it is useful to compare, inter alia, water with primary alcohols.
Behrman, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1290.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Alcohols
Equilibrium Constants and Water Activity Revisited  E. J. Behrman
In teaching the effects of structure on acid strength, it is useful to compare, inter alia, water with primary alcohols.
Behrman, E. J. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1290.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Alcohols
Enantioselective Reduction by Crude Plant Parts: Reduction of Benzofuran-2-yl Methyl Ketone with Carrot (Daucus carota) Bits  Silvana Ravía, Daniela Gamenara, Valeria Schapiro, Ana Bellomo, Jorge Adum, Gustavo Seoane, and David Gonzalez
Presents the enantioselective reduction of a ketone by crude plant parts, using carrot (Daucus carota) as the reducing agent.
Ravía, Silvana; Gamenara, Daniela; Schapiro, Valeria; Bellomo, Ana; Adum, Jorge; Seoane, Gustavo; Gonzalez, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1049.
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Biotechnology |
Catalysis |
Chromatography |
Green Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stereochemistry |
Separation Science
Analysis of the Thickening Agents in Automotive Greases by GC–MS  David Mayotte, Craig J. Donahue, and Cheryl A. Snyder
Describes a laboratory procedure for the identification of the thickening agents in lubricating greases by GCMS.
Mayotte, David; Donahue, Craig J.; Snyder, Cheryl A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 902.
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Industrial Chemistry |
Mass Spectrometry |
Separation Science |
Fatty Acids
The Great Wakonse Earthquake of 2003: A Short, Problem-Based Introduction to the Titration Concept  Brian P. Coppola, Amy C. Gottfried, Robyn L. Gdula, Alan L. Kiste, and Nathan W. Ockwig
This activity introduces nonscience adult learners to the concept of titration from real-world instructions about earthquake water safety found in a California phone book.
Coppola, Brian P.; Gottfried, Amy C.; Gdula, Robyn L.; Kiste, Alan L.; Ockwig, Nathan W. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 600.
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry
Teaching Chemistry Laboratory Skills in Industrial Contexts  Julianne M. Braun and Carol White
A recently completed project has produced a compilation of 40 laboratory experiments presented within the contexts of five major industries. This article provides a summary of these experiments, along with a discussion of ancillary materials.
Braun, Julianne M.; White, Carol. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 353.
Applications of Chemistry |
Industrial Chemistry |
Metals |
Polymerization |
Water / Water Chemistry
Linking Laboratory Experiences to the Real World: The Extraction of Octylphenoxyacetic Acid from Water  Jorge E. Loyo-Rosales, Alba Torrents, Georgina C. Rosales-Rivera, and Clifford P. Rice
A known quantity of the sodium salt of octylphenoxyacetic acid is dissolved in water, transformed to the acid (insoluble) form, and extracted using dichloromethane. These changes can be followed visually owing to conspicuous changes in solution turbidity.
Loyo-Rosales, Jorge E.; Torrents, Alba; Rosales-Rivera, Georgina C.; Rice, Clifford P. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 248.
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
pH |
Stoichiometry |
Nonmajor Courses |
Water / Water Chemistry
An Interactive Environmental Science Course for Education Science Majors  Suzanne K. Lunsford and William Slattery
Describes an interactive environmental modular science course for education science majors preparing to become teachers at the primary and secondary levels. The purpose of the course is to give students experience in inquiry, gathering data, the evaluation of data to understand scientific theory, and the application of inquiry, hands-on methods in the classroom.
Lunsford, Suzanne K.; Slattery, William. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 233.
Applications of Chemistry |
Geochemistry |
Nonmajor Courses |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Student-Centered Learning |
Standards National / State
The Nature of Hydrogen Bonding  Emeric Schultz
Students use toy connecting blocks and Velcro to investigate weak intermolecular interactions, specifically hydrogen bonds.
Schultz, Emeric. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 400A.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Using Visible Spectrophotometers and pH Measurements To Study Speciation in a Guided-Inquiry Laboratory   William H. Otto, Cynthia K. Larive, Susan L. Mason, Janet B. Robinson, Joseph A. Heppert, and James D. Ellis
A collective-effort, guided-inquiry laboratory investigation was developed for the second-semester general chemistry laboratory for the purpose of increasing student conceptual understanding of equilibrium and speciation phenomena. This investigation required students to employ the chemical indicator phenol red in phosphate buffer solution, computer interfaced pH probes, and visible spectrophotometers. Through a combination of potentiometric and visible absorption measurements, the students determined the pH conditions that alter equilibrium concentrations of multiple species (colored and transparent) in solution.
Otto, William H.; Larive, Cynthia K.; Mason, Susan L.; Robinson, Janet B.; Heppert, Joseph A.; Ellis, James D. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1552.
Acids / Bases |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Equilibrium |
pH |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments
Sedimentation Time Measurements of Soil Particles by Light Scattering and Determination of Chromium, Lead, and Iron in Soil Samples via ICP  Patricia Metthe Todebush and Franz M. Geiger
In this two-part general chemistry laboratory activity, students study soil samples from home and from campus. In part one, the samples are placed in water and the suspended colloid fraction is separated using filtration, followed by a determination of colloid sedimentation rates via light scattering. In part two, the solid phase of the soil samples is dissolved in acid and analyzed for chromium, lead, and iron using an inductively coupled plasma spectrometer. The experiment can be expanded to include arsenic. Through these experiments students can draw conclusions about the physical and chemical behavior of solid components in soil, paying particular attention to their propensity for transporting and chemically transforming pollutants in the environment.
Todebush, Patricia Metthe; Geiger, Franz M. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1542.
Colloids |
Geochemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solids |
Surface Science |
Metals
Equilibrium Constants and Water Activity  David Keeports
General chemistry instructors are faced with a dilemma when introducing the topic of equilibrium constants: These constants are correctly written in terms of activities, yet activity is a complex topic better treated rigorously in a physical chemistry course than superficially in a general chemistry course. Thus, to introduce equilibrium calculations, it is necessary to use approximate forms for equilibrium constants. However, I find that some commonly used textbooks provide incorrect arguments leading to approximate equilibrium constants for aqueous reactions.
Keeports, David. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 999.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Water / Water Chemistry
Conceptual Considerations in Molecular Science  Donald T. Sawyer
The undergraduate curriculum and associated textbooks include several significant misconceptions.
Sawyer, Donald T. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 985.
Catalysis |
Covalent Bonding |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Reactions |
Reactive Intermediates |
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry
Thermal Expansion: Using Calculator-Based Laboratory Technology To Observe the Anomalous Behavior of Water  Mario Branca and Isabella Soletta
This is a simple experiment to observe variations in the density of water and other liquids at different temperatures with CBL technology. Using it students can observe the anomalous behavior of water at temperatures between 0 C and 4 C.
Branca, Mario; Soletta, Isabella. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 613.
Liquids |
Physical Properties |
Water / Water Chemistry
Simple Dynamic Models for Hydrogen Bonding Using Velcro-Polarized Molecular Models  Emeric Schultz
This article describes the use of models that dynamically illustrate the unique characteristics of weak intermolecular interactions, specifically hydrogen bonds. The models clearly demonstrate that H-bonds can break and reform while covalent bonds stay intact. The manner in which the models form and break H-bonds reflects the geometric and statistical manner in which H-bonding actually occurs and is not contrived. The use of these models addresses a significant area of student misconceptions. The construction of these molecular models is described.
Schultz, Emeric. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 401.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Hard Water and Soft Soap: Dependence of Soap Performance on Water Hardness. A Classroom Demonstration  Viktoria K. L. Osorio, Wanda de Oliveira, and Omar A. El Seoud
We describe a series of classroom demonstrations presented to high school students. The demonstrations were carried out to answer the question: Why does soap not foam in seawater? We generalized the question into: Why does soap performance depend on the hardness of the water used? A sequence of experiments was carried out to compare the performance of soap in soft and hard water and to illustrate the water-softening action of EDTA and zeolites.
Osorio, Viktoria K. L.; de Oliveira, Wanda; El Seoud, Omar A. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 257.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry
Fractional Distillation of Air and Other Demonstrations with Condensed Gases  Maria Oliver-Hoyo and William L. Switzer, III
This demonstration builds upon the commonly performed liquefaction of air not only to show the presence of nitrogen and oxygen, but also the presence of two other components, carbon dioxide and water. Several extensions are suggested: one to show boiling point elevation in solution and another to show the elevation of both boiling point and sublimation point with pressure. No special apparatus is required permitting presentations to audiences in a variety of settings. These demonstrations give the opportunity to discuss properties of gases, solution chemistry, and phase equilibria.
Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Switzer, William L., III. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 251.
Gases |
Qualitative Analysis |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
Checkerboard Chromatography  Charles A. Smith
This hands-on activity allows students to simulate chromatographic simulations using a grid, colored pieces of paper, and a six-sided die. Students observe the separation as it is occurring and perform experiments on flow rate, column length, and mobile phase composition.
Smith, Charles A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 384A.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science
Capillary Electrophoresis Analysis of Cations in Water Samples. An Experiment for the Introductory Laboratory  Christopher J. Pursell, Bert Chandler, and Michelle M. Bushey
This experiment can be done in a lab, as a "dry-lab", or as an in-class exercise. Students explore a number of basic separation topics and work with figures of merit for real and meaningful samples. We have adopted a strategy where students encounter various instruments and methods of analyses multiple times throughout the curriculum. The level of sophistication in the exposures increases with the experience level of the students. Through this repeated exposure students will gain a better and fuller understanding of these methods than they would with a single exposure to the technique in the analytical or instrumental laboratory.
Pursell, Christopher J.; Chandler, Bert; Bushey, Michelle M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1783.
Electrophoresis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Chemometrics |
Water / Water Chemistry
The Effect of Ionic Strength on the Solubility of an Electrolyte  Joan D. Willey
The theory of activity versus concentration is important in industrial, environmental, and biochemistry. The increase in solubility of an electrolyte in a solution of a second electrolyte with no common ions compared with pure water is not an easy concept to grasp because it seems to be counterintuitive. The simple experiment described here illustrates this principle visually and dramatically. Students attempt to dissolve CaSO42H2O (gypsum) in pure water and in 0.25 M NaCl.
Willey, Joan D. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1644.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Sink Inserts for Flood Prevention  Fraser F. Fleming, Daniel J. Bodnar, and David L. Hardesty
A simple, inexpensive insert is described for preventing flooding in lab sinks. The insert is essentially a tube with slots cut into the side that fits snugly into the drain outlet, preventing water buildup and providing additional drainage sites to avoid constriction by small lab items and paper towels.
Fleming, Fraser F.; Bodnar, Daniel J.; Hardesty, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1344.
Laboratory Management |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Water / Water Chemistry
Introduction of Mass Spectrometry in a First-Semester General Chemistry Laboratory Course: Quantification of MTBE or DMSO in Water  Mike Solow
An experiment has been developed to introduce first-semester general chemistry students to mass spectrometry. Students analyze water samples contaminated with a known compound, either DMSO or MTBE. Students are asked to determine the concentration of the compound in the water. In performing this experiment, students should learn (i) how the mass of an atom or molecule is determined, (ii) the effect of the presence of different isotopes on molecular mass, (iii) the role of an internal standard, and (iv) how mass spectrometry is used in answering various scientific questions.
Solow, Mike. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1172.
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography
Quantitative Assay for Starch by Colorimetry Using a Desktop Scanner  Kurt R. Mathews, James D. Landmark, and Douglas F. Stickle
Here we describe a procedure to produce a standard curve for quantification of starch concentration using colorimetry.
Mathews, Kurt R.; Landmark, James D.; Stickle, Douglas F. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 702.
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis |
Carbohydrates |
Food Science |
Natural Products |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
A Simple Flotation De-Inking Experiment for the Recycling of Paper  Richard A. Venditti
This short article describes a simple, inexpensive method to execute in the laboratory a batch type flotation de-inking process on wastepaper.
Venditti, Richard A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 693.
Separation Science |
Surface Science |
Industrial Chemistry
Potential Hazard   Jean B. Umland
Use of the apparatus for fractional distillation shown in Figure 4 of the article Learning in Chemistry with Virtual Laboratories would be very likely to cause an explosion because the apparatus shown has no vent.
Umland, Jean B. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 641.
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Separation Science
Kinetics of the Osmotic Hydration of Chickpeas  Gabriel Pinto and Ali Esin
An experiment examining the swelling of chickpeas as they are soaked in water is presented to introduce students to topics such as osmotic flow, mass transfer, diffusion, kinetics of hydration, modeling, and estimation of activation energy.
Pinto, Gabriel; Esin, Ali. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 532.
Kinetics |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Food Science |
Transport Properties
Using Science Fiction To Teach Thermodynamics: Vonnegut, Ice-nine, and Global Warming  Charles A. Liberko
When covering the topic of thermodynamics at the introductory level, an example from Kurt Vonnegut, Jr's, fictional novel, Cat's Cradle, is used to take what the students have learned and apply it to a new situation.
Liberko, Charles A. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 509.
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
A Modular Laser Apparatus for Polarimetry, Nephelometry, and Fluorimetry in General Chemistry  Scott A. Darveau, Jessica Mueller, April Vaverka, Cheri Barta, Anthony Fitch, Jessica Jurzenski, and Yvonne Gindt
We present an apparatus suitable for multiple uses in the general chemistry laboratory including polarimetry, fluorescence, and nephelometry. The open design of the instrument also decreases the chance that students will contract the "black-box syndrome" that seems to develop when using instruments that only provide the final data in an experiment without showing how the measurements are obtained.
Darveau, Scott A.; Mueller, Jessica; Vaverka, April; Barta, Cheri; Fitch, Anthony; Jurzenski, Jessica; Gindt, Yvonne. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 401.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
Kinetics |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Lasers |
Spectroscopy |
Proteins / Peptides |
Water / Water Chemistry
An Improved Method for the Extraction and Thin-Layer Chromatography of Chlorophyll a and b from Spinach  Hao T. Quach, Robert L. Steeper, and G. William Griffin
A direct method of extracting plant pigments from spinach leaves into a dry organic solvent is presented. This method avoids liquidliquid extractions and subsequent drying as is found in previously reported methods.
