TIGER

Journal Articles: 69 results
Cocrystal Controlled Solid-State Synthesis  Miranda L. Cheney, Michael J. Zaworotko, Steve Beaton, and Robert D. Singer
Describes experiments that can easily be adapted to a typical undergraduate organic chemistry course and are inexpensive, relatively safe, require little or no solvent, have high atom economy, make use of non-toxic or low toxicity compounds, and generate negligible quantities of waste.
Cheney, Miranda L.; Zaworotko, Michael J.; Beaton, Steve; Singer, Robert D. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1649.
Amines / Ammonium Compounds |
Calorimetry / Thermochemistry |
Green Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
Solid State Chemistry |
Synthesis
A Green, Guided-Inquiry Based Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory  Eric Eby and S. Todd Deal
This alternative, electrophilic aromatic substitutionan iodination reaction of salicylamide, a popular analgesicuses environmentally friendly reagents and serves as a guided-inquiry experiment in which students are asked to predict the orientation of the substitution reaction and determine the product's structure using FT-IR spectroscopy.
Eby, Eric; Deal, S. Todd. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1426.
Aromatic Compounds |
Constitutional Isomers |
Electrophilic Substitution |
Green Chemistry |
IR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis
Frank Westheimer's Early Demonstration of Enzymatic Specificity  Addison Ault
Reviews one of the most significant accomplishments of one of the most respected chemists of the 20th centurya series of stereospecific enzymatic oxidation and reduction experiments that led chemists to recognize enantiotopic and diastereotopic relationships of atoms, or groups of atoms, within molecules.
Ault, Addison. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 1246.
Asymmetric Synthesis |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Catalysis |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Enantiomers |
Enzymes |
Isotopes |
Nucleophilic Substitution |
Oxidation / Reduction |
Stereochemistry
Organic Synthesis: Strategy and Control (Paul Wyatt and Stuart Warren)  Richard Pagni
Organic Synthesis is an excellent resource on organic synthesis. Because of the enormous breadth and complexity of the subject, being able to organize the material into coherent units as well as interconnecting them into a coherent whole is key to writing a successful book on organic synthesis. Wyatt and Warren show this skill in abundance.
Pagni, Richard. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 785.
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
A Simple Assignment That Enhances Students' Ability To Solve Organic Chemistry Synthesis Problems and Understand Mechanisms  Jennifer Teixeira and R. W. Holman
Describes an original, easily implemented approach in which students construct a "functional group transformation" notebook which helps them to think about organic reactions in both the forward and the reverse (retrosynthetic) sense.
Teixeira, Jennifer; Holman, Robert W. J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 88.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis |
Student-Centered Learning
Synthesis of Plant Auxin Derivatives and Their Effects on Ceratopteris richardii  Corey E. Stilts and Roxanne Fisher
In this experiment, organic chemistry students synthesize derivatives of their own design of the plant auxins indole-3-acetic acid and 1-naphthalene acetic acid. Biochemistrycell biology students then examine the development of Ceratopteris richardii gametophytes on medium containing auxin derivatives synthesized in the organic chemistry lab.
Stilts, Corey E.; Fisher, Roxanne. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 999.
Biological Cells |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Hormones |
Synthesis
A New Perspective on the Structure of Chemistry as a Basis for the Undergraduate Curriculum  Martin J. Goedhart
This article make a distinction between three context areas of chemistry and their related rationalesanalysis, synthesis, and theory developmentand argues that dividing chemistry into these three areas can be used to design a new curriculum.
Goedhart, Martin J. J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 971.
Synthesis
Projects That Assist with Content in a Traditional Organic Chemistry Course  John J. Esteb, John R. Magers, LuAnne McNulty, and Anne M. Wilson
Describes two projects in organic chemistry, the reaction notebook and the end-of-semester synthesis activity, that are designed to stimulate student ownership of and engagement with course content.
