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Journal Articles: 39 results
Nature's Way To Make the Lantibiotics  Heather A. Relyea and Wilfred A. van der Donk
This article focuses on one class of antimicrobial compounds, the lantibiotics, and discusses their biosynthetic pathways as well as their molecular mode of action. In the course of the review, the meaning of the terms regio-, chemo-, and stereoselectivity are discussed.
Relyea, Heather A.; van der Donk, Wilfred A. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1769.
Applications of Chemistry |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Biotechnology |
Biosynthesis |
Catalysis |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Proteins / Peptides
Amino Acids  William F. Coleman
The Featured Molecules this month are the 20 standard alpha-amino acids found in proteins. The molecules are presented in two formats, the neutral form and the ionized form found in solution at physiologic pH.
Coleman, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1103.
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Molecular Mechanics / Dynamics
Glycosyltransferases A and B: Four Critical Amino Acids Determine Blood Type  Natisha L. Rose, Monica M. Palcic, and Stephen V. Evans
Human A, B, and O blood type is determined by the presence or absence of distinct carbohydrate structures on red blood cells. In this review the chemistry of the blood group ABO system and the role of glycosyltransferase A, glycosyltransferase B, and the four amino acids critical to determining blood group status are discussed.
Rose, Natisha L.; Palcic, Monica M.; Evans, Stephen V. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1846.
Carbohydrates |
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Crystals / Crystallography |
Molecular Biology |
X-ray Crystallography |
Amino Acids
The Monosodium Glutamate Story: The Commercial Production of MSG and Other Amino Acids  Addison Ault
Examples of the industrial synthesis of pure amino acids are presented. The emphasis is on the synthesis of (S)-glutamic acid and, to a lesser extent, (S)-lysine and (R,S)-methionine. These amino acids account for about 90% of the total world production of amino acids.
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 347.
Amino Acids |
Biotechnology |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Consumer Chemistry |
Enzymes |
Natural Products |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis |
Food Science
LC–MS of Metmyoglobin at pH = 2. Separation and Characterization of Apomyoglobin and Heme by ESI–MS and UV–Vis  Helen Cleary Stynes, Araceli Layo, and Richard W. Smith
This article describes an experiment employing LCMS where metmyoglobin is denatured to apomyoglobin and heme in a mobile phase gradient of acetonitrile H2O with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid. The apomyoglobin is separated from the heme group by reversed-phase chromatography.
Stynes, Helen Cleary; Layo, Araceli; Smith, Richard W. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 266.
Biotechnology |
Chromatography |
Instrumental Methods |
Mass Spectrometry |
Proteins / Peptides |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Food: The Chemistry of Its Components, 4th Edition (T. P. Coultrate)  Richard Pagni
The book begins with an extensive discussion of the major constituents of food: sugars and their polymers, lipids, and amino acids and their polymers. This is followed by fascinating chapters on colors and flavors, the ingredients that do so much to make food enjoyable.
Pagni, Richard. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 39.
Consumer Chemistry |
Food Science |
Applications of Chemistry |
Carbohydrates |
Proteins / Peptides |
Lipids
Protein Design Using Unnatural Amino Acids  Basar Bilgiçer and Krishna Kumar
Using examples from the literature, this article describes the available methods for unnatural amino acid incorporation and highlights some recent applications including the design of hyperstable protein folds.
Bilgiçer, Basar; Kumar, Krishna. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1275.
Amino Acids |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Biotechnology |
Proteins / Peptides |
Synthesis |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Nucleophilic and Enzymic Catalysis of p-Nitrophenylacetate Hydrolysis  Head, Michael B.; Mistry, Kalpna S.; Ridings, Bernard J.; Smith, Christopher A.; Parker, Mark J.
Experimental procedure for determining the relative effectiveness of several amino acids and enzymes in catalyzing the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylacetate; sample data and analysis included.
Head, Michael B.; Mistry, Kalpna S.; Ridings, Bernard J.; Smith, Christopher A.; Parker, Mark J. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 184.
Amino Acids |
Enzymes |
Proteins / Peptides |
Catalysis
On the Formation of Peptide Bonds  Stojanoski, Kiro; Zdravkovski, Zoran
In an attempt to simplify the concept of peptide bond formation, many textbooks misrepresent the energy requirement that is necessary for peptide bonds to form.
Stojanoski, Kiro; Zdravkovski, Zoran J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 134.
Amino Acids |
Biosynthesis |
Equilibrium |
Bioenergetics
Identification of amino acids in unknown dipeptides: A derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate and HPLC   Clapp, Charles H.; Swan, James S.; Poechmann, James L.
This paper describes a biochemistry experiment in which students use HPLC to identify the amino acids in unknown dipeptides.
Clapp, Charles H.; Swan, James S.; Poechmann, James L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, A122.
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides |
HPLC
Inclass interactive worksheets for organic chemistry  Ostercamp, Daryl L.
The author has designed two in-class worksheets for use near the end of a two semester organic chemistry course, one dealing with mono- and disaccharides and the second dealing with alpha-amino acids and dipeptides.