Quach, Hao T.; Steeper, Robert L.; Griffin, G. William. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 385.
Chromatography |
Natural Products |
Plant Chemistry |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Magnetic Particle Technology. A Simple Preparation of Magnetic Composites for the Adsorption of Water Contaminants  Luiz C. A. Oliveira, Rachel V. R. A. Rios, José D. Fabris, Rochel M. Lago, and Karim Sapag
In this article a simple undergraduate laboratory experiment to produce magnetic adsorbents is described. These magnetic materials efficiently adsorb contaminants from water and can be easily removed from the medium by a simple magnetic separation process.
Oliveira, Luiz C.A.; Rios, Rachel V.R.A.; Fabris, José D.; Lago, Rochel M.; Sapag, Karim. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 248.
Green Chemistry |
Magnetic Properties |
Materials Science |
Separation Science |
Water / Water Chemistry
Well Wishes. A Case on Septic Systems and Well Water Requiring In-Depth Analysis and Including Optional Laboratory Experiments  Mary M. Walczak and Juliette M. Lantz
This paper describes the use of a case study to teach introductory chemistry students the chemical principles of solution concentration (especially ppm) and dilution, aqueous redox reactions, and stoichiometric conversions between different solution species.
Walczak, Mary M.; Lantz, Juliette M. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 218.
Consumer Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stoichiometry
Three-Dimensional Model for Water: Magnets as Dipoles  Samuel H. Yalkowsky and Jennifer L. H. Johnson
Reply to comments on original article.
Yalkowsky, Samuel H.; Johnson, Jennifer L. H. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 34.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Lipids |
Liquids |
Molecular Modeling |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents |
Water / Water Chemistry
Three-Dimensional Model for Water: Magnets as Chemical Bonds  Roy W. Clark
Concerns over students confusing electrical and magnetic fields.
Clark, Roy W. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 34.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Lipids |
Liquids |
Molecular Modeling |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solutions / Solvents |
Water / Water Chemistry
Manual Microscale Column Chromatography Pressurization Apparatus  Bruce W. Baldwin
Pressurization of a Pasteur pipet for microscale chromatography is simplified by connecting a 20- or 30-mL syringe to the pipet using a length of Tygon tubing. This simple system allows the student to easily dry-pack a column using common chromatography packing materials.
Baldwin, Bruce W. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1182.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Microscale Lab
Simulating Chromatographic Separations in the Classroom  Charles A. Smith and F. Warren Villaescusa
Using this classroom simulation, students develop a set of rules used to investigate the effect of flow rate, column dimension, particle size, and mobile/stationary phase affinity on chromatographic separations. While performing the simulation, the concepts of longitudinal and eddy diffusion are dramatically illustrated.
Smith, Charles A.; Villaescusa, F. Warren. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1023.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Separation Science
Bubble Stripping To Determine Hydrogen Concentrations in Ground Water: A Practical Application of Henry's Law  Daniel M. McInnes and Don Kampbell
Applying Henry's law to determine the concentration of hydrogen in ground water as a means of identifying possible contamination by chlorinated organic compounds.
McInnes, Daniel M.; Kampbell, Don. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 516.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Gases |
Quantitative Analysis |
Applications of Chemistry
Solvent Extraction Using Safe and Commonly Available Materials To Demonstrate the Difference in Solubility of Two Mixed Solutes  Dante Gilbert L. de Leon and Armando M. Guidote Jr.
Solvent extraction using safe and commonly available materials to demonstrate the difference in solubility of two mixed solutes.
de Leon, Dante Gilbert L.; Guidote, Armando M., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 436.
Solutions / Solvents |
Separation Science
Using Ice-Cooled Condensers in Chemistry Laboratory  Sally Solomon, Bryan Brook, Susan Rutkowsky, and Joseph Bennet
Using ice-cooled condensers in the chemistry laboratory; includes two simple experimental applications.
Solomon, Sally; Brook, Bryan; Rutkowsky, Susan; Bennet, Joseph. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 299.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Management |
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Micelle-Mediated Extraction of Heavy Metals from Environmental Samples: An Environmental Green Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  Dimosthenis L. Giokas, Evangelos K. Paleologos, and Miltiades I. Karayannis
A laboratory focussing on the determination of metallic elements in drinking water through cloud-point extraction.
Giokas, Dimosthenis L.; Paleologos, Evangelos K.; Karayannis, Miltiades I. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 61.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Metals |
Micelles |
Separation Science |
Green Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis
The Analysis of Seawater: A Laboratory-Centered Learning Project in General Chemistry  Jodye I. Selco, Julian L. Roberts, Jr., and Daniel B. Wacks
Experiment designed to introduce students to qualitative and quantitative analysis methods (gravimetric analysis, potentiometric titration, ion-selective electrodes, and atomic absorption and atomic emission spectroscopy) in the context of an overall analysis of an environmental sample.
Selco, Jodye I.; Roberts, Julian L., Jr.; Wacks, Daniel B. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 54.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Ion Selective Electrodes |
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Potentiometry
Use of Chloroisocyanuarates for Disinfection of Water: Application of Miscellaneous General Chemistry Topics  Gabriel Pinto and Brian Rohrig
Using the chlorination of water (using sodium dichloroisocyanurate and trichloroisocyanuric acid) to develop general chemistry concepts; includes question for students and answers.
Pinto, Gabriel; Rohrig, Brian. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 41.
Stoichiometry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Photochemistry
A Three-Dimensional Model for Water  J. L. H. Johnson and S. H. Yalkowsky
Using Molymod spheres and magnets to simulate the structure and properties of water and aqueous systems.
Johnson, J. L. H.; Yalkowsky, S. H. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1088.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Covalent Bonding |
Lipids |
Liquids |
Solutions / Solvents |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Modeling the Drug Discovery Process: The Isolation and Biological Testing of Eugenol from Clove Oil  William H. Miles and Patricia M. Smiley
Experiment that illustrates the principles of modern drug discovery.
Miles, William H.; Smiley, Patricia M. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 90.
Acids / Bases |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Natural Products |
Separation Science |
Applications of Chemistry
A Discovery-Based Experiment Illustrating How Iron Metal Is Used to Remediate Contaminated Groundwater  Barbara A. Balko and Paul G. Tratnyek
Procedure in which students investigate the chemistry of iron-permeable reactive barriers and their application to the remediation of contaminated groundwater.
Balko, Barbara A.; Tratnyek, Paul G. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1661.
Kinetics |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Metals |
Applications of Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Humic Acids: Marvelous Products of Soil Chemistry  Geoffrey Davies, Elham A. Ghabbour, and Cornelius Steelink
Classification, physical and chemical characteristics, formation, structure and sources of humic substances.
Davies, Geoffrey; Ghabbour, Elham A.; Steelink, Cornelius. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1609.
Agricultural Chemistry |
Metals |
Natural Products |
Plant Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Teaching Brønsted-Lowry Acid-Base Theory in a Direct Comprehensive Way  Jamie L. Adcock
Unifying all the Bronsted-Lowry acid-base concepts in a quantitative way.
Adcock, Jamie L. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1495.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
Learning Theories |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
The Purification of Water by Freeze-Thaw or Zone Melting  James Oughton, Silas Xu, and Rubin Battino
Quantitative investigation of the purification of slat water solutions through the process of partial freezing.
Oughton, James; Xu, Silas; Battino, Rubin. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1373.
Conductivity |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Thin-Layer Electrophoresis  Tom Lyons Fisher, Tara Leslie Fitzsimmons, and I. David Reingold
Thin-layer electrophoresis apparatus.
Fisher, Tom Lyons; Fitzsimmons, Tara Leslie; Reingold, I. David. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1241.
Amino Acids |
Electrophoresis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
A Microscale Spectrophotometric Determination of Water Hardness  James S. Gordon
Measuring water hardness using EDTA as a titrant, calmagite as an indicator, a colorimeter, and a graphing calculator.
Gordon, James S. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1089.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Chemical Laboratory Information Profile: Water  Jay A. Young
Properties, hazards, and storage requirements for water.
Young, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 874.
Laboratory Management |
Physical Properties |
Water / Water Chemistry
Small-Scale Filtration Using a Modified Plastic Syringe  Mikael Begtrup
A simple procedure is described for manual, small-scale pressure filtration performed in a modified plastic syringe.
Begtrup, Mikael. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 543.
Synthesis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science
An Analogy between Fractional Distillation and Separating Physically Fit and Physically Less Fit Persons  Doble Mukesh
Separating two liquids in a fractional distillation column on the basis of their difference in boiling points is analogous to separating a group of people on the basis of their physical fitness by making them climb a flight of stairs.
Mukesh, Doble. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 211.
Separation Science |
Learning Theories
Fast Ionic Migration of Copper Chromate  Adolf Cortel
Among the many demonstrations of ionic migration in an electric field, the ones showing the migration of colored Cu+2 and CrO4-2 ions are popular. The demonstration described here introduces some modifications to allow a fast displacement of these ions.
Cortel, Adolf. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 207.
Covalent Bonding |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science
The Write Stuff: Using Paper Chromatography to Separate an Ink Mixture  
Using a simple chromatographic technique, paper chromatography, to find out if ordinary black marking pens contain only black ink, or a mixture of colored dyes.
J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 176A.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Thermodynamics of Water Superheated in the Microwave Oven  B. H. Erné
Water is conveniently heated above its normal boiling point in a microwave oven in a glass microwave oven teapot. Water stops boiling soon after heating is interrupted, but subsequently added rough particles can still act as nucleation centers for a brief, spectacular burst of steam bubbles. The heat to make those steam bubbles obviously comes from the water itself, so that one can conclude that the boiling water was superheated, which is confirmed with a thermometer.
Erné, B. H. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1309.
Thermodynamics |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Liquids
Weak vs Strong Acids and Bases: The Football Analogy  Todd P. Silverstein
A football analogy for acids and bases in which acids are compared to quarterbacks, whose job is to get rid of the ball (H+). A strong acid, like an excellent quarterback, delivers the ball effectively; a weak acid, like a poor quarterback, is often left holding the ball. Furthermore, bases may be likened to wide receivers, whose job is to catch and hold onto the ball (H+).
Silverstein, Todd P. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 849.
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Identification of Pharmaceuticals via Computer-Aided Thin Layer Chromatography  Anthony J. Macherone Jr. and Theodore J. Siek
This analytical laboratory experiment demonstrates the methodology of TLC in its relation to toxicology and forensic chemistry. It is easily adapted for high school seniors or undergraduates and employs experimental techniques associated with TLC and post-lab data analysis with concomitant introduction of concepts.
Macherone, Anthony J., Jr.; Siek, Theodore J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 366.
Forensic Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Toxicology |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
Remediation of Water Contaminated with an Azo Dye: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment Utilizing an Inexpensive Photocatalytic Reactor  John A. Bumpus, Jennifer Tricker, Ken Andrzejewski, Heather Rhoads, and Matthew Tatarko
The construction and use of an inexpensive photocatalytic reactor that utilizes titanium dioxide as the photocatalyst for wastewater treatment is described. In these experiments and in supplementary material, students are made aware that a variety of techniques have been developed to treat wastewaters, including those generated by the chemical industry. Water contaminated with the azo dye Congo Red was selected as an example of how one might treat contaminated water from a textile manufacturing facility.
Bumpus, John A.; Tricker, Jennifer; Andrzejewski, Ken; Rhoads, Heather; Tatarko, Matthew. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1680.
Photochemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Applications of Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry
Pesticides in Drinking Water: Project-Based Learning within the Introductory Chemistry Curriculum  Patricia B. O'Hara, Jon A. Sanborn, and Meredith Howard
A new introductory chemistry module is described, which has as its central theme the measurement of trace levels of these xenoestrogens in the form of pesticides in the Town of Amherst's public drinking water. After a basic introduction to sample handling and measurement of pH, temperature, and conductivity, the students travel in small groups to several sites to collect water and perform preliminary characterization of their samples.
OHara, Patricia B.; Sanborn, Jon A.; Howard, Meredith. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1673.
Mass Spectrometry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Toxicology |
Applications of Chemistry
Learning Quality Assurance/Quality Control Using U.S. EPA Techniques. An Undergraduate Course for Environmental Chemistry Majors  Susan M. Libes
In the environmental realm, quality control (QC) includes activities associated with sampling, sample preservation and storage, method validation, and analysis involving solids, liquids, and gases. Students should be led to discover the need for QC by first performing analyses with little guidance. This is followed by a class discussion in which they critique their data.
Libes, Susan. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1642.
Instrumental Methods |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry
Using TOPEX Satellite El Niño Altimetry Data to Introduce Thermal Expansion and Heat Capacity Concepts in Chemistry Courses  Harvey F. Blanck
Warm water is less dense than cool water and will float somewhat like ice, with a portion above the surface of the cooler surrounding water. The height of the bump can be used to estimate the excess thermal energy in the warmer water.
Blanck, Harvey F. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1635.
Liquids |
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry
The Softening of Hard Water and Complexometric Titrations: An Undergraduate Experiment  Helena Ceretti, Enrique A. Hughes, and Anita Zalts
An experiment in which (i) water hardness is explained and demonstrated; (ii) ion-exchange resin properties are visually demonstrated and then used for softening water; (iii) complexometric titrations are used for evaluating water hardness before and after softening; and (iv) acid-base titration can be used to show that the Ca/Mg ions removed by the ion exchanger are replaced by H ions.
Ceretti, Helena; Hughes, Enrique A.; Zalts, Anita. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1420.
Ion Exchange |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Experiments with Zeolites at the Secondary-School Level: Experience from The Netherlands  Eric N. Coker, Pamela J. Davis, Aonne Kerkstra, and Herman van Bekkum
This article describes a number of experiments that involve zeolites and are suitable for secondary-school chemistry laboratories. Students test the hardness of tap water before and after treatment with some zeolite and perform tests with a range of commercial laundry detergents containing zeolites.