Esteb, John J.; Magers, John R.; McNulty, LuAnne; Wilson, Anne M. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1807.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Reactions |
Synthesis |
Student-Centered Learning
Developing Critical Thinking Skills: The "Sabotaged" Synthesis of Methyl p-Bromobenzoate  Eric J. Mahan and Mary Alice Nading
Before beginning an experiment, students are told that someone might have sabotaged their experiment to produce other-than-expected results. The objective is to perform the experiment, determine if any sabotage has occurred, and, if so, identify the changes that were made to the reagents as well as the person responsible.
Mahan, Eric J.; Nading, Mary Alice. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1652.
Alcohols |
Carboxylic Acids |
Esters |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Synthesis
The Step-by-Step Robinson Annulation of Chalcone and Ethyl Acetoacetate. An Advanced Undergraduate Project in Organic Synthesis and Structural Analysis  Lionel Delaude, Jean Grandjean, and Alfred F. Noels
The Robinson annulation is a three-step process involving a Michael addition followed by an internal aldol condensation and a dehydration. It is possible to stop the reaction after every step and to isolate the three products, allowing students to confirm the validity of the stepwise mechanism and develop a more thorough understanding of the whole process.
Delaude, Lionel; Grandjean, Jean; Noels, Alfred F. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1225.
Catalysis |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Conformational Analysis |
Diastereomers |
IR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry
Regiospecific Epoxidation of Carvone: A Discovery-Oriented Experiment for Understanding the Selectivity and Mechanism of Epoxidation Reactions  Kendrew K. W. Mak, Y. M. Lai, and Yuk-Hong Siu
Peroxy acids and alkaline H2O2 are two commonly used reagents for alkene epoxidation. The former react preferentially with electron-rich alkenes while the latter works better with a,-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. The selectivity of these two reagents on carvone, a naturally occurring compound that contains both types of C=C bonds, is investigated.
Mak, Kendrew K. W.; Lai, Y. M.; Siu, Yuk-Hong. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 1058.
Alkenes |
Chromatography |
Epoxides |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The Amazingly Versatile Titanocene Derivatives  Donald C. Bowman
Derivatives of titanocene are remarkably versatile in their chemical applications. This article presents a brief review of the derivatives' uses in the fields of polymers, medical oncology, and organic synthesis.
Bowman, Donald C. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 735.
Applications of Chemistry |
Catalysis |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Organometallics |
Polymerization |
Synthesis
Incorporation of Microwave Synthesis into the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory  Alan R. Katritzky, Chunming Cai, Meghan D. Collins, Eric F. V. Scriven, Sandeep K. Singh, and E. Keller Barnhardt
Describes a simple way to effectively implement microwave synthesis into the undergraduate organic laboratory curriculum.
Katritzky, Alan R.; Cai, Chunming; Collins, Meghan D.; Scriven, Eric F. V.;Singh, Sandeep K.; Barnhardt, E. Keller. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 634.
Aromatic Compounds |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
Reactions |
Synthesis
Convenient Microscale Synthesis of a Coumarin Laser Dye Analog  Evangelos Aktoudianakis and Andrew P. Dicks
Describes the Knoevenagel synthesis of 3-acetyl-7-(diethylamino)-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one, a fluorescent coumarin laser dye analog.
Aktoudianakis, Evangelos; Dicks, Andrew P. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 287.
Aromatic Compounds |
Fluorescence Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy
Diastereoselectivity in the Reduction of α-Hydroxyketones. An Experiment for the Chemistry Major Organic Laboratory  David B. Ball
Describes a research type, inquiry-based project where students synthesize racemic ahydroxyketones using umpolung, a polarity-reversal approach; investigate chelating versus non-chelating reducing agents; and determine the diastereoselectivity of these reducing processes by NMR spectroscopy.
Ball, David B. J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 101.
Addition Reactions |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Chromatography |
Conferences |
Constitutional Isomers |
Enantiomers |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Stereochemistry |
Synthesis |
Conformational Analysis
Strategic Applications of Named Reactions in Organic Synthesis: Background and Detailed Mechanisms (László Kürti and Barbara Czakó)  R. W. Holman
Krti and Czak use a two-page format that uses four-color graphics to address 250 reactions selected for inclusion based upon their applicability to modern natural products synthesis. Each named reaction is concisely introduced, mechanistically explained, and then set in context with example applications involving the production of natural products.