Ostercamp, Daryl L. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 318.
Carbohydrates |
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides
The malonic ester synthesis in the undergraduate laboratory  Hoogenboom, Bernard E.; Ihrig, Phillip J.; Langsjoen, Arne N.; Linn, Carol J.; Mulder, Stephen D.
The versatile reactions of diethyl malonate represent an important lecture topic in introductory organic courses, but are only rarely performed in the lab because of several problems associated with performing these reactions. These authors present a lab the circumvents some of the typical problems.
Hoogenboom, Bernard E.; Ihrig, Phillip J.; Langsjoen, Arne N.; Linn, Carol J.; Mulder, Stephen D. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 689.
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Amino Acids |
Heterocycles |
Amides
Color reactions and thin-layer chromatography of amino acids: An undergraduate organic chemistry experiment for students in the allied health sciences  Hurst, Michael O.; Cobb, D. Keith
Students identify unknowns by determining Rf's and applying color reagents to the chromatograms.
Hurst, Michael O.; Cobb, D. Keith J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 978.
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Amino Acids |
Qualitative Analysis
Qualitative amino acid analysis of small peptides by GC/MS  Mabbott, Gary A.
Besides being appealing to students the exercise described here gives them experiences in derivation methods that are often necessary in order to make nonvolatile samples amenable to gas chromatography separation.
Mabbott, Gary A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 441.
Amino Acids |
Qualitative Analysis |
Gas Chromatography |
Mass Spectrometry |
Instrumental Methods
Ferrimyoglobin-fluoride: An undergraduate kinetics experiment  Russo, Steven O.; Hanania, George I. H.
The authors propose an experiment which concerns the reaction of the protein ferrimyoglobin with fluoride ion, in dilute aqueous solution.
Russo, Steven O.; Hanania, George I. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 352.
Kinetics |
Proteins / Peptides |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry
A game show approach to teaching peptide sequencing  Lemley, Paul V.
The game allows each group of students to propose experiments, report what results would have occurred, interpret results, and propose more experiments.
Lemley, Paul V. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 1011.
Proteins / Peptides
Microscale synthesis and analysis of a dipeptide  Blatchly, Richard A.; Allen, Timothy R.; Bergstrom, Dirk T.; Shinozaki, Yuji
The synthesis of a dipeptide from its component amino acids and its analysis by chiral-phase thin-layer chromatography.
Blatchly, Richard A.; Allen, Timothy R.; Bergstrom, Dirk T.; Shinozaki, Yuji J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 965.
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Proteins / Peptides |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Amino Acids
Lecture demonstrations for organic/ biochemistry allied health courses  Deavor, James P.
Simple demonstrations on enantiomeric pairs and protein structure.
Deavor, James P. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 622.
Enantiomers |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Proteins / Peptides |
Nonmajor Courses |
Amino Acids
A convenient synthesis of aspartame  Lindeberg, Gunnar
The one tube, enzymatic synthesis of the dipeptide sweetener aspartame.
Lindeberg, Gunnar J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 1062.
Synthesis |
Enzymes |
Proteins / Peptides
A project lab for an advanced general chemistry course featuring the amino acid, glycine  Dudek, Emily P.
Synthesis of glycine, measurement of its nitrogen content by eudiometry, and the estimation of its Rf value as compared to other amino acids using paper chromatography.
Dudek, Emily P. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 899.
Amino Acids |
Synthesis
Protein structure prediction in color  Davis, Lawrence C.; Radke, Gary A.
84. Implementing the Chuo and Faslar method for prediction of secondary structure and the Kyte and Doolittle method for predicting "hydropathic character" on an Apple IIe computer with color graphics.
Davis, Lawrence C.; Radke, Gary A. J. Chem. Educ. 1987, 64, 582.
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The enzymatic resolution of aromatic amino acids  Sheardy, Riehard; Liotta, L.; Steinhart, E.; Champion, R.; Rinker, J.; Planutis, M.; Salinkas, J.; Boyer, T.; Carcanague, D.
This article presents an experiment that can demonstrate as many principles of steroisomersim as possible and is also efficient in terms of time and preparation.
Sheardy, Riehard; Liotta, L.; Steinhart, E.; Champion, R.; Rinker, J.; Planutis, M.; Salinkas, J.; Boyer, T.; Carcanague, D. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 646.
Stereochemistry |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers |
Aromatic Compounds |
Amino Acids |
Enzymes
The catalytic function of enzymes  Splittgerber, Allan G.
Review of the structure, function, and factors that influence the action of enzymes.
Splittgerber, Allan G. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1008.
Catalysis |
Enzymes |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Zinc enzymes  Bertini, I.; Luchinat, C.; Monnanni, R.
The role played by catalytic and noncatalytic zinc in biochemical systems. From the "State of the Art Symposium: Bioinorganic Chemistry", held at the ACS meeting, Miami, 1985.