Coker, Eric N.; Davis, Pamela J.; Kerkstra, Aonne; van Bekkum, Herman. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1417.
Ion Exchange |
Catalysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Cleaning Up with Chemistry: Investigating the Action of Zeolite in Laundry Detergent  
In this activity, you will investigate the properties of one ingredient, aluminosilicate. The particular aluminosilicate used in powdered laundry detergent is sodium zeolite A. In this activity, you will extract sodium zeolite A from powdered laundry detergent and examine its properties.
J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1416A.
Materials Science |
Consumer Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Separation Science |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Ion Exchange
Analysis of Soft Drinks Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Mentorship  Arkim Wilson, Craig Myers, George Crull, Michael Curtis, and Pamela Pasciak Patterson
This mentorship was designed to expose a student to the laboratory routine for a chemist at Bristol Myers Squibb Company (BMS). The student visited BMS, collaborated with BMS scientists, and actually completed a project on site. He was asked to determine the identity of an unknown sample of soft drink retrieved from a fictitious crime scene using NMR spectroscopy.
Wilson, Arkim; Myers, Craig; Crull, George; Curtis, Michael; Pasciak, Pamela M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1414.
Instrumental Methods |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Student / Career Counseling
Relative Humidity  R. Bruce Martin
Daily we hear reports of relative humidity, yet most students remain unfamiliar with its import. This short article defines and describes the concept at several levels. A new, general interest, isobaric plot directly indicates the dependence of relative humidity on temperature.
Martin, R. Bruce. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1081.
Consumer Chemistry |
Gases |
Nonmajor Courses |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry
Predicting Acid-Base Titration Curves without Calculations  Dennis W. Barnum
In this paper a qualitative and systematic method for sketching titration curves is presented. Even the more complex cases such as salts or polyprotic acids and bases are treated just as easily as simple monoprotic acids. Having students predict the shape of titration curves from known equilibrium constants helps to focus attention on the general principles without distraction by the mathematics.
Barnum, Dennis W. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 938.
Acids / Bases |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Learning Theories |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Chemometrics
Chemistry of the Heaviest Elements-One Atom at a Time  Darleane C. Hoffman and Diana M. Lee
A 75-year perspective of the chemistry of the heaviest elements, including a 50-year retrospective view of past developments, a summary of current research achievements and applications, and some predictions about exciting, new developments that might be envisioned within the next 25 years.
Hoffman, Darleane C.; Lee, Diana M. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 331.
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Isotopes |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Separation Science |
Descriptive Chemistry |
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Atomic Properties / Structure
The Chemistry of Water (by Susan E. Kegley and Joy Andrews)  Debra J. McCool
The Chemistry of Water is a super book. It is more than a textbook, more than a lab manual. There is a great amount of good chemistry packed into its 160 pages. This module looks at the purity of water and methods to assess water quality.
McCool, Debra J. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 326.
Water / Water Chemistry
Student Understanding of Chromatography: A Hands-On Approach  Robert D. Curtright, Randy Emry, and John Markwell*
This exercise sets up a collaborative activity that challenges students to develop a chromatographic solvent with the appropriate polarity to separate leaf chlorophyll and anthocyanin pigments by TLC. The suggested activity has been tested with both high-school advanced-chemistry students and with undergraduate students in an introductory biochemistry class.
Curtright, Robert D.; Emry, Randy; Markwell, John. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 249.
Chromatography |
Natural Products |
Separation Science |
Undergraduate Research |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Spring Shock!: Impact of Spring Snowmelt on Lakes and Streams  Judith A. Halstead
This activity uses frozen vinegar to demonstrate that what melts first forms a liquid more concentrated in acetic acid than normal vinegar. As melting continues, the concentration of acetic acid decreases and the pH goes up.
Judith A. Halstead. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 400A.
Acids / Bases |
Water / Water Chemistry
Identifying Bottled Water: A Problem-Solving Exercise in Chemical Identification  Richard L. Myers
Students are challenged to identify water samples using the known chemical analyses of bottled waters. Several common water quality measurements such as hardness, alkalinity, and ion analysis can be used by students to identify the unknown water. This exercise develops problem-solving skills as students become familiar with basic lab techniques, quality control, data interpretation, and standard methods.
Myers, Richard L. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1585.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Consumer Chemistry
A Simplified Method for the Microscale Extraction of Pigments from Spinach  Kimberley R. Cousins and Kathleen M. Pierson
A method is presented for microscale sample preparation for the thin-layer chromatographic analysis of the pigments in spinach. A commercial vegetable juicer is used for the initial extraction from spinach. This is followed by filtration, liquid/liquid extraction, centrifugation, and evaporation.
Cousins, Kimberley R.; Pierson, Kathleen M. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1268.
Chromatography |
Microscale Lab |
Plant Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
Chromatographic Separation Techniques for Undergraduates  Darwin B. Dahl, John T. Riley, and Thomas K. Green
Over the past several years the Chemistry Department at Western Kentucky University (WKU) has sought to strengthen its undergraduate program departmental through acquisition of FT-NMR, fluorescence, electrochemical, thermal analysis, laser Raman, microscale organic, and polymer laboratory instrumentation; this has enabled the department to build a successful undergraduate program.
Dahl, Darwin B.; Riley, John T.; Green, Thomas K. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1209.
Separation Science |
Chromatography |
Fourier Transform Techniques |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Raman Spectroscopy |
Electrochemistry |
Photochemistry |
Thermal Analysis |
Microscale Lab
An Inexpensive Detector for Gas Chromatography  Allan L. Smith, Edward J. Thorne, and Wolfgang Nadler
We have developed a low-cost (parts cost approximately $70) detector that can be used in a freshman level class to demonstrate the fundamental principles of gas chromatography (GC). The detector box can be used in a modification of experiments available in the literature which do not enable a quantitative method of analysis. We have used it with success in a freshman class of approximately 450 students in an experiment to separate chlorinated hydrocarbons via GC.
Smith, Allan L.; Thorne, Edward J.; Nadler, Wolfgang. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1129.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
Basic Laboratory Chemistry  reviewed by Deborah McCool
Basic Laboratory Chemistry is a series of sixteen programs presenting demonstrations of many processes and experimental techniques used in the chemistry laboratory in both macroscale and microscale. Topics included in the programs are assembling macroscale and microscale apparatus, spectroscopy, chromatography, and procedures such as filtration, extraction, distillation, and titration.
McCool, Deborah. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 830.
Microscale Lab |
Spectroscopy |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Demonstrating Electron Transfer and Nanotechnology: A Natural Dye-Sensitized Nanocrystalline Energy Converter  Greg P. Smestad and Michael Gratzel
A unique solar cell fabrication procedure has been developed using natural anthocyanin dyes extracted from berries. It can be reproduced with a minimum amount of resources in order to provide an interdisciplinary approach for lower-division undergraduate students learning the basic principles of biological extraction, physical chemistry, and spectroscopy as well as environmental science and electron transfer.
Smestad, Greg P.; Grtzel, Michael. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 752.
Photochemistry |
Plant Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Dyes / Pigments |
Nanotechnology |
Separation Science |
Spectroscopy
Teaching Distillation Knowledge: A Video Film about Distillation Bridging a Gap Between Theory and Practice  Martin J. Goedhart, Hanno van Keulen, Theo M. Mulder, Adri H. Verdonk, and Wobbe De Vos
The authors observed that first year students hardly used their knowledge of phase theory in the design and performance of distillations. They therefore developed a video in which they confront students with the boiling properties of liquid mixtures.
Goedhart, Martin J.; van Keulen, Hanno; Mulder, Theo M.; Verdonk, Adri H.; De Vos, Wobbe. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 378.
Learning Theories |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science |
Liquids |
Physical Properties
The Real Reason Why Oil and Water Don't Mix  Todd P. Silverstein
Authors should remove from their textbooks the incorrect enthalpic/hydrogen-bond explanation for the hydrophobic effect. Because aspects of the correct entropic/clathrate "cage" explanation lie beyond the scope of introductory or organic chemistry courses, it may be wisest to omit any detailed physical explanation of the "like dissolves like" phenomenon.
Silverstein, Todd P. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 116.
Theoretical Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
The Source of the Cloud Produced upon Adding Dry Ice to Water  Manu Kohli, Rudy L. Luck, and Veka Ohtamaa
Explains why a cloud is produced by adding dry ice to water.
Kohli, Manu; Luck, Rudy L.; Ohtamaa, Veka. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 60.
Solutions / Solvents |
Water / Water Chemistry
Acid Rain Demonstration: The Formation of Nitrogen Oxides as a By-Product of High-Temperature Flames in Connection with Internal Combustion Engines  Jerry A. Driscoll
This demonstration illustrates the formation of nitrogen oxides resulting from a high temperature flame.
Driscoll, Jerry A. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1424.
Equilibrium |
Learning Theories |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Complexometric Titrations: Competition of Complexing Agents in the Determination of Water Hardness with EDTA  M. Cecilia Yappert and Donald B. DuPre
The competition of complexing agents for the same metal ion and the formation of colored metal-ion complexes is demonstrated with the use of an overhead projector. This demonstration can be used to emphasize both the relevance of the relative values of formation constants in the complexation of metal cations and the applicability of complexometric titrations in quantitative chemical analysis.
Yappert, M. Cecilia; DuPre, Donald B. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1422.
Equilibrium |
Coordination Compounds |
Qualitative Analysis |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Metals
A Discussion of Water Pollution in the United States and Mexico; with High School Laboratory Activities for the Analysis of Lead, Atrazine, and Nitrate  Paul B. Kelter, Julie Grundman, David S. Hage, James D. Carr, and Carlos Mauricio Castro-Acuña
In the first part of this paper we present an overview of water pollution in the United States and Mexico, including sources, federal regulations and standards, and standard methods for the assessment of overall water quality. The second part of the paper focuses on three water pollutants, lead, atrazine, and nitrate.
Kelter, Paul B.; Grundman, Julie; Hage, David S.; Carr, James D.; Mauricio, Carlos. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1413.
Water / Water Chemistry
Integrating High School Chemistry with Environmental Studies and Research  Jack Randall
This article is a summary of a presentation made at the 1996 BCCE in Clemson, SC, as part of a symposium detailing the integration of environmental topics into Chemistry curricula. High school chemistry has long used environmental topics to enhance the study of various components of the curriculum. This article illustrates the benefits of incorporating environmental science as an integral part of a high school Chemistry course.
Randall, Jack. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1409.
Learning Theories |
Nonmajor Courses |
Water / Water Chemistry
News from Online  Carolyn Sweeney Judd
WWW sites related to water and related environmental issues.
Judd, Carolyn Sweeney. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1394.
Water / Water Chemistry
A Microscale Laboratory Heating System  Dwight Kinzer
A multifunctional heating system and a disposable still for use in the microscale laboratory are described. Time required for laboratory procedures is minimized. A novel microscale boiling point determination procedure is included.
Kinzer, Dwight. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1333.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Management
Extraction, Isolation, and Characterization of Fullerene C60: A Safe and Reliable Separation Experiment  Jamey L. Anderson, Michele A. West, Christopher S. Foote
Appropriate for an advanced high school or introductory college chemistry laboratory, the experiment described here allows students to safely perform organic chemistry techniques in the absence of a fume hood.
Anderson, Jamey L.; West, Michele A.; Foote, Christopher S. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 311.
Separation Science |
Chromatography
Micropath Distillation Apparatus  N. K. Hazra and D. Mal
A shortpath distillation apparatus in its inverted position can be used for microscale distillation of a liquid sample. This article describes the process.
Hazra, N. K.; Mal, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A103.
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Liquids
Air Stream-Assisted Sublimation on a Microscale: A Rapid Procedure Suitable for Sophomore Laboratory  Prem D. Sattsangi
Using familiar apparatus, such as a 3-mL reaction vial, an air condenser, a stream of clean air/nitrogen/argon, an aluminum heating block and a hot plate, several compounds in the microscale amounts (50 mg), with its melting points ranging from 50-240 C, have been successfully sublimed in 40 minutes.
Sattsangi, Prem D. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A3.
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Solids |
Physical Properties
The Extraction of Caffeine from Tea: A Modification of the Procedure of Murray and Hansen  Andreas Hampp
This slight variation of Murray and Hansen's procedure is currently used in our first-year chemistry laboratory classes and clearly shows a higher student success rate in the isolation crude caffeine. The experiment described here is performed in a three-hour lab period, which is followed by sublimation and characterization through melting point and infrared spectroscopy on a second day.
Hampp, Andreas. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 1172.
Separation Science |
Physical Properties |
IR Spectroscopy
Thin-Layer Chromatography: Four Simple Activities for Undergraduate Students  Jamil Anwar, Saeed Ahmad Nagra, Mehnaz Nagi
To simplify the conventional thin-layer chromatography, four TLC exercises are described which are easy to perform in a high school or college laboratory.
Anwar, Jamil; Nagra, Saeed Ahmad; Nagi, Mehnaz. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 977.
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Thin-Layer Chromatography Experiments That Illustrate General Problems in Chromatography  M. Lederer, E. Leipzig-Pagani
A number of chromatography experiments using cellulose thin layers and aqueous eluents are proposed to illustrate how chromatography can be used for "pattern recognition" of the inks of felt-tip pens, the principle of displacement chromatography of the constituents of the antiseptic Mercurochrome, salting-out chromatography for the separation of halides, and the impossibility to use chromatography alone as a method of identification.
Lederer, M.; Leipzig-Pagani, E. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 974.
Chromatography |
Dyes / Pigments |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
First Day in Organic Lab  Christine K. F. Hermann
This experiment is designed to introduce students to the techniques of reflux, distillation, gas chromatography, and the determination of boiling point and melting point during one lab period.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 852.
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Physical Properties |
Qualitative Analysis |
Instrumental Methods
How to Offer the Optimal Demonstration of the Electrolysis of Water  Rei E. Zhou
This article proposes the optimal conditions for lecture demonstration to ensure that the generated H2 and O2 in the electrolysis of water are in the ratio of 2:1, satisfying the reaction scheme.