Holman, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1780.
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Name Reactions and Reagents in Organic Synthesis, 2nd Edition (Bradford P. Mundy, Michael G. Ellerd, and Frank G. Favaloro)  R. W. Holman
Name Reactions and Reagents in Organic Synthesis is an exhaustive collection, addressing more than 500 reactions (and rearrangements). The breadth of coverage extends well beyond the confines of a typical undergraduatebeginning graduate organic chemistry course, although the detail presented for each reaction is minimal.
Holman, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1780.
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Named Organic Reactions, 2nd Edition (Thomas Laue and Andreas Plagens)  R. W. Holman
Named Organic Reactions is a collection of 134 of the most common named organic reactions, with common being defined as those reactions most likely addressed in the combination of a typical sophomore organic chemistry sequence plus an advanced undergraduatebeginning graduate organic reactions and synthesis course.
Holman, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1780.
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Named Organic Reactions, 2nd Edition (Thomas Laue and Andreas Plagens)  R. W. Holman
Named Organic Reactions is a collection of 134 of the most common named organic reactions, with common being defined as those reactions most likely addressed in the combination of a typical sophomore organic chemistry sequence plus an advanced undergraduatebeginning graduate organic reactions and synthesis course.
Holman, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1780.
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
The Virtual ChemLab Project: A Realistic and Sophisticated Simulation of Organic Synthesis and Organic Qualitative Analysis  Brian F. Woodfield, Merritt B. Andrus, Gregory L. Waddoups, Melissa S. Moore, Richard Swan, Rob Allen, Greg Bodily, Tricia Andersen, Jordan Miller, Bryon Simmons, and Richard Stanger
Describes a set of sophisticated and realistic laboratory simulations for use in freshman- and sophomore-level chemistry classes and laboratories called Virtual ChemLab. The purpose of these simulations is to reinforce concepts taught in the classroom, provide an environment for creative learning, and emphasize the thinking behind instructional laboratory experiments.
Woodfield, Brian F.; Andrus, Merritt B.; Waddoups, Gregory L.; Moore, Melissa S.; Swan, Richard; Allen, Rob; Bodily, Greg; Andersen, Tricia; Miller, Jordan; Simmons, Bryon; Stanger, Richard. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1728.
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis |
Synthesis |
Reactions |
Thin Layer Chromatography
Polypyrazolylborates: Scorpionates  Swiatoslaw Trofimenko
Key features of polypyrazolylborates (also known as scorpionates because of certain specific features of their coordination chemistry) and examples of their use in modeling biologically active compounds are briefly presented.
Trofimenko, Swiatoslaw. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1715.
Coordination Compounds |
Heterocycles |
Synthesis |
Bioinorganic Chemistry |
Molecular Properties / Structure
A GC–MS Analysis of an SN2 Reaction for the Organic Laboratory  Malgorzata M. Clennan and Edward L. Clennan
This experiment utilizes an SN2 reaction between an alkyl bromide and potassium acetate to introduce the use of mass spectrometry for structural identification. It also provides students with experience in organic synthesis, the use of IR to identify functional groups, and the use of gas chromatography and response factors to determine product ratios.
Clennan, Malgorzata M.; Clennan, Edward L. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1676.
IR Spectroscopy |
Mass Spectrometry |
Synthesis |
Chromatography |
Esters |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab |
Gas Chromatography
Diels–Alder Synthesis of endo-cis-N-Phenylbicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2,3-dicarboximide  Marsha R. Baar and Kristin Wustholz
endo-cis-N-Phenylbicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2,3-dicarboximide was synthesized by a DielsAlder cycloaddition of 1,3-cyclohexadiene and N-phenylmaleimide in ethyl acetate. 1,3-Cyclohexadiene and N-phenylmaleimide were selected to illustrate the Alder rule, which reflects a preference for endo products and to overcome the difficulties associated with the traditional combination of 1,3-cyclopentadiene and maleic anhydride.
Baar, Marsha R.; Wustholz, Kristin. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 1393.