Bertini, I.; Luchinat, C.; Monnanni, R. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 924.
Enzymes |
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Lewis Acids / Bases |
Proteins / Peptides
Methemoglobinemia: An illness caused by the ferric state  Senozan, N. M.
Hemoglobin's ability to carry oxygen depends on the iron being in the +2 state; methemoglobinemia involves the oxidation of hemoglobin iron to the +3 state.
Senozan, N. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 181.
Proteins / Peptides |
Enzymes |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Oxidation State
Perspectives in biochemistry: Methods for DNA sequencing  Wood, Anne T.
Describes how DNA is sequenced.
Wood, Anne T. J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 886.
Proteins / Peptides |
Biotechnology |
Electrophoresis
The synthesis of a dipeptide from its component amino acids: Protecting groups in the elementary organic laboratory  Young, Paul E.; Campbell, Andrew
A three-step procedure for synthesizing a dipeptide from its component amino acids.
Young, Paul E.; Campbell, Andrew J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 701.
Synthesis |
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides
Amino acid sequence diversity in proteins  Blackman, David
The number of unique proteins that can be generated from a small number of amino acids is truly enormous.
Blackman, David J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 170.
Proteins / Peptides |
Amino Acids
Non-covalent interactions: Key to biological flexibility and specificity  Frieden, Earl
Summarizes the types of non-covalent interactions found among biomolecules and how they facilitate the function of antibodies, hormones, and hemoglobin.
Frieden, Earl J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 754.
Noncovalent Interactions |
Hydrogen Bonding |
Water / Water Chemistry |
Proteins / Peptides |
Amino Acids |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Hormones
Allied health chemistry laboratory. Amino acids, insulin, proteins, and skin  Dever, David F.
Describes an allied health chemistry laboratory involving amino acids, insulin, proteins and skin that begins with the construction of molecular models of amino acids and proteins.
Dever, David F. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 338.
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Nonmajor Courses |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Molecular Modeling |
Applications of Chemistry
Hemoglobin. Isolation and chemical properties  Russo, Salvatore F.; Sorstokke, Ralph B.
Summarizes the properties of hemoglobin and demonstrates the colors of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, methemoglobin, nitrosylhemoglobin; examines their visible absorption spectra; follows the rate of reaction of oxyhemoglobin with nitrite spectrophotometrically; and the effect of salt concentration on the integrity of red blood cells.
Russo, Salvatore F.; Sorstokke, Ralph B. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 347.
Proteins / Peptides
Sulfur compounds. Pollution, health effects, and biological function  Leh, F.; Chan, K. M.
Reviews the role of sulfur and its compounds in pollution and adverse health effects as well as biological functions.
Leh, F.; Chan, K. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 246.
Nonmetals |
Proteins / Peptides
Photochemical reactions of natural macromolecules. Photoreactions of proteins  Neckers, Douglas C.
Reviews salient features of protein destruction by ultraviolet radiation.
Neckers, Douglas C. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 164.
Photochemistry |
Proteins / Peptides |
Amino Acids
A unified apparatus for paper and gel electrophoresis  Racusen, David; White, Lee
Presents an apparatus that can be used for either paper and gel electrophoresis.
Racusen, David; White, Lee J. Chem. Educ. 1972, 49, 439.
Electrophoresis |
Separation Science |
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides
Ribonucleic acid: The simplest information-transmitting molecule  Fraenkel-Conrat, H.
Examines the chemical structure of nucleic acids, chemical modification of RNA and mutagenesis, role of RNA in protein structure, the mechanism of information transfer from RNA to protein, and mutants and coding.
Fraenkel-Conrat, H. J. Chem. Educ. 1963, 40, 216.
Proteins / Peptides
Identification of amino acids in a protein hydrolysate by paper chromatography  Clapp, L. B.; Hansch, Corwin
By varying the number of amino acids to be identified, the difficulty of this procedure can be easily controlled.
Clapp, L. B.; Hansch, Corwin J. Chem. Educ. 1960, 37, 293.
Amino Acids |
Qualitative Analysis |
Proteins / Peptides |
Chromatography
Potentialities of protein isomerism  Asimov, Isaac
The permutations generated by structural isomerism in proteins could be demonstrated more convincingly and realistically if the amino acid compositions of actual proteins were taken into consideration.
Asimov, Isaac J. Chem. Educ. 1954, 31, 125.
Proteins / Peptides |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Amino Acids |
Constitutional Isomers
A scheme for the qualitative identification of amino acids  Dunn, Max S.; Drell, William
This scheme of analysis has been used to successfully identify seventeen of the naturally occurring amino acids distributed in mixtures containing from two to five components.
Dunn, Max S.; Drell, William J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 480.
Qualitative Analysis |
Amino Acids
Teaching amino acid formulation  Patton, A. R.
Presents a device that aids in explaining the concept of dipolar ions necessary to an understanding of the behavior of amino acids and proteins.
Patton, A. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1951, 28, 471.
Amino Acids |
Proteins / Peptides |
Acids / Bases |
pH