Zhou, Rei E. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 786.
Water / Water Chemistry
A Simulated Growth Hormone Analysis  Mary Harris
Growth hormone is a drug that is sometimes abused by amateur or professional athletes for performance-enhancement. This laboratory is a semi-microscale simulation analysis of a sample of "urine" to detect proteins of two very different molecular weights.
Harris, Mary. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 735.
Hormones |
Proteins / Peptides |
Separation Science |
Microscale Lab |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Qualitative Analysis
Constant-Current Coulometric Titration of Hydrochloric Acid  James Swim, Edward Earps, Laura M. Reed, and David Paul
In this experiment we have combined the titration of a strong acid with a strong base and the electrolysis of water into one complete laboratory experience.
James Swim, Edward Earps, Laura M. Reed, and David Paul. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 679.
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Acids / Bases |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Electrochemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction
Use of Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) in Nonscience Major Course Laboratory Experiments  Keith S. Kostecka, Zafra M. Lerman, and Sanford A. Angelos
Our efforts have centered on introducing prospective science communicators (film, video, radio, television, and journalism majors) to science relative to their majors and personal interests. Quality lecture-discussion topics, "mystery"-based laboratory activities have assisted in introducing and/or explaining specific areas of chemistry that attempt to reduce fear of subject matter.
Keith S. Kostecka, Zafra M. Lerman, and Sanford A. Angelos. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 565.
Nonmajor Courses |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Chromatography |
Forensic Chemistry |
Separation Science
Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in River and Bay Sediments: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment in Environmental Chemistry Using Capillary Gas Chromatography with Electron Capture Detection  Susan E. Kegley, Kristen J. Hansen, and Kevin L. Cunningham
This paper briefly discusses the history of PCB use and provides guidelines for finding and evaluating PCB-contaminated sites as a way to interest students by showing them an application of chemistry to the "real world."
Kegley, Susan E.; Hansen, Kristen J.; Cunningham, Kevin L. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 558.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Applications of Chemistry |
Separation Science |
Solutions / Solvents
The Bobbing (Drinking) Bird  H. D. Gesser
This article answers the question of when the bobbing bird will stop bobbing. It offers two scenarios in which the bird will discontinue its bobbing motion.
Gesser, H. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 355.
Water / Water Chemistry
A Compact Steam Distillation Apparatus  Imran Ali
A very compact steam distillation apparatus is designed and reported in this paper.
Ali, Imran. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 285.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Small Scale Electrophoresis  Brooks, Helen B.; Brooks, David W.
Simple electrophoresis apparatus for separating food coloring in plastic pipet using five 9-V batteries.
Brooks, Helen B.; Brooks, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A28.
Electrophoresis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Biotechnology |
Micelles |
Separation Science |
Microscale Lab
Crystallization of Supersaturated Sodium Acetate and the Temperature Dependence of the Autoionization Constant of Water  Joseph A. Pergler, Ronald O. Ragsdale, and Thomas G. Richmond
A procedure to qualitatively demonstrate the variation of the autoionization constant of water with temperature.
Pergler, Joseph A.; Ragsdale, Ronald O.; Richmond, Thomas G. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 1027.
Crystals / Crystallography |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Acids / Bases |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Water / Water Chemistry
A New Low-Cost Apparatus for Electrolysis of Water   Chieko Suzuki
Low-cost alternative to the Hofmann apparatus for the electrolysis of water.
Suzuki, Chieko. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 912.
Electrochemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An Environmental Chemistry Curriculum Using Case Studies  Cheng, Vincent K. W.
Using case studies to make environmental chemistry more interesting and relevant for students.
Cheng, Vincent K. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 525.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Industrial Chemistry
Lake Study for Macintosh  Whisnant, David M.; McCormick, James; Wagner, Paul
Software to simulate determination of the cause of fishkill in a lake.
Whisnant, David M.; McCormick, James; Wagner, Paul J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 492.
Water / Water Chemistry
Proper Waste Disposal Procedures (the author replies)  Sherman, Marie C.
Response to objections regarding improper waste disposal.
Sherman, Marie C. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 286.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Laboratory Management
Proper Waste Disposal Procedures  Clarke, Karl
Objection to improper recommendation for waste disposal.
Clarke, Karl J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 286.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Laboratory Management
An Environmental Distillation Experiment for Nonscience Majors  Soriano, David S.; Draeger, Jon A.
Comparison of total dissolved solids for several samples of water before and after a single, simple distillation.
Soriano, David S.; Draeger, Jon A. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 84.
Separation Science |
Water / Water Chemistry
Checking Trace Nitrate in Water and Soil Using an Amateur Scientist's Measurement Guide  Baker, Roger C., Jr.
Procedures and apparatus (photometer) for measuring concentrations of nitrates in water and soil using common equipment and materials; includes data and analysis.
Baker, Roger C., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 57.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Agricultural Chemistry
An Inexpensive Suction Microfilter  McDevitt, Eugene J.
Two disposable polyethylene transfer pipets can be used to form a single-use filtering funnel for several grams of solid yield.
McDevitt, Eugene J. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A147.
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
A Better Way to Cut Filter Paper for Microscale Lab Use  Huisman, Richard D.
Using a power paper punch to cut microscale filter paper.
Huisman, Richard D. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, A147.
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Separation Science
The ABC's of Chromatography: A Colorful Demonstration.  Reynolds, Robert C.; Comber, Robert N.
This demonstration involves the separation of combinations of seven highly colored dyes by thin layer chromatography to help explain separation science while capturing the attention of the audience by spelling words with these dyes.
Reynolds, Robert C.; Comber, Robert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 1075.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Dyes / Pigments |
Separation Science
Soda Water, Supercooling or Freezing Point Depression?  Brooker, Murray H.
Composition, preparation, properties, and behavior of soda water.
Brooker, Murray H. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 903.
Gases |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Consumer Chemistry
Chromatographic Separation of Plant Pigments Using Sand as the Adsorbant: An Inexpensive Chromatographic Technique  Lalitha, Nagubandi
Separating grass pigments using sand as the adsorbant.
Lalitha, Nagubandi J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 432.
Plant Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Testing the Waters for Chromium  Herrmann, Mary S.
A test for the presence of Cr(IV) in water using a sensitive colorimetric reagent.
Herrmann, Mary S. J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 323.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Metals |
Quantitative Analysis
A microscale suction filtration apparatus   Winkel, Cleve R.
This apparatus helps avoid some of the troublesome aspects of filtration that occur during the transfer stage.
Winkel, Cleve R. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A161.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science
A small-scale, easy-to-run wastewater-treatment plant: The treatment of an industrial water that contains suspended clays and soluble salts   Alvaro, Mercedes; Espla, Mercedes; Llinares, Jesus; Martinez-Manez, Ramon; Soto, Juan
Chemistry students are often interested in the chemical principles involved in industrial processes, the pollutants and waste products are generated, and their removal. This experiment introduces students to several theoretical concepts as they apply to real physical and chemical waste-treatment processes.
Alvaro, Mercedes; Espla, Mercedes; Llinares, Jesus; Martinez-Manez, Ramon; Soto, Juan J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A129.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Green Chemistry |
Industrial Chemistry |
Colloids |
Separation Science
A Microseparatory Funnel   Hulce, Martin
An apparatus for separations of liquids between 2-6mL total volume.
Hulce, Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A39.
Separation Science
A two-dimensional model for water  Yalkowsky, Samuel H.
The tetrahedral arrangement of the two hydrogen atoms and two electron pairs of the water molecule are difficult to represent diagrammatically in two dimensions, resulting in great difficulty to explain the anomalous properties of water. Nonetheless, the author illustrates the great insights that can be gained from two-dimensional analogies.
Yalkowsky, Samuel H. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 614.
Water / Water Chemistry
Why is water blue?  Braun, Charles L.; Smirnov, Sergei N.
Exploring the problem of why water in a beaker appears to be clear, yet we see large bodies of water as blue in color.
Braun, Charles L.; Smirnov, Sergei N. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 612.
Atomic Spectroscopy |
Water / Water Chemistry
A water treatment experiment (chemical hardness) for nonscience majors  Soriano, David S.; Draeger, Jon A.
Description of an activity used in a nonmajors course called 'Chemistry and Society'.
Soriano, David S.; Draeger, Jon A. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 414.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Nonmajor Courses |
Instrumental Methods
Introducing the treatment of waste and wastewater in the general chemistry course: Applying physical and chemical principles to the problems of waste management  Dhawale, S. W.
Students learn simple lab techniques so that they can discuss applications such as cleanup of small-scale oil spills and the processes used to obtain drinkable pure water.
Dhawale, S. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 395.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Green Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Polarity, miscibility, and surface tension of liquids   Silverstein, Todd P.
A very simple overhead projector demonstration using water and ethanol to give a dramatic visual illustration of cohesive and adhesive forces.
Silverstein, Todd P. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 253.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Lowering the surface tension of water: An illustration of the scientific method   Jasien, Paul G.; Barnett, Glenn
This demonstration has been effective in simulating a good discussion in class: floating non-wettable substances on the surface of water and touching the surface with a bar of soap.
Jasien, Paul G.; Barnett, Glenn J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 251.
Water / Water Chemistry
Extraction of FD&C dyes from common food sources: Their separation utilizing column chromatography  Bird, E. W.; Sturtevant, Floyd
A simple procedure for the extraction and separation of five FD&C food dyes from a variety of commercial food mixtures using a low pressure column chromatography apparatus.
Bird, E. W.; Sturtevant, Floyd J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 996.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Combined ascending-descending paper chromatography  McCullough, Thomas; Rocabado, Walter
A modification of paper chromatography that includes both ascending and descending flow using readily available equipment.
McCullough, Thomas; Rocabado, Walter J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 995.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Size-exclusion chromatography: Separating large molecules from small  McLoughlin, Daniel J.
Description, theory, demonstration, and experimental procedure regarding size-exclusion chromatography.
McLoughlin, Daniel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 993.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Separation science and chromatography: A colorful introduction  Wigman, Larry S.; Kelsch, Catherine T.
Two-dye separation experiments (extraction and column chromatography) to introduce the concepts of phases, partitioning, equilibrium, plate height, and resolution.
Wigman, Larry S.; Kelsch, Catherine T. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 991.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Gas Chromatography |
Dyes / Pigments
A thin-layer and column chromatography experiment adapted for use in secondary schools: A quick, safe, colorful, convenient introduction to two basic techniques  Reynolds, Ronald C.; O'Dell, C. Allen
Two quick, safe, and convenient procedures for thin-layer and column chromatography appropriate for the high school classroom.
Reynolds, Ronald C.; O'Dell, C. Allen J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 989.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments
Chromatography of M&M candies  Kandel, Marjorie
Paper chromatography separation to detect the presence of yellow #5 (tartrazine) in M&M candies.
Kandel, Marjorie J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 988.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Consumer Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments
Supermarket column chromatography of leaf pigments  Kimbrough, Doris R.
Simple and effective method of column chromatography of leaf pigments using chemicals and equipment that can be purchased at most grocery, hardware, and/or drugstores.
Kimbrough, Doris R. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 987.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Plant Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments
Making radial chromatography creative chromatography: For fun flowers on fabrics  Becker, Robert; Ihde, John; Cox, Kersti; Sarquis, Jerry L.
Doing chromatographic separations on T-shirts and creating flower patterns on filter paper.
Becker, Robert; Ihde, John; Cox, Kersti; Sarquis, Jerry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 979.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
T-shirt chromatography: A chromatogram you can wear  Buccigross, Jeanne M.
Two methods for producing T-shirt chromatograms.
Buccigross, Jeanne M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 977.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Microscale experiments: Dissolved oxygen and chloride determination in water  Crosson, Mary; Gibb, Reen
Determining the dissolved oxygen and chloride content of water samples through titrations.
Crosson, Mary; Gibb, Reen J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 830.
Microscale Lab |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Capillary radius and surface tensions: Using calculations based on Tate's law.  Worley, John D.
An experiment that can be carried out without the use of a tensiometer or any other complex or expensive apparatus except for a balance.
Worley, John D. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 678.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Surface Science
The thermodynamics of home-made ice cream.  Gibbon, Donald L.; Kennedy, Keith; Reading, Nathan; Quieroz, Mardsen.
Using the production of ice cream to teach heat capacity, viscosity, and freezing-point reduction.
Gibbon, Donald L.; Kennedy, Keith; Reading, Nathan; Quieroz, Mardsen. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 658.
Thermodynamics |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
BCTC for Windows.  Whisnant, David M.; McCormick, James.
BCTC is an environmental simulation that is modeled after the dioxin controversy; students are involved in the investigation of a suspected carcinogen called BCTC found in a river and threatening a city's water supply.
Whisnant, David M.; McCormick, James. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 638.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Toxicology
Constructing a complete temperature-composition diagram for a binary mixture: A new experiment that uses quantitative gas chromatography.  Cheng, Ru-Jen; Hsu, Chih-Li; Tsai, Yu-Fang.
Experiment to help students appreciate fractional distillation and a fundamental application of gas chromatography.
Cheng, Ru-Jen; Hsu, Chih-Li; Tsai, Yu-Fang. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 581.
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
Simple soda bottle solubility and equilibria  Snyder, Cheryl A.; Snyder, Dudley C.
Using a bottle of selzter water and bromocresol green to demonstrate gas-liquid solubility (carbon dioxide in water).
Snyder, Cheryl A.; Snyder, Dudley C. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 573.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Equilibrium |
Gases |
Liquids |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry
A reasonable alternative to water aspiration  Mulcahy, Francis M.; Robbins, Andrea M.
The authors have designed a manifold system to obtain the greatest possible use of their vacuum pumps.
Mulcahy, Francis M.; Robbins, Andrea M. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 428.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Water / Water Chemistry
Boiling and freezing simultaneously - with a feeble vacuum pump!   Ellison, Mike
The author uses this demonstration of freezing and boiling at reduced pressure to reinforce concepts about energy effects in phase changes.