Asymmetric Synthesis |
Microscale Lab |
Stereochemistry |
Addition Reactions |
Alkenes |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy
Polymers (Oxford Chemistry Primers No. 85) (David Walton and J. Phillip Lorimer)  John H. Shibata
Although the title suggests a broad, general coverage of polymers, in reality this book focuses primarily on synthesis and the macroscopic properties of polymers. A significant portion of the book emphasizes practical considerations of polymerscommercial aspects determined by the properties of polymers and the industrial processes for polymer synthesis and three-dimensional network formation. In many cases, specific polymer types and materials are described in detail. The concreteness of explicit examples to illustrate the principles of polymerization and the properties of networks and functional polymers are appropriate for readers seeking a practical introduction to polymers.
Shibata, John H. J. Chem. Educ. 2005, 82, 533.
Polymerization |
Synthesis
Combinatorial Partial Hydrogenation Reactions of 4-Nitroacetophenone. An Undergraduate Organic Laboratory  Kevin W. Kittredge, Susan S. Marine, and Richard T. Taylor
A combinatorial organic chemistry experiment that utilizes an inexpensive commercially available parallel reactor, Argonaut's FirstMate, is described. Students perform a metal catalyzed partial hydrogenation reaction on a multi-functionalized substrate and analyze product ratios by GCMS. Students evaluate a simple organic reaction that yields four different products. The reactions are performed in the presence and absence of a reaction modifier, methanesulfonic acid. Differing product ratios are obtained with the different types of metal catalysts and with the presence or the absence of the reaction modifier.
Kittredge, Kevin W.; Marine, Susan S.; Taylor, Richard T. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1494.
Catalysis |
Combinatorial Chemistry |
Synthesis |
Reactions
Two-Step Semi-Microscale Preparation of a Cinnamate Ester Sunscreen Analog  Ryan G. Stabile and Andrew P. Dicks
The two-step synthesis and characterization of a sunscreen analog (ethyl trans-4-methoxycinnamate) is presented. This experiment is tailored towards students with a sound theoretical understanding of organic chemistry and related laboratory techniques. Appropriate synthetic discussion topics include carbonyl condensation reactions, carboxylic acid esterifications, and the so-called "cesium effect" in organic synthesis.
Stabile, Ryan G.; Dicks, Andrew P. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1488.
Conductivity |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
UV-Vis Spectroscopy |
Consumer Chemistry
Spectroscopic Properties of Some Simple Esters. A Practical Application of Synthesis and Spectroscopy in the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory  David P. Brown, Haris Durutlic, and Didier Juste
This exercise, the synthesis and spectroscopic analysis of the allyl esters of some aromatic carboxylic acids, consists of a series of open-ended experiments.
Brown, David P.; Durutlic, Haris; Juste, Didier. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 1016.
Esters |
Synthesis |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Chromatography
Incorporation of Medicinal Chemistry into the Organic Chemistry Curriculum  David C. Forbes
An optional exercise designed for students enrolled in the lecture component of organic chemistry is described. This exercise, designed for students at the sophomore level, focuses on a drug of medicinal relevance.
Forbes, David C. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 975.
Medicinal Chemistry |
Synthesis
One-Pot Synthesis of 7-Hydroxy-3-carboxycoumarin in Water  Francesco Fringuelli, Oriana Piermatti, and Ferdinando Pizzo
The procedure highlights the advantages of using an aqueous medium, particularly the possibility of controlling the pH and isolating the reaction product without using any organic solvent.
Fringuelli, Francesco; Piermatti, Oriana; Pizzo, Ferdinando. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 874.
Green Chemistry |
Aqueous Solution Chemistry |
Synthesis |
Heterocycles
Modern Projects in Organic Chemistry: Miniscale and Standard Taper Microscale, 2nd Edition (Jerry R. Mohrig, Christina Noring Hammond, Paul F. Schatz, and Terence C. Morrill)  Richard Pagni
Modern Projects and Experiments in Organic Chemistry comes in two closely related versions, one for miniscale and standard taper microscale and the other for miniscale and Williamson microscale, in conjunction with the authors techniques in organic chemistry book.
