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Journal Articles: 17 results
Converting Municipal Waste into Automobile Fuel: Ethanol from Newspaper  Mark Mascal and Richard Scown
In this experiment, waste newspaper is pulped with acid and its cellulose hydrolyzed to produce glucose syrup that is fermented and distilled to yield ethanol. In doing so, students are introduced to carbohydrate chemistry and the use of fermentation in organic synthesis.
Mascal, Mark; Scown, Richard. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 546.
Acids / Bases |
Alcohols |
Applications of Chemistry |
Biotechnology |
Carbohydrates |
Qualitative Analysis |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography
The A1c Blood Test: An Illustration of Principles from General and Organic Chemistry  Robert C. Kerber
The glycated hemoglobin blood test is a key measure of the effectiveness of glucose control in diabetics. The chemistry of glucose in the bloodstream, which underlies the test and its impact, provides an illustration of the importance of chemical equilibrium and kinetics to a major health problem.
Kerber, Robert C. . J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1541.
Applications of Chemistry |
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Carbohydrates |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Proteins / Peptides |
Bioorganic Chemistry
Synthesis of Anomeric Methyl Fructofuranosides and Their Separation on an Ion-exchange Resin  Erkki Nurminen, Päivi Poijärvi, Katja Koskua, and Jari Hovinen
Treatment of d-fructose with methanol in the presence of acid as a catalyst gives a mixture of methyl--d-fructopyranoside, methyl-a-D-fructofuranoside, and methyl--d- fructofuranoside, which are separated on an ion exchange column and characterized polarimetrically.
Nurminen, Erkki; Poijärvi, Päivi; Koskua, Katja; Hovinen, Jari. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1480.
Carbocations |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Chromatography |
Ion Exchange |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Carbohydrates
Acetal Protecting Groups in the Organic Laboratory: Synthesis of Methyl 4,6-O-Benzylidene-α-D-Glucopyranoside  Alexei V. Demchenko, Papapida Pornsuriyasak, and Cristina De Meo
The synthesis of methyl 4,6-O-benzylidene-a-D-glucopyranoside provides an opportunity to synthesize a cyclic acetal; stereoselectively introduce a chirality center; and learn extraction, evaporation, precipitation, optical rotation, melting point measurement, thin-layer chromatography, IR-spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and various NMR techniques.
Demchenko, Alexei V.; Pornsuriyasak, Papapida; De Meo, Cristina. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 782.
Carbohydrates |
IR Spectroscopy |
Medicinal Chemistry |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Thin Layer Chromatography |
Synthesis
Demonstrating Encapsulation and Release: A New Take on Alginate Complexation and the Nylon Rope Trick  Andrienne C. Friedli and Inge R. Schlager
Three variations on a classroom demonstration of the encapsulation of droplets and evidence for release of the interior solution are described. The first two demonstrations mimic biocompatible applications of encapsulation. A third encapsulation exercise exploits the irreversible interfacial polymerization of diamine and diacid chloride to form membranes and illustrates the detection of diamine release from the capsule using an indicator.
Friedli, Andrienne C.; Schlager, Inge R. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1017.
Biotechnology |
Acids / Bases |
Applications of Chemistry |
Carbohydrates |
Consumer Chemistry |
Membranes
Integrating HPLC and Electrochemistry: A LabVIEW-Based Pulsed Amperometric Detection System  Mark B. Jensen
Using the voltametry of glucose to develop a method for the pulsed amperometric detection of carbohydrates (glucose, fructose, and sucrose) following their separation by liquid chromatography.
Jensen, Mark B. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 345.
Chromatography |
Electrochemistry |
Instrumental Methods |
HPLC |
Carbohydrates |
Separation Science |
Oxidation / Reduction
Preparation of a D-Glucose-Derived Alkene. An E2 Reaction for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Peter Norris and Andrew Fluxe
Synthesis of four carbohydrate derivatives that highlight techniques such as inert atmosphere work, rotary evaporators, and flash column chromatography.
Norris, Peter; Fluxe, Andrew. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 1676.
Carbohydrates |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Alkenes |
Elimination Reactions |
Chromatography
Correction to "Drug Metabolism: The Body's Defense against Chemical Attack" (J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 349-353)  
Corrections to molecular structures.