Ellison, Mike J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 325.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Thermodynamics
Standard states for water equilibrium (author response).  Campbell, Mark L.; Waite, Boyd A.
For the purposes of comparison only the unconventionally derived Ka values should be used to compare equilibrium constants for other acids to determine relative acid strengths.
Campbell, Mark L.; Waite, Boyd A. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 256.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Standard states for water equilibrium.  Baldwin, W. George; Burchill, C. Eugene.
The authors consider that Ka and Kb values for Bronsted acids and bases in aqueous solution represent one data set describing the properties of solutes in dilute aqueous solution.
Baldwin, W. George; Burchill, C. Eugene. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 255.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Principle of extraction of solute by solvent  Guha, Prabir Kr.; Guha, Ratna
Among the applications of Nernst's distribution law, the most important and interesting one is the extraction of a substance dissolved in one solvent by another solvent, the two solvents being partially miscible or immiscible.
Guha, Prabir Kr.; Guha, Ratna J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 73.
Solutions / Solvents |
Separation Science
Freezing point depression in a bottle of soda   Bare, William D.
The "ravenous consumption of soda" by today's students makes an interesting model with which to demonstrate the effect of solute concentration on the freezing point of an aqueous solution.
Bare, William D. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1038.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Water / Water Chemistry
A carbonate project introducing students to the chemistry lab  Dudek, Emily
A description of a first semester general chemistry laboratory that helps acquaint students with a large variety of chemistry laboratory procedures.
Dudek, Emily J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 948.
Chemometrics |
Gravimetric Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis |
Separation Science
A sensual separation science experiment: Solvent extraction and chromatographic separation of menthol utilizing various consumer products  Furton, Kenneth G.; Perez, Maria I.
Evaluation of the utility of all the commercially available laundry detergents as general purpose column packing for chromatography.
Furton, Kenneth G.; Perez, Maria I. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 946.
Consumer Chemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Surface Science
Chemical equilibrium: VIII. Precipitates   Gordus, Adon A.
The final article in a series (see previous months this year): This article focuses on ionic precipitates in water and how buffered solutions allow easier calculation of solubilities.
Gordus, Adon A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 927.
Acids / Bases |
Equilibrium |
pH |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry
Demonstrations of interfacial phenomena   Prall, Bruce R.
Overhead projector demonstrations that illustrate the interfacial interactions of the following systems: 1) water and carbon tetrachloride, 2) copper wire and water, 3) 1-Octanol and water.
Prall, Bruce R. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 592.
Surface Science |
Liquids |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Magnetic models of ions and water molecules for overhead projection   Davies, William G.
This paper describes a set of lecture-demonstration models that are easily made from ceramic magnets like those found in many discount stores and hobby shops.
Davies, William G. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 245.
Water / Water Chemistry
Rapid semimicro extraction and purification of caffeine from a commercial product  Neuzil, E. F.
Extraction and purification of a well-known substance (caffeine) from No Doz.
Neuzil, E. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A262.
Separation Science |
Microscale Lab
Amino acid chromatography: The "best" technique for student labs  Helser, Terry L.
Comparisons of linear, conical, and circular chromatograms, as well as media and elutants.
Helser, Terry L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 964.
Amino Acids |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Bromothymol surprise  Maier, Linda L.
Dropping a tablet of Alka Seltzer into a bromothymol blue solution.
Maier, Linda L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 963.
Acids / Bases |
Dyes / Pigments |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry
Ice under pressure  Chang, Raymond; Skinner, James F.
A piece of steel music wire pulled through a block of ice by weights on either side.
Chang, Raymond; Skinner, James F. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 789.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Physical Properties
Economical electrophoresis with a controlled-current power supply  Hartman, David R.; Courtney, William H.
Electrophoresis power supply that features a controllable current (0-90 mA, dc), the use of a common 120 V, ac power supply, and a materials cost of approximately $50.
Hartman, David R.; Courtney, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 703.
Electrophoresis |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
A simple computerized gas chromatograph  Fox, John N.; Shaner, Robert A.
Transforming an Apple computer into a versatile gas chromatograph.
Fox, John N.; Shaner, Robert A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 694.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Computing / Interfacing |
Gas Chromatography |
Separation Science
A convenient method to recover the solvent from halogen-CCl4 mixtures  Sabol, Joseph E.; Kurtz, David W.
An alternative to disposal and distillation which is easy to perform, allowing the solvent to be recovered and stored within one hour after the completion of the experiment is presented here.
Sabol, Joseph E.; Kurtz, David W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 532.
Solutions / Solvents |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Management
Magic sand: Modeling the hydrophobic effect and reversed-phase liquid chromatography  Vitz, Ed
The procedures described here are meant to reveal the important "nonsolvent" properties of water through its interaction with Magic Sand, and other synthetic silica derivatives.
Vitz, Ed J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 512.
Chromatography |
Water / Water Chemistry
An inexpensive device for collection of samples of water for dissolved oxygen determination without air contact   Favaretto, Lelio
This communication describes a simple and inexpensive device that permits the collection of water samples and fixation of dissolved oxygen by the Winkler method.
Favaretto, Lelio J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 509.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
An inexpensive laboratory steam generator  Hagen, James P.; Barton, Kevin L.
The authors have devised an inexpensive, more efficient, safer heat source suitable for laboratories not equipped with house steam.
Hagen, James P.; Barton, Kevin L. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 448.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management
A simple apparatus to demonstrate differing gas diffusion rates (Graham's law)  Keller, Philip C.
The apparatus described in this note dramatically demonstrates relative diffusion rate effects for common gases like methane and carbon dioxide.
Keller, Philip C. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 160.
Gases |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Dramatizing isotopes: Deuterated ice cubes sink   Ellis, Arthur B.; Adler, Edward A.; Juergens, Frederick H.
The authors describe a safe, striking demonstration of the effect of isotopic substitution.
Ellis, Arthur B.; Adler, Edward A.; Juergens, Frederick H. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 159.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Isotopes
An automatic water trap for steam distillation  Ruekberg, Ben
The unpleasant aspects of the water trap can be avoided with a simple, inexpensive device that renders the water trap automatically selfdraining.
Ruekberg, Ben J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 66.
Separation Science |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The most useful actinide isotope: Americium-241  Navratil, James D.; Schulz, Wallace W.; Seaborg, Glenn T.
This paper briefly reviews Americium's discovery, nuclear and chemical properties, and its uses with an emphasis on its production and separations chemistry.
Navratil, James D.; Schulz, Wallace W.; Seaborg, Glenn T. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 15.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Separation Science |
Applications of Chemistry
Chemistry from waste products: Fractional distillation of used engine oil  Mashava, Peter M.; Alonge, Ilori E.; Mlenga, Francis
Fractional distillation of used engine oil.
Mashava, Peter M.; Alonge, Ilori E.; Mlenga, Francis J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1042.
Separation Science
Efficient microscale filtration  Belletire, John L.; Mahmoodi, Nosrat O.
A simple technique for the rapid filtration of small liquid samples.
Belletire, John L.; Mahmoodi, Nosrat O. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 964.
Separation Science |
Microscale Lab
An experiment to demonstrate the application of the scientific method  Tannenbaum, Irving R.
Boiling water as a demonstration to lead students to make and interpret careful observations.
Tannenbaum, Irving R. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 597.
Water / Water Chemistry
The separation of cobalt from nickel by anion exchange chromatography   Kauffman, George B.; Adams, Matthew L.
The authors have modified other experiments, using "macro" amounts of ions, and have determined the optimum conditions to produce a visually observable demonstration that illustrates several fundamental principles of the general chemistry course.
Kauffman, George B.; Adams, Matthew L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 166.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Ion Exchange
Visible spectrophotometric determination of the partition coefficient of methyl violet: A microscale extraction experiment  Sonnenberger, David C.; Ferroni, Edward L.
This experiment is designed to demonstrate the principles of separation by solvent extraction, partition coefficient, and the construction and use of a Beer-Lambert standard curve.
Sonnenberger, David C.; Ferroni, Edward L. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 91.
Separation Science |
Chemometrics
An integrated first-year laboratory experiment involving synthesis, spectroscopy, and chromatography of metal acetylacetonates  Glidewell, Christopher; McKenchnic, James S.
This article presents a comprehensive experiment, involving synthesis, thin-layer chromatography, interpretation of two types of NMR and mass spectra.
Glidewell, Christopher; McKenchnic, James S. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 1015.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Synthesis |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Experimental work with tin(II) chloride in a high school   Sanchez, Manuela Martin
The author describes a final-project performed by students that integrates concepts of hydrolysis, Le Chatelier's principle, and electrolysis. Students seek answers to questions such as: "What reactions were involved; why is an aqueous solution of SnCl2 acidic; how can elemental tin be recovered from the system?"
Sanchez, Manuela Martin J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 898.
Separation Science |
Electrochemistry |
Electrolytic / Galvanic Cells / Potentials |
Equilibrium |
Oxidation / Reduction
A simple method for purifying silica gel for column chromatography  Guarconi, Antonio E.; Ferreira, Victor F.
A quick and efficient way to get maximum use out of silica gel.
Guarconi, Antonio E.; Ferreira, Victor F. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 891.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Laboratory Management |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
The interconversion of electrical and chemical energy: The electrolysis of water and the hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell  Roffia, Sergio; Concialini, Vittorio; Paradisi, Carmen
Presentation of a simple apparatus that allows an instructor to perform the electrolysis of water and the back conversion of the products to water while overcoming some typical drawbacks encountered in this process.
Roffia, Sergio; Concialini, Vittorio; Paradisi, Carmen J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 725.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Electrochemistry
Interfacial phenomena   Anwander, Alberto E.; Grant, Richard P. J. S.; Letcher, Trevor M.
The interfaces between liquids, and liquids and gases, have a number of possible permutations that lead to exotic phenomenon such as antibubbles, floating drops, boules, polyaphrons, and hanging air bubbles. The authors give directions for demonstrating these in the classroom or lab.
Anwander, Alberto E.; Grant, Richard P. J. S.; Letcher, Trevor M. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 608.
Surface Science |
Liquids |
Gases |
Physical Properties |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Correct equilibrium constants for water (the authors reply)  Starkey, Ronald; Norman, Jack; Hinitze, Mark
Water and hydronium ion Ka values are special cases.
Starkey, Ronald; Norman, Jack; Hinitze, Mark J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1068.
Equilibrium |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Thermodynamics
Correct equilibrium constants for water  Baldwin, W. George; Burchill, C. Eugene
Disagreement with the numerical values assigned to equilibrium constants.
Baldwin, W. George; Burchill, C. Eugene J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1067.
Equilibrium |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Analysis of aspartame and its hydrolysis products by thin-layer chromatography  Conklin, Alfred R.
Separating and identifying the amino acids found in aspartame.
Conklin, Alfred R. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1065.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Amino Acids |
Food Science |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
When oil and water do not mix  Trammell, Gary L.
An introduction to the physics and chemistry of interfaces and lipids, and reactions in micelles.
Trammell, Gary L. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1022.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents |
Micelles |
Lipids
An aqueous problem with an interesting solution  Thomas, Nicholas C.
Flow diagram outlining the steps to calculating the number of water molecules in one drop of water and the length of all these molecules stretched end to end.
Thomas, Nicholas C. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 611.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Stoichiometry
Gel electrophoresis in a covered butter dish  Hopkins, T. R.; Sreekrishna, K.
The construction and use of a low-cost horizontal gel electrophoresis apparatus.
Hopkins, T. R.; Sreekrishna, K. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 279.
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Biotechnology
The quicker picker upper experiment   Snow, Albert J.
A popular commercial slogan as an in for chemistry instructors to talk about capillary action.
Snow, Albert J. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 1086.
Applications of Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry
The electrolysis of water: An improved demonstration procedure   Heideman, Stephen
The usual use of sulfuric acid as the electrolyte in the demonstration of the electrolysis of water does not allow students to observe the accompanying pH changes at the electrodes.
Heideman, Stephen J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 809.
Water / Water Chemistry |
pH |
Electrochemistry
Countercurrent extraction of ink: A demonstration of the chromatographic mechanism  Bricker, Clark E.; Sloop, Gregory T.
A simple system that can demonstrate the significance of discontinuous countercurrent extraction.
Bricker, Clark E.; Sloop, Gregory T. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1109.
Separation Science |
Chromatography
An inexpensive developing chamber for radial chromatography  Gadwood, Robert C.
Design and advantages of a radial chromatography chamber.
Gadwood, Robert C. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 820.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Reverse-phase separation of FD & C dyes using a solvent gradient  Ondrus, Martin G.
An impressive separation of FD&C dyes in aqueous solution can be demonstrated with a C18 Sep Pak and a 10-mL disposable syringe.
Ondrus, Martin G. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 798.
Dyes / Pigments |
Separation Science |
Chromatography
Gel filtration - An innovative separation technique  Blumenfeld, Fred; Gardner, James
Discusses the theory behind gel filtration and a procedure for using this method for separating organic and inorganic molecules.
Blumenfeld, Fred; Gardner, James J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 715.
Separation Science |
Chromatography
An inexpensive and quick method for demonstrating column chromatography of plant pigments of spinach extract  Mewaldt, William; Rodolph, Dawn; Sady, Michael
Constructing a simple column chromatograph from a disposable pipet.
Mewaldt, William; Rodolph, Dawn; Sady, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 530.
Chromatography |
Dyes / Pigments |
Separation Science
The water softener - A relevant, unifying example of many common chemical principles and calculations  Fulkrod, John E.
Determining the amount of sodium chloride needed for a water softener to replace all the hard water ions in a month's water supply for a typical household.
Fulkrod, John E. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 529.
Applications of Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A science fair display of chromatography of inks  Breneman, G. L.; Parker, O. J.
60. Bits and pieces, 23. Solving a chromatography mystery simulated on an Apple II.
Breneman, G. L.; Parker, O. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 410.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments
Separation and identification of commonly used drugs: A thin-layer chromatography experiment for freshman chemistry  Bonicamp, Judith M.