Pagni, Richard. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 649.
Chromatography |
Gases |
IR Spectroscopy |
Laboratory Equipment / Apparatus |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Physical Properties |
Synthesis
Developing Investigation Skills in an Introductory Multistep Synthesis Using Fluorene Oxidation and Reduction  Mark G. Stocksdale, Steven E. S. Fletcher, Ian Henry, Paul J. Ogren, Michael A. G. Berg, Roy D. Pointer, and Barrett W. Benson
A two-step reaction sequence in the beginning organic laboratory provides a useful introduction to the importance of multistep synthesis. In addition to introducing several common synthetic methods and techniques, a two-step preparation can quickly establish the importance of testing alternative reactions in order to optimize intermediate yields.
Stocksdale, Mark G.; Fletcher, Steven E. S.; Henry, Ian; Ogren, Paul J.; Berg, Michael A. G.; Pointer, Roy D.; Benson, Barrett W. J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 388.
Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Oxidation / Reduction
Microscale Synthesis and Spectroscopic Analysis of Flutamide, an Antiandrogen Prostate Cancer Drug  Ryan G. Stabile and Andrew P. Dicks
The synthesis involves N-acylation of a trisubstituted aromatic compound, 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitroaniline. The procedure is easily adapted to generate structural analogues of flutamide. A significant feature is the curricular flexibility afforded by this experiment.
Stabile, Ryan G.; Dicks, Andrew P. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1439.
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
IR Spectroscopy |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Microscale Lab |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds
Protein Design Using Unnatural Amino Acids  Basar Bilgiçer and Krishna Kumar
Using examples from the literature, this article describes the available methods for unnatural amino acid incorporation and highlights some recent applications including the design of hyperstable protein folds.
Bilgiçer, Basar; Kumar, Krishna. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1275.
Amino Acids |
Bioorganic Chemistry |
Biotechnology |
Proteins / Peptides |
Synthesis |
Molecular Properties / Structure
The Chemistry of Fragrances: A Group Exercise for Chemistry Students  Roger Duprey, Charles S. Sell, and Nigel D. Lowe
Description of the Fragrance structured learning package (SLP), developed by the Department of Chemistry at the University of York to illustrate the roles of professional chemists in industrial organizations.
Duprey, Roger; Sell, Charles S.; Lowe, Nigel D. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 513.
Consumer Chemistry |
Industrial Chemistry |
Synthesis |
Student / Career Counseling |
Applications of Chemistry
Dendrimers: Branching Out of Polymer Chemistry  Eric E. Simanek and Sergio O. Gonzalez
Addresses synthetic concepts surrounding dendrimers including the use of protecting groups, functional group interconversions, and convergent and divergent synthetic strategies.
Simanek, Eric E.; Gonzalez, Sergio O. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1222.
Materials Science |
Synthesis |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Addition Reactions |
Aromatic Compounds |
Alkylation |
Nucleophilic Substitution
Preparing Students for Research: Synthesis of Substituted Chalcones as a Comprehensive Guided-Inquiry Experience  James R. Vyvyan, Donald L. Pavia, Gary M. Lampman, and George S. Kriz Jr.
An aldol condensation of substituted benzaldehydes with substituted acetophones to produce substituted benzalacetophenones (chalcones) in a guided-inquiry approach.
Vyvyan, James R.; Pavia, Donald L.; Lampman, Gary M.; Kriz, George S., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 1119.
Medicinal Chemistry |
Microscale Lab |
Natural Products |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds |
Aldehydes / Ketones
Synthesis and Characterization of a Gasoline Oxygenate, Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether  Craig J. Donahue, Teresa D'Amico, and Jennifer A. Exline
Procedure for the synthesis and characterization of ethyl tert-butyl ether.
Donahue, Craig J.; D'Amico, Teresa; Exline, Jennifer A. J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 724.