J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 312.
Carbohydrates |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Enzymes |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Metabolism |
Synthesis
The Other Double Helix--The Fascinating Chemistry of Starch  Robert D. Hancock and Bryon J. Tarbet
The chemistry of starch, particularly the structure of starch and starch granules.
Hancock, Robert D.; Tarbet, Bryon J. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 988.
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Carbohydrates |
Food Science |
Stereochemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A Simple Method To Demonstrate the Enzymatic Production of Hydrogen from Sugar  Natalie Hershlag, Ian Hurley, and Jonathan Woodward
In the experimental protocol described here, it has been demonstrated that the common sugar glucose can be used to produce hydrogen using two enzymes, glucose dehydrogenase and hydrogenase. No sophisticated or expensive hydrogen detection equipment is required-only a redox dye, benzyl viologen, which turns purple when it is reduced. The color can be detected by a simple colorimeter.
Hershlag, Natalie; Hurley, Ian; Woodward, Jonathan. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1270.
Enzymes |
Kinetics |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Carbohydrates |
Applications of Chemistry
Protecting Groups in Carbohydrate Chemistry  Sigthór Pétursson
The most important protecting groups in carbohydrate chemistry are reviewed. The paper is aimed at those beginning to specialize in synthetic carbohydrate chemistry and at teachers with other specialties who wish to go beyond the content of general organic chemistry textbooks.
Petursson, Sigthor. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 1297.
Carbohydrates |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Synthesis
Laser-Based Liquid Prism Sucrosemeter - A Precision Optical Method to Find Sugar Concentration  V. Anantha Narayanan and Radha Narayanan
A hollow prism was used in the minimum deviation position to investigate the refraction in a series of aqueous solutions of varying sucrose content. The 6328 A red line of the He-Ne 1 mW laser was used as the light source. Calibration graph of % weight of sucrose vs minimum linear deviation between incident and refracted rays is given. Sources of errors are discussed. The calibration graph was tested with success on three control sugar solutions.
Narayanan, V. Anantha; Narayanan, Radha. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 221.
Carbohydrates |
Lasers
Following Microscale Organic Reactions Using FT-IR  Janice Ems-Wilson
This article describes an experiment that encourages discussion of carbohydrate chemistry in terms of reaction mechanisms, conformational analysis, and spectroscopy. The specific experiment involves the preparation of the bis(acetonide) of D-(+)-mannose.
Ems-Wilson, Janice. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, A170.
Microscale Lab |
Carbohydrates |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Conformational Analysis |
Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Alcohols
The Use of a "Qual" Centrifuge for Greatly Simplifying and Speeding the Study of Milk  Quentin R. Petersen
Laboratory study of the constituents of milk is almost always slowed by difficult separation of relatively large amounts of curd and whey by filtration. In the two-and-one-half hour experiment described, only 5 mL of skim milk is used and the curd is separated from the whey by using a simple "qual" centrifuge.
J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 848.
Proteins / Peptides |
Carbohydrates |
Qualitative Analysis
Preparation of sucrose octaacetate-A bitter-tasting compound.  Mann, Thierry D.; Mosher, James D.; Wood, William F.
Acetylation of the eight hydroxy groups of sucrose changes its sweet taste to intensely bitter.
Mann, Thierry D.; Mosher, James D.; Wood, William F. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 668.
Synthesis |
Carbohydrates |
Catalysis
Total Synthesis of Natural Products: The 'Chiron' Approach (Hanessian, Stephen)  Wade, Leroy G., Jr.
Details the use of carbohydrate derivatives as chiral starting points for the synthesis of chiral products.
Wade, Leroy G., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, A190.
Natural Products |
Synthesis |
Carbohydrates |
Chirality / Optical Activity
a[alpha]- and [bet]a-D-glucose pentaacetate. An experiment in structure assignment using NMR  Pearson, Wesley A.; Spessard, Gary O.
The synthesis and structural determination of alpha- and beta-D-glucose pentaacetate.
Pearson, Wesley A.; Spessard, Gary O. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 814.
NMR Spectroscopy |
Carbohydrates |
Synthesis