Using a simplified and accelerated TLC kit for drug detection.
Bonicamp, Judith M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 160.
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
An improved method for visualizing TLC plates using iodine  Roberbon, John
Mixing iodine with silica gel and pouring it onto a thin layer chromatography plate for faster visualization.
Roberbon, John J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 156.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Laboratory Management |
Separation Science
Water electrolysis-A surprising experiment  Kelsh, Dennis J.
Using aluminum wire for the cathode will produce "too much" hydrogen.
Kelsh, Dennis J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 154.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Electrochemistry
The effect of polarity on solubility  Nordstrom, Brian H.
Students observe that iodine dissolves readily in 1,1,1-trichloroethane but not water.
Nordstrom, Brian H. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 1009.
Precipitation / Solubility |
Solutions / Solvents |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Water / Water Chemistry
Modeling hypersaline lake "turn-over"  Sprague, Gary
Modeling saline lake inversions with a saturated salt solution in a beaker.
Sprague, Gary J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 956.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Chromatography: Use of a microcomputer to introduce laboratory techniques  Holdsworth, David K.
54. Bits and pieces, 21. Program to introduce paper, thin-layer, column, and gas-liquid chromatography.
Holdsworth, David K. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 790.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
An inexpensive experiment for the introduction of high performance liquid chromatography  Bidlingmeyer, Brian A.; Warren, F. Vincent, Jr.
Separates the food dyes found in grape-flavored Kool-Aid using isocratic and gradient solution methods. [Debut]
Bidlingmeyer, Brian A.; Warren, F. Vincent, Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 716.
Chromatography |
HPLC |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments
The extraction of gold and its simulation with copper  Bradley, J. D.; Brand, M.; Louli, J. A. M.
The simulation of the extraction of gold by the use of its analog, copper, makes it possible to capitalize on the glamor of gold without sacrificing any chemical principles.
Bradley, J. D.; Brand, M.; Louli, J. A. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 634.
Separation Science |
Metallurgy |
Industrial Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Metals
Scientific exploration with a microcomputer: Simulations for nonscientists  Whisnant, David M.
52. A four week-long exercise aimed at involving students with the scientific method through the use of a computer-simulated lake study.
Whisnant, David M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 627.
Nonmajor Courses |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Chlorophyll separation and spectral identification  Diehl-Jones, Susan M.
Extracting chlorophyl a and b from spinach and separating them using thin-layer and column chromatography.
Diehl-Jones, Susan M. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 454.
Separation Science |
Spectroscopy |
Plant Chemistry |
Photosynthesis |
Dyes / Pigments |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography
A quantitative gas chromatographic ethanol determination: a contemporary analytical experiment  Leary, James J.
This note describes a gas chromatographic experiment for the quantitative determination of volume percent ethanol in water ethanol solutions.
Leary, James J. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 675.
Gas Chromatography |
Quantitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Alcohols
The determination of anionic surfactants in natural and waste waters  Crisp, P. T.; Eckert, J. M.; Gibson, N. A.
The experiment described in this paper is suitable for the measurement of subpart per million concentrations of anionic surfactants in natural waters and industrial effluents.
Crisp, P. T.; Eckert, J. M.; Gibson, N. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 236.
Industrial Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Surface Science
The chemical oceanographer   Abel, Robert B.
Oceanography holds fascinating subject matter for students learning chemistry.
Abel, Robert B. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 221.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Food Science |
Geochemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Applications of Chemistry
Lecture experiment in gas-liquid chromatography with a simple gas chromatograph at room temperature  Wollrah, Adalbert
Apparatus and method for separating mixtures of pentane / hexane and methyl chloride / carbon tetrachloride.
Wollrah, Adalbert J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 1042.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Partition coefficients - A lecture demonstration  Newton, Thomas A.
The extraction of aqueous solutions of indophenol and its sodium salt with carbon tetrachloride and chloroform.
Newton, Thomas A. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 973.
Separation Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Classroom chromatography  Bauer, Christopher F.
A classroom demonstration in which students are used to illustrate the operation of a chromatographic column.
Bauer, Christopher F. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 846.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Simple control system for automated, multistage stills  Uphaus, R. A.; Kostka, A. G.
A system that uses LEDs to sense the water level in a still pot and control the rate of heat input to the still heating jackets.
Uphaus, R. A.; Kostka, A. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 674.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Water / Water Chemistry
A simple experiment for determining vapor pressure and enthalpy of vaporization of water  Levinson, Gerald S.
It is possible to determine the vapor pressure of water using only a tall beaker, a graduated cylinder, and a thermometer.
Levinson, Gerald S. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 337.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Gases |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
A simple semimicro distillation apparatus  Henin, F.; Hericher, M.; Muzart, J.
A small distillation unit for fractional distillation of small amounts of material under vacuum.
Henin, F.; Hericher, M.; Muzart, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 164.
Separation Science |
Microscale Lab |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Isolation, separation and identification of synthetic food colors  Dixon, E. A.; Renyk, G.
A simple, inexpensive experiment for the extraction of synthetic dyes permitted in foodstuffs, and their separation and identification using thin-layer chromatography and ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy.
Dixon, E. A.; Renyk, G. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 67.
Separation Science |
Food Science |
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Consumer Chemistry |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
A practical Solvay process experiment  McKee, J. R.; Kauffman, J. M.
This note features practical augmentation to the Solvay process experiment.
McKee, J. R.; Kauffman, J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 1035.
Gases |
Separation Science
Red cabbage and the electrolysis of water  Skinner, James F.
The demonstration profiled here has proven effective in bringing together concepts from acid-base chemistry and electrochemistry.
Skinner, James F. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 1017.
Electrochemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Red cabbage and the electrolysis of water  Skinner, James F.
The demonstration profiled here has proven effective in bringing together concepts from acid-base chemistry and electrochemistry.
Skinner, James F. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 1017.
Electrochemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Acids / Bases
Separation technology: I. Chromatography   Mickey, Charles D.
This article covers the development of and the many different types of chromatography available and offers a good overview of the powers of this tool of analytical chemistry.
Mickey, Charles D. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 997.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
A novel source of distilled water for science laboratories in the humid tropics  Ikediobi, C. O.
One of the most serious infrastructure headaches of developing countries is the acute shortage of potable water. In the face of this difficulty, the author offers some helpful tips for chemistry instructors.
Ikediobi, C. O. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 788.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Laboratory Management
Filtering technique: A quantitative evaluation  Meloan, C. E.
A set of experiments are presented to integrate more quantitative aspects to the filtering process.
Meloan, C. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 73.
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Stormy weather  Taylor, Thomas E.
Question regarding the formation of rain clouds and the exothermic process of condensation.
Taylor, Thomas E. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 732.
Thermodynamics |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams
Fluoridated water  Muhler, Joseph C.
Answers to a number of questions regarding the fluoridation of drinking water.
Muhler, Joseph C. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 496.
Applications of Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry
An economical and efficient reflux/distillation apparatus  Marabella, Charles P.
A modified standard distillation head and vacuum takeoff adapter.
Marabella, Charles P. J. Chem. Educ. 1980, 57, 221.
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Isoenzymes  Daugherty, N. A.
The separation, identification, and measurement of isoenzymes is an appropriate topic for a special lecture in general chemistry.
Daugherty, N. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 442.
Enzymes |
Proteins / Peptides |
pH |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Electrochemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
The electrophoresis of indicators: An analogy to isoenzyme separation  Daugherty, N. A.; Lavallee, D. K.
A lecture demonstration that illustrates the principles involved in the separation of isoenzymes but avoids the problems inherent in isoenzyme separations.
Daugherty, N. A.; Lavallee, D. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 353.
Electrochemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Dyes / Pigments |
Enzymes |
Separation Science
Wonder water: Another idea that is hard to work into a conversation  Smith, Douglas D.
The many benefits of degassed water.
Smith, Douglas D. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 338.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
Acne lotion - Great for pimples and making polymers!  May, Jeffrey
Benzoyl peroxide can easily be separated from acne lotion.
May, Jeffrey J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 239.
Polymerization |
Consumer Chemistry |
Separation Science
Thin layer chromatographic separation of common analgesics - A consumer experiment  Cormier, Russell A.; Hudson, William B.; Siegel, Jay A.
A simple method for determining which analgesics have which ingredients.
Cormier, Russell A.; Hudson, William B.; Siegel, Jay A. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 180.
Consumer Chemistry |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis
Development of intellectual skills in the laboratory  Ophardt, Charles E.
This first semester laboratory was designed to give instruction and practice in the intellectual skills of application, analysis, synthesis, and in Piaget's formal operations.
Ophardt, Charles E. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 485.
Learning Theories |
Qualitative Analysis |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Simple liquid-liquid extraction experiment for freshmen  Jones, Mark M.; Champion, Gwendalyn R.
A procedure can be described here can be carried out with the equipment normally present in a typical freshman laboratory. The experiment turns out to be a very good test of the student' technique and understanding.
Jones, Mark M.; Champion, Gwendalyn R. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 119.
Separation Science |
Liquids |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Emphasis on acids and bases  J. Chem. Educ. Staff
Considers the acidity or basicity in soils and natural waters; the acid-base balance in body chemistry; acidic and basic foods; the approximate pH values of common fluids; examples of acidic, basic, and neutral drugs; and the commercial preparation of nitric acid.
J. Chem. Educ. Staff J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 626.
Acids / Bases |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Food Science |
Applications of Chemistry |
pH |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
323-329.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 622.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Toxicology |
Applications of Chemistry
Determination of iodide in seaweed. A general chemistry research experience  Senyk, Joan I.
Students determine the best procedure for the analysis of iodide in locally gathered seaweed.
Senyk, Joan I. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 511.
Quantitative Analysis |
Separation Science |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
315-322. Eight questions on subjects related to environmental chemistry and their answers.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 498.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Applications of Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry
Isolation of dyes for analysis  Levinson, Alfred S.
The use of ion exchange resin for the isolation of dyes from beverages, gelatin desserts, and other foods.
Levinson, Alfred S. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 460.
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments |
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Food Science |
Consumer Chemistry |
Ion Exchange
Silver ion in water purification: A follow-up  Quane, Denis
Applying a previous idea on the possible use of silver ion in water purification to teaching the concept of Ksp.
Quane, Denis J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 381.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Equilibrium |
Solutions / Solvents
Le Chtelier's principle: A laboratory exercise  Friedman, Frederica
Le Chtelier's principle can be demonstrated by showing that water can boil at temperatures below 100C due to reduced vapor pressure.
Friedman, Frederica J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 236.
Equilibrium |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Gases |
Water / Water Chemistry
Chemist's view of oceanography  Cutshall, Norman H.
The structure of oceanography, chemists in oceanography, chemical analysis in oceanography, chemical oceanography research, and chemical oceanographers in marine pollution studies.
Cutshall, Norman H. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 162.
Applications of Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry
Paper chromatography of carbohydrates  Croft, L. R.; Haghighi, S.
A simple detection reagent for carbohydrates.
Croft, L. R.; Haghighi, S. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 112.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Carbohydrates
Separation of an APC mixture. A quantitative analysis experiment  Haddad, Paul; Rasmussen, Malcolm
In this paper the well known technique of pH, controlled extractive separation of a mixture of an acidic, basic, and neutral organic substance has been applied to separation and analysis of a mixture of the drugs aspirin, caffeine, and phenacetin.
Haddad, Paul; Rasmussen, Malcolm J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 731.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
pH |
Acids / Bases |
Separation Science
Marine biochemistry. A new interdisciplinary course for the interim  Goldberg, Arthur S.
A course was implemented entitled "Marine Biochemistry" as a result of both student interest and increasing awareness of scientists of the potential usefulness of substances from the sea. A number of recent books and articles have been published and used as source material for the course.
Goldberg, Arthur S. J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 717.
Water / Water Chemistry
Separation of waste plastics. An experiment in solvent fractionation  Seymour, Raymond B.; Stahl, G. Allan
The authors share their design for a scheme for separation of specific plastics from a mixture. This activity engages students and relates to recycling.
Seymour, Raymond B.; Stahl, G. Allan J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 653.
Green Chemistry |
Separation Science |
Applications of Chemistry
Chromatography on chalk  Wollrab, Adalbert
Describes how a variety of mixtures can be separated using a piece of chalk.
Wollrab, Adalbert J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 809.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments |
Solutions / Solvents
Non-covalent interactions: Key to biological flexibility and specificity  Frieden, Earl
Summarizes the types of non-covalent interactions found among biomolecules and how they facilitate the function of antibodies, hormones, and hemoglobin.
Frieden, Earl J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 754.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Proteins / Peptides |
Amino Acids |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Hormones
An industrial steam distillation: Separation of rosin and turpentine from pine gum  Potter, Frederick S.; Schuerch, Conrad
Procedure for converting a tacky intractable mass - pine gum - into two recognizable and useful materials - a fragrant water-white liquid (turpentine) and a hard amber-colored resin (rosin).
Potter, Frederick S.; Schuerch, Conrad J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 672.
Separation Science |
Natural Products
Chlorine in your water  Smith, J. G.
The use, chemistry, and alternatives to chlorine and chlorine compounds in water supplies.
Smith, J. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 656.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
206-211. Six questions regarding topics in environmental chemistry and biochemistry.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 655.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Applications of Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry
Ion-exchange resins - A simple apparatus  Morelli, Basilio; Lampugnani, Leonardo
A modified procedure and apparatus for speeding up the use of ion-exchange resins.
Morelli, Basilio; Lampugnani, Leonardo J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 572.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Ion Exchange |
Separation Science
Questions [and] Answers  Campbell, J. A.
193-197. Five biochemical questions and their answers.
Campbell, J. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 457.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
pH |
Isotopes |
Water / Water Chemistry
A simple gas chromatograph for teaching purposes  Wollrab, Adalbert
A simple apparatus for demonstrating the separation of a mixture of pentane and hexane gas.
Wollrab, Adalbert J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 200.
Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes |
Gases
Thiocyanato chromium(III) complexes. Separation by paper electrophoresis and estimate of stability constants  Larsen, Erik; Eriksen, J.
Differently charged species of thiocyanato chromium(III) complexes are separated by paper electrophoresis.
Larsen, Erik; Eriksen, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 122.
Separation Science |
Coordination Compounds |
Electrophoresis
A study of water pollution. An undergraduate chemistry laboratory experience  Sarkis, Vahak D.
In addition to its environmental relevance, a water pollution study of the inorganic constituents in water as outlined in this article, provides the student with certain important principles of chemistry namely, colorimetric and titrimetric procedures.
Sarkis, Vahak D. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 745.
Applications of Chemistry |
Metals |
Green Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
The extraction of caffeine from tea  Mitchell, R. H.; Scott, W. A.; West, P. R.
The authors refine a popular experiment in which students refine caffeine from tea.
Mitchell, R. H.; Scott, W. A.; West, P. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 69.
Natural Products |
Food Science |
Separation Science
Demonstration of solubility of "immiscible" fluids  Koob, R. D.; Tallman, D. E.
Demonstrating that hexane is miscible in water.
Koob, R. D.; Tallman, D. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 724.
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Alkanes / Cycloalkanes
Nitric acid in rain water  Gleason, Geoffrey I.
This trace analysis experiment is based on the conversion of nitrate to nitrite using a cadmium amalgam reductor column.
Gleason, Geoffrey I. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 718.
Acids / Bases |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Atmospheric Chemistry
Preparation of reagent grade iron(III) oxide from iron ore. An experiment for freshman chemistry  Mulokozi, A. N.
Involves analysis of iron ore and the recovery of iron(III) oxide from iron ore using ion-exchange separation.
Mulokozi, A. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 634.
Separation Science |
Ion Exchange
Fiber tip chromatography hints  Falkin, Harlan
Suggestions for chromatography paper and method.
Falkin, Harlan J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 448.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Management |
Dyes / Pigments
The chemistry of pollution - An experimental course  Frank, David L.
Briefly outlines the goals and topics of a course entitled "Chemistry of Air Pollution."
Frank, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 209.
Atmospheric Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry
Dissolved oxygen determination  Berger, Toby E.
Details regarding the cited procedure.
Berger, Toby E. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 160.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Notes on determination of dissolved oxygen  Sommers, Raymond A.
Simplifications in the referenced procedure that make it more suitable for the introductory laboratory.
Sommers, Raymond A. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 160.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Fiber tipped pens as a chromatography experiment  Kasimer, Philip
Allowing students to develop their own solvent mixtures for separating the constituent dyes in fiber tipped pens.
Kasimer, Philip J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 158.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments
TLC detection of caffeine in commercial products  Pavlik, James W.
An introductory experiment that involves the thin layer chromatography detection of caffeine in a variety of familiar pharmaceutical products.
Pavlik, James W. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 134.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Consumer Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Qualitative Analysis
Special session: Women's caucus  Brownlee, Paula

Brownlee, Paula J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 21.
Conferences |
Professional Development |
Water / Water Chemistry
Beyond the Conventional Classroom. Session II-A: Continuing education  Heikkinen, Henry; Zuehlke, Rick; Alexander, John
Combating technical obsolescence; rent o prof; water, man and chemistry; and an undergraduate-graduate research collaboration program.
Heikkinen, Henry; Zuehlke, Rick; Alexander, John J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 18.
Conferences |
Professional Development |
Industrial Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Undergraduate Research
The determination of dissolved oxygen by the Winkler method. A student laboratory experiment  McCormick, Patrick G.
This method is based on the reaction between oxygen and a suspension of manganese(II) hydroxide in a strongly alkaline solution.
McCormick, Patrick G. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 839.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Gases |
Quantitative Analysis |
Titration / Volumetric Analysis
Radiometric analysis of ammonia in water  Mehra, M. C.
In this experiment, the silver concentration in aqueous solution is determined radiometrically using silver-110 as the radiotracer.
Mehra, M. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 837.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Isotopes |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis
The thin-layer chromatography of drugs. A laboratory experiment  Neman, R. L.
Students are introduced to thin layer chromatography, are provided samples known to contain alkaloids and barbiturates, separate the mixtures using tlc, determine the components of their unknowns, and calculate Rf values for the components.
Neman, R. L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 834.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
Sliding friction and skiing  Plumb, Robert C.; Van Hook, Alexander
What causes the film of water to form under skis and ice skates?
Plumb, Robert C.; Van Hook, Alexander J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 830.
Water / Water Chemistry
Water analysis experiment  Anderlick, Barbara
Analyzing various water samples for the presence of a variety of ions.
Anderlick, Barbara J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 749.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Qualitative Analysis |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Metals
Caffeine and benzoic acid in soft drinks  Laswick, Patty Hall; Laswick, John A.
Simple procedures for isolating caffeine and benzoic acid from commercial soft drinks.
Laswick, Patty Hall; Laswick, John A. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 708.
Acids / Bases |
Separation Science |
Consumer Chemistry
Efficient use of washing solvents. A quantitative treatment  Boschmann, Edwin
A quantitative study of the efficient use of washing solvents (e.g. distilled water) in the laboratory.
Boschmann, Edwin J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 650.
Laboratory Management |
Water / Water Chemistry
Small-scale thin-layer chromatography. Experiments for teaching purposes  Brinkman, U. A. Th.; De Vries, G.
Describes a number of rapid thin-layer chromatography separations that can be conveniently used to introduce chromatography in the teaching laboratory.
Brinkman, U. A. Th.; De Vries, G. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 545.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science
Measurement of pH of distilled water  Youmans, Hubert L.
Resolving the problem of pH meters giving readings for the pH of distilled water that differ significantly from 7.
Youmans, Hubert L. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 429.
Water / Water Chemistry |
pH |
Quantitative Analysis
Dissolved oxygen. A relevant experiment for the introductory laboratory  Stagg, William R.
Students measure the dissolved oxygen content of water from several natural sources as well as the change in solubility with temperature.
Stagg, William R. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 427.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Quantitative Analysis |
Solutions / Solvents |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Gases
Why is the oxygen in water negative?  Liebman, Joel F.
Oxygen in water is negative because a negative charge, unlike a positive, can be stabilized using ground state ionic resonance structures.
Liebman, Joel F. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 415.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Oxidation State
Circular chromatography of inks  Wan, Alfred S. C.
Circular chromatography provides a very convenient and rapid method for demonstrating the principles of paper chromatography.
Wan, Alfred S. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 335.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments
Chemistry laboratories and other ecosystems  Wynn, Charles M.
Suggestions for reducing water pollution from the chemistry laboratory.
Wynn, Charles M. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 225.
Laboratory Management |
Water / Water Chemistry
Squeak, skid and glide - The unusual properties of snow and ice  Plumb, Robert C.; Fletcher, N. H.
The Clapeyron equation controls the behavior of ice under varying conditions of temperature and pressure.
Plumb, Robert C.; Fletcher, N. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 179.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Equilibrium
Squeak, skid and glide - The unusual properties of snow and ice  Plumb, Robert C.; Fletcher, N. H.
The Clapeyron equation controls the behavior of ice under varying conditions of temperature and pressure.
Plumb, Robert C.; Fletcher, N. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 179.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Equilibrium
A simple apparatus for teaching the principles of chromatography  Kellomaki, Aarre
A device that follows the elution of electrolytes through liquid column chromatography by continuously measuring the conductivity of the effluent.
Kellomaki, Aarre J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 139.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
The separation of a sodium-rubidium mixture on an ion-exchanger. A laboratory experiment  Coetzee, C. J.
This experiment demonstrates the separation of sodium and rubidium from each other on an AMP-asbestos ion exchange column.
Coetzee, C. J. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 33.
Separation Science |
Ion Exchange
The effervescence of ocean surf  Plumb, Robert C.; Blanchard, Duncan C.; Bilofsky, Howard S.; Bridgman, Wilbur B.
A pure liquid will not foam, but all true solutions will, as dictated by the fundamental concepts of surface thermodynamics enunciated by Gibbs.
Plumb, Robert C.; Blanchard, Duncan C.; Bilofsky, Howard S.; Bridgman, Wilbur B. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 29.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Gases |
Solutions / Solvents |
Thermodynamics
An introductory experiment on phosphates in detergents  Mohrig, Jerry R.
Examines the phosphate controversy, the roles of phosphates in detergents, the chemistry of phosphates and their colorimetric determination, and presents an experiment in which the amount of phosphate is measured using two different analytical methods.
Mohrig, Jerry R. J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 15.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Consumer Chemistry |
Quantitative Analysis |
Applications of Chemistry
Let's get the nonscience majors into the lab!  Griffin, Roger W., Jr.
The author shares his experiences with a successful laboratory course for nonmajors. Experiments which have been carried out include: geometry of molecules, measurements and errors, separation and purification, spectroscopy, chromatography, colored natural products, and dyes.
Griffin, Roger W., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 685.
Nonmajor Courses |
Dyes / Pigments |
Natural Products |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis |
VSEPR Theory |
Spectroscopy
Polywater. A lesson and opportunity in science  Christian, P. A.; Berka, L. H.
The authors present an intriguing observation and offer outlines of some possible studies that can be undertaken in any adequately equipped high school or college chemistry laboratory.
Christian, P. A.; Berka, L. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 667.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Solutions / Solvents
Analysis of phosphate in detergents  Kriz, George S., Jr.; Kriz, Kay Dian
The experiment described here is a response to the need mentioned above and is specifically concerned with water pollution caused by phosphate detergents. It is ideal for today's students who concerned about the environment.
Kriz, George S., Jr.; Kriz, Kay Dian J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 551.
Surface Science |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry
A unified introductory chemistry laboratory  Splittgerber, A. G.; MacLean, D. B.; Neils, J.
Common criticisms against chemistry learning laboratories accuse typical first year laboratories of painting an inaccurate portrait of the nature of the chemistry research experience. The author propose a project-type unified laboratory program.
Splittgerber, A. G.; MacLean, D. B.; Neils, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 330.
Undergraduate Research |
Synthesis |
Separation Science |
Equilibrium |
Qualitative Analysis
Heat of hydration  Dannhauser, Walter
A commonly published experiment can be expanded so that students may obtain the enthalpy of the reaction between anhydrous salts and water.
Dannhauser, Walter J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 329.
Thermodynamics |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Noncovalent Interactions
A simple separation and identification of radium D, E, and F.  Glasoe, Paul K.
The author provides a modification to general chemistry lab involving a separation and identification of a radium sample.
Glasoe, Paul K. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 268.
Separation Science |
Chromatography
Trimyristin from nutmeg  Frank, Forrest; Roberts, Theodore; Snell, Jane; Yates, Christy; Collins, Joseph
The author proposes the isolation and saponification of trimytistin from nutmeg as an excellent experiment to introduce general chemistry students to laboratory techniques or for use with the organic chemistry course in which case more techniques an be introduces.
Frank, Forrest; Roberts, Theodore; Snell, Jane; Yates, Christy; Collins, Joseph J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 255.
Natural Products |
Food Science |
Separation Science
Procedure for recovering silver nitrate from silver-silver oxide residues  Henderson, K. O.; Garin, David L.
Presents a procedure for recovering silver nitrate from silver-silver oxide residues.
Henderson, K. O.; Garin, David L. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 741.
Laboratory Management |
Separation Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Is ammonia like water?  Gill, J. B.
This article sets out to compare some of the properties of the two most widely studied solvents, water and liquid ammonia, and in particular illustrate some comparative aspects that are not normally considered.
Gill, J. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 619.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A thin-layer chromatography experiment for general chemistry  Lincoln, S.; Pohl, R. A.; Haworth, D. T.
Describes an experiment that can be used to separate the classical groups of inorganic cations thin layer chromatography analysis using microcrystalline cellulose.
Lincoln, S.; Pohl, R. A.; Haworth, D. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 401.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Quantitative Analysis
A simple laboratory experiment on PVP column chromatography  Lerner, Joseph
This experiment deals with the separation of three colored biochemicals, two of which are vitamins, the other a protein.
Lerner, Joseph J. Chem. Educ. 1970, 47, 32.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Vitamins
A versatile and compact chromatographic chamber  Lehrfeld, J.
This simple and inexpensive glass chamber facilitates thin-layer chromatography separations of a large number of samples within 5 minutes.
Lehrfeld, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 848.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
An introduction to chromatography  Gaucher, G. M.
The object of this presentation is to serve as a preliminary practical introduction and guide to chromatography.
Gaucher, G. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 729.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Gas Chromatography |
Ion Exchange
Counter-current distribution as a student laboratory experiment  Lindblad, Bengt; Lindstedt, Goran; Tiselius, Hans-Goran
This experiment demonstrates the principles of extraction and counter-current distribution as well as spectrophotometric analysis.
Lindblad, Bengt; Lindstedt, Goran; Tiselius, Hans-Goran J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 525.
Separation Science |
Spectroscopy
Modifications of solution chromatography illustrated with chloroplast pigments  Strain, Harold H.; Sherma, Joseph
Using plant pigments to demonstrate various chromatographic techniques, including column adsorption, paper adsorption, paper partition, column partition, and thin layer chromatography.
Strain, Harold H.; Sherma, Joseph J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 476.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Plant Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Natural Products |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Disc electrophoresis  Brewer, John M.; Ashworth, Raymond B.
Describes the procedures involved in separating proteins or nucleic acids through disc electrophoresis.
Brewer, John M.; Ashworth, Raymond B. J. Chem. Educ. 1969, 46, 41.
Electrochemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Proteins / Peptides |
Separation Science
Effect of shock on CS2 vapor  Viswanathan, Arcot
An explosive shock separates CS2 into its constituent elements.
Viswanathan, Arcot J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A901.
Gases |
Separation Science
Laboratory experiments for the introductory chemistry course  Walter, Robert I.
Short descriptions of introductory experiments, including separations by recrystallization, distillation, and ion exchange; the oxidation of isopropyl alcohol to acetone; and the synthesis of compounds exhibiting geometric isomerism,
Walter, Robert I. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 672.