Chromatography |
Synthesis |
Ethers |
Gas Chromatography |
IR Spectroscopy |
Qualitative Analysis
Synthesis of Substituted Butenolides. An Undergraduate Organic Laboratory Experiment Utilizing Two 3-Step Preparatory Sequences  Géraldine Maheut, Liang Liao, Jean-Marie Catel, Paul-Alain Jaffrès, and Didier Villemin
The synthesis of substituted butenolide in two, 3-step sequences that illustrate five basic organic reactions (alkyne hydration, Knoevenagel condensation, lactonization, aldolization-type reaction, and hydration of nitrile); the products have pedagogical interest for IR and NMR spectroscopy (diastereotopic effect).
Maheut, Géraldine; Liao, Liang; Catel, Jean-Marie; Jaffrès, Paul-Alain; Villemin, Didier. J. Chem. Educ. 2001, 78, 654.
IR Spectroscopy |
Molecular Modeling |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Synthesis |
Undergraduate Research |
Reactions
Multicomponent Reactions: A Convenient Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Experiment  Ricardo Bossio, Stefano Marcaccini, Carlos F. Marcos, and Roberto Pepino
Two experiments for the synthesis of a -lactam and a succinimide, based on a 4-component Ugi condensation. The experimental procedures for both syntheses are identical except for the choice of the starting amine, whose electron richness is controlled by the presence or absence of an electron-withdrawing group.
Bossio, Ricardo; Marcaccini, Stefano; Marcos, Carlos F.; Pepino, Roberto. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 382.
Synthesis |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
IR Spectroscopy |
NMR Spectroscopy |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Experiments with Aspirin  Londa L. Borer and Edward Barry
Experiments include (i) synthesis, purification, and characterization of aspirin by mp and TLC, (ii) percentage composition of a commercial aspirin tablet by titration, (iii) kinetics of the hydrolysis of aspirin to salicylic acid under various conditions, (iv) synthesis and characterization of copper(II) aspirinate and copper(II) salicylate, and (v) reaction of copper(II) aspirinate in aqueous solution.
Borer, Londa L.; Barry, Edward. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 354.
Synthesis |
Kinetics |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Aromatic Compounds
Organic Synthesis: The Science behind the Art (by W. A. Smit, A. F. Bochkov, and R. Caple)   reviewed by Arthur R. Murdoch
In this book, the authors raise the question "Why do Organic Synthesis?" Now with the power of instrumentation at the chemist's disposal, total synthesis is no longer necessary for structure proof. So where does the future of organic synthesis lie?
Murdoch, Arthur R. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 314.
Synthesis
Introducing Chiroscience into the Organic Laboratory Curriculum  Kenny B. Lipkowitz, Tim Naylor, and Keith S. Anliker
"Chiroscience" is a young but robust industry linking science and technology with chemistry and biology; includes description of an asymmetric reduction of a ketone followed by an assessment of the enantiomeric excess by GC using a chiral stationary phase.
Lipkowitz, Kenny B.; Naylor, Tim; Anliker, Keith S. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 305.
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Chromatography |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis |
Separation Science |
Stereochemistry |
Gas Chromatography |
Aldehydes / Ketones
A Simple Secondary Amine Synthesis: Reductive Amination Using Sodium Triacetoxyborohydride  Merle W. Carlson, James T. Ciszewski, Micah M. Bhatti, Wesley F. Swanson, and Anne M. Wilson
A reductive amination experiment for a second-semester organic chemistry class. It utilizes an imine intermediate and sodium triacetoxyborohydride, a mild reducing agent. The progress of the reaction is followed by TLC as the starting materials (the aldehyde and primary amine), the imine intermediate, and the secondary amine product are visible under ultraviolet light.
Carlson, Merle W.; Ciszewski, James T.; Bhatti, Micah M.; Swanson, Wesley F.; Wilson, Anne M. J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 270.
Synthesis |
Chromatography |
Amines / Ammonium Compounds
Imidazole and Benzimidazole Synthesis (M. Ross Grimmett)  Paul G. Rasmussen
A useful reference for possible student experiments, starting materials for projects, and general information about heterocyclic ring construction.
Rasmussen, Paul G. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1345.
Synthesis |
Heterocycles
Organic Chemistry (by Joseph M. Hornback)  R. Daniel Libby
This text uses reaction mechanisms as the organizing principle, introduces structure where it is necessary to support the reactions to be studied, and considers synthesis after the mechanisms of appropriate reactions have been discussed.
Libby, R. Daniel. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 611.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis |
Molecular Properties / Structure
Synthesis of Complex Natural Products as a Vehicle for Student-Centered, Problem-Based Learning  Kevin J. Cannon and Grant R. Krow
Using natural product synthesis as a vehicle, students choose a synthetic problem from the literature, identify the knowledge needed to solve the problem, explore resources for attaining that knowledge, identify the goals and criteria for a successful synthetic plan, and create and do assessments of their work.
Cannon, Kevin J.; Krow, Grant R. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1259.
Synthesis |
Natural Products |
Undergraduate Research |
Student-Centered Learning
The Art and Science of Organic and Natural Products Synthesis  K. C. Nicolaou, E. J. Sorensen, and N. Winssinger
In this article, the history of the art and science of organic and natural products synthesis is briefly reviewed and the state of the art is discussed. The impact of this discipline on biology and medicine is amply demonstrated with examples, and projections for future developments in the field are made.
Nicolaou, K. C.; Sorensen, E. J.; Winssinger, N. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1225.
Natural Products |
Synthesis |
Medicinal Chemistry |
Applications of Chemistry |
Drugs / Pharmaceuticals
A -78°C Sequential Michael Addition for the Organic Lab  Michael W. Tanis
This paper introduces a cold-temperature enolate alkylation reaction that can be performed safely and inexpensively by undergraduate students in approximately two 3-hour lab sessions.
Tanis, Michael W. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 112.
Addition Reactions |
Alkenes |
Aldehydes / Ketones |
Synthesis
Organic Reactions, Volume 45 (Paquette, Leo A.)  
Continuing series.
J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A94.
Synthesis |
Reactions
Fieser and Fieser's Reagents for Organic Synthesis, Volume 17 (Fieser, Mary)  
Continuing series.
J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A94.
Synthesis
Tetrahedron Organic Chemistry Series. Volume 11, Organic Syntheses Based on Name Reactions and Unnamed Reactions (Hassner, A.; Stumer, C.; Baldwin, J. E.; Magnus, P. D.)  
Continuing series.
J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A94.
Synthesis
Tetrahedron Organic Chemistry Series. Volume 12, Enzymes in Synthetic Organic Chemistry (Wong, Chi-Huey, Whitesides, George M.; Baldwin, J. E.; Magnus, P. D.)  
Continuing series.
J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, A94.
Synthesis |
Enzymes
The AC Rule: An Algorithm for Organic Reactions  Edgar F. Kiefer
Algorithm for predicting organic reaction mechanisms.
Kiefer, Edgar F. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 906.
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Synthesis |
Reactions
The Addition of Hydrogen Bromide to Simple Alkenes  Hilton M. Weiss
Synthesis of 1-bromohexane.
Weiss, Hilton M. . J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 848.
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions |
Addition Reactions |
Alkenes
A New Investigative Laboratory for Introductory Organic Chemistry Involving Polymer Synthesis and Characterization  Kharas, Gregory B.
Project to develop a model organic laboratory curriculum that gives students the opportunity to be imaginative and creative by pursuing research projects in organic and polymer synthesis using a guided-discovery model.
Kharas, Gregory B. J. Chem. Educ. 1995, 72, 534.
Polymerization |
Synthesis
The microscale synthesis and purification of N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide (Deet): An experiment for a project-oriented organic chemistry course  LeFevre, Joseph W.
Procedure for the microscale synthesis and purification of N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide (Deet).
LeFevre, Joseph W. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, A278.
Microscale Lab |
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds
Disconnect by the numbers: A beginner's guide to synthesis  Smith, Michael B.
A protocol for planning organic syntheses using the disconnection method.
Smith, Michael B. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 848.
Synthesis |
Mechanisms of Reactions
Graphics drill and game programs for benzene synthesis  Flash, Patrick J.