Separation Science |
Ion Exchange
Calcium carbonate equilibria in the oceans - ion pair formation  Morton, Stephen D.; Lee, G. Fred
Discusses some of the problems encountered in studying the chemistry of lakes and oceans, focussing on the solubility of calcium carbonate in marine environments.
Morton, Stephen D.; Lee, G. Fred J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 513.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Qualitative Analysis
Calcium carbonate equilibria in lakes  Morton, Stephen D.; Lee, G. Fred
Discusses some of the problems encountered in studying the chemistry of lakes and oceans, focussing on the solubility of calcium carbonate in fresh water lakes.
Morton, Stephen D.; Lee, G. Fred J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 511.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Precipitation / Solubility |
Equilibrium
Cylindrical thin-layer chromatography  Jordan, David
This short note describes the use and advantages of cylindrical thin-layer chromatography.
Jordan, David J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 510.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Dyes / Pigments
The use of cellophane sheets for direct reading and recording of Rf values  Chortyk, O. T.; Kushnir, I.
Describes the use of cellophane sheets for direct reading and recording of Rf values.
Chortyk, O. T.; Kushnir, I. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 506.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
A simple sprayer for quantitative thin-layer chromatography  Samuels, Stanley
A simple, inexpensive sprayer for chromatographic use that can be constructed by a student as a laboratory project.
Samuels, Stanley J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, 438.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Group 1. The Alkali Metals. The Copper Group   Mancuso, Carl J.; Alyea, Hubert N.
Demonstrations include the density and melting point of copper versus sodium, the conductivity of sodium, the reactivity with water of groups IA vs IB, and the stability of CO3--, HCO3-, and hydroxides of groups IA vs IB.
Mancuso, Carl J.; Alyea, Hubert N. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A919.
Metals |
Reactions |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Physical Properties
Chromatography: Inorganic separations using chalkboard chalk  Lauren, Paul M.
This demonstration involves separating several combinations of aqueous ions.
Lauren, Paul M. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, A345.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Qualitative analysis with paper chromatography  Poonia, N. S.
A spot of an unknown mixture is subjected to radial development, and the circular chromatogram is divided into a number of segments used for the detection of different cations or groups of cations.
Poonia, N. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 477.
Qualitative Analysis |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Laboratory demonstration of fractional distillation  Coleman, H. M.
The method described here permits a quick analysis of the several distillates by direct visualization of one of the two components of a binary mixture containing toluene and acetone.
Coleman, H. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 476.
Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams |
Separation Science
Microapparatus for demonstrating electrophoresis on paper  Stock, John T.; DeThomas, A. V.
This article describes a microapparatus for demonstrating electrophoresis on paper that is powered by a 9 V battery.
Stock, John T.; DeThomas, A. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 415.
Microscale Lab |
Electrochemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Test tube and glass rod tlc  Ikan, Raphael; Rapaport, Eliezer
Describes the use of test tubes and glass rods coated on their outer surfaces for thin layer chromatography.
Ikan, Raphael; Rapaport, Eliezer J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 297.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science
The use of talc as a tlc adsorbent  Walsh, Brother Joseph M.
Describes the use of talc as a thin layer chromatography adsorbent, particularly with respect to the separation of flavonoids, sugars, and proteins.
Walsh, Brother Joseph M. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 294.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Proteins / Peptides |
Carbohydrates
Liquid-liquid extraction  Joseph-Nathan, P.
Describes how liquid-liquid extraction can be done using commercially available substances and an apparatus of small dimensions that still allows an experiment to be followed visually.
Joseph-Nathan, P. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 176.
Separation Science |
Liquids |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Separation by adsorption chromatography: An experiment on a colorless mixture  Pine, Stanley H.
Acetophenone and alpha-phenylethanol are separated through adsorption chromatography.
Pine, Stanley H. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 672.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Microapparatus for demonstrating electrophoresis and ion migration  Stock, John T.; DeThomas, A. V.
Ferric hydroxide and arsenious sulfide are separated using a 9-volt battery.
Stock, John T.; DeThomas, A. V. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 436.
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Microscale Lab |
Colloids
The diisopropyl ether extraction of iron(III) chloride  Guenther, William B.
The diisopropyl ether extraction of iron(III) from 8 M HCl solution is a simple method of separating iron from the other components of stainless steel alloys.
Guenther, William B. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 277.
Separation Science |
Quantitative Analysis
Column chromatography experiment using unknowns  Marmor, Solomon
Students are asked to separate an unknown mixture consisting of two colorless solids through column chromatography.
Marmor, Solomon J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 272.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Electrolysis: H2O and H2O2  Eberhardt, William H.
This demonstration involves the concurrent electrolysis of water and hydrogen peroxide.
Eberhardt, William H. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, A591.
Electrochemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry
A general chemistry experiment on clathrates  Sawyer, Albert K.
Students prepare one of two hydroquinone clathrates, one that traps methanol and another that traps hydrogen sulfide.
Sawyer, Albert K. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 661.
Separation Science
An inexpensive centrifuge for micro qualitative analysis  Gaddis, Shirley W.
Presents an inexpensive micro centrifuge.
Gaddis, Shirley W. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 625.
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Microscale Lab |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
Electrophoresis using thin layer materials  Criddle, W. J.; Moody, G. J.; Thomas, J. D. R.
Thin layer materials prepared for chromatography are used for electrophoresis.
Criddle, W. J.; Moody, G. J.; Thomas, J. D. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 609.
Electrochemistry |
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Test tube TLC  BeMiller, J. N.
Builds on several earlier articles regarding rapid demonstrations of thin-layer chromatography using test tubes.
BeMiller, J. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 608.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
A model of the ice structure  Lambert, Jack L.; Seitz, Larry M.
Instructions for constructing a physical model of ice.
Lambert, Jack L.; Seitz, Larry M. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 504.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Distilled water purity monitor using an ac polarization electrode  Freedman, R. W.; Radkoff, S.
Presents a circuit diagram for a distilled water purity monitor using an ac polarization electrode.
Freedman, R. W.; Radkoff, S. J. Chem. Educ. 1964, 41, 387.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
Removal of hardness and deionization of water by the ion exchange method  Sangster, A. W.
Demonstrates the removal of calcium and chloride ions through ion exchange.
Sangster, A. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A987.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Ion Exchange
Chromatography  Saurer, J. M.
A stick of soft chalk is used to separate a cadmium and lead nitrate.
Saurer, J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A535.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
The extraction of metals from ores  Keubel, A.
Provides suggestions for research based on earlier published articles.
Keubel, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, A186.
Undergraduate Research |
Metals |
Separation Science
Clathrates: Compounds in cages  Hagan, Mary Martinette, B. V. M.
Introduces clathrate compounds and examines some of their uses and applications.
Hagan, Mary Martinette, B. V. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 643.
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Applications of Chemistry |
Separation Science
The hydrated hydronium ion  Clever, H. Lawrence
It is the purpose of this brief review to cite and discuss some of the evidence for the existence of the trihydrated hydronium ion.
Clever, H. Lawrence J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 637.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Acids / Bases |
Brønsted-Lowry Acids / Bases
Alkali metal-water reactions  Markowitz, Meyer M.
The typical open-air demonstration of sodium reacting with water does not in reality represent the typical reaction of an alkali metal with liquid water; the article goes on to consider other factors that may influence these reactions.
Markowitz, Meyer M. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 633.
Reactions |
Metals |
Water / Water Chemistry
TLC separation of ink pigments  Druding, Leonard F.
The separation of inks into their component pigments was chosen for its simplicity in illustrating techniques and choice of solvent for thin layer chromatography; it also affords the student the opportunity to visually observe the course of the separation.
Druding, Leonard F. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 536.
Dyes / Pigments |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Thin Layer Chromatography
TLCVersatile tool  Malins, Donald C.; Wekell, John C.
Examines apparatus and techniques, lecture demonstrations, laboratory experiments and general applications associated with thin layer chromatography.
Malins, Donald C.; Wekell, John C. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 531.
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Separation Science
The lighter lanthanides: A laboratory experiment in rare earth chemistry  Kauffman, George B.; Takahashi, Lloyd T.; Vickery, R. C.
Presents a laboratory experiment designed to illustrate the separation and properties of the rare earths.
Kauffman, George B.; Takahashi, Lloyd T.; Vickery, R. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 433.
Transition Elements |
Separation Science
Thin layer chromatographic separation of leaf pigments: A rapid demonstration  Rollins, Charles
Eleven pigment spots can be detected from an extract of grass leaves by a rapid TLC separation on silicic acid.
Rollins, Charles J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 32.
Plant Chemistry |
Dyes / Pigments |
Separation Science |
Chromatography |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Separation of plant pigments by thin layer chromatography  Anwar, M. H.
Describes a lab activity to separate chloroplast pigments over a thin layer of silicic acid.
Anwar, M. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 29.
Separation Science |
Plant Chemistry |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Chromatography
Ion-exchange papers  Sherma, Joseph A., Jr.
Demonstrates the separation of cobalt(II) and iron(III) using ion-exchange paper.
Sherma, Joseph A., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1962, 39, A839.
Ion Exchange |
Separation Science
The science study series. Volumes 12 and 18  Kieffer, William F.

Kieffer, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 588.
Atomic Properties / Structure |
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Water / Water Chemistry
Contemporary analysis and the chemistry curriculum  Rogers, L. B.
Examines a variety of curricular issues regarding analytical chemistry.
Rogers, L. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 455.
Qualitative Analysis |
Qualitative Analysis |
Separation Science
Ultra Low Conductivity Water  National Bureau of Standards Summary Technical Report
Describes the production of water with a conductivity approaching the lower theoretical limit.
National Bureau of Standards Summary Technical Report J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 421.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Conductivity |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
The ionization constant of water  Dirkse, Thedford P.
Some textbooks claim that the ion product constant of water is constant under all conditions at a given temperature.
Dirkse, Thedford P. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 260.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
Student experiment with filter paper electrophoresis  Garvin, James E.
The effect of electrical charge in determining some of the properties of amino acids and proteins can be simply and convincingly demonstrated to the student by means of filter paper electrophoresis.
Garvin, James E. J. Chem. Educ. 1961, 38, 36.
Separation Science |
Electrophoresis |
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides |
Electrochemistry
The separation of rare earths: A project for high school chemistry students  Powell, J. E.; Spedding, F. H.; James, D. B.
The separation of rare earths on an ion-exchange column is a very interesting and dramatic experiment to perform, since it represents the solution of one of the most formidable chemical separation problems confronting the inorganic chemist.
Powell, J. E.; Spedding, F. H.; James, D. B. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 629.
Metals |
Transition Elements |
Separation Science |
Ion Exchange
Separating Nd from Pr: A laboratory experiment in ion exchange chromatography  Kauffman, George B.; Blank, Jerome S.
Presents a procedure for the separation of neodymium from praseodymium that in principle is applicable to all of the lanthanides.
Kauffman, George B.; Blank, Jerome S. J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 156.
Separation Science |
Ion Exchange |
Transition Elements
Separation of Ce144 from Pr144: A radiochemistry demonstration  Bradley, Arthur; Adamowicz, Michael
This demonstration/experiment involves the separation of two radioisotopes through filtration of an insoluble precipitate.
Bradley, Arthur; Adamowicz, Michael J. Chem. Educ. 1959, 36, 136.
Isotopes |
Separation Science
Cation analysis by ion exchange for the course in qualitative analysis  Berend, Joan B.; Westcott, Livonia B.; Wiig, Edwin O.
Presents a procedure for the analysis of group III cations.
Berend, Joan B.; Westcott, Livonia B.; Wiig, Edwin O. J. Chem. Educ. 1958, 35, 68.
Qualitative Analysis |
Ion Exchange |
Separation Science
A chromatographic chamber for the student laboratory  Wiggans, Donald S.
The construction of an effective chromatographic tank can be accomplished by means of two beakers.
Wiggans, Donald S. J. Chem. Educ. 1957, 34, 536.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus
The nature of chromatography  Cassidy, Harold G.
Provides a definition of chromatography and a description of gas chromatography.
Cassidy, Harold G. J. Chem. Educ. 1956, 33, 482.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography
Effect of water on the interaction of aluminum and iodine  Azmatullah, Syed; Viswanathan, Argot
A drop of water added to powdered aluminum and iodine initiates a vigorous reaction.
Azmatullah, Syed; Viswanathan, Argot J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 447.
Water / Water Chemistry |
Reactions
A chromatographic demonstration  Forss, David A.
Describes a chromatographic demonstration that does not really on flammable and odorous organic solvents.
Forss, David A. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 306.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Water, a basic natural resource  Keirstead, Ralph E.
Describes the many uses for water and its importance as a basic natural resource.
Keirstead, Ralph E. J. Chem. Educ. 1955, 32, 99.
Water / Water Chemistry
Apparatus for demonstrating paper chromatography  Baker, Philip S.
Presents a very simple and convenient arrangement for demonstrating paper chromatography.
Baker, Philip S. J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 237.
Chromatography |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Separation Science
Paper chromatography for students  Blackwell, R. Quentin
Describes a simple method whereby various mixtures can be separated using paper chromatography under a variety of conditions.
Blackwell, R. Quentin J. Chem. Educ. 1953, 30, 614.
Chromatography |
Separation Science
Introductory experiments in inorganic paper chromatography  Surak, John G.; Schlueter, Donald P.
Presents a simple, small-scale method of paper chromatography appropriate for a freshman qualitative-analysis class.
Surak, John G.; Schlueter, Donald P. J. Chem. Educ. 1952, 29, 144.
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Qualitative Analysis
Experiments on radioactivity in the first course in college chemistry  Brown, Charles A.; Rochow, E. G.
Experiments described include the detection and measurement of radioactivity; comparing the penetrative power of beta and gamma radiation; separating thorium from uranium; and determining the half-life of iodine 128.
Brown, Charles A.; Rochow, E. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 521.
Nuclear / Radiochemistry |
Isotopes |
Separation Science