65. Bits and pieces, 26. "Benzene Synthesis Drill", a game format program that drills students on multistep conversions involving benzene.
Flash, Patrick J. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 1028.
Enrichment / Review Materials |
Aromatic Compounds |
Synthesis
Guidebook to organic synthesis (Mackie, R.K.;Smith, D.M.)  Wade, L. G., Jr.
A review of a text that was designed as a text for an advanced undergraduate course in organic synthesis.
Wade, L. G., Jr. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, A320.
Synthesis
Sulcatol: Synthesis of an aggregation pheromone  Black, Shirley-Ann; Slessor, Keith N.
Synthesis of the aggregation pheromone of the ambrosia beetle, an insect pest of harvested timber in the Pacific North Coast.
Black, Shirley-Ann; Slessor, Keith N. J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 255.
Synthesis |
Natural Products |
Molecular Properties / Structure |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
NMR Spectroscopy |
IR Spectroscopy |
Applications of Chemistry
Glutamic acid in pheromone synthesis: A useful chiral synthon  Smith, Leverett R.; Williams, Howard J.
Outlines synthetic routes for the formation of various pheromones from glutamic acid.
Smith, Leverett R.; Williams, Howard J. J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 696.
Synthesis |
Chirality / Optical Activity |
Natural Products |
Stereochemistry |
Enantiomers |
Amino Acids
Computer games in chemistry  Smith, Stanley G.; Chabay, Ruth
Describes several chemistry computer games, including one involving organic synthesis.
Smith, Stanley G.; Chabay, Ruth J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 688.
Periodicity / Periodic Table |
Synthesis |
Enrichment / Review Materials
Alkylation of methyl acetoacetate and gas chromatographic analysis of products. An organic laboratory experiment  Schimelpfenig, C. W.
Substituting commercially available sodium methoxide, absolute methanol, and methyl acetoacetate for sodium, ethanol, and acetoacetic ester in the acetoacetic ester synthesis of ketones and acids and the malonic ester synthesis of acids.
Schimelpfenig, C. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1977, 54, 446.
Gas Chromatography |
Chromatography |
Separation Science |
Synthesis |
Esters |
Laboratory Management
Computer assisted instruction in organic synthesis  Feldman, Martin; Bishop, Marvin
The authors have used two successful Basic programs where students had practice with a series of interconversions involving alphatic and aromatic compounds.
Feldman, Martin; Bishop, Marvin J. Chem. Educ. 1976, 53, 91.
Aromatic Compounds |
Synthesis
An interesting and successful organic experiment   Want, Benjamin J-S.
Students are enthusiastic about synthesizing the active ingredient in bug-repelent-OFF.
Want, Benjamin J-S. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 631.
Synthesis |
Consumer Chemistry
A simulated research project in synthetic organic chemistry: An undergraduate laboratory  Bobbitt, J. M.; Huang, Samuel J.
An undergraduate laboratory of a simulated research project in synthetic organic chemistry.
Bobbitt, J. M.; Huang, Samuel J. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 58.
Synthesis |
Aromatic Compounds
The use of networks in organic synthesis  Zune, Albert E.; Hollstein, Ulrich
Beginning students in organic chemistry have to overcome seemingly insurmountable tasks. They are learning a myriad of new compounds, physical concepts, reactions, their scope, mechanistic pathways, and many other aspects. Synthesis reactions leave these students at a loss.
Zune, Albert E.; Hollstein, Ulrich J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 16.
Synthesis
Computer-aided teaching of organic synthesis  Smith, Stanley G.
This article outlines a computer program that can give essentially instantaneous evaluations of students' work on an individual basis.
Smith, Stanley G. J. Chem. Educ. 1971, 48, 727.
Synthesis
Polymer synthesis in the undergraduate organic laboratory  Sorenson, Wayne R.
Presents a series of experiments on polymer synthesis for the undergraduate organic laboratory.
Sorenson, Wayne R. J. Chem. Educ. 1965, 42, 8.
Synthesis |
Polymerization |
Reactions |
Mechanisms of Reactions